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a. . lTim,BtToa arp raortnrroa. T-""sf--4a raw, (sawM I MmwM" at a irattaacf lkrr- m tss a els Hn Ml st slisjr sttt . ' OMMuylNMnMwUltoMlMralllMrilw llnhMaf M4H. AllsSsmstSStlsaalattedad tseesMsSetas SCtVWtt WnesSeSSttftel V SS0seSlsee, ISaRsltSS SshSlS SITts.lti tu Ss rtilniiliiw'u. ATklK)anilT. I a, ISST. .Coatai wnitM Dr.. Same! , H-, Jordan , end Wm. O. Hertoa, Kq., hv kw appoint. , 4 by tba County Ceart, CoMlioere to lao aptlewrta to teh the Common Tba School Commlaalaners hi tbo Mapottita Towaaaipa art aot allowed to -ploy any laehr anlU a prodtto a eertifl- eaat of oeeApateaey ignd by tha xminlng CoamMoam named bora, 8o at laat Gaaoral Assembly, peg 137, chapter 114, ' Section 1 aad . i.,'. J Foarrr Hat Acaozht. Th achoot at .Forest till) Academy was opened on Monday Uai. . Tha Principal, Mr. QtSRLOvr, delivered t oaa sf tha beat Leslarvs en Um aabjeet of ' Bdsaetioo that H ha em ba bar good far. taaa to liataa to. Wa andmstaad Ultra ara '. aamoaUty papila la allondanor. - Tm CAanuT-s-The following art Mr. . Buhaoaa'e Cabinet appointment! Secretary af Slate-Lewie Cass, or Mish. . igaai . v - . Treaaary Howell Uofcb, or Georgia. ' War John B PW4. of Virginia Postmaster Gsnsrsf Aaron V. Brows, of loan Interior Jacob Thompson, of MMasippi. nvy mm Toseey, or i,onnctteoi. Attornay Geaerai Samal W. Black, of ylaania. " Tut IxAnaORAL. Praaidant Buchanan' j Inaugural Addraaa will b foaad la oar pa par -.today. - , - '' ' Tat Niar PoaraaaTiB Gxrkral. Th , appointment of ExGovernor Aaron V. Browa t to tha important poaitioa of PoatiMatar Gan. . oral aacna to bo- regarded d tha Drat iren orally aa a good ona, 'and that tha aboaaa which have prevailed o largaly andar Mr. . Campbell will ba epeedily earreeted by hi . abla aad batter qaaliRed auceeesor, alrong aopaa are entertained. . - Irdiqratior Miitiro Tha Knnxville - papara aay that four hundred thonund dol. lata In natal hava been extracted, by tha . broken and money changers, from tha rault of the Union Bank at that place, within tha laat ninety day. An "indignation meeting' - waa held ea Saturday arming laat, aa we - learn through the Merenry of Toeaday, at ' which reaolutione were adopted expressive of tha disgust which everybody feele at tha il . liberal and angen'tlemanly conduct of the Shylock. We alaa learn that tome of the KnoxeilU money changer hare been extract ' ing pretty largely from the vaults of ona of tha Branch Banka at thia plaor; but we are not advieed that anybody ia very indignant about it. The broker ahould be careful how . they run oa Knoxville Bank, or lhay may get op another "boat." JF The Nashville Union and American ia getting very atraight laeed on the auhject of banking, and evidently eeek to revive Tom Binton'a exploded Hard Money Hum bug. Tha preaent ayatem of banking la no doubt defective, but il ie about aa good ' tha country haa had aince the United 8tntea Bank waa wiped out of existence. In "those ' day," for the fourth of one per cent any ona could procure paper that waa par in every State of the Union the bank issues of the - present day ara hsed from flva to twenty per cent at every State line. Tha fruit of , Democratic power and policy. ' The Oiio Scott Caaa. Tha deciaion of tha Uoiled Bute Supreme Court in the Dred Scott caaa waa delivered by Chief Juitie Taney. In a full and elaborate (tatement of , the view of tha Court, wa bava tha follow ing all important point: rtrat That ncgroaa, whether a!av or free, ' aa men of the African race, ara aot eilitena ' of the United State. Second That tha Ordiauice of 1787, bad not an independent constitutional force or ' legal eff-ctubequeot to the adoption of tha ' Constitution, and sou Id not operate of iuelf 1 to aanfar freedom ar citizenship aitliiu the aorth west territory upon negruca aot eili ' ten by tha Constitution, Thiri That the provisions of tha act of , 1820, commonly sailed tha Missouri Compro . mise, so far a it nndwtouk to exclude negro . slavery from, and confer freedom and citizen. . ahip upon acgroee in the northern part of . Lnuiaiana, waa a legielntive act exeeedinir the , poweraof Congreas, and void of legal effect , to that end. In deciding the main point, the Supreme - Court determined tha following incidental point : 1. Th expression "territory and other ' property" of the Union, in tha aonatitution, ' appliea In Urmt only to auch territory aa the ' Union poaaresed at the time of tha adoption of the constitution. ' 3. The light of citizen of th United ' State, amiaratlnc into federal territory, and tha power of the federal government there, - depend oa tha general provisions of the eon- atitatioa, which defioe in thai, aa in all other reaped, the power of Congreas. a. Aa Wongreaa doea not poaapaa power ilaelf to make eoartinenta relative to the per ' aoaa or property of citizens af tha UnVd ' aUataa ia federal territory, other than aacraa j tha aoaatUation confers, ee it cannot eooatU taUonailydalent any each power to a tent torial goaeroaaent erganiard by it aodvr the ooatitalioa. 4. Tha leral aadlllaa of a eta In tha State of Uiaeoarl 1 aat aaVelod by tha tem porary eoioarn of such alare ia any other Bute, bat oa hie return hia onditaon atill ' depaoda on tha lawa of Miaaoari i Qf" The New York Expraaa, Ik laadlog 'American paper of tha North, eoneled a aolie of Mr. Bashaaaat amaagura) with tha ' following paragraph: . ' . ' 0 th whole, then, tbo aaw Praaidant ataada bit. Ha ia entitled, last-afore, to a fair trial. AM If kle latere areeliea at all eoo. . . ierma to preaent profession, w ahall bagia to think, that la ratlin: rid af Oea. Plana. Ika aoantry ha made io all reap eta, after all, a aaeiuea esvuw; iw hh weiiev. . " ' tr John M. Qaarlaa, Eq 1 la tha ChrkavUla Chroaiala, aa a adldta tar ;Coagrot the Eighth Dietriet-eebjcet to 'p dsaiiaa at a Oiatrlai Cootentwa, , 3T rba aammaaioatloa from "Blackjaak MaUwr" awttWeak.-' ' ' goad: haWaw AaVartieaiaai, V;; ' A lew weak Mrs. lb PreaMrat af the Beat Teaaeaaaa aad Oaorgia. Kailread Oa paay, lathe exaraiataf a wis discretion earn- ittad to hlaa by the abarter, aad aetlag aa dar tha aalamaitiaa af. a aaib la da what In Me Jadgmeat ha ailr' best U prosioU the Interact Mfl Jshsrge, adviaeed the rata af travel. ..sVead. Whrnpoa tha Clavalaad Banner praelalmed, with a araaaAsarWi-af tvampota, aad with a degree af mortined importonea, that It editor yea, the editor of the Cteeefaad JBtmmr was die pleaead wKh th arraagsment, aad that ua- lea aaiaga war aseaagad aiara-to kit notion In future 4here would- be aa explosion aad tome body would ktteh "partisulsr fits." Of anne,thie display of pomposity aad eslf- iportonae had aa ether effect tbaa to ex site the oaatompt of the parti at wbirh it waa aimed, aad therMleule of the Banner' readara, wkoe happy prtvllega It Is to be weekly entertained with the asinine exhibi- tioaa of iu editor. Rat coolest with that silly dsmonttratioa, th Banner, th auing week, eaaeaneed, with all tha gravity of truth aad without etopping to inquire Into the fact, thst tba pattagt salts on the road had decreased forty per cent in aoassqusna of tha inereaa ia th ratee of travel. Know ing the itatomoat to ba malidoatly antrna. we toafe tha liberty of aontradietinc it aad tbowiag thst lb rweipU had increased, In- Mmd of falling off. Whereat th Banner maa growswralhy, and In his Isst rsiteratoe his former statement, and to put tha eapetoae to his llttlsasea, b attempU .to Identify th people of Bradley county with hit ill eon aeived, illiberal and ' anjnst squrse toward tea road, ahsrgmn that It ia a political ma chine aad has been aa maasged ss to bt pro eriplive af tha right aad interests of tha citizens of that county thus, in substance. imputing tha basest sad worst motivtt to th gantlsmsa who have Iran time to time hsd hsrg of ths enterprise. Recklstsnss could aot hava conceived anything more remote from tha truth. A to th road being used for political purposes, any see fsmiliar with Its history, iu ssrlisr nd present organization, know there 1 no found 'tioo for tha charge. In reference to proscribing Bradlsy conn ty, ths accusation it atill more prepoateroua No county has derived more advantage from the building of the road than Bradley, and no community ie more largely benefitted by the mesna of ths enterprise, benefited at pre, nl and in prospective, then the one where the Banner is printed. And the attempt of that pspsr, in it last issue, to identify the citizen of Cleveland and of Bradley county with it ill conceived, illiberal and sslfith course, tpprosohet ths lower strst of little ness more closely then ny thing w bars met with in all our nwtppr experience, and w ar confident that th people there will respectfully decline to be associated with that veracioue aheet in ita present attitude toward tn cntarpris which it doing so mnch to develope the resources of thst rich county nd to eventually place Cleveland among the mutt protperoue and flourishing aommnnities in tha Ststs. Another word ia connection with the sub ject Every great enterprite has enemies nd prejudices to contend with, and railioads are not exempt from each annoyances. As long as thsy ara confined to carping and fault-finding, they ara harmless, but when they reeult, as they hava in soma instances, in placing obstruction on tha road, to the endangerment of the lives of psssengsrs, every one thould be cautious about uttering worde calculated to feed and strengthen such prejudices, and at which tha depraved and viciout may take ooursgs to carry out their fiendish purposes. We have too much charity to believe for a moment that th editor of th Banner i seneible of the evil and mischiev ous tendencies of such rsmarks as were con tained in a portion of his Isst week' article about tha road, or the effect they might have upon a depraved person who fsll dispos ed to injurs the road'at the expense of the lives and property of other parties. It is the duty, and should bs ths pleasure of the pub lie press, instead f pandsnng to snd atrsngth eniug ths prejudices and enmities which those who control pnblie enterprises hv to en counter, and which ia nine ease out of ten r without cause, to do svsr thing in its power to remove them and to tiietaio th of ficer in all honest and legitimate eflbrtt to dischsrg th obligations rstting upon them, namely, to make the road subserve the public convenience ss Isrgsly cn be done without annihilating tba right and Interests of the etoekboldera, upon whose money th enterprise waa aoostruetsd. This w ar con fident, has been th honest intention of the officers af the East Tconess nd Georgia Road, from first to last, and for that rsaaon thit pspsr has given them a eoustant aad hearty support and wilt continue to do to. Irrespec tive of the motives thst my ba imputed to it by mountebank editors, or by individuals wbe cannot accord to others aay higher con siderations thaa each as would control aad influence their awn sordid tad talfish nsturea In ooualueion far th prsseot, we respect fully suggest to the Banner man that be is en a sold trail - that be csnnot tnlist ths in telligent people of Bradlsy county in an an natural ernsada against tha tailroad that bis courts will meet with aa response except from the class alluded to above, and that it is about time for him to. "curl up and quit" ia regard to the railroad, anlaea ha aaa deal honestly and truthfully with ft. The following ara tha receipt of tha road for passage sales for the month of February, 1817, and for tha month af Fsbrusry, 1866, which tha Banner ake n to furaiah. and which it says ia the "correct data" to detsr mine whether it perpetrated a falsehood in eeaertiag that tha travel had fallen off forty percent: February, 1817, oaderasw rates, (8,864 88 February, 1868, under old rata, ,7 87 Insresss under new rata, tl(T7 48 Hon. 8. A. Surra. Th Chattanooga Ad vertieer aaya Col. Smith kt s candidal for re. election to Congreaa, MV www r Govzaaoa or Pzzxstlvazia. Gsn. Wm. F. Packer wa nominated, oa th 84th ballot. by the Damaeratic Stat Convention of Peno. sylvank, a their eaadidato for Governor at the next election. Railioap Aocidmt. The Auguata De of Iho llh, loarna from a private aoatae, that the engine Delaware eipieded at CarUraville, oa th Slat Road, laat Thar. dag evening, loatantly killing a tfreavMi, aad aa aefarely Vojarinf tba eagiaaar thai there waa aa aoaa af Ma recovery. Tad engineer' aaaia waa klaOana, , WAaxaTOB, March 7. Ex-President Pleas eigaifled vealerdny to a deputation of Taasonn hie intention ol asking- a aoathsratour before hh return to New Hampahlr. ' '.' fiaaraaw Court Bhhrf justice McLean delivered hie View in the Dred Scott case, rgulng that alavery h limited to th rang of H to lee where It ia eaUbiished by a mere municipal law. If Congress deem Uvea or free nearoea Injurinoa to a territory', they have, power to prohibit the fraea becoming settler therein. The power to acquire Territory eerriea with it the, power to govern it. Th mssler dor Lot carry with him In the Territory lb law of the State from which ha removed, haoca Iho Missouri Compromise I constitutional, nd th preemption I la) favor of th free dom of Dred Scott snd hi family, who wer free under the decision for th laat twtuty- elght year. - ., ,.,,! ty Th BoanzLt ea, ay a New York letter of Friday, keep itaelf before our peo ple continually, ' Mr, Cnnnlnglism, aliai Burdell, haa applied to the surrogate for let ter of administration on Burdetl'a estate. The argument ia now being heard. Rev. Dr. Marvin canS tell that It was not Mr. Bur dell that he married on th 38th (if October last Her daughter awenr that alia wn preaent at the marriage. But no ona be lieve thst th Doctor a ss married to this woman. ' Hi repeated expression of rrpng nance to Mra. C, her written agreement to leave the houae on the first day of May, writ ten corns lime after the reputed marriage. and signed "Emma A. Cunningham," and her attempt two months sfler the 28th of October to revive Ihe suit for breach of prom iaa of marriage against Ilia DocUe. prove th reputed marriage with him to bn sham. W The New York Herald aounda a doleful note to official incumbents in Ihe fol lowing announcement: "We are adviaed, from well-informed and reliable sources, that upon th important que lion of Ihe distribution of the sdoII Mr. Buchanan ha resolved upon a complete re. organization oi me worxing machinery or the government, and that this re organization wiiicomprenenn.out ana out.snmvcntnlnirne of foreign appointments, diplomatic and con sular, and a clean ewerp of the hiifher office in the d-partmentaat Washington, of United Htatea District attornle and marnhnls, and of Ihe head of th principal custom house nd pott offices throughout th country.". "Th Waudxrihq Jrw." Thl notorion chnracter, whose npinnince lin been duly heralded in the Boston, New York, snd Phil adelphi papers, wss in Athens last week. We had abort interview with him, and waa pleased tn find that he conversed fluently in the Choctaw, Cherokee, Kickapon, nnd aeva ral other of the living, and all of the defunct language. He informed n that he had been travelling somewhere in the neighborhood of eighteen hundred years, and that the changes which have tiikeri place in Ihe world In that brief period are almost incredible. He 1 emphatically an "old fogy," and ia death on railroads and other " modern humbug." Ahasusru doe not look a old a he really ia by aeveral years, snd no on would, at the first glance, take him to be more than five hundred. We nvited him to stav to tea. but he respectfully declined, promising, however to pass thia way again some four or five cen turies hence, when he would bring hi knit ting along and spend the evening. Eastern papers please copy, and credit to "editor out Wet." A Ckumb. If the editor or the Cleveland Banner will refer la our advertising columns. ha will find a notice from the Superintendent of Transportation East Tennessee and Geor gia Railroad, in relrrrnre lo the reduction of Nashville Freight. He is hereby authorized and requested to give that notice three inner tior.s in his valunhla paper, and forward ac count to the "Post." Come, Rubin, theie's a crumb at our expense we are disposed to he liberal, and if you behave yourself, be a good boy, quit wiping your nose on your sleeve, and don't abuse the railroad loo bad. we may throw you another top soma of these diiy. So, pitch in, and end up your bill "The Pol" I a "solvent concern," you know, nnd able lo pay one hundred and twenty Gv cent on the dollar on demand. ' Tri Niw Tariff The bill for the gen eral reduction of the duty on imports paused both House of Congress, and having been signed by the President, its provisions will go into effect upon th first day of next July. The bill ia a compromise between the Senate and the Houae plan. It place raw materials, chemicals and dyestuffs upon Ihe free list, and reduces generally the other achedulee. Wool, of tha value of SO eente par pound and un der, hi free. r ArrLADix. An account of the Inaugura tion eaye, . "but few of tha President" word reached further than to tha nearest eirele of the niul titada by which ho waa aarmunded, yet tha wnoia man evinced uieir interest by sponla naoua oulbbrats of applauae!" Such i th brsath of Party. Viroihia Wart Hi A correspondent of the Richmond Enquirer, who lgn him elf "Virginian," make th following propo sition: "President Pierce being about lo retire from office, I propose, if consonant to hie own feelings, that the Bute of Virgin! raise. by individual kulieuription, a aum sumcisnt t purchase a anuthern horn and preaent it to hiiu ea a eubetantial approval not in word, but in deed of hie administration of the Government, "To put the bnll in motion, I hereby pro. mice to pay one hundred dollars as soon as the necessary amount la aubaenbed." Houieioi, David Hame, a respectable citizen of Alexandria, Va, waa ahot and kill ed In tha Penaloo office at Waahtngton, on tha 88th oil., by a Clerk In the Department nmd Dodridg C. Lea. PaoTtaioaa nj Niw Yon. We take th following from tha market table of the Ex- pre: . ,k , . ,. Th quotation for fair aula of beef, 14 a I6e per pound; Mutton 19c, Lamb 15c, Veal ISo, Corned Beef lie, Corned Mutton 10c, Smoked Uaata 14, Freeh Perk lie, Vra!oa toe. i i..- I V Of Ex-Governor Wm. Bmiih. of Virgin. la, haa been nominated for rw-eltotion la Congreaa. . ..V-- ; THE INAUGURAL ADDRESS. , . Fellow CUitttU! I aimear bafur von thia day lo take theeolrmn oath "that I will fnllh- raiiy exeaul the ohVe f President of tha United Stale, and will, to iho beat of my ability, preserve, protect and defend tha Con stitution of the United State." In entering upon thia great office, I must hambly Invoke the God of our fathers for wisdom and firmness to execute Ita high and reapenelM duties branch a manner a to re store harmony snd snrient Iriendship among lb people of the, aeveral Htatea, and to- pre serve our free institutions thmughoat many Renrrationa. Convinced that I owe my rlee on lo Ihe Inherent love lor the Constitution srd th Union which atill animate th hearts of the American people, let ma i-srneslly ask their powerful support In sustaining all just measure calculated to perieluate these, the richest pol'tical blessings ahieh llesven has ever bestowed inrni ny nation. ' Having da termlned not to beenm a aandidale for re election, I ahall have no motiva to Influence my conduct in administering the government except the desire ably and faithfully tr aerve my country, and to lira io Ihegreateful mem ory o my countrymen. We have recently passed thrnngh Pre identlsl contest in which th paiaiona of our fellow citizens were exerted to the h gheal degree by qiieallol. ol deep and vital iiii'nr tsnae; but whan the people proclaimed their will, the tempest at once subsided snd all was calm. 1 . The vol of th majority, tpesking in th manner prescribed by the I'onstitution, wan heard, and Instant suliitiUtion followed. Our own country could alone have exhibited so grand and striking a spectacle of the ea pneity of man for. self government. Whnl a happy conception, then, was it for Congress lo apply tjiis. simple rule that Ihe will of the m jority shall govern to Ilia el tlcment of Ihe question i( domestic slavery In the territories ! Congress Is neither "lo legislate alavery Into any Territory or Slate nor to exclude it Iheiefroui) but In leave the people thereof perlectly free lo form jnd reg ulate then domestic intlitnliona in their own way, snhjocl only to the Constitution of the United States." As s nntural consequence, Congreaa ha alao prescribed that when Ihe Territory or Knnsa shall ha admitted aa a Stale, il "ahall be recoiled into the Union with or without slavery, as Ihe conatituiion may preaeribe at the time of thelradmission., A different opinion line arisen in regard to III point of time when Ihe people of a terri tory shall decide the question for themselves. This is, happily, a m ilter of but little prao liral importance. Besides, it I a judicial question which legitimately belongs to the nupremet oun ol Ihe Un I'd Stat a, hefore whom it now pending, and wiK it l under stood, be speedily and fin illy aettleil. To their dei-ialon, in common with nil good cit izena, I shall cheerfully siihmil, whatever this may be, though it ha ever b-en my Individ unl opinion that under the Nehruak'a Kanmia act the npproiriiittt period will be when the number of actual real cuts in Iho territory shall j rial i (y Ihe formntion of a Con'itnti'n wilti ii view to it admission as a slate into Ihe Union. But be this n it may. it is the imperative and indispensable duty of iho government el the United 8t .tes to Secure to every teaident Inhabitant the free and in dependent expresainn of hia'opinlon hv his vote. This (acred right of each Individual must be preserved. Thai being nrcomnlish. ed, nothing can bo fairer than to leave the people ol a territory, tree Trolil nil foreign in terference, tn d'-eide their own destiny for themselves, subject only to tha Constitution of the United States The whole territorial a Mention beinff then settled upon the principle of popular sover eignty a principle ae narient as free govern oienl itself everything ir a particular na ture has been decided. - No other question remains for idjuatmentj brranse nil agree Hint, under Iho Constitution, shivery in the States is lieyond the reach of any human power, except that of ihe respective States themselves wherein 11 exit's. May we not. then, hope that the long agitation of Ihe sub ject is approaching it enr!,nndthnt Ihe ge ograplucai pnilira to which il has given hi'tli, o dreaded hv the Fith r or Irs Cnon rv will speedily become extinct I Moat happy will it he for the country when Ihe public mind shall be diverted from the Question In others of more pressing snd practical iinpor- Tl....nl .1 1... I- ( iu ,",, in,- n ii,, ia progress nl this agitation, which has scarcely known any intermission for more than twenty yenr, whilst ithn Iwen productive of no Diiive good t any human Iwing, it h i been the proline source or great evils lo Ihe muster, tn the slave snd to the whole country. It haa Rlinnufed and ratroagrd Ihe people of the sister Stale from each other, and h-i even seriously endangered the very existence of the Union. Nor hue the danger yet entirely censed. Under our system there is a remedy for nil mere political evils in the. snnnd sense and sober judgment of the people. Time ia a great corrective. Pohticnl subjects which but a few yenrs ago excited and exn-pcralcil tha public mind have passed awnv nnd are now nearly forgotten. Bui this suhiect of domestic slsvery is of far graver importance, man any mero pniuicni question, hec iuse. should th agitation continue, it nmy evento ally endanger Ihe personal aafety of n large portion or our countrymen where the Institu tion exists. In that event no -form of gov eminent, however admirable in Itself, and however productive of 'material benefit, ran compensate for Ihe loos of peice nnd domes lie security around the family altar. It every Unionloving man, therefore, exert his best influence to suppress this agitation, which, since the reaml legislation of Con greet, ia without any legiliuiate object. Il is an evil omen of the times that men nsve undertaken in rsii-utaie me mere ma terial value of Ihe Union. Reasoned esti mate have b -tn presented of the pecuniary prohts and local anvmitage which would result to different State and section from ita dissolution, and of lha-.somparstive ioiu riea which such an event would inflict on other Stntea and seclions. Even descend ing to this low and narrow view of the mighty question, all such calculations nre nt fault The bare reference to a single eonsid erstinn will be eoneluaiva on this nninL We at preaent enjoy a free trod throughout our extensive and exnanrfingeniiiitry. such aa the world never witnessed. Thia trade is eon- ducted on rallrnada and canals on noble rivers and arms of the set; which bind In gether the North and tha South, Eaat and me weal ol our confederacy. . Annihilate this trsde, arreat it free pro gress oy me geojrnphlc 'I lines or jealous and hostile Slates, and you destroy the prosperity snd onward march or the whole and ever part, and Involve all In one common ruin But cueh consideration, Important a they re In themselves, sink Into inslgnificsore when w rerteel on Iho terrific evil which would remilt from disunion In every portion n m-eonieaeracy to in Nnrth not more than lo the Sooth, tn the Ensl not mure than lo th West. These I shall not attempt to portray, because I feel aq humble confidence Ihsl Ihe kind Providence which lnnlred our falhera with wisdom to frame the most pertWt form ol uovsrnmrnt and Union ever devised by msn will not suffer it to perish - until il shsll have been peacefully Instrumental, b IU example, in the extension of civil and roll gloux liberty through' ut the world. Next In Importance to lh maintenanc Af the Conatituiion and Ihe Union la the duly nf prraervina; ine governmeni ire iron) the taint, or even Ihe auapk-ioe of rerraptlnn. 'Public virtu hi Ihe vital spirit of republics. And his. lory prove that when thia haa deeaved, and the love af money baa asurped It 'piaoe, aU though tba forma af tm government msy remain for a trtsun, th ubtsoc hss de- psrted forever. Our present financial condition la without a parallel in history. No nation haa ever lie fore been embarrassed from loo large a sur plus In Ita treasury. This almost necesaarllv give hi-III to rxtmvsganl legislstlon. Il produces wild climes of .expenditure, nd beget a race vf speculators and Jobbers, whose Ingenuity is excited In contriving nnd mirmotlog expedients to obtain public ithmev. The purity of official events, w'wlhrr right rully ifrartiligfelly, I sup.cted, and Ihe character of the government suffers in the est imstlon of th people, Thi i in Itself erv great "evil. ' ."""' . ' Then In nl mode or relief from this em barrassment la lo appropriate the aurplg In the treasury to urvsl national objects, or Which a clrsr wnrrnt ran b fotmd In the l oiislitntion. Among thee I might mention lh ext.ngnishmenl of lh , public debly a reasonable increase of Ihe navy, which is at present inadequate to the protection or our vast tonnage nflont, now greater than that ol any other i siion.ns well a to Ihe defense ol our extended sescoset. , . Ill beyond sll qsenlion the tree principle that no more revenue ought lo be collected from Ihe people than the amount necessary in defray the exia-neesof a wise, economical and efficient mlminlsl ration of the government. T reach this point it was mess ry to rewirl lo modification of Ihe tariff, and Ibis lias, I trust, In-en nceomplished in such s manner ns to do ns little Injury as may hnve been prac ticable to our domesliu inniiufm-tiircs, esie. ciully those necessary to tiie defense of the country. .Any discrimination againt a par. licular branch, for Ihe purpose of benefitting favored corporations, Individuals, or interests, would hnve been unjust to the rext or Ihe community, and incoiisiatent with that spirit ol fnirnens and equality which ought lo govern in the adjustment of a revenue tariff. Hut the squandering nf the pillule money sinks into comparative insignificance as a temptation tocorruption when compared with the squandering or the public, lands. No nation in th tide ol time has ever been blessed with so rich nnd noble inheritance as we enjoy Inllic public land-. In administer iug tills important trust, whilst" it limy he wise to grant portion-" of them for the tin provemenl of ih remainder, yet we should never forget that it 1 our cardinal policy to reserve these lands ss mnch ns may be for actual settlers, and thisnt moderate prices, We shall thus not only bent promote the protperity of Ihe new -States and Territories by furnishing them n linrdv and independent race of honest and industrious citizens, hut snnu secure oomes lor our cni;ar, n and our children's children, ns well n fur those exiles from foreign thores who may seek, ill this country, to improve their condition, and to enjoy the blessings of civil and religious lili. erty. Such emigrants have done much In promote the growth snd primp, rity ol the country. Thev hnve proved fnithlul both in leiicK and in war. Alter becoming citizens, they are entitled, under the Constitution nnd law, to be placed on u perfect equality w hs Ihe native horn cit'Z"ii; uud in this character should ever he kindly remgu'zed. The ledernl ronstiiuiion in grant from the St.te to Congress of cert in specific pow ers: and the question wheth-r this grant should be liberally or strictly construed, has, in .re or less, divided political parties from the lie ginning. Without entering into the argument, I desire lo state, at the commencement of mv administration, that long experience and olw servation has convinced me that a strict con struction of the. powers of the government is the only truc,n well as lh only sale, theory of the constitution. believer, in our past hintory.douhtl'ul powers have lieen exercised by Congress, these hnve never failed to pro duce injortou and unhappy consequent- . .Many such nlstnnc. a might be added, if this w ere the proper occasion. Neither is it ncrea sury for the public service lo alr.in Iho lan guage of Ihe constitution) because nil the great snd useful Miwers required lor snc cesalul administration ol the government. mill in pence and in war, have In-en granted either in express U-ruis or by the plainest im iicatton. While deeply convinced of these truths, I yet consider it clear that, under Ihe war u sk ng po'ver, Congreas may appropriate money Inwards the construction of a in litary road, w hen this Is .-.UMiliilcly ueci-Rssry tor the de fense of tiny Hinte or territory of the Urioti ngainrt foreign invasion. Under the I'onsii- I ill ion I ungress has power "lo declare war:" to rni-e nnd snppoit armies: "lo provide and maintain a navy;" mid lo call forth the militia to "r pel invasion." Thus endowed III sn ample manner with the war making power, Hie corresponding outy is leqiiin d th .t "the United Stntea shall protect each of tin m the Sliites iigninst invnsioii," Now, how is il possible to afford thia protection to I 'utifornin and our I'acitic piHsessions except by means ol a military ro d through Ilia territories nl Ihe United States, over which men and muni tion of war may he speedily transported f-oiii the All int'c Stati-s In meet and repel the invader! Iu the event of n war with a naval power much stronger than our ow n, we ahould then have no other available access to the Pncthc co isl; because such a power would instantly close Ihe route nerosa the Isthmus of I eutral America. It is ininie-sible to con ceive Unit, whilst ihe Constitution has ex- pressl, required I ongress to defend nil Ihe States, it should yet deny lo them, by any tmr construction, Ihe only posilile means liv w h ell one or lll"e States can be defended. Ilesides, I lie government, rv-r since its origin, has been in the Constant practice of construct lug milit rv roads It might, alto, he wise to consider whether the love for the Union which now emulates our lellow citizens on Ihe rucitie coast, may not lie Imp Ired hy our neglect or refusal In provide for them, in their remote and ixilati d condition, the only means hy which the pow er o Hie niatea on this side or the Kockv Mountains can reach them in sufficient time to protect them against invasion. I forbear, lor the pr. sent, from expressing sn opinion ns tn the wisest snd most economic I mode In winch Ihe Government can lend its aid in nccnmplishlng this grout and necessary work. I Iwlieve that many of the liifficu lies' in the way which now appear iormidable will, In a great degree, vanish ss soon ss the nearest and best route shall hnve been satisfactorily astertsihed. It may Im right that on thia occasion I should make some brier remarks in regard lo our rights and dulies aa a member nf the great family of nations. In our intercourse with them there are some plain principles. approved oy our own exeneiice, mm which we should never depart. We ought lo colli vnte peace, cnnimcrce.nnd riieiidshin with sll nations, and this not merely ss Ihe best melius of pronioling our own lontcrlil inter esls, hut in spirit of Christian benevolence towards our lel'ow men, wherever I heir lot msy lie rnsl. Our diplomacy should be di rect and frnnk. neilh. roeekli g tooi.lniu more nor accepting less limn onr due. We ounhl lo cherish sacred regard for th lndceu- denre or an nations, sua never attempt to interfere in Ihe domestic concerna of any, unless Ibis shall he imperatively required by l tie great law oi sen-preaervauon. To svoid rntnngling allisneea hna been maxim of oar policy ever since the days of Washington; snd It wisdom no one ail) nl. tempi lo dispute. In short, wa ought to do justice, In a kindly spirit, lo sll nations, and require justice from I hem in return. - Il i our g'ory that, whilst other nations have extended Iheir dominion hy the (word w have never acquired any territory rxrenl hy fair pnrehsse, or, In the rase of Texas, by tn voluntary delermlnsllon or . brave, kindred and Independent people ' to blend I bev deatlnlea with oar ewe. Even onr aoi quisitloei from Mexico for at ao exception. Unwilling to tkedvsnlgof the fortune of wsr against a abater Republic, we purchased these poasesslons, under the treaty of pence, lor a sum which wa considered at th time Mr equivalent - Our past history forbids Ihsl We ahall In lh fnturr nrqnire territory, antes it l sanc tioned by the lews of justice snd .honor. Acting on thit principle, no nation will bsve right to Interfere or lo complain If, In the prt.gress of event, w shall still further ex tend our pos-slons. Hitherto, In sll our acquisitions. Ihe people, under Ihe protection of the Ani-rlcnn flig, hate enjoyed civil and reilgious lils-rty ns well ta. equal, and ... just laws", and have been emit nted, prospermia sitd happy. ' Their trade with the rest of the world bus rapidly Increased, and Ihua every coniinercisl nation hss shared Isrgelv io their successful progress. I sh ill now proceed lo take Ihe oath pre-aerilh-d hv'the constitution, Whitst humbly invoking Ihn blessing f Divine Providence on. thi grant republic ' ' . . JAMES BUCHANAN. Nzw Bariiro Law ir Ilusois. The legislature or Illinois ha' passed a new banking law, to take immediate effect. ' Its chief fei.lurcs are: I, That all bond shall be received st ten per rent lea than their New York vslue a the basis of banking In III! nois. 8. That when notes ire presented lo bank for redemption the redemption shall he instant and in gold. 8. That notes, when payment I refused, may be protested in sg gregnte; that is, each note Is not necessarily In be protested, as 1 now lh ruling. 4, Thst bsnk shall do business at the place where they are eainhllshed,' thst they may receive ten-per cent hiterest, and that no bnnkslmll herenfter he'rstabliahed nt any place not having at least five hundred Inhah itant. S. That no bank hereafter organized shall go into operation without an actual cash capital of ISU.OUO paid up. Politics in Missouri. The npprnarhing State Canvass in Missouri ia attracting local attention already, and the indication are that th ro will be stirring time. There nre three candidates In the field John Wilson, Old Line Whig, of Pintle, who announces his intention In pay visit of condolence to every old Whig in the State, nnd devote himself to the work or ra-nrgauizing th old parly; R. M. Stewart, National Democrat, ol Riichnnuii; and Jutnc S. Rollins. American. ui iooue. II ' 1 We give below the card of the Whig enn dlilate.nss specimen of perseverance undei difficulties: Jffffrsor Citt, Feb. 97, 1857.. Mr. Editor; Si .ye I h v heard who mv opponents are, Col. Stewart nnd Major Rol lins, I intend u onen Ihe cmniiainii in II, . n.ce for Governor ss soon us Ihe Leoislstnre nojourns, hiiu ine constitution in.one hand and the v hig banner in the other, rn the niu nnere niy nrsi child wn born, (Boon. viie.; i purpose visiuug every county Iu the Slate, nnd shall, it practicable, bring about a reorgniiizatinn of the V hip parly III both county and Stale. Ir W e ret n a unit we nl least have strength enough lo hold Ihe lull anceof power, and by a proper exercise or it will always be able io defeat the machina funis of aspiring and reckless politicians. JtJU.N WILSON. Hr" The nuihoriiies of New York are getting to In- quite on Ihe alert after murder cases. I hnmna t inters was arrested tome days ago, on a charge of murdering hi wife, bhznhelli Winter, who hud disappear, d very sudibnly. The evidence wa very strong sgninsi him, nnd he was committed to jail for further examination, about which lime his wire "turned lip." having been committed lo Ihe Toombs for drunkenness ! The unjustly suspected man Was of course discharged. Roor.ttBviLLX Brarch Bark. Th Times of Ihe 6th says: " I he Moaid of Director of the flrnni-h Dank of Tennessee nl this place, elected on Insl Thursday, the follow ing officers for the ensuing year: l 'nl. J.t-ob .Miller, President; in. Iico. tt, rowel, I in-hier, and Mr. II. G. wax, t.lerK. We understand that Ihe tala. rie have Won considerably increi aed. Raii.roau ir l.ttcuLK i uuntv. The Fay etteville Observer or the S h says: ' Col, V. K. Stevenson made a sneeeh in behalf nf the Railroud at the court house last Monday. It wnsn plain prnclic.il, common ise talk. At Its conclusion, the suliwrio tioii hook were re opened, and at dusk S88. 000 hod been taken, leaving only 12,000 to Im- m-ide. A energetic, determined, euro est effort on the part of Ihe friends of Ihe road, will secure thi great Lincoln improve iiieni. lyThe Isiuiaville paper of Friday con, tain the details of a destructive fire which occurred in Hint city on the night previous- originating in the extensive Pluining Mill nl' N, Bresden OL Co, on Main street, which whs entirely destroyed, involving a lose of 130.000, and throwing 130 men out of em, pioiment. losured lor 15.000, The fire destroyed three new three story stores and five residence. Th total los is eetimated at $60,1100. .. IW Mniteson is the only one of the four members of th Into ('ongress, implicated by Ihe report nt Ihe Corruption Committee, w ho will be in the next Congrewv -tiilhert and Edwards were defeated at Ihe last Congrea sl inal elei-tion in New York by Democrats, nnd Welch of I onneclicul, has been passed aver in Ihe n cent Congressional nomination of the Republican party of that Stute. f&" At Golhcnburg in Sweden, the pau per or lh pariah nre every year farmed out lo speculator, who bid for them at auction, I he pua-luiRer i bound lo feed nnd clothe them; ho ha a right lo Ihelr labor. Il need hardly be said that th parish pay him o muvh for Inking charge of I hem. fg" A woman named Parker, from Cairo, who had been Ktipported by the charily of " u kind per ns, died suddenly at Ihe Rundall house, St. Louis, on Saturday. After her death, f 800 in gold slid silver were found secreted on her srson. tdPVriie total number nl death in New York lor Inst week wa 448, showing a de o-esse or two death, as compsred with III report of the pr. viou week. Included euiong llieae are 41 deaths by scarlet rover. Vf The Natchez Courier snnounce the denth or ben. Felix Houston, a few day ago, st Washington, Mississippi, iu the 67ib ywir oi nis sge. Insortatior or Txa. Nearly twelve mil lions of pounds of lea Were exported from Chin to the United State alone, in th liv ajontha and half between July- I, and Do- abr IS, 18M. Ma. BhRTox r a Factor t Boaidir) Ilouax. Mr. Benton, In a late visit called at a factory boarding hnuae In Lowell, Ma, which he thu dcacribe: They liv in l.rge, Utely, elegant hna. , and yon enter in lh am msnner yon enter psrlor in Washington. You ring a bell and wait fill th girl comet land open the door You are. shown Into lh parlor w here you aee the same kind or furniture s you will find In a onureumtisu' boarding house in Washington ciy. You (ft down snd inquire fur whom yon want. It wn ner dinner hour when I went tn onewrihen homes, snd I carried piy curiosity so far aa to ask .the mitres of th house to take me Into the cooking deuirtiuent snd chow ma how she cooked, t'he aaid she wse taken unaware and wa hot preparvd for It ' I said that wo exactly the thing I wanted; I wanted to eee It a It w every day. Without more ado she opened the door snd fed me In nnd there wn cooking going on In a room so nest that lady might ail there snd enrry on her sewing or ornamental work. Thia the condition In which I found the house of Ihe operatives, snd to sll these comfort they add th leisure to read and Cultivate th mind. I dwell uni.n il,.i r-.M.. one .. , r " ' . '":ii, ieoi ine circuru-iancc which (truck m my visit In New England." , A Bio Swirdlr Stoftzp. Th SmisI.. in ill be seen, struck out of lh Deficiency th Hons Item, spDroorlstlnir ems mm ill i book for members. Probably a mm corrupt "job" never waa started even in thia louse or It. preventatives, and th Sens!, i throwing il out, only did what w holiest, Jlow TO TBKAT Cr.nilsiAVMis, T- ' travellers start, dfroro thsame plao for a. aay a journey, ona or ssieirm reached hi del. tinatmn before sundown, wondering what aa oeooiii ol hi companion. Long alter irk he arrived, and being asked the cams of is delay, mid, "I wu obliged lo (top at ev ry other house to whip off the little rfoo. thst barked at in. Did they not bark at yon ioi "lea, replied the other, "but I did not stop to whip them. I drove on." Drap I.lttmi. Postmaster General ,'nuipbcll, In a recent report, stales that Iho lumber of letters uncalled for or dead Is probably three million, snd it would seem osoiulely proper thst mine niassur should e nd -pled by lh department to insure th delivery of the miavive with greater ecr- -""ty- Una hundred and twenty thousand lollur accrue to Ihe post offices without heir performs!!... of the duly of deliverinc the letter. UTTlie N. J. lrf-gialalura must b a and of sell s crificing patriots, working aa they are, jnl now, on hulf pay. The reason of it is tiiis.: Toe constitution provide that member shnll receive $3 (er day for their services fur only forty days from the com mencement of Ihv session, and $1 60 per day lor all over torlv dnvs. Tl,. ri commenced nn ihe 13th ol J.itiusry, and the icrui oi loriy any expired on Sqnday, th 2M tilt. Th 13lh of March ha been fixed poll for the adjournment. Mors rnl has In en nccopiplishcd, it is (aid, on lh half piy than during the whole period of "fell rations." Meil III IV sollhiitieille ss ths - f , they can never make it right; and all the bank.' rnpt ln-v hi the universe cannot make it rlhl.Tor them not lo pay their debts. There Ie a sin in this neglect, aa clear nad deserving' ol church discipline in stealing or false (wealing. He who violate hi promise to pay, or withhold th lini ment f s debt when il i In hie power to meet hie engage ment, ought to be made lo feel that in Ihe sight or an honeat man he ia a swindler. Religion may be a very comfurtublo cloak, under which to hide, but il religion doe nut iu ka a uinii "deal jut," it i not worth having. Washirgtor Ixkh The host office bill was finally adopted with an amendment pro. vming lor a regular mail service, in four none couches, between the Mississippi and San Francisco. HaRRISBUHO March 1 Th. n . lHllvniNV State t.onvenlloli assembled hers H.i- Ing. Mr. Forney Chairman of the Stuia Central committee m de asieech alluding to hti it-li ... .1... IT..I...J li. ,, un,iea oiuiea senate eoy. log the usages nf the llemoerKii. .,..., k. j been violated and the fruit of the great Prea. .... ,., ,ir,ry ,ermiuca io rot away under llieir reel. PrRSIDXRT PlKHCR'aCABIRKT. It i U- ted Ihlll the old Cabinet are ures 111 dlSIMrSi-Jlirliri. l'MM.nlu.ll. i. fl.. L y-ll'a -..,fl - t - - p..-,, iiininw nsve alreadvreuiiiv.dll, lt.ll,.uMi.i. si. si will remain a month or eo, enb rUiniug Pra ident Pierce a his vnestMr. Davis will re turn to Mississippi after the Executive ses- "' Mr. Guthrie will go at once to Ken lucky, and the other nu mbers lumicdiulely lo Ihelr rcspectiv home. BT On Wednesday, the 13th ult, Mr Charle Clark wa attacked on Ihe road about two mile eaat of Augusta, Hancock county, III., by two men, who, after wounding him. with knife and pistol, robbed him or $6-15 in gold, mostly in $10 piece. Th villains left Mr. Clark lor dead, but we are glsd to any that he la now recovering. Too Smart. The people of Talladega are getting too smart on money matters. The Reporter published at thai place haa Ihe fol. lowing: "Our merchant and business men hnv almost entirely ceased to receive Ten. lessee money. It i with difficulty that lh bills ol the best bunk or thst State can b passed in our town." larWillisin Matloon, of Springfield, Massachusetts, in connection with hi broth er, has contracted to construct Ihe abutments and tower for the suspension bridge over tha Ohio river at Cincinnati. The tower re to be 330 feet high, and th amount or lh con. tract I one million dollar. -y('roSi.-evcd men have tha advantage In Chuich. Tlo-ycaii stares pretty girl full in the luce, and at the earn lime everybody will suppose they sr looking right at th preacher, , . Wartcd. (iirl want good husbsndt, young men want prudent and ew net-temper, ed wives. Dandiee and fuahionable ladies, who screw up their wshjU to resemble a wasp, wsnt common sense. ' . UT Aenth Mullen, agd about SO vasts, died al th Boston I unatio Hospital, on tha 34th ultimo, of osslfluation of the ariarl. It la as id such rae of death lo middle aged femslea from sack disorders, sre of extremely rare ooaarraoe. '