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The Memphis appeal. (Memphis, Tenn.) 1886-1890, December 03, 1886, Image 2

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Admirable Reports Presented by
6s. Coitou Urrrne and Chair
man f. W. Hampton.
hst IS THE L1N1),
So Pay the Experts Charged With
th? Analjsla of Its Ingre
dients, The City nll yesterday waa the
eene of a meeting likely to leave an
Indelible impress upon tbe history tf
Memphis. J bare were assembled In
Judge ti addon's office the Water
Committee, cnmpo ed of ten geut'e
men selected for their prominence in
the community, for thiir rjuimpench
able integrity and for tlieir thorough
knowledge of affairs, to rapoit upon
plan cf water supply adequa e to the
Dee da of tbe city and free from otj ac
tion an aanitury Kroontls. The gentle
men who compose the committee
were all present, and so ably end
Uiefactorily hnve they discharged
their duties that it ia ploasant to
record their namee. They are: Gen.
Oolton Greene, 8. W. Hamntin, Jobn
Overton, jr., J. V. Nm ly. NBp'.lonn
Hill, E. iiowcntein, JihIka W. M,
Smith, Charles O. Hein, M. Gavin and
Dr. Robert Mitchnll. Kp-cii.l praise is
due tit Gun. Greene and Mr. Hampton
for the very able reports which
they have prreented to the com
mittee and the thorough and
efloient manner In which they have
disehargi d the du"es committed to
them. Gen, Gieeue's equipment as an
expert engineer was of lncaUuUble
vacate to the rnmmitloe and the re
anltHaeomplished form , a monument
oi skill, iuilua'.ry a-id ind.f tt'gable
appiicatioa that deserves to bring to
ita author a crown of immortality.
Perhaps it may be pr mature to hint
at thee fiing, bat enough is known
to Justify an in the awertiou that no
atieioti ol extravagant commendation
can begin i reward Gen. Greene for
the adm'rabie work he hits done I
connection with the water qneatlon.
Tor eighteen months he has utnde it
the study if hia life, and devoted to
it tbe beet energies of his sturdy man
koexl. The result speaks for itself, and
will entitle its antbor to the eternal
gratetodeef all who have the welfare
oi tae.oity at heart. '
The large drafts npon our space
made nectsory by the report itself
renders farther reference to the au
thors inexpedient. At some folnre
time, however, It may ba within oar
power to render unto Ciear that
which is doe to Cwar. Upon a table
In full r et of the committeo were
samples ol Wolf river water in various
stages if parity. That which bad
passed thrush the Hyatt filtorwas
oDpnitnooB y remarkable for its lucid
limpidity ana crya'al cloarnena. Barn
plea will he onexhibliion today in the
window of Wright Bros., on Main
street, affording all interested an op
portunity nf Judging for themnelves.
Promptly after the meeting was called
to order Gen. Greene took the floor
and read the following report:
Maarari, Tina., Dewmbtr 1, 1880.
T Water CommlUatt
OaHTLiMH By resolution of the
eomrait'efl passed April 3, 1880, the
consideration of those parts of the re
port which the writer had the honor
to submit Fehiaary 21), 1880 (see pages
ft, 28, 30, 40, 41, 44, 45 and 47), re
lating to Mouth Horn Lake aa a source
of pahlic water supply and the Hyatt
Method of riitiatinn, was adjourned
air further investigation, to be cod
Insattd with ths aid and cnnnsol of
suait men of exact s lenee whess reo
ommendat ions would Bt.iud for trut
worthy opinions, free from local in
floenceB, interests and prejudices.
This report, therefore, is founded on
the opinions of the experts employed,
and is intended to present the ques
tion for the final determination of tbe
The inqirry into the sanitary ques
tions Involved in the proposed plans
for the nse ot Hjutti Horn
lake was conducted by Dr.
Gnaa. Smalt, tsurgeun and Ma
jor United fciatos Army, an exper
ienced sanitary analyst recngnlstd ai
one cf the foremost authorities on
public wa er supplleB in their relation
to public baith. Primarily, his in
voetica ions concerned the water of
the Lake, but Mnce it is only by taking
a mean of many experiments under
identical circnmataneei that results
exactly cons stent can be reached, it
was neci sairy to analyse the waters
ot the MiBsairslppi and Wolf rivers
and the Pass, as well as of the Lake.
The analysis of these waters wero be
gan April 3J and continued at inter
vals to O.t iber 6, 1880, as nhown in
the synopsis to Dr. Hmart's report,
which alo embraces others made bv
him iu 1870 and 1880 for the National
Board of Health. The eatnplaa tor
examination were collocted under the
direction of the writer, aided by
Uapi. Jas . Oleary, Chief of Fire Da
partmen', and the steamers ot the Loe
Line audi he steam tugs of MtM-srs.
Brown A Jones, (in charge of Mr.
Robert A. Spied), which were vol
untary placed at his service by their
Dr. Smart's report, which Is row
suhmitted to the commutes ( Appsniilx
A.) presents an exhaustive revkiw of
the subj-cf, and, aside from Its prac
tical va;U'( to Memphis is a usefnland
important contribution to the litera
ture of sanitary science. The proposal
ior aomitting the water of the Missis
sippi river by thn Pass into ths Lake
is condrmned. It is shown that the
water oi the river, above the mouth of
Wolf river and naar tbe Pass, is gen
erally loaded with orirauin mutter;
that the ind iw into the Lake take
piece only during the periods
when the river water has a
high degree of impniity; and that,
notwithstanding purifying changes
would take place in ita Dasaaire and
tbe water be dilated by the batter
water in tbe Lke derived from the
water shed, the sswaite inflow in
volvea so much danger to the nnblio
health that any suggestion for ths uso
ol the river water should meet with
an earnest protest. Nor is the tilan
for excluding the river water from the
'ake and reivtra sclelv for the sunn v
from the wa er shod approved. It is
thought probable that the waters from
tbe local dramege area are "much su
perior in quality to that of the Mlsnts
s ppi river, and that in proareaa of
time, after tbe reclamation of the lands
now tubj-ct to ovcrfbw, an excellent
- water siuip.y mtunl do obtained from
these s vmces; but it is feared that
the extensive ct.aug.s in the charac
ter of the b 't orn i.uida that would
a'.topd aod follow the attemp'ed re
rla.mntii n wou d develop mtarial in-
fl it neon that would pervade the water
of tho L- k 1 r a t'oiujntted pericd,
end nscwaiiata a thorough filtration
i r their removal."
In view of these opinions It wes
thonttht inexpedient to investixate
this brarch of the subject fnr;ter.
and exminatlona of tba witer of
Wulf "iivi4r, rear where it is crossed
bv he Iio'sviHe and NdS'iville rail
way, iibont forty-fiva miles, (tecUontd
by its sir.noutie1,) above iU rnou h,
were entered on for determiring i'a
qua ly aud condition when tilth red
by the tlytt method.
The ru'ts o' tinned fiotn theso ex
aminatlons are exhibited ia the
araWsos numbered 11,12, 13, 14, 15,
18 of Dr. t-'mrt's report.
Sines the mai-i inqairy at this point
was for res dvirg the utility and em
ciency of the Hyatt filter for clearing
the water when in I'a wore' conuipon
five gallons of it were collected Sep
tembar 10. 1888. directly after a beat
ing and heavy rainfall of sertral das
dordt on, whan the river was swollen
ai-d fi led with diiftwool, aud t' e
water more tu bld than it had been
observed in many years. Tim sample
was sent by Uapt. (Jloary to the writer
in new lurk, one part oi unicn wis
filtered bv the Hyatt method. Kutial
(arts of the na ur-il and filtered water
were then aout to Dr. Smart, at wash
inglon, for anaysts, rorreepanding to
the two boUlus th.it are n iw exhibited
to the cimmtte, wuith were sent
back to Memphis.
t un h ivicu waiter, oil win ua iiu'iudw.
Is clear and pellucid; the na'ur.I
water muddy aad repuloive to the
eight, tub tost as crueui. xne nat
nal WAtar contained 140 parls of solid
matter in 100 000, of v.hioh the filtra
tion removed 77 grain t ) en h gullou
or 27,nU) pounds to 2.5U0.0U0 gallons,
the ianmud dally work of a 30-f iot
nil f. it is not to ds unaa.re.iooa,
however, that tbe water would be
f uuipfid for the pnblio eupply whilo
a this anomalous condition, as this
experlmeut aas emplnynd only to le t
the eiii'iieacy ot the iiyati process ol
filtmt 03.
"From these examinations," says
Dr. Hmj-'. "it appears that tiie water
of Wolf river, Uioiiiih extremely un
sightly ia its turbid state, is an ex
cellent water when its runpHndod mai
lers nave been removed, la contains
only ab.rat eLht grains of diesolvad
tsalini Bnhstanoes per gallon, and the
org alio atnmnnia aiatilled from it falls
within the arbitrary limits of whole-
simenres adontad by moet eaaitary
anihnritfHs; audit filtration
j btt effected and a o'ear water furnished
f that e'rer a a'er will ba of a ratiafRC-
lory qnJity for all the purposes of a
municipal enpply. This wai demon
strated, not only by the present ana
hse bat by several made In 1879.
II the Hyatt filter can ac
complish tbe filtration, so far as ths
demands of quant ty are concerned,
the writer (Dr. Smart) is confident
that ths filtered water, if clear, will
be of a satisfactory purity.
And, besides removing the tmxpended
matter aad yielding a clear water for
domefjUoand manufacturing purposes,
the flltratisn may be oond
dtatly expected to free the wa
ter froaa all suspicion of ma
larial oeatamination. Small
streams are obviously better than large
etreaais aa a source of supply, because
the arnn drained by them may be
more effectively gnarded asainst dan-
gerneis contaminations. An efficient
supervision is tbe only known pre
ventive of the invasion ot typhoid
hy tbe witer supply. With rocu cars
ex'roiswf over the radloles and ooarsa
of tbe Wolf river, and the subsequent
fi tr i on of the water as proposed, a
pare and beallbf ul supply may be ob
tained for ths city of Memphis."
riMPa avion ar thi htatt mcthod.
The filter plant proposed by the
Newark Filtering Company for clear
log tbe water of Wolf river, described
in the report of February 23, 1880, has
since that date been recommended for
fllterln the pabiio water supply of
WMblngton, v. v. the examination
of the works and method In this in
stance, waa intrusted to Oapt. T. W.
Syuionn, of tbe Uorps of H.igineers of
the . United States army, bv Maior
General John Newton, Chief of Engi
neers, ia pursuance oi a reraiatioa of
the oiled States Sanate (February 8,
1883 -Kx. Doc. No. 154). The reenra
mondaUon WW for a plant capable of
fl. taring 40,000,000 gallons per twenty
four hoars, and it is believed that an
ap.ar-ipriatlon for carrying out the plan
will be made by Congress daring its
apjtroaiiilng session. Similar works
are now in Biiecemfal operation in
Hoinratu villa and Brunswick, N. J.;
Charleston, W. Vs.; Belleville, III.,
fcto., aud oiheis are baiug erected iu
other clUes.
The wrilar'a own examinations and
nbaorvationfl of the plan, extending
nvor n psiiod ot fifteen months, had
satlialail iiim of its ellloiency, yet alncs
mere naa been no experience for de
termining its adaptability to the needs
of Memphis, he required farther de-
mnaisiratiou. To this end the filter
wss NaHeoted to the extreme teat oi
the turbid water ot Wolf river, aa has
bean related, and ths determination
oi tbe mechanical and hydraulio caps
billtlas referred to Mr. J. J. R. Croes,
C. K and Mr. A. A. Willson, M. E. oi
New York, engineera of established
reputation and high character, who,
it may t4 remarked, began ths examl-
nstion witii onaraoteriutio proteeelonal
diBUruat of innovations.
Th I r reports are herewith sabmlt-
ted (B acid C of appendix) with the
plans and spaianoattons for the Mem
phis plant proposed by the Newark
Filtering Company (D, B, F, G, H. I
of appandix), who are to guarantee its
tffieieaoy and are to receive no com
pensation nntil its success has been
demonstrated. This plant differs from
ths Washington plan mainly In re
spect tt the method employed . for
waslJng the filter bed, kad consists of
three cylindrical open iron tanks,
tweaity feet high and thirty and one
quarter fdet in diamoter, each contain
ing a filter bed ot sand and coke six
feet doep; an apparatns for feeding the
coagti'atitsi atandpipa; wroaght iron
well 100 feet deep aud five feet in
diameter, and the required pipes,
valves, gates, etc, all of which are
folly set forth in the specifications.
The proposal embraces tbe aeration of
the water, ai d ths guaranteed dally
service ia for 7,500,000 gallons, filtered.
Mr. Willsoa in his report exprewo
the opinion that "the general design
and arrangement of the details of this
filter plant are excellent" and that hs
"can ase no reason why in a mechan
ical point of view the whole plant
should not operate practically." Us
approves the devices for supplying
the coagulants and tor aerating ths
watur, "if they are properly designed j"
determines the increased cost of fl t ra
tion, oto.. etc; makes valuable sug
gestions for Improving the minor parts,
ani though expressing a. qualified
reservation, oanctudes that he cannot
sea why, "should this filter be adopted
at the Memphis waer works, it woald
not prove aa entire suuceea," and
"woald therefore recommend thai
the Water Committee adont this plan
of filtration." It is Mr. Creos'a
opinion that the "capacity of filira
tinu of a given area" (by the Hya t
rant hod) "to atnat s venty-five timie
what is poteible by a simple Ultra
llou" is practicable end "fully
piovttn that "a'ttinngh tbe aeration
i f tbe Hit1 rod water" may not "pro.
duto tho t.xidatiou necias.try to pre
tot ve I hu wa er pare for aey leugtu of
time," ifr "will nnqnwtionably ba of
some benent. Itie washing Irom
below in snctionsof one-quaiUr of the
area at a time appeared t me (him;
on exumiiDni its ontia i .n to ba ex
ceeding y efl ctivi," but he thinks it
wi.l be neceraary ia ordt-r toee:nre the
h'gh rate of filtration guar ant ed "to so
arranen the tanks tln.t a herd of nt
leait fi!ty f.irt cau ba put on ths filter,"
which "wou'd ioce m ti e annual
cost of pumning about $2700 above
Mr, WilihonV.eot mate;" areos with
Mr. Willainjt' at a per cent oi tne
wa'er pumpod will be (onsurneJ In
wahlna the flter-baJ. and ravs, io
cocchiston, "I am of opinion that the
gener.l plan of ' filtration proposed is
ent rely practicable aid will he tc"no
miral, and I recommend i s adoption."
It has already been shown (report
February, 1880,) that the water of
Wdf river, eulow liaH-igh, was ex
pressly condomted for domestic use,
ard it was recommended that the
public supp'y should bs taken from a
point near wners tne jjoonmiie nu'i
Nashville railroad crostws the river,
for economic re" sons. Ue tailed estl.
mates of approximate cot, expense
and revenue were also aunmittta, ana
a general plan proposed (pages 44, 45,
40). It was thea sngge-tad that a
niiin service supply wes not vol need
ed, but the ine.reaaing growth of the
city, aa it appears today, seems to in
dicate that this provision should ba
made, and doabtlesa other changes of
ths plana will be found expodioot
w hen the work ia began.
In the buf.iuera parts of the city,
wh.re the elevation is gnat, the pres
sors from the propoatd reservoir
would vary f otn 28 to 30 pounds. It
is propoeed to increase this pressure
to 8o wi'hin the area extend
ing from Exchange street south
to the c:ty limits, ttnd lying hetwoim
thn Misei.'s'ppi river and tbe alley eait
of Second street, thence by Mulberry
street south, hy means of an iron res
ervoir or tar.k, suppoited by a High
Service Tower, tibe located adjacent
to tbe proposed distributing reservoir,
this area to be supplied by a separata
main connecting with tho general sys
tem of pipes (cut off hy atop gatec), to
provide as safeguards for reinforcing
eich other. The Tower is to be con
structed of brick and stone, oi a hight
to raise the now line eighty-
five feet above tho distributing res
ervoir. The tank (3032 feet), is to
have a capacity of 140 00 j gallons, and
is to be sappuad bv pumps
capable of lifiing 1,5C0,0C0 gal.
Ions in ea rh twenty t ur Hours, ihe
cost of the whole plant will be,
approximately, $30,000, and the men
in charge would be also employed to
operate the Filters. Tbe Increased
expense of maintenance and interest
would be compensated by a greatly
increased revenue. The pressure to
be afiordod will lift the heaviest ele
vators to be employed, bring into nse
motors and turbines for operating light
machinery for manufacturing, and
make the now unused upper fl jors of
buildings tenantable, while the waste
wa lav vcanlHno (mm thMOA innrrai
might fee u fi.'S'sd for flashing the
sewer pipes; and, finally, this pressure
would erea'iv increase tbe emciencv
of the Fire Dapartment aud diminish
its expense.
The object of there investigations,
which have proceeded over a period of
sixteen months, was to determine
npon a plan of water works for the
city of Memphis that would be perma
ment: to obtain a clear, pure, whole
some and abundant supply of water,
and to devise ways and mtaos where
by the works would be constructed,
owned end operated by the city with
out Imposing a burden upon the pub-
c more than tbe water rats now pa d.
The investigation is now concluded,
and a summary of the plans that are
proposed is now snomitted ur the
i. ion of the committee.
1. It Is proposed to' establish a pump
ing s'at'on, or buildings to accommo
date the pumping machinery, engine,
boilers, coa'.houses, etc., at a suitable
point near where the iioutsvilie aud
Na .hville railroad crosses Wolf river,
from which the public supply is to be
2 The water is to be delivered
through one line of cast Iron pipe
thirty (30) inches in diameter, which
is to f.diow the contours of the surface
to the dietributi'w reservoir.
3. The Hyatt filter plant is to be lo
cated at the end of the force main di
rectly at, or near the embankment of
the distributing reservoir.
4. The High Surface Tower is to be
similarly located.
5. Tne Distributing Reservoir (ca
pacity 21,000,250 gallons) is to be lo
cated on the west side of the Her
nando road between McLemnre and
Richmond avenuos, south 27 J", eaat
13,050 feet, or 2 47-100 miles from the
center of Court Square.
6. The water pumped from the sta
tion is to pass through the Filters and
delivered in the Distributing Reservoir
filtered and aerated.
7. The general supply will be deliv
ered by gravity from the Distributing
Reservoir. The high service supply
will be delivered from the ressrvolr in
tbe Tower. Each service is to be pro
vided with its own supply main and
distributing pipes, connecting with
each other and cat off by stob gates.
The sort ot th plant will b.J692,000
Of th dutribatim ti ijri
Un 260,000 HM.0O0
Tba noal revenue from
Ur renti (flrit Tr will
b.....-.. . 1120.000
Th nnuI soil of malnteo
ane will b 48,400
Th annual interest at 6 pr .
ont. on th oot of plant
will b . 47,600 I Bs.000
Th rcranna (8't yeir) In
xoM of mainUoanotani
iatoroit will b...M. I 24,000
The ChttlrmM's Keport.
Don. D. P. Haddon, Prefiilont Lejiilatlr
Coiaoil t
GiMTLkMKN The committee ap
pointed by yon ander the resolution
of July 23, 1835, to considor "all mat
ters appertaining to obtaining a bona
tifqlsupply of pare, clear and whole
some water fox the use of the entire
District; to take into consideration the
purchase oi the present water com
panv's plant by the District, or the es
tablishment of new wat6r works 'en
tirely j to consider the soarcs whence
this water ia to be obtained and ths
probable coat of same, the building of
reservoirs ' and the probable cost of
keeping same In a pure and healthy
condition, and' the erection ot Stand
pipes; la a word, to take into consid
eration everything relative to tbe Water
question and the manner In which the
financial matters shall be arranged,
and the proper legislation to be ob
tained to carry out and consummate
their views," cave the honor ot sub
mitting a report of their del berations
ar d conclusions, together with sundry
papers expla nln the subject In detail.
At the inception of our dircnsxion we
were confronted with the qneetion ot
etriuTai'p. The committee tttlt it to be
a matter of the li st importance to de
termine whether it wonld be
of greater . advautngs to the
city to owq iia water .works and
exercise dirett control over their man
agfment through o dice is to be ap
pointed for that purpose, or to confer
upon some chartered company the
privilege of snpplyln Memphis with
water, forcible arguments were ad'
d need on both sides, but the commit
tne finally reached a unanimous in.
elusion, snd embodied their decision
in a rs-lut'.on, wbih was adopted
Apiil 10,1880.a ful!ows:"It ia the sense
of this committee ttiat, in view of the
increasing population of the city, f :e
cocbtructiou of a system of permnoent
water wo ks should be undurtuken
ari l carried out at) soon as the neeea
nary h gisla iin Can be sscarel by the
TxiDg D.ft-itt; and that, considering
iue paramouut neci-suy lor the per
sc-rvatien of the nublio h. altb. the s.
c-utitf and future enlargement of the
e ructares, aud the economy in the
ina-JBgeaent, the works should be
contracted, owted and operated by
tne city. '
Inasmuch as tin Fire Department,
the Eewer syeteia and the Sanitary
Depirtmeit of our city are ex
clusively under control of the City
Government, and as these depart
ments are intimately related to the
water works system, aod ars depend
ent upon it for their succecs endelfi
ciency, it wasthonght to bo eminently
proper, and indeed cs entiol to the
Highest euiciency ot all these depart
ments, that the water supply, as well
as the other departments, should be
under the lull ami exclusive control
of the city anthon iei. The enmmit
tfe have an abiding faith that under
our present compact and economical
form of government there would be
no iricrrased danor of peculation, dia-
noneeiy or mismanagement by con
ferring on our ma icipal officers the
additional dut:ei growing out of a
public water system, xt must ba con.
ceded by all tht any private comora
tion that would contract to cupply the
city with water would doeo only for
tho measure of profit that such a con
tract might proniibfl. Such a measure
involves the expense fr,r president, of
ficers and employes, be ides nrofit to
stockholders. Under city ownership,
most oi this expense would be saved
to the people. Fur many years pist
Memphis has received her water sup
ply through such a corporation, and
the expense has been far from satis
factory. The experience and example of
all large c'.Utu in t his ountry and others
prove the advantaze vea. the nnsetniiv
of city ownership. We may cite New
x or, rimado ptua, tsostoc, Brooklyn,
l.'hicigo, St. Ltiu s, Cincinnati, Loui'r
ville, Cleveland, Washington, aid 600
mors of the chief ciiies and towns of
this country. Mmy of these have ex
perimented with the system of private
ownership, and bave discarded it. It
is wise to profit hy the experience ol
others. Ia European cities such a
thing as private ownership in connec
tion with the public water eupply is
not toleratnd at ail. Memphis has be
come a great commercial eentr, and
is a growing city. A well devised sys
tem of water worke, supplying clear,
pure, soft water in abundanoe can
now ba established on a self BUDnort-
ing basis. Every year is adding largely
to car population and increasing the
waterconsumption. It isno visionary
idea to see before us the time, at no
very distant day, when onr water
works will became an imDortant
source of net revenue, and a potential
factor in the extinguishment of our
city debt
In looking for the proper tauret of
supply, the committee has had ander
consideration perbaps every source
and every plau which baa ever been
before our people. Tbe shallow well
system, like that on Long Island, N,
Y., aud at Jackeon, Tenn., was re
jected as impracticable for local
reasons. Tbe artesian well system
was rejected became of its uncertainty
and unreliability. Ooldwater river,
Mississippi, Tennessee river, Spring
river, Atkaisas, and Tuecurabia
Spring, Alabama, were diemed im
practicable as sources of supply be
cause of the great expense involved ia
each of tbesu plans, which was far
beyond any sum that Memphis cm
aQrd to expend in this object. The
foregoing a I being rejected, the com
mittee was nirrowed down to Wolf
river, South Horn Lake, and the Mis
sissippi river, and to tbeee three it has
devoted clcse and elaborate investiga
tion. Ia order to render p acticable
and acceptable any point from which
to draw a supply of water for this
great city three conditions were essen
tial. The water must be sufiMently
pare to bs wholesome for all domestic
uses; it must be abundant in quantity,
arid it must be obtainable at a coat not
exceeding fl,20J,C00, that being the
limit at which tbe system cun
ba made certainly sell support
ing, with our present population, esti
mated at 00,000. The committee has
therefore sought definite snd reliab'e
Information on these points in their
relation to the three sources of supply
last mentioned, vis.: Wolf river,
Horn lake and the Mississippi river.
Samples of wat ir from each, taken in
various stages and conditions, were
sent to expert chemists for analysis.
The Mississippi water was pronounced
very bad and altogether unfit for do
mestic use ; Horn lake, less objec
tionable bat not ea isfactory; Wolf
river water, taken at tbe crossing of
the Louisville and Nashville Railroad,
was found to bs comparatively pure,
and, after sedimentation and filtering,
was highly approved as suitable for
all domestio uaes, and for use in boil
ers. Tbe analytical tables accom
panying this report, prepared by the
Drs. Elliott, of the Western Military
Institute, near Dayton, O., and Dr.
Chan. Smart, United States Army, of
tbe Sargeon General's office, Wash
ington, D. C, will be found interest
ing in this connection. This result
will be a surpriee to many, but when
it is remembered that the Mipel sippi
river and ita tributaries drain an Im
mense territory, extending 1000 miles
from north to south and 2000
from east to west, populated
by 20,000,000 of people, with its
hundred great cities, thousands of
towns end villages, and countlers
manufactories ol all descriptions, for
which this mighty river performs the
duty cf a common sewer, no farther
demonstration is needed to confirm
the analyses which, show that its
water when It reaches Memphis Is
loaded with loutlmpurities and that It
must become J,more so from year to
year at the' population bf , the North
west increasis. It is equally plain
and credible that Wolf river, originat
ing from several copious springs lo
cated In a sandy district 'and coursing
through a thinly settled country for a
distance of only sixty miles to the pro
posed point of intake, without a town
or villnga on ita banks, must closely
approximate the character ot spring
water when not turbid from rains, a
fact that is conclusively shown by the
analy ses above referred to.
As to tho question ot supply. From
the Mississippi the quantity is of
courss unlimited. That from Horn
lake is somewhat doubtful. Promv
Wolf river the discharge baa bien
ascertained by careful measurements,
taken in the autumn months after a
prolonged etretoh of dry weather, when
the river wss at its lowest stage, to be
over 8,003,000 gslloua per hour, or
thirty-five times mo ethan the daily
consumption of Memphis at this time.
In considering thn qu wtioa ol cet
it was ascertained that the expendi
ture would be stout the aaoie in ob
taining water either from Horn lake
or irom Wolf river at the point pro
posed. Bat on acconnt cf the chang
ing currents of the Mississippi and the
cous.-qnent unreliability of its banks
mo ui'iumiixee roana tnst any plan
for taking a tufflcient supply of water
worn mat source would involve engi
neering p-oblems wtich have never
yet been eolvad and would entail an
expense necessarily very great. So se
rious wera thuae difficulties that there
was not snfficienttime or means at the
command of the committee to justify
theuj in undertaking the preliminary
examinations and surveys which were
necetsary iu order to letemine the
mere practicability of the scheme.
With, tiiete facts ascertained, toe
committee has b.-oo 1ml lnma- in.
sis ibl to the ooiclusion that Wolf
river oners the true solution of tbe
water question for Memphis. In com
mon with the mass of our citizens the
members of thecommittn. ett hnt.tm
of their Appointment, were strongly
anlagonietio to Wolf ri ver water. They
knew it only by the supply that had
been daily dealt out to us bv the
present water company for years past
and which was taken from the nver
at the present location of their works,
only a short distance above its nr.nfl.i.
ence with the Miesissippi end with
B.you Gayoso, liable at a'l times to
be contaminated by backwater from
these streams and a'm renciirino iha
foul drainings from the northern por
tion of ourciiy. Ia tbe progress of its
work the committee soon diacovHrnri
that this was altogether a dff.rent
water from that from Wolf river abave
tne railroad crossing where it is en
tirel v byond the reach of the contam
inating influences above referred to.
It is the water taken from this h'gher
po'nt tbBt Shows fUnh satisfactory re-
salts under analysis, end it was here
tbat the stream was gauged during i s
juweti stages ana snowed au hourly
diecbarge of 8,b00,000 gallons. Deriv
ing its Bource from several copious
aprings, it reaches the point
referred to in a condition of al
most original purity. The quantity of
minerals, or other form
rontnined in it ia remarkably email.
it is nee irom lime and la therefore
Very soft and SDecinllv nd intpd for naa
in laundries and boilers. The princi
pal otjeetiou is tbe color imparted to
the water from tbe clay eoil of part cf
the country through which it flows.
After heavy rains this is natticularlv
noticeable and objectionable. But af
ter the rains cea'e the abundant fl w
of clear water from above soon carries
off tbe tainted cuirent and cleanses
tbe etream again. With ample res
ervoirs the pumping might be eo reg-
umieu aa io avcua laRing tne water
while in its muddy condition, and
thus the public supply might be kept
comparatively clear. But to secure
certainty on this score the committee
bave been engag"d daring tho last b x
months in investigating the Hyatt
filter, an invention of recent years,
designed especially for filtering water
in large quantities for the use of cities
andtowtis. The assistance of skilled
xperta of national reputation in such
matters was called In and with
their help an exaustive exam
ination of this filter has been made.
Alter several very important improve
ments which wero suggested and
adopted during tbe examination, the
filter, has been pronounced a success
by the expert", and the proprietors
guarantee satisfaction in ita work. By
its adoption one or more of the reser
voirs can be dispeusedwith, which
would otherwise be required, and thus
will be secured a net reduction in the
cost ot the plant together with in
creaeed net revenuas, while at the
same time we remove the stain and
impurities which the river receives
during the rainy spells; thus the
works can operate continuously, and
yet, by means of ths filter, can supply
ear, psnuciu water at an times.
From tbe accompanying caoers it
will ba seen that the estimated cost of
the Woli river plan, including the fil
ter plant and hij;h pressure eetvice,
will ba $1)52,003.' Bad on the expe
rience ot the present water company,
the es'lmated revenue from water
rates will exceed $120,000 the first
The cost of maintaining and operat
ing the works will be $48,400, and the
interest on cos, at 5 per cent., will be
$47,00 ', making a total expenditure
per annum ol sJo,otJO, and leaving a
net revenue, over and above all ex
penditures, of not less than $24,000.
This gives U3 at the very outset a self
supporting water system; end the
ngurrs on wuicn it is based are bs
lieved to be conservative and within
ths line of safety r.ither than beyond
it. wiia tne security mat sucn a
water plant snd its revenues aflords to
investors it is believed that its bonds
can be negotiated readily at 5 per
cent, without any additional guaran
tees. But to "make assurance doubly
sure," and to place these bonds at the
very top ot tne list, the committee sug
gest that it might be the part of wis
dom to levy a light tax for the first
few years in order to provide a certain
fund to meet the interast, or to pro
tect the interest from any possible de
ficit ot revenue. Such a provision,
we nave good reason to believe,
would enable the city to nego
tiate the bonds at not exceed
ing 4J per cent. This would
effect a saving to the city of some
$4800 per annum on interest alone,
and would to that extent increase the
net revenues. At the end of two
years after the works are once in fall
opeiation it is believed that their suc
cess will be so fully established that
the tax will no longer be required. In
the meantime, while on one side the
tax ia being collected from the people,
it will on the other side be more than
returned to them ia the rednced cost
of water and in the enhanced value of
their property.
It Is dow. therefore, a well estab
lished fact that Memphis baa within
her reach a water supply far superior
to the celebrated Co ton system of
New York in quantity, quality and
acresiibllity. The adoption of the
right system will secure for Our city
a superabundant Bupply of clear, pare
soft water, with sufficient pressure to
carry it freely to every point within
the corporate limits, and to famish
power for running elevators of hotels
and business houses, and a'so for op
erating light manufacturing establish
ments in any of the upper stories of
buildings in the business portion cf
the city. By the nse of a high pres
sure device in connection with a
system of hose carriages, the efficiency
ot tbe tire Department may be very
much promoted in that part of the
city embraced within the high pres
sure limits.
A detailed description ot tbe ma
chinery by which tbess Important
retulU will be obtained accompanies
this report. .
All these results, aud others of great
vilne to enr people the committ. e
believes, will be attained by the es
tablishment of a system of water
works, to be owned and operated by
the city in arc rdance wi h tbe plans
described in the accompanying papers.
Io Utn. Uolton (ireene,ot ti ls com
mittee, his aseoi Litea committed the
burden of this work. His knowledge
ot engineering hydraulics eminently
fitted bim for the task, and the fidel
ity with which' he has accomnlished
it ia attested by the results which are
nerewitn submitted. :
Tbe enmm ttea have in conclusion
adopted the f j lowing
Whkbbas, An abundant supply of
pare water is 6D;oiutnly rsrenrial to
the health of our people and tbe
saiety oi our propeity, and the general
weirare oi our c ty ; therefore,
Be it revolved bv the Water Committee, of
Ten, Tfiat we urgeutlv recommend the
L,e s a lv9,t;ouneil of the Xaxii g Dis
trict t'j take immediate etepj to secure
tha pa;sge of a law at the next ses
sion of ths Legislature authorizing the
g ivernmentot this Taxing Dietrict to
bui d and operate a public eys'em cf
wa'er woiks; to i sie bonds secured
by the plant to pay for the same
thoreon. and tj secure such additional
legielation as may be seeded for the
successful accomplishment cf the ob-
J90'- .... . .
Jittoivea. juruur, Xhat we recom
mend Wolf Kiver, at a point above and
near to the L 4 N. R. R. creasing, as
the proper source of tupp'y; and that
we advise the adoption by the Legis
lative Council of the plau for a sys
tem of water works a described in the
report made to this committee by Gen.
Oolton Greene, the details aud partic
ular cf which are embodied in tne
accompanying papers.
After the reports hadbson raad and
considered, Dr. Robert Mitchell moved
that the report ba received, approved
and the rcsilu'ion adopted snd made
the report of tbe commit'oe to the
Legislative Council. Adopted unan
imously, and after recommending the
publication of 1000 copies of the re
port the committee ad j mrned.
KnliwrllM for the 'AipI,'
Dinner, Toilet and Chamber Sets in Great Variety.
-Agent for (be. celebrated ISHEES HOOD VITRIFIED CHINA, specially
mlnmMt for Hotlw. Rwirals wnrt linibol.Tw
Quarter of a Century in the Hardware Business.
Noa. 323 and 324 MAIN ST.. - MEMPHIS, TENN.
Ylkmwk; Grocers & Cotton Factors,
C'umU Adranccs to Hercbanta and Plautera.
er.Thorntos I U
Cotton Factors, 7boIesaIe Grocery
Uo. SOS Front street, t Mem phi. Teas:
If. 0. PBARCR.
Cotton Factors & Commission erch'ts,
CVtl in. WarahoMK-Wnm HH mbmI ITitfoai wr I
A S TPFffHWI I sPfll
Mnllr I llLl4Li yil LLiL lill
1 I
Factors, UMesMe Gtcgcj,
IT. 11 Usilora. Ktrcet, : t Hemplii, Trfiis
336 (Second. Street, Memphis.
tTll. Pemn.. nrle Well.. Iron. Tiad and Htine Pino. Vi-winr. lnh. Kit
Cotton Factors & Commission Merchants,
75 State Street Cor. Kilby, BOSTON. MASS.
JB l.laliin.
T7holesale Grocers, (Cotton Totrs
And Conmissitn MerchmU,
and 234 Front
. . v .-. . Tni iuu ua juriusi. .
I. p. Uim (.TakM au waol Ha U laa wUIb( aa ai f ail OatVW JfBgrt
WE OFFER FOR SA LB on farorabl
termi a li ra planttion in Bolivar
eoooty. visa , rareutly imi.roTfd with new
t-ott. Hank and wire fenoea. Twentr-flv)
ne houaeff, cotton sin. nawmill and Dear
liO.Onn feetoMuinuer in i-tacki, 50,000 new
ryire'i board all redy to o ,nlrn-t mors
buildinira. A rood t rehxu and excellent
tend lor a mercantile bn.inai. Tni, plan
tation i improred with a riow to fabdivia
Inn. I will Bell all ur a pa't, aooordinK to
witnti of iiarchaKem. Pltn' v of liior N
pro tenants h.ve npplied and are dnily ap
illvinit to rent nt For full particulars
apply to TUPS. II. ALLKit OO.
J. G. 3CH3M.0T & SON
Importer ana dealer In Unas, Amnnu.
Dittos, and Vlahlutr TMttl, tUdera
Uastlwnre, :ii rl jBt-flla aad Aa
nuurlittair for Hotels and P.enidencef .S4S
Mnln trrit, Memphis, Tw. Kleotrl
nppliei always on hand. Repalrn neatly
McLemora avenue, neur State Female
'ollefo. The property, which is in Green
wood, the most attractive and arowins sub
urb of Momphie, consists of five acres of
round nnsurpased for healtbfalnepi and
asaaty ol location, oontuimna a lartre varie
ty of forest and fruit tre -s, ornamental tree)
and shrubbery; a two story residence com
prising ten rooms conveniently arranged,
with ample supply or oloseti: also, kitchen,
servants room, stable, carriage house, coal
and poultry house and seviral other oot
buildinga; two sood cittern and a deep
brick-walled well with bjtures as a deposi
tory for milk, butter, jrenh mrats, etc. Con
venient access to tha city bv street car and
turnpue, wun exemption I rem oity taxes.
immeaiate pos-easion anven to purchaser.
Prioe. SHIO0. For terms of bavment annlv
at my offlca, No. 6 Madleon st , i r telsphon
JJ G uU.
e. K. WITT.
rfea. U.rfc.
SS. J. VlauK.
St. Oemplik fci

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