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The Memphis appeal. (Memphis, Tenn.) 1886-1890, December 05, 1886, Image 2

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Memphis' daily appeal sunday, December
the wm ami
a Hirrf soicno proi-able
AdBitrahle Kr-.iortii Treppntrd bj
Gen. flt ilrm'ti and Chair
nan (4 W. Hiimptoi.
irroixrEO to ite;tigate
The Quality of Water AYallblr
Prepealllon of tbe Citi.tW
Water Company.
In order to present to the readers of
the Appial all the data collects on
the enrjucf of water supply, we le
print this morning in compact form
the report of the Committee of Ter .In
cluding the reports o Gen. Giet-ne
and Chairman Hampton, together
with the data collected by tno experts
employed by the committr e. We alsi
add the proposition of the Citizen'
Water Company to the L iginlative
Conn .11, eo that the present s attts rf
the water qneetio.'i my be studied by
our cit '! a at tbeir leieare, acd by
the aid of light throws upon it h? tbe
ab.rfprtif the cnmmiitee, Tl'esa
repute speak for tvipm"!vos." They
embody the n silt of eighteen moults
ef skillful re.wiin h a:.d intellitfout up
piicatiou, anil form a n.onument of
which Its anil. ors have ra' s lo tl
prond. .
, . (Jen. Greene' Report.
: Mrurnin, Tm., Deetmber 1, 188C.
Te the Water Committee:
fl tNTi.taiaa-Ily reteVnn of the com
millee I" "' April S, 1"H0, the consldera
ti"B of Ikon pa ts of the rep.-rt whii h Ihe
writer bed ihs h ner to sub-nit February 21,
lUrt (see pages 27. W. St, 40. 41, 44, 4ft and
47), relatit.ir Bnatii 11 rn Lake as a soutoa
f petilit watar lupplyand Ihe Hyatt meih d
ef filtraiien, was aojonrnad fur tuitlier In
veattgatien, to be eot.duoted with the ad
and eoaueel ' wh nice of exact science
whose recommendations would stand fur
trait worthy opinions, free f oiolooil influ
ences, interest! and prejudice!. Thii re
poit, iheref re, in tounoed on the opinion!
ef 111 etperti employed, ai d If Intend, d te
proven U he question lor tbe final determina
tion ef tbe commute.
1 h inqnirt Into the sanitary question In
volved in tbe p f posed plane for the tile of
(oath Hern Like nu conducted hr I)r.
Ckarlei Smart, Surgeon and MaiVir United
States Army, an experienced unitary anal
yst, raeegniaed ai one of the foremost, au
thorities on public water tippliei in their
relation te pbHe health. Primarily, hit
lnvettlgetinni concerned the water of the
Lake, but eiane it is only by taking a nieai
ef many experiment under Identloal uir
camttaneee tkat results exeotly onniiiiitent
eauberraebfxl.lt waa necessary to ana yse
tke watera of tbe Mississippi and Wolf rivers
end the Paaa, as well as of the Lake, lbs
analyses of these waters were begun April
Sd aad eoakaa d at Intermit to Oetober eth,
ISM, as akown In the synopsis to l'r. Sinar 't
Ciport, wh'eh also embraces others made by
im ia leTfiai.d IBrf,r tbe National Board
ef Health. The samples for eiaminatio
were collected under direction of the writer,
Capt. J as. E. Uleary, Chief of Fire Depart
ment, and tue steamers of the Lee Line and
tke steaaa tacsof Messrs. Brown k Jones lu
charge of Mr. Robert A. Ppeed), which were
velanaarily placed at his service by their
Dr. bejart'erap-rt, which Is now submitted
te the eeinnittea (AprnUii A.) presents an
ihaaaatTt itrtew of the subjeit, and, aside
from lie practical value to Meuipk'i, ie a
aielal aae ln porUnt oontrtbntlon to tbe I t
eraiere of saatUry science. The proposal
ler ad :'lttlf i the wter 0! the Mlialaxlppi
rirer by tbe I'ess into the lake Is condemned.
It is shitwa t, al Hie water of the rWer.abore
the uoueh of Wolf nrer and the Pass,
ts generally leiuea wim orsanio mat
in no
Into Die
leke taker alaee only during the periods
wkea the rlrerwatar nas a high dorree of
Imparityi aad that. notwit!iti.dinK puri
fylneckaaces would take place In its paeaaae
aad the water he diluted or the better water
la the Lake derm I frou tbe water shed, tke
eewatteinSew inreUes so uiuoh denjter te
tke peblle health that any sussestlon for the
eeaol the rieer water should meet with an
earneat proteat Nor la the plan for eiclud
tna the rirer water from the Lake any relying
solely far the supply from tue water ahei
ai proyed. ihuufht probable that the
watere freaa the loe.l dri'lmire area are
"mack superior in quality to thatof the Mie
sisslppi rirer, an I that in pnnreai,of time,
after the reelamati n .of the lands now
sabiect to overflow, an exo Ilant
water sapply niiitht be obtained froia
these suurceat but It ts leaied thnt
the extensive ehunires In the oliaraoior of tbe
bottom lnd that wool it attend and follow
tke altemi ted rovlemation would develop
malarial inluetiras that would pervade the
the weler ol the lake for aooutlo ued period,
and neeoaniiate a thorough flltation lor
their removal."
In vlow of these opinions it waa Ihonirht
iaexpedient te invent gale this branch ol the
sabjoet farther, and examinations ef the
water el Wolf river, near where it Is creased
hy the Lonlaville and. Nuvhville railway!
about forty-five milca (reckoucil.by ltiinuoi.
Itiea) above Ita mouth, were entered on lor
determininc its eualtty end eoaditiea when
filtered by the Hyatt method. - ..
Tkeretulta , ht "lned from these eiamlna
'ioiia ere exhluited in the analyais num
bered 11, 11, 13, 4, In, It of Dr. (Smart's re
per'. Biace the main Inquiry at Ihli point waa
for resnlvins the utility and efficiency ef tbe
llyatt filter lor clearing the water when la
its worst eoadit en, 6 re rallorie of it were
collected September 111, luxfl, directly after a
beating and heavy rainfall of several oays
duration, when tue flvr was swollen and
filled with driftwood, and the evatur mora
turbid than IV had bren obaerred In many
care. laia sam.ie was sent by taut.
Heery te aha wrl er in New York, one aiurt
oi wnion waa niiereu py tue nyau metooa.
Keaal paite ef the natural and fl'tered water
were then a. nt to llr.fciinert, at Wathlrgtoa,
for aaalysla, eorreaponding to the two hot
ties that are new eihihited to theeomiuiltaa,
which were eon t back to Memphis.
Tke filtered water, an will he noticed, la
clear and pellue.d ; the natural water mud
dy end tepulsive to the sisht. Ths teat wee
crucial. The natural water contained let
earls of sa id matter in lOO.UuO, oi which
the filtratiea renoved 77 amine to
each gallon er tf.oOQ pounds to i.lMOOi)
talloas, the assumed dally work ef a IM-feot
Iter. It it net to be understood , however,
that tke water would be pumped ler the Pub
lie supply wh tela this anomalous conditio,
as this exoerim. nt waa employed onlv to
teat the efficiency ol the llyatt prcoess ef
"From theoa fexamiaattoaa." aata Te.
Smart, "itappeara that I he water of Waif
river, tneugn tiueiiieiy nnnintiy tu its tejr
hid rtute, ia an excellent water when Its sus
pended matters hare been removed. It con
tains only about eight greins of rllaiolved
aaline sue-Uno- a per gallon, and the organ
ic ammonia diatillcd Iroin it falls wlihin the
arbitrary limits of wholenomeneea adopted
by mot sanitary au'hurltieai aad
if filtration be effi Cd and a dear water fur
nished that dear water will be of a eetlalae
tor.v auality for all the purposes of a munic
ipal supply. This waa demonstrated nut
only by the present analyies, rut by ssvsral
madeinlHif). II the Hyatt liltercaa
areompliah tbe filtration, te far as tke de
mands of euemity are conoerhed, the writer
(Dr. tiraart) is e efids-nt that the filtered
water, it clear, will be of a satisfactory pari
ty. ' And, be.Ulel removing lie eua-
JendedmatUrenrl yielding a olear water for
omertic and menu aolnrluf purpopei, tke
filtntion may be confidently exiected te
free tbe water from ell auspicicn of malarial
eonUmination. Small streams ere
ebvieualv batter than Isrse streams es a
soaree of fnppl .because the area drained
by these may be wore efeetlvely euerdee)
egainst daagerens contaminations. An at
ecient suparris on Is the only known pre
ventive rf the Invasion of typhoid by the
water supply. With furh care exercised ever
iheraeHclee aad cowrre of the Well river,
. and the snberejuent filiratlen ef the water ai
tropoiert, a pure end hea thful supnly may
e obtained ler the eity of Memphis."
The filter plantpropoied by the Newark
Tlltericg Cen pan- for clearing tbe water ef
W olf river, deaeribed in the report of eb
J nary 2.1, lap, hea a. nee that date keel re
eemmended tor filtering the ' uelie water
supply fo Washington, 1). C, Iheexauiaa
tivi of the works and method In ihia inatane
was trtv ted te Capt. T. W . M-mons. of tha
Corps :of, Bng neert of the United htateta
arnjy.by Waior General John Newton, Chief
ef Engii.eera, in pursoance of a rese utioo
ef the I'nite I aete benare t February , fi
Ex. loe No. 1M). Ihe r eommrailation
waa lor a plant repahle of filtering 40W0.(M
ralUns per twenty four hours, and It li he
ieved lhatan appropriatiou for canyingoat
the (ilea a ill ha made by Congress duriuer
ite approarbil g svs-ion. fMrnilar worss are
ow in suef-lul optrst on in rjonerrille
and Bi unswrk, N. J. i I harleatou, W. Ve t
ltelleviile, II,.. etc., and (there are being
ernoted in eib' r citiif.
The writer's own examinations end ob
eervHtlerie ef . lie plan, nttniii.it oier a
aurioa of fitleen IllwtitliS. Iiaj s t efitd hiui
t its i atcieo' l. et tince t, ere had been an
. expcrit-pee tor ft l-r
I- running its adaptabllliy
'i-iop he required fur-
MiiitBWaii 'i jettiitiH.
. io tlte nw'i
t'oer (temonnr.t'on T" this nd tbe filler
waa eulijertcil tu the rxtrruie Ud ol the lu
kid w tor i f Wolf ilier.a- h been relet, il.
and the detenu petton of tbe i ecbanical
Mid bydraei e oai'iilitie- reierred t .'nr.
J .1. K. (n. ''. V.. and Vr. A. A. VWllcon.
M.H., of Sew Vnrk. eniii-f ra of otjbliahed
reputation and hi li chnracier. who, it nirty
te rem-rhe I, Ii.kao ihe fxamination with
cbraa(iri-4i firuleeaional dutruit of in
n vations.
T Heir leportt are he-ewitb submitted (B
and I' of appoinlix) with the plana end apen-
inontiona ,,r the Memt bu plum prupoiieo oy
tbe Newara Fu erw.ir C-,K. oy (il, H, f , I,
II, I of ai'pet dixi, who ere In uar iute iU
efficienc-y and are to receive no con.pensii
t'nn until It. t ucm f has been dnianns'rat'd.
This pUut diffe e from tbe Wa'hu gton plan
mninlyiii rospect oi t ie method employed
for wafhlng the filter bed, end con-l t of
three cyllnlri al ien iron tanks, tneuty
leot hish and Ihitty and one-quarter feet in
d.aineirr, each enntaining a filter brd of
eand and coke six feetdoep: an apparatus
lor leiulng the eiuulanUt aUndpiiiei
wrouaht Iron well 11 0 feet deep and five feet
In diameter, and tbe required pieea, valve,
fates, etc., all oi which are (ally set forth
n tbe specifinatiotie. The propoaal era
brace the eeratioa of tha water, and the
paruteweldiiJIy sesrrioe if for 700.000 gal
Mr. Will-on la hi report expresses the
oplolna that "tbe general dealgn and ar
raageaaent of the details of this filter plant
are excellent," and that he "oaa tee no rea
Sea why in a auerbaoical point of view the
whole pUnls eu'd nntotajrste prsctlcally."
II approves the oavlces for supplying the
coagulants and fir aerating the water, "if
they arc pronrrly deiigne:" determines
the incrtaaea oost ef filtration, elc.etc.j
makes VaJunble guygestions for improving
the ail nor tfr, and though expre-ttng a
q uaiiled recervaticer, eencludes that he can
Pot sew why, "should tbli filter be adipted
at the Meat phis water works.lt would not
rrore tu retire .. sueoees," sat "would
herifora recommend th it the Water C'om
u titca adopt, this talaa of fll rat on." It ie
ptr. (.roea's eplnlea that the "rapaci'y of
filtration ef a given area" (by the llyntt
nethodl about seventy-five times what
is noes el hy a limple tiltrutlon" is erao'l
oabloand "full v pro-en that "altlu.uh
(he aeratfOB ot th filtered water" may net
"produoe the oxidation necra ery to p.e
irvc the 'Wiiler I arc fee any length f
time," k ".will uO'iui'Slienably bo of some
i r. it a -a i.. ' , i . t i i . :
vqiiih . a iiv awnina a, v lu uiivv in wvo
tion of one-quarter of the a'ea at a tiieai,
poared to ma (luml sn examining its opera
tion to te ciceoniDg'y affective," i tit he
thluks it will be aenc-s irf lu older to secure
the hirfh rate ol filtration guaranteed "t i so
arrange the tauka that a h-ad of at leait
btty fretcen b put en the tiller," which
"would Ino eaec tbe anneal oust of pumping
about fc!700 above Mr. Wi Iron's esiiiuaiet
egreve with Mr. Willaoc that S percent, of
the w nt"r mmped will beoonsuoied in wash
ing the II er bed, and suys, ia emoluaton,
"I am of nplc o tliet the general plan nf
filtration proponed is cutiralr preoticable
and will be economical, end 1 reoommend
Its adaption."
ft has already been slews (report, Fcbra
rr, IA-H.) that the water of Woll river, below
KaleUrh.i was eipreasly eoademnod for
doaeeatio u.e, and it waa reoemmeuded that
tha iobl ecptaly aheuld be taken from a
point near where Uio Louisville aad Nash
ville railroad trots ea the river, for economic
reasons. Ietuiled eetimates of approximute
Coet. earenf and revenue were submitted,
end ejreaere' plan proposed (pates 44, 45,
4(1 . It w..s then suguesud that a high ser-.
vioe supply was not yet netdod, but the in
erctuiing growth of theoltr, aa it appears to.
day, enema to Indicate that th s provision
should be Bade, aad deuhtleeti ether ckangoi
ef the plaa will be feund exiicdient when
the work i beta.
la nhe baaliieaa warts nriha eft, where th
elevation Is great, the pressure from too
pronosea reservoir weulil very from twenty
eight 1 1 tlilrty-Ux peusds. It is proponed to
Inoreane tills prwaare to sixty-live within
the ares exteriding from Kickaate street
south to tho city liuilu, aad lying between
the Miteieiiuiil rirer aad tke aline aat nt
8eo nd street, tbeaee by Mulberry street
south, by saeant nf an iroa rerervoir er tank,
tuuijorU d sty a high eerrio tower, to be le-
estea aeji-nefii-e) ine propoel dtatrlbating
rrserv oir. uhla area to, be aunnlied he a aanae
rt main roiiaeotimr w,t , (he general sys-
eesa ei iiapee eueoB bt stop gules), to pro
Vide as safeteards lor reinforoing each
other. The tower is te be oasiruotd of
knok end stent, ore hltht te raise the low
liae ei-4it-tva feet above the distributing
reaervoir. I hel ak (.KIxlU feet) istobevea
capacity al leli.M gallons, aud is to be tnp
pifael hy pomps capable if lilting l,fl,00
gallon In eaoa tweoty-four hours. Tke
st of ti e whole Blaui will let, approxl
uaUlyr AOWu,-asasl the men - ia charge
wmld te alan emplercd to eporate the Pil
lars. The lan-eased exposes ef malnteeanc
and loterert would he ceaipaaaated by a
greatly lucre 'Sod revenue. , Tbe prrtaure to
beaftvaed will I ft the heaviest elevators to
be empleyed, brins Into uie motors and tur
bines for oporatiag I aht inaohinery for men
nfacturlng, and make the new aaused upper
floors of buildings Unsalable, while the
waata water resulting from these toarcei
saight he utilise I for luehing the sewer
pipe ai.d, Anally, tills pra-aure would
greatly Ineres-e tke effiuienoy of the Fir De-
pa' latent aad aimiaiao Ita expeuee.
Tbeoljaet ol tbfte In realisation-, wh eh
Dtva BiDoesded (over a period of elxteen
mpntht, wat to e!eterniln upon a plitn of
water ererke for tha oltyef Mamphit that
would t tetmatienti to obtain a -clear,
pure, wholesome and abundant rappiy oi
wat'r. and to devise wava and means whepe-
br tha work a would beonatrnnted, ewned
aad operate ihy th oily without Imposing
a oariiea uioo me pu no more than the
water rate now paid- Tbe Investigation is
row eeaoluded.and ateramarr ot the plant
that are proposed la now submltuid for the
tc ion of the committee. ,
. t BUMMAHt. '
l.'Itll proposed to establish a pumping
stitloa, or tiul'dlhgt to aooommodute the
Earning machinery, engine, boilers, ooal
ouaea. eti.ata raitable point a. ar where
We Lout vllleand Narhvllle railroad ornsset
nil river, from which the publlo supply i
to lie tiaken. i i .
It Th water it to be delivered through
one Una oisil Iro pipe thirty (301 Uohet
In diameter, whinh (a to follow the coa
tears of UieturfaoeU th di.lrlbuting ret
trvotr. a t
S. Th llyatt filter plant It to be located
at tb end ef the fore mala directly at or
peer die embankment of th distributing
4. The Hick Birfao Tower la to be ilml ,
larly located,
b The Distributing Heiorvolr (-aparlty
IlifW.Waalloa.) it tu be loratad en tb
weet tide at tke Ueraand read between Me
Lemore end itichmond area ilea, touth tW,
eetU.einU feet, or II 47-100 milts from ih
center ol Court Square.
' 6. 'the watar pumped from th station it
to past threuah the Filters and delivered ia
Ihe Distributing Heservolr filtered and aer
ated. . , . , . . . . .
7, Th general sapplv will be delivered by
graVKr from the Dl.t llietlng Kenervolr. The
high eervlce supply will be dellve ed from
the rcacrvelr in the Tower, Kaoh rervlce le
te be provided with lit ewa supply main and
distributing pipes, eonnecting with each
ether and out off by tton sates
'J he aott of t he plant will he Ml, 000
Of th distributing pipt tys-
le V.m i2.
Th ananal revenue from . , , :,
watar real (first yar) will
etaaHBtatstessiMtietee 130t000
Th annua' estof mainten-
aurawillb t 48,400
The anaaal Int. ratt at 5 per
feni. on Ih oost of I loot
wdl l . 47,aOO I W.UOfi
Th revenue (first year) la
exoae ol mainteutao and
laterest will be 134.000
, . . ,., .... .. CuLIUN QBELMK.
f n i' i ' i
Cltalrsaiasi Hampton Bsiwrt. .
Do. D. P. Baddea, Preildent Leglslatlr
Council i
Gsuriture-Th commltte appointed by
you U' dor Ihe retolutlon oi July 2.1, Irt. to
conoids Vail mat ere appertaiaing t b
talniujr a bountilul supply ot pure. aleaa,
wholeeoma water tot the use ol (he entire
M.lrioii totnketnlo consliieration the pur
ekaaeol ihe present water o mipiai't a, ant
by the D a t ist, er ths ttablithmentof new
wetar works sotltciy t to tensider the source
wheaea this water is lo be obtained aad the
probable fojt of tame, the buil ilng of reesar
rcira and the probable cost of keeplnt tamt
iaa pure Bit healthy oondltiea, aad th
ereeuu! el wtand pltate t in a word, to Ukt
late Cotxlderatiee everything NlaKve t the
weaer auetUeaaadtbe maneeria wkiehth
eaaoiel matter sbali be arventeal, aad tha
pro par tetnadeAloa to be obtained te carry oat
ana eeaeueamat their views, have tke honor
of tabralWiBsj era sort, of their doiiberntient
.aad evooiueKMis, tugether with sundry pa.
Berei caphalulag the faujeet In detail. At tke
Ineefiiea of ear dineuesloa w were oen
frtiaUd with the qaentiea ef em re ten lb
eomtallut fett it te be a matter of the first
Impertaeee te detarmla whether it woul I
bevf greater ad vantaac to the eity tecwa It
watar works and exereit directoontrol aver
their saapageaieBt ihreugh oOVeers to beap
poluted for t bat purpose, cr t eenferapon,
pot rhnr4ra-d eoajipkBy th artel I age of
su piyiee Wamohlv wiih atr. Forcible
arguments were addueed OB bvtaaides,.t
aae eovamiiane najaiiy reaeaea anaaimoBS
eoaa a ioi
a rejaoluti
eaittate Ih
latUa of il' oilg..the oeusUutia-4.apei
tern el permaaent water werke ehould ee
under aken and carried out as eooo at I s
neoeeaary legiflB'lun can bi atonred by Ihe
Taxing tilitriotl aad I hit, ooneidering Iht
paramuvnt neoottiy tor Ihe iireeefvation of
the pul'llc health, the reciiri y and f uture
enlargement 'f the structures, the .w. rka
shou d ba (onstrnrted, vwued and oaeraud
by, the ciiy.'.'
Ii.nuiu.h at the Fire Department, th
tewcr tyftem end the batiliarv Department
ol our oily are ex 'lualvely under control of
the City 0 Ternmtnt, end as these depart
inrnt' , re lull inuli ly rmaied to ho water
Worka a ytoin, and -iH ,,n.teot epon t for
saaa, i aii i eat Jliae nsm. 1 ',' "". a-smstmiej tat,,., syns
ti, aag emooaiea their aeeiaion le
ioa,vhich wasadnuiad April 18,
Hows t - it is ihe senee of hia ceu
et. Ittre'leW : eaf the inereaaia nentr-
their snoias and effioieuoy, il waa thought
to e cniir.euUy Toir, anil ind.d e-rni!
to the bivlieat etlioiency ot all thee depart
ments, that the water supply, as wel as the
eth r departments, sbomd r,e uu'ter the ull
and exoluive control ol the eity authorities.
T'.ie o immittee hae at, eluding luilh that
undr our present compact ami ec nomical
form o vorornina' t there would be no iu
cre red danger of pveuWtion, d.thooe-ty
or ra sinana enieot by conf rring on our
municipal oflioers the ddditioi el duties
g'oe ma out i.t a pub.io wa'cr lyi-tem. It
iinift te conce I'd by all that :y private
rnrporation tfiat wutd roritract tositpply
the ciiy wi h ale- wou'd do to only f. r Ihe
im aaure of profit that suoh a contract might
proimre. he he metiure iuv Ivea the x-
Lenae lor pr-sidtit, oflicers and imp oyee,
e.id-n profit to stocKholdert. Under city
ownership, moat ol tais expentie wou-d be
saved te the people. For many years
past Memphis hue received her we or
supply through snch a corporation, and
the experience has been f',r from aatiefactory,
'ihe experience and example of all large
cities in thit country end others prove the
edvantaeet yea- the a-avwif of city owner
ship. We may rite New iora, Paiiadelphie,
Uostoa, Brooklyn, Chicago, fet. I.ouis. t In
cl nt', Leusvi'le, Cleveland, Waahingtoa
and n00 mora of tbe chief oiiieg and tewng
of this oouetrr. Many of these have ex
periinat ted with the ry-Um oi p Ivate own
ership, and hav ditctrded it- It is wu t
trod I by tb experience of ethers, la
nropeaa ciUee eueb a thing at privet
wr.ership in cennoctloe with th pab io
water supply Is not tolerated at all. Mem
phis has become a great eommerolal oenier,
and i a grotn'a eity. A well devised sys
tem e waterworks, tnpplying clear, pure,
toft water ia abundance, en now r estab
iiahed on a sell supporting basis. Every
ear is dding largely to our population and
li e easing the water censumption. It is no
visionary idea to see belore ns the time, at
no very distant day, when our water works
will become en iioportant totirre 01 pet
revenue, and a potential f.toter in tb ex
tinguishment of our eity debt- " -
tu looking for th proper eowrceof tnpidy,
thecotr mit'es hashed i nier ooniderition
pulhapi every soarc') aid every plan which
bag ever been befer our people. Ih' shal
low well sysiem, 1 ke ihm oa Long Island,
N. Y., and at Jackson, Tonn , was r'l.oud
aa impraotioablu for lo al reiaons. Tbeai
toiian well avtem was reieote.l becnuss of
its uncertainly and unrsii-bility. Coldwa
tor rirer, M (issippi, lennesaee liver,
Bpriog river, Arkansas, and Tuscun bin
t-prlng. Alabama-, were deemed impraotioa
ble as souroei, f supply be ao-e of ill great
expense involved in each vf these P'ant,
whchwat'ar beyond any mm that Meiu
Phia etn effrd to exreu-i in this object.
J he foregoing being all Hooted, the ooui
miiiee wat ntrroed down to Wolf river,
t outh Hum Lake, and the Mittissippi river,
arid to tl ese three it has devoted close ond
elaborate invettigtlon. In order to render
praotioable and aooopt'ib any point
from which to druw a supply of water
lor this great oity, three oonoitions were
essential. The water must be sutH'ient
ly pur to be wholesome for all domestic
Ufost it must be abundant (n quantity, end
it must be obt-iioable at coat not exosediug
tl.&JO.UiO, that being th limit at which the
tyatem ean be made Certainly sell support
ing, with eor present p -pulation, estimated
at 60, (K0. The eommitte bas therefore
sought definite and reliable informa ion on
thete points in their relat.on to three souroei
of supply laat mentioned, vii.: Wolf river,
Horn lute and the Mirsioippi rirer. Ham
pleg f water from ioh, taken ia various
stages and conditions, wr tent to expert
ohemittt for analysis. The Mississippi
water was pronounced eery onsi and alto
gether unfit for doinsatio usei Horn lake lets
objectionable, but not satisfactory I Wolf
Liver water, taken at the oros Ing of tbe
.ouifville and Nethvllle railroad, was
found to bo comparatively pure, and, after
preoipitation nr filtration, wag highly ap-
Jiroved atsaitablc f r all domestic uses, aad
or use in boilert. Tho analytical tablet ac
companying th't repurt, prepared by the
Dn. Bl I lott, of the Western ."Military Inst -tote,
noar Dayton. 0 , aad Dr. Cba. Oniart,
United fitatet Army, ol the Surgeon Oen
eral'sUfflo,WahBgtoB, I). C.,wl I be found
interesting ia this oonnooiion. This result
will be a surprise to many, but when it it
remembered that th Mississippi river and
Its tribn'aries drain an immense territory,
standing 10 .4) miles from air b te aoe h and
2nM froia east te west, and Popul ted bv 2t-
eVe.OM of peoolc, with Its hundred great
cities, tnourands oi towns ana Tillages, ana
oantless tnanu'eotorlet of all desoriptiont,
for which thit mighty river performs the
duty of a common sewer, no farther demon.
S' rat on it needed to confirm the analyses
wbi'h show that its wtter whoa it reaches
Memphis is loaded with foul impurities, and
that it anuit become more so from year to
year ai the pop ion of th Norf west In
creases.: It it equally p ain and credible that
Wolf river, originating from several ropteos
springs leoated ia atandydihtriolendcoargi.
Ing through a thinly settled tooantry for a
distanoe of only titty miles ta the proposed
roli.t of Intake, Without a town or Tillage on
ts banks, taunt ologely spproximale the
character of f-ering wa erwhen not turbid
from rains, and this fact' if conclusively
tbown by ihe an al ys es above referred to.
At to the quest on of supply. From the
Ml'tistlppi the qaantttj In oi ennr nnlli
ited. That Iroiu Dora Lake is soranwnat
doubful. From Woll river the discharge
bet ben ataortaine l by eaielul aietaara
mente, taken in the autumn in ntb after a
prolonged uretch ol dry weather, when th
river ' at ill lowest Itags, to Da over 8.
800, Otd gallons psr hour, or t ilrty-fire timet
more than Ihe daily onniumptiuD of Mem
phis at ibis time.
In con lJenn. the question of oost it wat
aoertain.id tha'. tho expenditure would be
about the same in obtaining w tertith'r
from Horn Lake or from Wolf rlv..r at the
point proponed. But on account of the
changing currents ot the Mississippi and
ths ooD-equent uiroliabll ty ol it banks the
committee found that tny pita fair t.,klng a
sulacieiit supply oi water Iron tha couroa
woo d involve engineering problem' which
have never yet keen ol veii, and would eciUil
an cxpenae necersar Iv very great So e
rioar w re these difficulties tout ther wag
not sufficient time or means at ihe command
of th c immittee to ju tlfy them In under
taking the preliminary examlulioni uud
surveys which were neonsiary In order to re
terminc the mere praolioablll y ef the
With there facts ttccrt lined, the commit
tee hat been led almost irresistibly to the
oonolus on that Wolf river offers the true
solut.on ol Ike water quoting for Memphis.
Ia oomraon with the mass of our oititens the
members of the committee, at tbe time of
thtir appointment, were strongly antatoria
tic to Vt olf river wa er. They knew it only
by the iudi ly that bad been daily dealt out
to ut hy the preteot water company foi years
past and whl h was taken from the rirer at
the present location of their works, only a
short distanc above ita coi fiuenoe with th
Mistiastppi and with Bayou tlayoao. liable
at all times to be contaminated by hackweter
from thete streams and also receiving the
foul draining! from the northern portion of
oar oily. Ia the progress ef its work the
committee toon di.oovered tnat this wat al
together a different water from that from
Wolf river abjve the lailroad cromlng,
where It it entirely beyond the reoh of the
contaminating iafluencct abova relemd to.
It Is tbe water taken from this higher
point that shows such satielartory re
sults under analysis, acd it was here
that tha firesm wa gauged during it
lowest stage and showed an hourly
discharge el t.OOO.Oio ll me. . Deriving it
sou roe lrom sever il ce'ious springs, it
raeohestht point referred to In a condition
of almett original purity. The quantity of
minerals or other foreign sub tance con
tained In it Is roaiarkplily small. It it free
from lime and it therefore very poftao l
epeoially adapted for ure in laandriet and
boilers. The principal objection ie the color
imparted to the water from the clay soil ef
the country through which it flows. After
heavy ralnt thit it t articular. v noticeable
en J objectionable. Bat after the raint cease
the abun-'ant flow of olear water from above
toon carries off the tarbid currant end
oleaeaei the ttreim again With ample res
ervoirs the pumping inlahtheto regilated
at to avoid taking the water while 1 Ita
muddy conditio, and thus the public tup-
Iily mmht be kept comparatively olear. But
o secure certainty en ihis score the commit
tee have been cngsged ' durlns - th
last tlx months In investigating the llyatt
Allen, aa invention of recent year,
designed especially tnr filtering water in
large quantities for the aae of c tiet and
town. Th ae-lrUnee ef skilled expert ef
natiunal m ulattos" in 'such ' mattere
waa ealled la need with their help aa
E'laaative examlaatloa of thit (Iter hat
at made. After several very imp irtaat
iravament wnich were saggaated and
;dipld drin th examlsstioD. the filter1
aa been proeauneed asucoesa bytheex-
Kra, aad the proprleUre guaraotee satis
ction la lit work. By lit a.lopttoa ene or
1 Oiirool the reservoirs can be dispensed with,
which would otherwlf be required end thus
will be eeeuied a act rcdaetie la th oeet of
th plant together with Inoreased net reve
nuet, while at the lame time we remove the
tiaia and impurities which the river re
cti r el during tke rainy spells thai th
work can operate ooatlnacuelv, and yet, by
met as of ihe liter, oaa supply oletar, pellaoid
water at an nmee.
Froga the aoooaipaaylng petal I tt will ke
tea th-tt tbe e.tl meted entlof th Wolf
tver plea, Uteiud a lh fillet plant aid
high pretsara service; will barf I.e.. Bead
ew.ihe experience of thrprtraut Water com
pany, the ctimated revenue lrom water
relet Will exceed lt,UU tht drat year. 1 1
Th coat of maintaining and operating the
wort will be 18,400, aid 4h inieren oa
cost, at per eeet, will be til, 4-0, maklkga
eetwl sxpendl ure psr aaeiira of Iki 0i, it
leaviag a net revenue, over and above all
eipenditures, ot ant lets than il,0il. This
gives us at the enteet a self cap pu ng
watertyttemi and the figures on w hi h It is
baed ere believed I be oont-rva lv and
wlth'n the line of ealety raihor than beyond
It. Wiih the security t at such a water
I lent end ita tevenoes aSorda lo investor it
it beli vtd ihut it. bonus os be aegoti te t
roaiiily at 6 let cent , w khoot auy adili
tionat guarautie Hut to ' liiake asanrance
doubly sure, ' and to pla e these beeda at
lha very lop of th liat, tha Cnnuel tee tug
goat bat it niikht be the l art o wisdom to
le y a il.hi lex ipr tb- frat few yean In
order to provide s Cerf'it tund to u.eet the
intereat, or to proteot the iutere t fr-'tu any
poseihie ce4cit ol revenue, r'ucb a prowj.
lun. e have g ej reason to bnh ve. eou d
enable the ciy t negotiate the bonds at not
exceeding 4'4 per cent. II la wt ul I enV t a
liviae to the city of tome f 4S0' per annum
on InUroft al ne, and aou d to that exier.t
increa e the net r-venuea. At the ei.d of
two years alter the workt ere once io f ill
operation it i lo lievrd that their ruoce-a
win ie ro fo ly e't bliehed lb t the tux eill
no loLaar be ,e,iilir-d. In the meant' u.e.
vihiis on oue eido the tix ia beirm collected
lrom the peo,, e it wi,l on the ot er su e be
taoro than returned tai tlieiu in the redud
co-t ol wvter aud the enhanced value of
tQeir pioi-irtr.
It is now, t!iroforc, a well eetibtithcJ fct
that Memphis h within h.r re ch a water
supply iar superior to toe celebrated crolon
system oi New ork in quantitr. quality and
aeceaaioi lit. T e adopiinn of 'b riiht sys
tem will secure for our , ity a superabundant
supply ot olear, pu-e soil water, with suili
cient pri su e to carry it freely to every
point within tue corporate limits, and to
turnibh Dower f-,r running elevators ot
hotels and busines- houses, acd also for op
erating itgnt manuiaciuting establishments
in any of the uppsr t rid of in the buiness
portion of the ouy By tbe Ute of a high
pressure service in oounecii m with a system
of hose oarriat s, ihe efficiency of their ire
Impartment may be very much promoted in
that part of the city embraced within the
high preesare limits.
A detai ed defcrip'lon of the mrchlnery
by which these imrortant reauita will be ob
tained accompanies this report.
All three results, aad others of great value
to our people, the ominituc believes, will
be attained by the establishment of a system
of water works, to be owned and operand by
the oity ia aecoriUnoe with the plant de
scribed in theacc mptnylnr pipers
To tion Coltun Ureene, ef this oommittee,
hit awoi-iatec committed tbe burdon ol the
work. His know-clue of enaineerlngand hy
draulics aiuinenil.v btted him for the tak,
and the fid-lity w th which he hai accom
plished it teat estfd by the rutulU which are
herewith submitted.
The o mmi ee hare. In conoluiion,
adoptee' the iol'oming:
VuiugAa,.An abundant supply of pure
water is absolutely esai nt at to tbe he .1th o:
our people, thi safety of our property,
and the general welfare of our city;
He il Hciolted by Ihe Water Committee of
Ten, That we urgei tlyre-oinmend the Leg
lalatve Counu I of the Taxing District to
tHhcimreed ale stops to seoure the passnge
of a law at the next teasioa of t ,e I.eiriiiU
lure au boriiing tue government of t'-is Thx
ins D.tlriot e ui d and oper.ite a putlie
syetem nf walerworku to Isruo b. nds se
cured by the plant to nay for the same,
and to recure such additional lobulation
at may be aeedod 'or the f u-cesful accaul -plishuientuf
Hreo peri, further, That we reoommend
W oil River, at a point above and near to the
L. Jr N. R. K croaaing, aa the proper source
of supply; and that we advise the adoption
by the Legislative Counoil of ti e plaa for a
ivatem ol water workt at desoribed in the
re o t made to this coruuiiit-e by Uen. Col
ton Ureene, tbe details and paiticula-s of
whiharc euibud ed in the ccomjianying
papcrt. B. W. HAMPTON.
Dr. Hmart'fi Keport.
WisHiKuTOH, D C, October 20, 1886.
Geo- Coltoo Ureene, Memphu, Tenn. t
OxxtUAL -I have 'he honor to report that
during the patt lummer I hive made a ie
riet ot aaalyies of watars transmitted from
Memphit fur elimination. Th-se include
watar from the Mississippi rirer absv
memphit, from tht tame river near the
moaih ef Horn Leke pats, from the past
mentioned from South Horn Lake, and from
Wolf river at tb- crossing of the Louisville
and Nashville rsi road.
The Kissittippi water waa forwarded with
the view of determining whetner the tew
egeof Memphii influrnoed the quality of
the nver water at a point twenty-six milet
below, following the sinuosltiet of the
stream, where it communicates with the
basin of the South Horn Lake. Tbe duly
outflow of aeware from a eity like Memphis
consists of a Tolume el liquid foulness capa
ble, one would lupnoae, ot conveying an ap
preciable eontiininatioa toaatreain aa large
even at the M ifittippl. But the ou'flow it
gradual Into tht onward flow of tbe river,
and the consequent dilation, when diffgiion
has taken place, is more than homeopathic
In its immensity. If the river contained an
organically pare water prior ta the introduc
tion of the e wire, the defection of the lat
ter, within certain limits of dilution, would
bt an easy matter; but the Mississippi at
Memphis It generally loaded with organic
matter washed down from its exten
sive water kcd, and in thit the
general impurltv of the river, the t - wage of
the oity iiuDj'diately becomes Inst. The
gtoet oareful aud de'leate observation" In the
wate- above and below the point of inflow
would be required to show thst the one had
a trater or a lent impurity than the other.
Moreover, fortic d -teotion of tewag th
eiperiineut must be conducted on the freshly
collected water, r-ewage is evaneso mtt its
nitroseeited matters speed ly revert to the
Inorganic o edition, leaving hut lit;le trace
of tbeir origin. Hence, when watert from
the Mississippi above Memphit and at th
mouth of Ho'n Lake Pan were forwarded
for analysis it was imnoarible to determine
on th' ir a-rlTal in Washington whether
either of them contained undecomposed sew
age at the time oi its e lleo ion.
Four tamplet of the Mississippi water were
examined tw i taken on May 4, one from
above toe city and the other twenty-six
miles below, aud two taken f-om above the
city en July al, one at a depth of ten teet
sad the other at twenty feet below thetur
face, i be Un'ted butts gauge at the city
reeding 11 9 feet.
A II thee waters were unfit for potable Ufa,
not alone lrom their turb dity, but from the
large amoun o' nitrogenous ortanio matter
which they contained. The results ot the
analyses svrrasp nded in general terms with
those of the fame water by the writer at
Memphit la 1879, and with a aeriet of analy
se! ot the river water lrom New Orlenna, La,,
made in I8W and 1881.
River watere va'y In quality acoordini to
the night ol the stream IV hen tue water it
low there It usually a tendenoy to the depo
sition ol tuepsnded matter; when high the
surf oe washings of the water the 1 a-e swept
into the current, the increased flew of which
prevents hsir drit it on tnd the ooneequent
purification of tbe water. High water,
there tore, eorreti eadt with the period of
maximum Impurity. At such t met the Mtl
si aaip pi water it lo ,ded with fine particles of
sand olay and vegt'able detritus, in addition
to the dissolved ortanio matters whioh arc
usually present in fur aoe waters. Sedi
mentation for a tew days readily clean th
water of itt suspended matters, and the pro
cesses ef it oxide ion and nitrification that
are solng on during this period destrors
much ot tbe dissolved organic matter. The
Mississippi water may therefore ba easily ob
tained on the email scale, dear, colorless
end comparative! j free from organic: mat
ters, so lar at cheinioal analysis is compe
tent to detect their presence.' Sedimen'td
lo; three dare, the turbid water ef the M t
else i I. lit at Memphis gave as g id laboratory
results ec ti Croton watar supply of New
Yctk, the Washington supply from the Poto
mac, ar th Kiohmond supply from the
James river.
The engineering tad financial difficulties
that lie in the way of a water sapply for
Memphis direct from tke M saissippl are so
great ae to put aay scheme of thit kind out
of consideration. Hut aa tbe water of this
river by it inflow ihrnugh Horn Lake Pass,
when the Memphis gauge is over tnirteon
feet, contributes to t .t supply of Hou h Horn
Lake, acoaal'leralion ef the qu ility ot the
Mississippi water is needful la connection
with the proposed un ot the lake as a water
toorce of :he city,
Two poiuts. both all cidy Incidentally re
ferred to, r quire ni tire at bearing on thi
subject: and both lend their weight against
the advisability of admitting tbe Mississippi
water Into the suggested supply; 1, the gen-
S raiiy impure cheracteJ of the water and,
, ts special 'Contaminatioa by sewage.
Analyses bare sh wn that tbe turbidity of
tke river is proportioned to Its turbidity ; and
the latter mnilVt y depends on tbe bight
ot the stream end the repidlty of itt flow. In
fact, at already stated, the tea
loa nf high water In a river Is that of its
greatest ttnnuritr; tad It is specially at t.-.it
Cirlod that the greateatihaovr tele South Horn
ake would take place were the river Water
not excluded froia the basin. Of coarse ia
the pass and lake depoaitioa Would go on,
and Purifring cbenaet take plaoe, which
would teat to improve ti.e quality of the
water) moreover, the inflowing water from
the river would be dilated with the better
water contained In the batint for if the lat
UrdontTteontiin a batter quality o' water
than Ihe- rivet ia Its high steget,it is unfft
tor uae a a sapply for th city, j A bearing
on'the eefality ef the rirer and lab. supplies,
three sample were examined one irom the
river Bear the month .f Horn Leke pass, erne
from the past atidont from he center of the
lake. Thst specimens, collected, the flitt la
Janaary aad th others in Fehruary, were
not tranamittei antll April. They da ant,
therefore, repreieat the watart a they
weuld ha digtrtbeled for use fresh frees
thelrTtbwr4 hug aa altered ly itoVe
for twd"Or Hhrwb months ander 'condi
tions! whioh chemical aanatyeet hare
shew to b oot ta avorabl to the natural
prvoresea oeoatsraad la Ihe redaetloa of or
ganlo metter to the Inergsvhratat. Never
IhrleaB.oM the three waters remained ander
imilar renditions for shout the si me length
ef lime, a oomperieoa of their relatlv ptrritr
on analysis promised to threw 1 ght en Iheir
relative poritv at toe Hove M their eollec
tion, 1 he water from the rfwr et the mouth
el tbe raja (sin. en ihe tabalar statement
appended In thle report) thawed to advantage
compared with river samples that had been
exeialned without yn Jergoine tee pre nf
storage, although ihe st earn was high at the
time of lie col lectio. Ike organic trneM
nie wee reduced to -0-4. ar d the oxygen re
quired for 'he d ttrnctioo of It oreanic
matter t .2t P' r !' ); hat the amount et
free am mi aw. if-S, with Ihe trace of
nitritea. imlicat 'd that tha natural puri
fying pro 'esse i "were still ia oieration.
The wa'er treat ' the pass (analysis 9)
waa infinitely tupari, r to that fmrn
tu rner, for a thoujh the same
amount of oxygen Wat rrgm-ed the fr-e and
oniaa uiea-ureit en y .'an and
j Ou.rj parts per kaj.ouO re leotiv l '. luat
from the Inks (a. alv i lui was further im-
proved bv the tu'a' disappearance of 'he free
ammonia and 'he reJucti n of 'he org mio
ammonia to .tHiirj. reuitt wh'ch bring tnis
samrne within ihe limits of wholesomenesa,
as those limits are usually a-notted by
tanita-y enaltait It is iinpossihle 1 1 p-e-dica
e frorn those roiu"s I lie ectun' ooBdi
li n of the wate s at the time of tbeir col
lections ; but they show do'iuitcly that the
water in the laae, and hence that from its
looil water-rlitd. contained oripinuily a lost
q ar, tity ol organic mutter, or what it lets
likely, a mora rei j ly o,.s:roye I oraanic
a tir than the infl jw lrum the Mia. isi.pti
T hit opens up the question of tho nature
of th- ora-anie matter iu the river wtcr.
line of ihe chief points in the sanitary annl
yis of a w.,ter njed for dietetic purposes is
the detection nf any sevrags inflow that may
he present. This hat frequently been ef
fected ia the oase of polluted wells and
cirte na. where the dilution is limited
Here ihe results are invaluable, because
they ca'l for such survey of the surround
ings of the water supply aa will e xoose the
source o' the fewaie eonUmination. Were
the polluted inflow reeogohisb'e on inspec
tion, oheiuicul analysis to determine itt
presence would be unnecessary. The de
tection of human excreta la a river waier
is a matter of greater difficulty oa
account of the pre-existing impa
rity of the stream, the extent of
the dilution when diffusion hat t ken
place, and ihe rapidity of the ehangei due
to meoheniual, chemical and vital agencies
during ths progress ol its flow. But if in
the case of wells and ci'lerns, chemical
analysis be needless when the polluting in
flow it manifest, it it equally needless,
seder similar circumstances, in the
cae nf rivi r water. The Weil is condemned
unhesitatingly by sanitary authorities and
chemists, end the tame ru'e ought to hold
with regard to the polluted river. Tbesmall
amount of cant al Invested in dangeroul
well frcquen'ly protests avainet its abandon
ment, on the grunu that the water bat been
utod for along period with, ut having caused
injury to its ens i mare. The dangerous
character ef such a well consist! in wi at ita
water n-ay do, not in what ther have done,
II. is well known that small quantities of
sewage from a bealihy human system m y
be present ia a water withoat injuriously el
fecling those who make u-e of it; and
further, the filtration to which tbe sewage ia
subjected in itt progress to the wel. -re-quently
everciset to powerful sn influence
00 the organic matters, that they are com
pletely destroyed, and are recognised ia tho
water only by the harmless luorg inio con
stituent! wiih which they are at'octa'ed, or
Into which hey have beon transtormed. such
as chloride of sodio in, or ammonia, or even by
the nitraiei into which the latter is ultimate
ly oonvertod. A water of this character may
be used lor years with impuniiv; bat all
tewage niatlori do not come from the healthy
huo.ua tyatem, and observation and experi
ence have shown that the fre-al excreta f
SSU.C tpeclflo diseases eon tain the contegiaof
thnse di-eases, and that taese.juttiad ol be
ing destroyed like the organic matters of
hea thy deposition by the agencies at werk
during filtration, are capable of resisting
these powerful influences and of entering
the well in full possessioo of the r powers
for evil A well or cistern Is dangerous,
therefore, not because tewtge en ten it, but
becaute an inteoted tewage may enter, it.
In thit country typhoid frver it the most
dnnterous an! prove lett disease which is
thus propagated. Itt attaokt are often in
gidious. end wells having a sewage onnneo
tion frequently become infected and form
the center of a local epidemic, the first oauie
01 which may remain unknown.
Although welt witer may contain sew
age, yet be harmless save as to future poesi
bil tiet. river water whioh containi tewage
mnst alwayt be regarded aa a source of pres
ent dam er when used as a drinking supply.
The contributors to the sewage Inflow of a
river ate so numerous, and typhoid fever rc
continual aud extensively p evalent, that
the outflow from tha sewer! of a populous
oitv ca.ii not be eafoly asiumed to be unin
fected. The fact that the sewage of a oity
aetrrs a river above the point suggested ai
the intake of a water supply should suffice
te set aside the proposition irrespective of
chemical analysis er any ether considera
tion. Tke capital invested by- certain
musicipalities and corporations in Intro
dusing and maintaining a teneral water
enpply freia a tewage polluted river inter
feres with practical actioa bated open these
considerations. It bat keen urged that lew
age it heruileet, at evideneed by the long
certinaed ate ef sewage-polluted wells;
and that th purification by the natural
precett taking plao in a running
stream suffice to remove or destroy the
sewage after a course of a lew miles,
to that tha most defeat method of
ohemical analysis fails to detect itt presence.
Ths fallacy of these arguments may easily
be understood from what hat betn already
ta d. It it not the excrementitiou matters
vt health that arc danserons, bat those that
contain he oeotaa-ion or germ of a disease;
and although the organic metiers of healthy
tewage may be deposited or decomposed into
inorganic substances in their progre t with
the onward flow of a river, there is no evi
dence that the contegion of typhoid feror it
destroyed in this manner. On thee in tract,
tinct the puweiful influences operating
daring the process of filtn ioa through the
coil into a well tails to ile-troy th- typhoid
oontagioa a thouuh capable of reducing non-1
eproiflo orgaaio waters to the ioorganio oon- '
dition, it li loconceivsble thit the weaker
influences, whioh, operating in a running
stream, lai even :o remove the non-apeciflc
matter-, ehou d be efficient in destroying the
less dcetruotible eontugion.
Typhoid fever may otton be forced In the
circuit of an inteoted woll wtter supply; but
it is difficult to reo gniie its propagation by
gewage in an extensive system of municipal
supply. This difficulty originates ia the fact
tbsi a transmission hy the drinkii g water is
Dot the only means by which typhoid fever
is propagated. The disease may aiia de
novo, according lo some observers, tiking
its origin in oertain obscure exhalations
from soils that have less moisture in them
thaa those whioh exhale a malarial, or
p .ludal Ufluence; it i directly oontagiout
according to olhsrs, a'tbeugh this is not a
general belie); it is indirectly contagious by
neins of clothing or o'her articles soiled
with the excreta of an infected person, or by
exhalation from tbe so Is or sewers whioh
are charged with infected discharges Hence,
when a oate ot fever occurt in a oertain lo
cality from a transmission by the water tup
ply seoon lary oases may spring an around it
and obsoure the testimony as to the propaga
tion tithe disease by he sewage polluted wa
ter. Thus it may be shown ry munioipal
statlstic-i that the fever does not prevail spe
cially along the lines of a systematic water
supply, but is generally distributed over the
0 ty. Again, there are tew citi'S in which
well water it not used to tome extent, par
ticularly io the suburbs; and other statls
toi may show that the fever prevails lest ia
the line of a systematic supply from a
river which contains sewage than in the
suburban 'districts, but this merely thowt
the influence of concentration ia well water
at compared with the dilution of the oonta
g'on in the large and ever changing volume
ef the river. i i
- But although it il difficultto trao th pro
pagation of typhoid fever In a oity to use th
ef a river we ter containing sewage it is inter
acting and instructive te know that those
cities, which obtaia and preserve a pure
water supply by a careful selection of a
drainage area and a vigilant gnard against
it contamination by sewage, hare a remark
ably less death rate from typhoid fever the
tho e that arc oarelest ia thit respect an J
make use of a river water into whioh tha
tewage of the up er tettlemsnte flows with
out rsnriotion. Brooklyn and Long Islaad
ba perhaps toe best water supply of any oily
In this oo on try. All of ita well! have been
Closed aad the general supply is protected
from the inflow of sewage. During the past
ten years this oity had an averaae annual
death rat from typhoid fever of a littie
ever fi teen in every ' 10,000 of itt
inhabitant!. New York, which de
rived ita inpply from" larger are than
Brooklyn, and which la consequence ex
periences a greater difficulty io preserving
that area from oontam Bating influences,
had an average annual rate during the de
cade. Londoa, England, had a rale of 2St
and here all evnry effort it made t preserve
the water supply la a state of purity. Iq
c ties known to have a sewtge inflow into
the rivers which furnish their water the rate
ara higher. Boston, wh.ch acknowledges
somewhat contaminating supply, had a rata
of 31; Cincinaati, supplied by the Ohio
river, &1t Philsdelphie, by the Schuylkill,
68 end to for others. Th medical history
of Baltimore, Md., presents a ttrik ag illus
tration ot the decrease ef deaths from this
fever. fntAving the closure of eewage ael-
lutcd wells and th introduotio of a tree
cupply of watar from aa area susceptible of
Jtauig wen proteoiea irony dangerous eon
rr.inBtinc: ttiratei fell from Wand 94 in
ISbd and 1867 to 42 .during each of the past
two years; from an1 annual aerae of 78.3
daring th eed 1866 ?i to f2.5 I the peit
decade j But perhaps tha dtp of New Or
leans, La., furnishes the most noteworthy
avideaoe of the connection between typhoid
fever and eewage tw th water tuppiy by
ea,wla that, with maw 'Besanltarv CoBdl-
tioai, dr.c to peculiarities of sit and geoer-'
ally regarded as strongly provocative oi ine
spread of typhoid, ther are fewer deathi
tr im th-t1 fever 44 4 ae the averageaenual
rate of the past deoad than in the cities of
New fork or London. The water. Jupplv is
tnalnly derived front , tbe rain all, eviUeo ed
andttored in Vjrtt Vend cisterns', which
r & ..... .1 fVom all tinaaihilitw ef aewafre
oontnainatrion hy betng-eoretidertbly alc-'i
rated above tbe surfaree wl te groanu. -
These facte, although omuJiealed by many
dieturbing elements, suggest the likelihood
that typhoid fever in a municipality, tother
tnings beirg equal, Is proportioned to th
iewage infl w into Hi water supply.
Moreover, there is a well developed sea
sonal tide in toe prevalence of this fever
woioh rnreidn it maximum in the United
Htitea over tlte Utter part ot the third ad
the first part of the last quarter of Ihe
oaleaJar year. Dr. Baker, eecr-try of the
t la c Board of iiat'th of Michigan, hat
shown th t in hit slate this increased preva
lence follows a 1"W staire of water In the
we Is when rewage infl iw it le-i diluted than
at other season.. Hut the same p-r od of
prevalence heUs good in cities th-t h ive a
genoriwarer snpp y irom novriarne-i -iTsr..
Bawaaawawawawjatwaaweaaeawsatw west
correspond ag with the It uie wueo the sewage
inflow in o tho itr:ao.t is in like manner
'li ese cent derations point strongly to the
da over ol uti ltiogas a witer supply a stream
which ha" be-n Ihe r- c piont of cewage mat
ters, and ehou'd suli'-e to condemn on teiialf
ol i lie public health at y plana looking io Us
introduo ion. There is, nowerir, in te
history -f recer.t epidemics positive evidence
ol t'ie d ipger to a c jn.ii:ni:y liom t. e cua
tnunnation of a ru Wtug stream by the ty
phoid cootag.on. Th exiwrienoei of 1'ly
uiouili. Pa., are I'r-eli l.i too memory of the
San ila.riana arni ineuical men ol this country.
It reinair.s to be remarked that a "ttor
onee con tumia-i ted by eew .ge is always dan
ge'ouij, as there is ro known uiethoi sre
on'ilie ttuiill soilo by boiling of doetioying
the comai-ion 'hat uny be present, be-'i-mentation
and filtration remove upended
matters end give a clear and seemingl.- pure
w.iter- Jiltiation through a good f'il or
filter bed of s ecial materials will destroy
ordinary organic matters, reducing tbem
tu harmless inorganic compounds, and the
seme result take place, though
by far leas rapidly, in the current
of a running strea'u; but the dissemination
of typhoid f rer by the water of wells and
ipringi ih it had been ml jected to the most
efficient natural filtration demonstrates the
inability of this pr ceei 1 1 tree the water
from tee contagion of that dangerous dil
ease. Tbe inetficaoy ol sedimmtaii n in thit
respect It not so clearly defined, but it has
not been shown that a ledimcuted water it
free Irom danger.
From what bas been said the andetirabil
ity of admitting the Mississippi rirer water
Into South Horn Like at a part of tha Mem
phis supply may readily be gati end.
1. The water of the rirer as shown by anil
ysisis ge- erally loaded with organic mat
ters, and seldom go free trm iuci maters
aa to satisfy the requirerrents of the beat
knowledge of unitary science; moreover,
the inflow into the lake takes plaoe only
durlug 'be periods when the river water hai
abtgh degree of impurity.
il And ehtrfly, the sewage Inflow Into the
river invoives'oomuchol danger to the pub-,
lie health t admit of any suggestion orreo
ommendation other than an earnest protest
against the use of tbe river water in any
pun Woking to the tuppiy of Memphii.
What the character of the water of the
fouth liom lake o ay 4e when freh and
free from the turbid it. flow irom the past,
cannct Le determined lrom the specimen!
tent for analysis. It Is probai.lt tbat the
waters ot the outofi, Horn Lake Creek and
the iprings from il e local area of drainage
are much inpcrior In quality io that of the
M'i'nipp! river, (compare analyses ten and
eight.) aud that in theproaress of time, a ter
tba reclamation of the lauds now subje t to
overflow, ba excsllent water supply might
be obtained from these sources; but it il
fearod that the exi.ons.ve changes in the
character of Oe b ttoin lands that would
ai tend and follow the attempted reclama
tion would develop malarial influences
that would pervade the waters of the l'ike
for a coniinue l period and neressrale a
thorough filtration for their removal. The
report of the Memphis Water Coinmit'ee,
February 24d nf this tear, in treating of the
"outh Morn Lake supply docs Lot refer to
filtrat on as a part ot ihn project, the water
being assumed to have clarified itself by
sedimentttion in the nke and ia the dis
tributing reterv ir. In view, however, of
malarial poisihilities from the immedialc
surrounding! of the lake filtration appears
to be a limitary eeccisity. Notystematio
effort has yet bi err made to filler a surface
water with a vtrw specially to the removal
ot the germs of malarial disease, but tie
well ktow that only surface waters trans
mit tee paroxysmal fevers, and that o im
munities that have been sonnrged by these
disoaaes have been cornpir tiveU healthful
on the substitution ot a deen well watart
that it, a water thor mrhly filtered by nat
ural processes, for that from ponds and
t uggish gtreamt ffi by the. drainage of
marshet, swamps and jungles.
A special means for aeration is mentioned
in the committee's report in connection with
tho supply from Houth Horn Lake. The
reratioo of a water certajnly tendt to parity
It from reidily oxidmble organ'o sub
stances, but th-rc is oo experiment nor ob
servation to indicate that lha malarial poi
son, which is manifestly the chief source
ol danger in the supply from this source, is
in any way affected by exposure to air. On
the eootrary, Uie natural history of the ma
larial poison shows the persistence of itt
pernioiout mfluenoe, even when fully ex
posed, by dissemination or diffusion to the
oxvtea oi the atmosphere.
Four s.im pies of the water from Wolf rirer
were received for elimination, all taken
from the ttreim at tue crossing of the Louis
ville rnd Nashville railway. One was ool
leoted November 15, 1886, and permitted to
Hand uncorked in ths original bottie fur
nine months, or until August 12, 1883, when
it waa -carefully decanted for exarui-ation
from the precipitate of clay and flocculenV
mut'er which formed a layer about a quarter
el an inch in dcpfi at the bottom. A sec
ond, collected August 11, 188ti, was filtered
through a oommon gtenc filter and imme
diately tr'insmitte I lor examination. The
third and foutto specimens were collected
Beptemne Id. 188i, and forwarded to New
York, where ooeof them wag filtered by the
Hyatt 'rc"s: 'oth nero sborily afierward
tent to 'ah nt n for examination.
Tbe value of t o fiitratiou through the
common fone tl ter docs not appear on an
alysis, "a ihe re ultr differ but little, practi
ce ly, lrom th.e f rmerly obtained by the
writer from W ilt river wa'er which had un
dergone no purification. (Compare analysis
12 with 23 and 24.)
The water store! for nine months and tub
leqoently deoant-d gave al satisfactory an
aoabtical reocd as the average of pure
spring watort. See analysil 11.
The water sent lor comparison with the re
sults of the llatt filtration process gave on
firt examination a muoh bettor record than
is senerally ob'ained t'-om the turbid va'en
of Wolf river.water, .011 f organ! ammonia
ti com pan d with U.16, .017 and .671 in an
alysos 26, 24 and 21 respectively. This, how
ever, was due to an unusual accident il cir
cumstance, tha ab-ence of any notable
flakes ot organic matter in tht clay and
other mineral part cles of the qunnti,y used
in the laboratory experiments, for examina
tion on tbe fullowing day gave
tho ordinary results. (See analysis
14.) Waters which contain muoh suspended
mineral matters, with oooiparati' ely few
particles ot organic matter, will rarely give
the tame results on repeated examination!
as timiiaritv of resaltdepeuds upon the pret
ence of p eciseiy similar qiantities ot or
gonic matter disseminated iu the equal
measures of water used in tbe experiments,
a condition that can seldom be established
in practioe; there is, however, rarely inch a
difference in the results as tbat accidentally
obtained in this instance. The quantity of
telid matter in thit natural water amounted
to 146 parts, of whioh 9 were destroyed oy ig
nition, in 1"0,000 parta ot the water as com
pared with 14 parta, of which 2 were destroy
ed, in the filtered specimen. There wat re
moved, therelore, from every gallon of th a
ample ol tbe Wolf river w.. ter by the pro
cess nf i filtration 68 grains ot sus
pended mutters, of whioh 7J consist
chiefly of fine particles of clay and other
mineral substantias, and 4 of vegetable de-t-.tui
washed from the water shed of the
stream. To clear this water tha Hyatt filler
would have to remove the enormous quan
tity of 27.500 pounds of filter choking clay
from tha 2,"K0,(HI0 gallons assumed to be the
daily wora of one et the thirty feet cylin
der! This specimen, however, probahly
exaggerate tbe turbidity of the stream, for
in November, 1879, when its waters were red
and densely opaque after heavy taiai, tha
total solidi amounted only to 44 parts per
lOO.ODO and the suspended matters, deduct
ing 14 per iOi.imX) for saline and etber mat
ter i in solution to only 30 parts, equa ine;
17 5 grains per gallon, or 6250 pounds lor the
daily work of the cylinder.
The water filtered by the Hyttt precest
gave satisfactory results as far as concern!
the organic ararootia. although it did not
equal in purity tbat wpicb bad been itored
si one November ofiast year; but there was
present au amount of free ammonia thai
would have thrown suspicion on the quality
of the water bd itehi.tjry been unknown.
This free ammonia was probably taken up,
from th filtering material!! On a former
ocoafioa the wnl-r met with an instance in
-kl.h natar ln. A , 1 - nn rM.
moni bad its character wholly changed by
Its paisage mrougn a Biter containing char
coal. A continuance of ihe filtering prooeal
would, ot course, have speedily washed out
tbis ammonia and given, ajrater, without
suspicion in this respect.
From these examinations It appsarsV.that
the water of Wolf river J though extremely
unsightly and repulsive In ill turbid sUte.i
aa excellent water when Ita suspended, mat
ter bar ben nmovttd. It contains only
abont eight grains ef dissolved saline tub
lances, per gallon, aad -tae organ! arm
monia distilled from it falls within th arbi
Irarv limite of wholesomene-l edonted hr
moat sanitary enth'Titiee.. The remeval of
suspended mitten may be ptteoted by sedl
mentetloa or filtration, bat both .of these
wreeeeses srJ accomplished with difficulty by
t'i ordinary msihodi. 'ih On etay paiu
tio:a take a long time ta seuie, and they
speedily fill np the pores o a fl ter and ne
eetsitata a reversal 9f th carrent. Tber
ar ao facta Defer tha writer (o warrant hied
ita fo-ming aa opinion eq the gailitj of th
llyatt filter lo accomplish it prepesed workt
hut if toe filtration k a If acted and a Clear
water famished that clear vttr will b ef a
atisrMtory quality lor all tha purposes or a
Tunioipal tuppiy. ' '
Itis demonstrated not 'only by th
f, resent analysis, bat hy several made ia
ST9. Welf rivar water atarad in the niatarna
el the Peaoody House in August, when the
river wa row ana comparatively free lrom
tnrbidiiy and drawn and examined in No
vember Droved a olear and eoiorieli water ef
unusual organic purity ; from the cisterni ef
Uattou a uoi'i a similar water was ootamed ;
t cistern at No. 177 Union street, in which
tbe water bad been tt red 'or six weekt, gave
a water similar in lis organic constitution to
. i. . -i.i.i.j ,. - . i u . a . . .. i . i u
min'."1. "1 im nysn uiwn wn imuj,
the river water, filtered through animal
charcoal, oecame an nrganloaiiy pure sup-
5t r . 'Hue analysis 19 22 ) The inference
rawn from these analsea leYen yeartego,
waa that tke Vtolf river wator. a mnat im
pure witer in lis natural condition, wat
nenertheleal susceptible of vur fica ien: but
il was claimed that whit might be toeem-
plishe I on 1 " 8 s 'o a 1 1 s c a I e e y leoims'iit'iow
ire'uterusor domestic filtration wob'J bet
effected wi h d fficu ty en tbe wholesale
reule oo aceuut nf the. character ol
the tutpen'led p-ir'ieles. If the Uyhtt
filter ean aeceioplish the filtration,
so far st the dem nd, of quantity are con
cerned the wr t-r it e n. tent that tie fil
tered water, if clear, will kt rf ra isf.ieiory
puriiy Ibis hns referenee to th llyatt
method of 6 tration onty st connected with
the W.df river wate-. What its tafiuenc
miirhtboona water '.in wksoh tki organio
matter n chiefly iu a state of soiutis and
not m euepeosion among ihe ifoiriraaio fiur
ticlaa, na in the U olf river supply at 'he
Louisville and fJn-Lviile rilway crossing,
is uokoowa and does nut come withia the
scoiie in tho p-esent inq ii y.
lleside.a reiuuvi.g tho uspen-d mat'ar
and y o ding a otea' mater for donictic and
mauufaciuriug purq isos ths tittation may
bt ooufidcnt'v expectod to free the water
from all su-picion ot malarial contamina
tion: lor. aa has been a'aled abov- a thor
ough filtration, although inceinpstent t
effect tbe removal of tbe arop'eal poison from
a water Is followed by a speedy (eereaea ia
fha nrevalenee of malarial affections among
those who use the (.tared instead of the cur
face supply. ....
The proposition of typhoid fever by a wa
ter supply deiends, as already iadieated, oa
the inflow ot en iniect d sewage. Small
streams arc obvious'y better than large
streams as a louro of supply, because In
area drained hr them may hi more efeotual- '
ly guarded arainst dangerous contamina
tions. An efficient supervision is toe only'
known prevent ve ot the invaaien of ty
..biiii K t ia water eupoiy. With snch enra
exorcised over the raoielet and eenrse of tbe .
Wolf river, and the subsequent filtration ef '
the water, as proposed, a pure md healthful '
supply may be obtained fer the eity cf Mem
phis. ..
In cone'uding. the writer quotes from a
?aper on " bolesome V ater .or itiel and
owns," re d in May last at Philadelphia
before tbe unitary convent en cine oy in
etite Biard ot Health uf Ps-nB-iylrania;
"Under the oonu lions et our mi dor civ-
liisaLiua il. iflBiaa iiaiivi'n'io ,e uiioa uia .
spring water in its pristine purity to our
homes; but it is only a quest e- nf money
and an lnte'Iieent and watchful superin
tendence to Rave a water wei a win oc its ,
equal in whol lomeness. Animal mat t-r.
with its typhoid possibilities, mast be ex
cluded by tbe selection t f a suitable source,
the aea of whioh mu-t be afterward pre
texted to the 'nil. But the meet eareiul rur- .
veillance will fail to exclude the malarial
possibilities aisrciated with the vegetable -matter
of an otherwise healthful suriao.
To remove these ua urc's process of filtra
tion must be imitated- Thus only will a
water be obtained free from the danger of '
trphoid lever on the one hand, aad a mala
rial diaeaao on the other e pure, eleaa and
wholesome supply, whioh. by preserving tbe
coujmuni'y from unne eesary sickness, will
in a short, time amply repay the expenditure
Involved in lis introduction."
CHARLES S Yf ART, Surgeon, TJ. 8. A.
Eng-lneer H lllausa'a Kepert.
Kkw Yoxi, Octeher 25. 1M. ,
Oen.CoIton Qroeae, Memphis, Tenn.;
Grnxral In accordance with Tear re
quest, on the parto the Water Committee.
I bare examined the plait and sjsec it ca
tions tubtuitted by the New irk Filtering:
Company for a proposed filter plant for th '
oity of Memphis, and would new respect
fully effor my report.
Enclosed herewith are ceiiea ef the draw
ings turnishe 1 we. of which A it a general
fi an of the ar-angeieeiiU of th filteri; B ,
BttertirjY lection et one filler, showing '
il. t-. , . ... -a . : i -
lue internal ariausamauw filpee, raiveo,
P'c; C ia a plan ef the same, and D is a
drawing or the cone valve, teeiese all
is copy ot the sp-eifiea ieel submitted, t
gather with a written deseriplioB of tha
i ters and appurtenances aad i-b explana
tion of their operation, both ia filtering and
in wash nt the fi taring malarial.
It will be teen iron tbe ultn A that th -
force main, with the eleoptio of tke tw
branches lotd n to land train tke filters, is
entirely independent offbeat, a. d should if 1
be necetsary, may at aay time be made to
deliver the water directly in'e the re ervoir.
Provision la alto made at tke extremity cf :
the finer connection! at K ler tha additioa
of another filter, should aa incieasad water
supply necesiitate it.
The enclosed written descriptiaa of fi' tors,
toeetier with tbe eneeiflcatieas. render their
construction and opera tioe so pl.n that I
will not attempt to ralarge apea them eny
further 'ban to explain thut in washing th
filtering materisl unfiltered wa'er from tha
force n aln will be used ias e.d of the filtered
w ter lrom the ret rvoir, at formerly content- .
fluted. 1 bit will obviate the neeetsit of aaz
liarv numua and boilers for this Bnroose. a .
well at the exrtense ef their maintenance. Ot
oour e to raise the head ' v.ater in th .
ttand pipe without aaxilinry pempt lafS
cient to wash the filter beds will hr ng aa
ircreased load upon tha pumping eoglnee
while the washiag it being doae, bat, ia my
stimatioB, tb expanse ef this will be but a
very small proportion cf the eatira oeet of
independent pumps aa machinery lor. taia
As tar ai I ean sew e, h ,ih th general
design an ' nrrmgon et i f iheuetails nf thi
proposed fi ter plant tie excellent, and I en a ,
aee uo reason why, in a mechanical point of '
view, the whole plant should ret operate
pra-tioaily, as it ia.enatainnlated it will. .
Whether or no as a niterer it win prove a
success mutt, in the anaeuee of pract oal ex
amples ot thit magnita t, rest with thepre
dionon of the ' ivil engineer entil iu entire,
success on to larae a sea.e il established by ,
The strength of the boiler ) lates eompesiug
the fi ters as rpeclfiad ia abundantly ade
quate. Tbe diame'ers of the. water pipes and '
valves are all properly p op irtioaed, bat th .
thic ness of the iron of the pipes not being
speoified, may be determined by year super
intending engineer snou a ine were pro
oeed It it also bivhiy prohibit tkatira- ,
provementi in the minor detaili may here
after be made which will meet with hit ap
pnval. It ii proposed by Ihe filter com
pany to operate the email pumps for feeding
the coa ulant by means of a wheel placed
in the inlet pipe to 'he filter. Ifthitdevic
is properly designed aad constructed it will
prove ao exoeoent plan, as say change in
the velocity ut the water flowing ihrrugh th
P'Pes will vary ihe ipeed of tbe wheel, and
the quantity of coagulaat foreed into tha
inlet pipe will, in com ueaoe, be p -oporto.
red to the auantity uf water lowing to th
Tha rlevine nrnnosed for aerating th
water after its fittratioa it both rove! and
ingeniui. This consists ef a wall five feet ia ;
niainet r aod 100 teet deap below the level of
tbe water in the reserveir; the water Hand
ing in it at the lame hight as that ia tha
reservoir. Ia tbe center ot this well and ex- ,
ending down to lay within a foet of tba ,
bottom, ii a tairty inch pipe reaching pearly
up to an el ow en the oatlct pipe irom the '
fliten Between the upper end of this pipe .
and the elbow on outlet Bine, are Blaoed a
number of open ended eeno made oftbla '
sheet bra s or copper, aad set ese within ths
other about one sixty-fourth of ao iaek apart.
The water flowing dowa this pii from tha :
n tiers will er us velocity draw io air inrouga j
these cones, which, when it reaches the hot-,
torn of the well withe th deeoenaiag water' '
will by the pressure excited by the head ef
water above it be absorb . -d hy ihe water and
be carried into the reserveir with it. The
fact that air wiU be drawa dewa a tube by a
descending current ot water wat established
nearly a halt century aro. the air fer blast ,.
furnaces being furnished by snch a device;
hence I cia see ne reaion wh. if p roper iy "
ui...a il .hnMl.l al K In ikia -an
tirely suoce ifuL . . t ,", '.,
I would therefore recommend that all tha
valrei in conneoiion with the Uteri be fitted
with outside screws. Those thaw a apon the
drawing hare the screws inside, which upon
being exposed to the muddy w ter and frwvi
quently operated, would leoa wear oat and
Deed renewing. The v ilves mightbc operat
ed by means of hydraulic cylin lers, should "
a plan bt submitted o your nperinteoding
engineer that would meet his approval, y i
While filtering it is expected that the
hight of water in the filteri will be, eay III
tcoo feat above the bottom ef Ike filteri. Ac
cording tn the plan, it la ocotemplatad that ..,
tbe bottom of the filter will be placed il feetf
above the average level ef the-wa'cr in the v
reiervoir. la order to give lufBolent head te)
operate the aerator, which added to the fif
teen feet in the I ten, would make twenty- ,
one feetBdditioni'l ttatie head againtt the '.
pumping engines while filtering, for a period '
of twenty-three hours per day. It is contem
plated 'hat onaboor la eoh tienty-four will
U- ..I.J 1- Ik. ler, m.lisl.l
at which time an additional head of say
tweaty-flr feet will he required, making aa ' '
arlnilii.nul awwraee head for tba tweintv-ine. '.
hoars of twenty-two feet, to which if we add .,
gay two feat for friction of water through the ,
inlet ploes, will make a total additional dy- ''
namic oeau acaiaet. ine pwaiping eagiuvwa ,i i
due to filtering, of twenty-ioar teet, , ilav- j
leg ne profile ot the pro"reed liae of the
force aaaia, which, If I anderstaad rightly,
will be, thirty tnekel diameter andr aine t.
miles lohg, it will be. Impossible to eempnt , ,
acearately Just how much, header weter it
j -r il, ir-wwirw w wrei uawe , mm v.w-- 3
lauvs, sua Irww ,wvif.'siei e"'-"v . -
thraagh it in twenty f.ear beursi hat ixeraiu ,
tae results oi tome ooservasiewa -e- ."YY
a thirty lack force main, having probably
the lame proportion te nam bee of Bends as .,.
ike one proposed for Memphis!, I oeUniata. ,
this reqa red heed to be forty-iia feet, whieh.
added to 10 feet atati head gtvwj a total dy
namic head against-tive paaspie enklnee
wnea not niierior,, .rrT . e o.WT7i
rotlylnlb th rwrvAlr. l lee teet. ,ow
whil filtering thi head will be' In- i
created twenty four leet, as shwa above, u
making a total dynam o head eaaiajt thi
pumps ofm fo-t, o. 1 and 44-) percent,
more head than whea ne" II ering. Asium-
ing the yearly, average datp el thepamping i
engine to be tal.lsll.090 peunds of water
rai-ed one foot'high lor each let pounds of .
coal co: sum di'i actual rump eg, the ta
raise 7,M0,iai gallons, or J,I75 poandsf :
waier, I4tfeet high in twenty- cur , Pears, ,
will require a fraction ever seven and lix
tenths toosirj coal, or ISI pounds cash per
day. Io filteri g, the inert ed Bead to '
he malmained ea fhowa atiove will ra'iuire,
- I, muline 'he eDlrilenar of lha ra twain ma
chinery at 81 per can t. , na lacreaaad ceo-:
cumisiion . nf fuel oi 1J per eeei., or iai
rond rnbrt.n tn ot eotl rer aay wkea
.1 iiiiiwisiiep itj'w asi iawiiMiBt BwsewBwaKfjj5a
t ' ' " ''i i a ' S T

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