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SOUTHERN. "RIGHTS MEETINGS.
Pnrsnant to nublie Ut! meeting of the pitisens of wZngtonCoon.y of New HanoTeMSsem. j .- U 1. to take into considsrtUoa the niet of National affairs. . . .. . Crowing ws. oiganlzed by ?rW Major S.m'IR. Potter, Chairman ; and John D. Bellamy BIihi motion of . J. McRee. the following resolo tions were submitted to the consideration of tbe meet nnhed. That in the epinion of this meeting, ..- nMl f the " Fuiriiive Slave Law " or the abo lition of Slavery in the District of Columbia by thej Variant! Congress, win oe sucn an indication o ti tled hostilities to Southern institutions as to justify oiut nmnire as a measure of imperative necessity and safety, tbe secession of the Southern States from the Union. '- , ; ' . 2d. Resolved, That in tbe present aspect of public affairs, prudence and policy dictate that W nigs and nnnocrats. burvinsr all old party animosities, should rally around the standard of Southern Righto until it Aas become the emoiem 01 victory. 3d. Resolved, That in our. opinion the war waged upon the South by Northern politicians, does not spring from philanthropy or any honest regard for Slaves, but ftora a fixed and reckless purposeto ac quire political power and political ascendency even at the hazard of ruin to the South, and thedissolution of the Union. 4lh. Resolved That policy, particularly at this time. requires that the Southern States should take imme- i.1. . . . i t? i :i l : J Quite Steps to estaoiisn a commercial innno, sucb a direct trade with Europe as will render them independent of Northern Merchants, Manufacturers ana snip owners. . . - - 5th. RetocrtL That our thanks are eminently due totheHonv W.S. Ashe, of this district, T. L. Cling- man. J. R. J. Daniel and A. W. V enable, tor their able and patriotic defence of Southern Rights ; and pledge to them our coroiai support - fith. On motion, it was further Resolved. That committee of Ten beappointed to consider and deter mine tbe proper course to be pursued in order to carry oat tbe 4th Resolution as above, and they report ei ther through the public press or otherwise as to them may seem best. , 7tb. Resolved, That the papers of Wilmington are rea nested to publish (be proceedings of this meeting. On motion of Dan'l Dickson, Esq-, the thanks of this meeting were tendered the Chairman and Secre taries. Adjourned. S. R. POTTER, CT'm'n. Committee appointed under the 6th Resolution: A. J. DeRossett, Jr., J no. McKae, J no. A. lay lor. J.Cassiday, W. A. .Wright, G. J. McRee, P. K, Dickinson, O. G. Parsley, Dan'l Dickson, W. E, Anderson. V. MEETING IN GASTON. According to previous notice, a large portion of tbe citizen, of "Gaston County assembled in the Court Honsem Uallau. when, on moiion oi J as. n. tvmie, James Qainn, Esq- was called to the Chair, and John Webster. Esq., Dr. Lee At Moore, and J. M Lewis were appointed Secretaries. It was moved that a committee of five be appointed to draft resolu tions expressive of the sense of the Meeting, when tbe following gentlemen were appointed by the chair, viz:, B. Shipp. Esq., Dr. Wm. Sloan, James H. White. Esq.. Leroy Stowe, and J. M. Newson, who, after retiring a short time, introduced the following resolutions, which were unanimously adopted. We. the citizens of Gaston, assembled in a Coun ty Meeting, to take into consideration the alarming agitation of the Slavery question, deem it proper to proclaim to the world our long and devoted attach ment' to out once glorious Union the enoblins pride inspired by the achievements of the past, ami the bones we uniformly cherished of a bright and prosperous futare--and, emulating our sainted ances tors, to pledge, u Our lifes, our fortunes, and onr sa cred honors," to preserve, if possible, this dear-bought Republic with all the compromises of the constitu tion fully observed i but if, after all our concessions, and our efforts to promote harmony, we shall be driv en to resistance, we here declare our readiness and tour determination to co-operate with all Southern pat riots, without regard .to party, in any wise measure that may be adopted calculated either to restore the violated Federal Constitution, or to protect tbe insti . tutiona of the South, and save the country from utter ruin. . . To be prepaired for any emergency, let it there- Tore be Resolved, That we will stand ready to co-operate in an constitutional measure of redress the South mat adont. .Resolved, That if steps are not taken to repair the wrongs inflicted bpon the South,, by the passage through Congress of what has been called the Slaver ry bills, the people should seriously consider the pro priety ot supendirtg all business intercourse with the aggressive tana tics of the North. The meeting was addressed by' B. Shipp and J. M. Newson. On motion, the proceedings of the meeting were ordered to be signed by the Officers, and publish ed in tbe Lincoln ton, Charlotte, Kaleigh and Colum bia papers, and all others friendly to a united and de termined maintenance of Southern rights and interests. JAMES QUINN, Chairman. J. M. Lewis, Lee A. Moooe, Secretaries. J. Webster, The. Mechanics of Fayetteville held a meeting on the 3rd instant, to take into consideration the inter ests of the mechanical portion of the community, and of the State generally, A committee of ten was ap pointed to take the subject under consideration and report to an adjourned meeting. North Carolinian. We think it highly important and commendable for mechanics to take theirown interests in their own bands. This thing has been too long neglected, by Southern Mechanics add the consequence is that they are far behind those "bf tbe North in invention and improvement in the different branches of mechanism. It is a great folly to let petty rivalry in any. branch of business operate to the suppression ofthat social intercourse and unity of effort which, when fully cher ished, is almost certain to result in the mutual advan- tfanro rf all MlHUkrnMl. Wehope to see the time soon arrive wheu Me chanics of all trades shall combine to assert the dig nity of labor, when tbe knowledge and ingenuity of eacb shall be employed tor me good or all. Thus they would secuse to themselves the respect they de serve, and the community from being imposed upon by bunglers, undertaking to do work at half price, which Matter Workmen alone are capable of doing wen. Mechanic of North Carolina, call meetings .form associations take the management of your interests into your own hands, and thus assume the position to which roa are entitled. At 'a crisis like the pres ent it la bigbiy important you should do so. " Warrenton New. Impost ant M sense. J. H. Danforth, Esq., the Postmaster at Enfanla, Alabama, liaving refused to deliver the National Era. an Abolition paper, to subscriber, and having been admonished for it by the Assistant Postmaster General, a large meeting of the citizens of Eufaola, was held, at which resolutions were passed, sustaining" Mr. Danforth, and declaring -that in case of bis removal for bis' conduct in this matteri no other Postmaster would, be permitted . to take his sjace. The Pittsburg Synod of the Presbyterian Church, old school, .closed its' session last week without any , action on the fugitive slave law. Several propositions had been introduced which distinctly declared the, law void.- as confiictins with the Divine law. But mod- rat counsels ultimately prevailed, and the Synod . adjourned without taking definite aetion, or resolving upon a lormai emprewun F . . f gioa. of this law on the conscience end conduct ofj citizen witn its jnnsuicuon, Carolina MAXVt4icrvM.-:jVfelmm lh9i$uW r graphic despatch bat been receivea in w uiwb inu . New York, stating that the superb boggy ,Jc. tured by our enterprising fellow-townsman, Mr. J. o. Thornton, and to which was awarded the first premi um at the South Carolina Institute last year, has car ried off the first prize at the-Fair in Castle Garden, New York. There were nine other competitors. v" ,v- " - For tbe North Carolina Standard. . T0 JAMES B. SHEPARD, ESQ. ' Sir: 1 addressed Ton in Jane last an article en tbe - subject of yoaf course on State debts, the principles of which have been established by experience, and the truth of which by the people of North Carolina has been most triumphantly sustained to the recent election for Governor and Legislature. The sobiect of the Stole debt and eonseqeent lia bility of the people is always t thera.interesting and important. Now that tbe Legislature is about to as assemble, it well beeomes that intelligent body to as- , certain the exact amount of the State' liability, real 1 a well as prospect; ve, and see what means are at her command to extinguish this liability; to create a nnking fund which can be set apart to meet these debts without resort to the ruinous taxation of the ; people. : In all her investments in funds and stock the State bas been most unfortanate. Other States that have . embarked in the schemes of-Internal Improvements, have received some dividends from the stocks, and thns been enabled better to pay off these debts. But with few exceptions, this has not been the case in North Carolina. - ! - V , The time has' come that the State mast meet this qnestion faifly and fearlessly, and in no partizan spi rit, but as statesmen and patriots; ' It is no nse to pronounce eulogies on the State, and. glorify the cause of internal improvement. The'facts and figures are composed of stubborn stuff, and riot to.be thns affected. States, like individuals, may pay too much for the glory of internal improvements... Rev. Sid ney Smith telle os what England has paid for glory, and what are the blessings of taxation : " We can tell Jonathan the ddnsequepce of being , too fond of glory : Taxes upon every article which enters into the mouth? covers the back, or i placed under foot taxes upon every thing that is pleasant to see, hear, feel, smell or taste. Taxes upon wannjh, light and locomotion.. Taxes upon every thing on earth, and water under the earth. Taxes upon every thing that comes from abroad, or is grown at home. Taxes upon sauce that nourishes the infant, and the coffin that encloses old age. The Englishman mounts his taxed horse,' with a taxed bridle when in health ; when sick pours out medicine for which he is taxed - f50 per cent into a spoon that has paid .15 percent; throws himself on his chintz bed tor which he has paid 25 per cent, expires in the arm of an apothe cary, who has paid for a license a tax of 100 pounds for the privilege of putting him to death. His whole estate is thus taxed from 2 to 10 per cent. Besides probate, large fees are demanded4 for burying him in the Church, hi name is recorded on taxed marbTe, and he is then gathered to his father to be taxed no more." " (See Sidney Smith's works, page 140.) This picture may be strongly drawn, but it is true to the life. Let us avoid a similar condition ; and the present Legislature, elected for the purpose, of public good, should create some rampart which may . stop this deluge of expenditure, by which our State may be reduced to the condition of Pennsylvania in '98, or Mississippi in later times. It is due to the people and to posterity to create some constitutional barrier to the use of the State's faith and credit to cor porations and individuals. Let ns profit by the wis dom apd examples' of 'other States. . The -State of New Yorkhas acted upon this subject. Notwithstanding the great resources of that State, and the .large revenues annually derived from her ca nals, the last Convention of New York, acting no doubt in obedience to the popular will on the subject, wisely inserted in the Constitution such limitations as will ensure safety against an overshadowing public debt, as well as punctually meet the interest and -gradually extinguish the principal of that which had been created prior to the adoption of the present form of government. In compliance with the Constitution of New York, one million, three hundred thousand dollars,TJeing part of the nett revenues of her canals,) are annually applied to the payment of the interest and part of the canal debt, and after the year 1855, one million seven hundred thousand dollars are re quired to be applied to that purpose. The Legisla ture is authorized to borrow money to repel invasion or suppress insurrection, and the Legislature " may, to meet casual deficits or failures in revenues, or for expenses not provided for contract debts, but such debts, direct and contingent, singly or in the aggre gate, shall not at any time exceed one million of dol lars." Except for the foregoing objects, no debt can be contracted, " unless such debt shall be authorized by a law, for' some single work or object, to be dis tinctly specified therein ; and tueh taw thall impose and provide for the collection of a direct annual tax to pay and sufficient to pay the interest of such debt as it fails due, and also t pay and discharge the principal oi sucn debt wuiun eigtu yean trum the time of the contracting thereof. Nsf suck law shall take effect un til it shall, at a general election, have been submitted to the people, and have received a major it v of all the votes cast for and against it, at such elect 'ton." I he Constitution of Rhode Island ordains that, " the General Assembly shall have no power, here after, without the express consent of the people, to incur State debts ton amount exceeding fifty thousand dollars, except in time of war, or in case of insurrec tion or invasion ; nor shall they in any case, without such consent, pledge the faith of the State for the pavment of the obligations of others." The assent of two-thirds of 4be members of tbe General Assem bly is required 44 to every bill appropriating the pub lic money or property for local or private purposes." The Constitution of New Jersey contains the fol lowing provision : ' 1 he Legislature shall not, in any manner, create any debt or debts, liability or liabilities 6f tbe State, which shall singly or in the aggregate with any pre vious debts or liabilities at any time exceed one hun dred thousand dollars, except for purposes of war. or to repel invasion, or to suppress insurrection, un less the same shall be authorized by a law, for some single object or work, to be distinctly specified there in ; which law shall provide the ways' and means, exclusive of loans, to pay the interest of each debt or liability as it falls due, and, also, to pay and discharge the principle of such debt or liability within thirty five years from the time of the contracting thereof, and shall be trrepealable until such debt or liability, ana me interest inereon, are ruuy paid and discharg ed, and no such .law shall take effect until it shall, at a general election, have been submitted to the peo ple, ana nave receivea me sanction ot a majority of all the votes cast for and. against it at such election : and all money to be raised by the anthority of such law snau do applied only io the specific object stated therein and to the payment of the debt thereby crea ted." ' - The Constitution of New Jersey also contains the following provision, inserted probably with the view ot counteracting the modern practice knowh by the significant term of " log-rolling :" "To avoid improper influences which may result from intermixing in one and the same act such things asiiave no proper relation to each other, every law shall embrace but one object, and that shall be ex pressed in the title." , The Constitution of Louisiana provides that, "The aggregate amount of debts hereafter contracted, by the Legislature ahal I never exceed the sum of one hun dred thousand dollats, except in the case of war, to repel invasion or suppress insurrection, unless the same be authorized by some law, for some single ob ject or work, to be distinctly specified therein : tit Alt A law shall provide ways and means, by taxation, for the I'ajruienioi running interest during tbe whole time for which aid debt shall be contracted, and for the full and punctual discharge at maturity of the capital borrowed ; and said law shall be irrepealable until principal and interest are fully paid and discharged, and shall not be put into execution until after its enact ment by the first Legislature returned by a general elec tion after Us passage.1 i Tbe Constitution of Mississippi forbids the appro priation of money to objects of internal improvement, "unless a bjll for that pupose be approved by two thirds of both branches of the Legislature' ; .The same Constitution provides that no law shall ever be passed to raise' loan nf mnnav .- I credit of the State, or to pledge the faith 6f the State, mw .nan nave ooen approved bV a ma jority of both houses of the Legislature, durimr (wo consecutive sessions of said Letrislat . Xbe cor!!XoS of Tews prS isiature.. SJ ( , , nrohihiba tha r.arri.f. i !ure !?m. bonowng money except by a majority of t : 7 . " , V ui Auemoij, nor -ts the Legislate allowed to contract any, debt exceeding' one hendred thousand dollars. to repel invasion or suppress insurrection. . . w vr', yi ww en ne constitution or Iowa contains a provision in reference to the public debt, loans, &c very eimilar Io wmcn nab aieaay been referred to in il stttotion of New Jersev. -": the con- The Constitution of Wisconsin ordains that, " The credit of the State shall never be given or loaned io aid of-any individual, association or corporation. Unless for the purpose of repelling invasion, Trap pressing insurrection or defending- the State in time of war, ue Legislature is prohibited from contracting debts exceeding in the aggregate one hundred thou sand dollars, and every )aw authorising a loan," shall provide for levying an annbat tax sufficient to pay the annual, interest of sucb debt, and the principal -within five years." The Constitution of Arkansas provide that no other or ereater amounts of revenue shall at any time be leviedr than reqaired'for tbe necessary expenses government, unless. by a concurrence ot two-thtrdsot I have not seen the new Constitution of Kentucky, but I understand it provides, that no law appropria ting ipdhey to objects of internal improvement shall be carried into effectunless it receive, the approval of a majority ofvthe voters at the succeeding general election.' : . -. '--":- r Tbe foregoing extracts demonstrate the hostility of tbe people of New York, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas, Iowa, Wisconsin, Ar kansas and Kentucky, to a large public deb). They evince no unbounded: confidence in legislative discre tion or legislative wisdom : on the contrary they are characterized by that spirit of caution and distrust which observation has inspired and experience nas sanctioned; . r :j ;,; .- v As in a former number, the writer of this disclaims any hostility to any scheme that may have been en tered into for the welfare af our Statu. - What has been done cannot be helped; we wish to profit by experience, and amend the future by tbe past. . - :. .CATO. MlLITARV AND SciEHTlTIC ScHOOI. IK WeSTERIf Carolina. ' Wa have been Ion? ot trie opinion that something of ths sort is demanded by Ihe necessities of our State. That education is essentia to the wel fare.of a State, is a fact beyond all contradiction : and that the military education of her sons is equally es sential lor ner aeicnce una support needs no argu ment. We hsve been favored with the letter below, that shows npon what basis our sister State, Virginia. has. organized and'has in complete and successful op eration her Military Institute, oouth Carolina has an Institute similar. We are gratified to learn that met mortals will be presented to our Ueneral Assembly, to locate and establish a Schoot similar to these, at or near the Catawba Springs, in this County. Pro perly encouraged by the Legislature.' and under cap able and scientific instructors, an Institute mighty be established that would. disseminate knowledge and information not only to the present generation, but to thousands yet unborn. The location is beautiful, the buildings could be readily prepared to receive the cadets, as soon as organized, and would command the petronagre not only of our own State, but portions of South Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee and other States. ' ' We deem this a matter of great moment to the country ; and in the present crisis s( ous-Sonthern country essential to ber interest, and we respectful ly request the attention of our members of the Legis lature, and earnestly request their co-operation and exertions for its establishment, on surh a basis as may be worthy of the State, and most conducive to the welfare of its citizens. Lincoln Republican. - From Gen. Wm. 11. Richardnon, Adjutant General of the State of trgwia. Adjutant General's Office, Richmond, May 28, I850.v Dear Sir: The Governor has handed .me your letter to him enclosing one front Col. Wheeler. ' The Virginia Military Institute was put into ope ration in November 1839, by substituting a corps of 40 cadets for the regular guard of 20 soldiers com manded by a Lieutenant, and costing the State 6000 dollars per annum. It was an experiment through which, the instrumentality of Col. Francis H. Smith, tbe Superintendant, a graduate at West Point, and a native of Virginia, has proved most successful. , The course cf instruction and discipline are the same as at West Point. The corps of cadets has been increased to 120, of which 32 are educated at the ex pense of the State and are required to teach in some school in the State, two years after graduating. The other cadets nay theirown expenses, which, inlcuding every thing, are not permitted to exceed $375 the first year, and $250 the succeeding years of the cadet's course. Such is the just reputation of the school, that many more applicants for pay cadetships offer every year than ean be received and the last Legis lature appropriated $46,000 in 4 annual instalments, for reconstructing tbe buildings upon a plan adapted to the purposes of a military school, and to accomo date 200 cadets. The whole annual appropriation is a little under 910,000. No cadet is admitted nnder 16 or over 25 years of age. It is an excellent pre paratory school for boy 8 entering early and, intended for professional life the restraints of military discip line and .course of mental and moral training estab lish habits of system, order and industry, no where else acquired and the graduate still bas time for a classical course at the University. For those not intended for the learned professions, but the practical business of active life, it is the best finishing school. The graduates are the best teachers and are ea gerly sought for and to an extent, greatly beyond the supply. -Many of the pay cadets teach for a year or two. Ihe provisions for the cadets is admirable to each one of them a diploma is an independence it secures him at once employment as a teacher, not onfrequently a professor and whatever emolument attaches to that station,. With high respect and esteem, I have the honor to be very , Respectfully your ob't serv't. WM. H. RICHARDSON. The Hon. R. M. T.' Hunter, U. S. Senator. Unless our Northern people, however, learn to look upon this Federal Republic in the spirit in which it is framed, and to execute all the articles of the ho ly covenant of the constitution in good faith, there is an end of the Union. We can dissociate ourselves into 31 distinct, and, in all respects, independent sov ereignties ; but we cannot, execute tbe Constitution in the parte that suit us, and nullify it in the parts that displease us. The covenant to surrender fu gitive slaves is unpopular in the North, but it is ne vertheless a s6lemn covenant, If we are to enjoy the blessings and the benefits of one Government, and continue to be one people, popularity or unpopularity must be disregarded, and duty must be done. We tremble more for our country now, as we see ; the North shrink b way from this painful duty under tbe Constitution, than we have ever trembled over Tex an State threats, Nashville Conventions, or South Carolina secessions. ' If the North turns Nullifier, our republic is wrecked on the rock that has dashed to pieces all others, and as we go down- the last wail of Freedom goes with us. ' " The slave case in Boston snow us that practical nullification exists in that city already. The act of Congress js virtually nullified. Not only is the slave refused to be delivered up,? but the claimant is put nnder 910,000 bonds in a slan der suit for calling the slave a slave. It is evident that Boston cannot long nullify the laws without reciprocal notification elsewhere. If the Constitution and laws cannot be enforced in Bos ton, they cannot be enforced out of Boston for the benefit of Boston. New. Turk Express. Significant. Every Democratic paper in Missis sippi is dissatisfied with the measures of "adjust ment" as they 'passed the last Congress. The Natchez Free Trader says that the first business of tne called session of the Mississippi Legislature will be to condemn the course of Senator Foote on all the Southern questions that have come up this session in Congress, and, as the body from whose suffrages he gained his seat in the United States Senate to request his immediate resignation. ". . .--r,; s j. Scicide. We learn-that Mr. Cordy Alsobrook, ag ed about 50 years, living in the lower part of this countv, committed suicide on the 17th instant by shooting himself with a gum.' He left a wife and 5 children. He was a very poor man and bad osi the use of one of his hands which caased his mind to be greatly distressed. 'He had become tired, of Jiving and resolved to die.' :, He shot himself in the pres ence of a son and .daughter. The gun snapped five times before it went off. . He ras a 'peaceable; citi- on ana a gooa man. - s . ttaUfajs RepubUcan. ' There ha lately been a great falling off in CalifoW ma emigration from New Orleans. A regular line of sevenschoonere, which for a considerable time had full business in carrying passenger to CJbinea. is now wholly withdrawn fof want of patronagS. I SEMI-TVEEKLy STANDAJIH. SATLIXDA, . If JTI33XRir 2,r 2850. '7 OUR FIRST SEMI-WEEKLY. We gave notice in ear fast that we should publish our first Semi-Weekly on Wednesday next,' and our next-Weekly on the. Friday ensuing'; 4ut finding,. . after more reflection and inquiry, that it would be best to continue our Weekly on Wednesdays, on ac-r ; eoant of the fan of the Mails, we.bave changed our , plan apd present our first Semi-Weekljr to-day. The Semi-Weekly Standard will therefore be printed and! J mailed on Wed nesday and Saturdays, and the Week- -ly Standard on Wednesdays, as heretofore, v r"r: " Onr enterprise, , we are' glad to inform, our. friends, ., is likely to be well sustained. - We are in the con stant receiptor subscribers both to our Weekly and Semi-Weekly i'and the prospect in addition is, that our lists will receive considerable accessions from names brought in by friends, at the opening of the Legislature. ' - -'f ' ' "":v Our most grateful acknowledgements are due, and . are hereby tendered, to those pesons who have taken an interest in our success, and contributed by their exertions to extend our circulation. To our brethren of the Press also, we are under many and lasting obligations, for the very kind ana liberal manner jo which they have been pleased to notice our enterprise, and bumble labors. -' ', '.-v;'- : Particular attention is directed to our " Terms,' as published on our first page.' . v . v ' ' v fft. CENSUS RETURNS FOR I850V ' ; We are indebted to Col,' Little for the Censua Re turns from Camden, Carteret, Stanly, and 'Wayne Counties. A mistake having occurred in our publir cation of the Census of Wayne, in a former number, we insert that County again, together with all the Counties thus far heard from. A 1 ' w ' - 1840. . 1850 Increase. 828 519 471 5,350 556 t 386 411 -1,374 2,596. Hertford, -Pasquotank, Tyrrell, Wake, '." GuUford, Camden, : Carteret, Stanly, 7,481 8,514 4,657 21,118 ' 19,175 5,663 6,590 ? 5,609 16,891 8,312 9.033; 5,128 26,468 19,731 6,049 " 7,001 . 6,983 13,487 Wayne, The above exhibits an increase of 12,491 in nino Counties. If the 9 Counties, large and small, should come in as the above cine have, the increase in pop ulation in this State, since 1840, will be a fraction over 100.000; but even with such an increase, we fear we shall lose a member of Congress. INDUSTRIAL EXHIBITION IN LONDON. Gov. Manly has appointed Col. James F. Tayloi of this City, an Agent through whom; Societies and individuals in North Carolina may forward articles for admission at the Industrial Exhibition to be held in London, in May, 1$5 The appointment is an ex cellent one., No one would give mire attention to this subject, or perform the duties in question with more intelligence and discrimination, than Mr. Taylor. This Exhibition is to be a great Fair, at which the productions of all the nations in the world, both raw and manufactured,' are expected to-be displayed; and tbe result of this Exhibition, it1s anticipated, will be a better understanding of the resources of various countries and climes, and a consequent improvement and advancement in the mechanical, agricultural, and commercial interests, of the world in general. The President of the United States has placed a vessel at the disposal of the Executive Committee at Washing ton, for the purpose of forwarding articles from this country; and a number of the Governors of the re spective States have already appointed-Committees to co-operate with this Executive Committee. Gov. Quitman, of Mississippi, has appointed a Committee of twelve for this 'purpose, to act for that State. LITERARY NOTICES, &c. Mr. Henry D. Turner has laid upon our table "the ' Life and Correspondence of Robert Southey, edited by his Son, 5th part," to be completed, in six parts. This is a deeply interesting work..' Also, the " Illustrated Family Christian Almanac," printed in Boston, and published by the American Tract Society.. v - Alsoi the "Church Almanac, for tlmyear of our Lord 1851. This Almanac contains a mass of val uable information in relation to tbe Protestant Epis copal Church in this country, and in England, Ireland, Scotland, and the English Colonies. The list of the Bishops and Clergy, which it gives, and tne sta- tistics of tbe various Diocesses, must render it ac ceptable and useful, especially to the Members of that Church. It is very neatly printed; and so is the " Illustrated Family Christian Almanac," men tioned above. -1 . Mr. Turner has also sent us a lovely miniature like ness of the immortal Jennt Lind. A friend, who has seen Jenny, and heard her sing, pronounces it an excellent likeness. . Tl THE UNION MEETING. The call for the Union Meeting on . Wednesday evening will be found in our columns to-day. The signers, numerous as they are, could have, been dou bled, tripled, or quadrupled ; but " enough is as good as a feast," and there was no occasion for more. The signers embrace men of all professions, though most of them are merchants, llie idea that this meet ing originated through fear or cowardice as to tbe course of the South, or in any manner by Southern dictation, is as gratuitous as it is untrue. The meet ing originated according to the best ot our knowledge, in the purest and most patriotic purposes, in a love of the Union, in a determination to stand by the Con- ' stitution, in a common resolve to obey the laws of the land, in a detestation of fanaticism, in a weariness of agitation, and in an earnest anxiety to end debate up on settled questions of public policy. The signers wish to show the North, more than their countrymen of the SoSth, that they are ready here, and now, to frown upon the spirit of Discord, Disunion, and Nulli- ification so rife for mischief in our midst, and that. too, regardless of all legal restraint, and all sense of moral obligation. " New York Express. This Meeting was held on Wednesday evening last. It was expected to be a great demonstration on the part of New Ybrk City, which is, in many re spects sound on the Slavery question. The Express v of Tuesday last contains tbe names of some fifteen hundred persons to the call for this .Meeting. .. ?. Daughters or Temperance. We learn that dur ing the meeting of the Grand Division, in this city some fortnight ago, a-Grand Union of daughters of Temperance was organized. .Ladies were in atten dance from three subordinate Unions. ;. The follow ing officers were elected for the ensuing year:- Mrs. E. A. P. Lemay, of Raleigh G. Pi S. .? 1 ;,Mrs. N. D. Hani of Frankfinsville, G. A..S- . Mrs. t. M. Petetsillia, of Raleigh, G. S. . : " Mrs. L. M. Makepeace, of Frankliasville, Cf, S, S. ' " Miss M. R. Mckinnie, Sinithfield, G. S. G ; -;;;Mias IGBrigg. o3P Raleigh, t3. S. C. h ,. v Mr. J, E Boy kin, of Smithfield, G.'SS.: n " :t yr ; . . '. - -it - We learn tSat the Consulship to Havana, in Cuba, ' has been offered to "Hugh' Wsddell, Esq.-, of Orange I Coanty. This is a "jnog' office, tod we presume ""'"W'--''L FREE COLORED PERSONS AND SLAVES. Publfe attention in North Carolina has JbeetS for tome time past directed to tbe importance of devising some plan for preventing tbe increase bf free persons Tof color, and of ultimately removing them entirely from the State A course of this sort bas been ten -dered the more necessary, by the aggressions of the free States, npon onr rights and interests, and by the constantly increasing, obligations npon ns to keep a strict watch oyer tbe habits and morals of our slaves It is due to candor and justice to say, that we have among ns some free persons of color who are worthy and industrious citizens, and who deserve the respect and confidence of the commnnitie in which they res pectively reside f bn t as a general rule, this class of our population are vicious, idle, and disorderly, and there- fore a dead weight upon tne nooy poiuic. , mfj -yr sume. but nroduce nothinz; and in additiotf to this they corrupt oar slaves, and render them, in many in stances, insolent and insubordinate. "Vny law, look ing to the removal of free persons' of color, would necessarily operate harshly npon that worthy portion of them already referred to ; bat a law for this pur pose would most probably be general, and they; we apprehend, will be ultimately compelled to share tbe same lot with the vicious and disorderly. .We pro pose no plan on the subject. : We merely allude to it, in obedience to the demands of public sentiment, leaving it to, our legislators" to devise the plan and apply the remedy for this growing evil.: It may be, however, that some measure may be adopted, which, while it will rid the State of the great mass of this class bf our population, will at the same time permit those to remain, of a certain age, (say beyond sixty who can establish a good character, or who may be able to show (with a good character,) a certain amount of property as tbe result of inheritance or honest earn ings. This would operate as a reward for well doing to the industrious end deserving, andalso cut off, by tbe restriction as to age, any chances for an increase of this kind of population. . One of the free States Illinois has already, by a Constitutional enactment, excluded free persons pt color from coming within her limits; and Ohio is about to follow the example. Tbe day is riot distant in onr opinion, when most of the free States will adopt a similar course. At the last session of the Virginia. Legislature a law was passed appropriating $30,000 and levying a tax of one dollar on each free colored man, tp-be applied to the removal of this class of persons from that State. .This appropriation of $30,000 is an an nual oneand it will no doubt be increased in the Fu ture, if any increase shop Id be necessary. A friend at our elbow suggests that nothing would please him better than to see every free colored per son in this State taken up bodily, and set down in the old-fashioned, law-and-order State of Massachu setts. - Such an event would create a delectable stir among the descendants of. the Puritans. ' It might serve to cool their affection for fugitive slaves, and incline them to restore the stolen property of the South ern people. -Or we might visit them on this score in another shape, by offering premium of three or four . B , I - ?, 1 1 " nunarea aoirars case, io oe paia on aue prooi irora the State Treasury, to each free negro who would re- port himself within a certain time as safely landed on the soil of a free State. This would diminish tbe evil in our midst, and at the same time please and gratify our Northern felloweitizens. li is of the first importance to the value of our slave property, as well as to the welfare and happiness of the slaves themselves, that our laws in relation to them and to free persons of color, should be rigidly enforced. We call upon the Magistrates, County Attorneys, and the officers of the law to be vigilant and diligent in this matter, and to see that the laws are observed, ' We demand this of them, in the nam of the people, and by every consideration, connected with this subject, which can address itself to their sense of duty and their consciences. Our space' will not permit us at this time to point out the various laws on this subject, but they are well, known to those charged with their execution, j&mong them, howev? er, we may aUude to two evils: One is, the hiring of their own time by slaves ; and the other, slaves go- ! ing at large on Sundays and at night without written ) - f -t . mi ! I permits irom- weir masters or overseers. I nese eviis ought to be corrected at once ; and if the present law on the subject is. not stringent enough, let it be amended at the ensuing session. " By the86th Chap ter of the Revised Statutes it is made the duty of thr County Courts to appoint Patrollers once in each year, whose" duty it shall be to patrol their respective dis tricts and preserve order anions the slaves. Do tbe Courts perform this duty.1 Do they see to it that Patrollers, thus appointed by them, are active, vigi lant, and faithful ? . ' ' ' ' ' We take the liberty of calling attention to another provision of our laws, on this Subject. By the 17th section of the Chapter on" Crimes and Punishments," it is enacted that any person who shall " knowingly bring into this State, with an intent to circulate, or knowjngly circulate or publish within this State, any written or printed pamphlet or paper, the evident ten dency whereof would be to excite insurrection,' 'con spiracy, or resistance in the slaves or free negroes and persons of color within this Sfate, or which shall advise or pursoade slaves or free persons of color to insurrection, conspiracy, or resistance "such person so offending shall be guilty ot fekiny, and on convic tion thereof shall, for the first offence, " be imprison ed not less than one year and be put in the pillory and whipped, at the discretion of the Court; and for the second offence shall suffer death without benefit of Clergy." Now this section ought to be altered, in onr humble opinion, so as to take away from such person bis benefit of Clergy, and thus subject him to the death-punishment' for' the first offence. This is the section under which the Reverend Messrs. C rooks and McBride were indicted at Forsythe Court. - .Mo Bride was convicted ; and if the law bad" been as strong as it ought to have been made at first, instead of being at large, as he now is, under a light forfeit ure by way of bail, the gallows would have risen op before him as the merited end of his folly and crime, Weshall alludeio this subjectagain, in its various aspects; and in the meantime we Mope our brethren of the Press will generally speak out, and give to their readers the benefit of thejr reflections arid opin ions npon this important matter. The Legislature is aboot to assemble, and our laws pn this subject will doubtless be brought before it for revision and amend ment. Under these circumstances, the Press can perform no duty more acceptable or proper, than that of collecting and condensing the views of their Re spective communities, so that the amendments, addt-J Jions, and alterations proposed may not only be well Considered and matured in advance, but be in accord ance, as nearly as possible, with the wishes and judg ment of the public generally. ' ; ' The Ohio Statesman says that all the Democratic members of . Congress recently' elected from that State, will vote to repeal the Fugitive Slave Law. Oil the contrary, tbe Democratic members from Penn sylvania will generally stand by the law. ' -.'' ' J-t .-u - " We regret td learn that the Steam Saw-Mill 'of W. 1 S..Ballenger, Esq. of Johnston County, was destroyed a few days since by fire. We have not heard the ex tent of. his loss. . ;f : ' . i . ; , ' . "V .-I Boston is just row the seat of great excitement, n. account of the fugitive "SSav Law: Indeed, all Massachusetts, ivSth the exception of Daniel Web ster and a few of he faithful Democracy, appears to be arrayed against Ihis law, and determined in the first place to evade it, and in the second to repeal it, if possible, at tbe next session of Congress. We copy tbe fallowing articles from the Boston papers,41 showing the nature bf the excitement and its extent : Fugitive-slave excitement in the city. There was Some slight commotion in this city yesterday, in consequence of the issuing of a warrant for Will liam Crafts, and his wife Ellen, fugitives from Ma con, Georgia, claimed by a person named Huohes aiu u no 9o acni oi.iQe master of, the Crafts. The rumors in circulation yesterday in relation to the affair were numberless, bet thfi..- we believe to be as follows : I Mr. Hughes applied to Judge Spragae on Thursday for the warrants, and they were placed in the hands of .George Pevens, United Slates marshal, that night, ot earlyyesterday morning. It was known to Crafts and bis friends that an agent was here in pursuit of him, and his determination ws to resist seizure ; and for that purpohj he armed. himself, and professed to wait for the officer and agent, at his residence in; Cambridge street, here he also has a small shop, in which heworke'd as a cabinet-maker. , In the course of tbe forenoon, "howevw his friends prevailed apon blm to tfettre to the house f 0ne Hayden, in Southac street. In the course of th fjay both houses were reconnbitered by persons in tin, service of the agent, but there was no attempt to entei and make an arrest. In the forenoon E. G. Loring ad S. E. Sewell, retained by the vigilance committee s general coun sel for fugitives, called upon Jbdge Sprague at his chambers, and interrogated him.' specifically, wheth er he had issued, any warrants, and. If so, against whom. Judge Sprague declined givingy reply other than to say that he regarded euch warrants as standing Mpon the same ground as all other warrants, and therefore that he was not at liberty to make any disclosures in relation to them before they bad been served.. He also declined to answer whether be had or had not issued any warrants. At one time there was a large crowd near the court-house, and one while man made himself conspicuous at the corner of Frank lin avenue and Court street,. by. haranguing, the as sembly, and advising them to resist unto the death, if any arrest should be made. ' Considerable crowds were also collected in Ann and Cambridge streets about the middle of the day ; but, as no open meas ures were taken towards serving the warrants, the excitement died away during tbe afternoon. ' -.y Boston Posl. The fugitive slate excitement in Boston. Yes terday afternoon, towards night, the excitement about Court square and Court street had subsided, and the only place of excitement, apparently, was at the west part of theity, where William Crafts, the fugitive againu whom a warrant was general lly understood to haie been ironed, was qnartered. Atnoon yesterday it was advised by some of the partidular friends of the fugitives to issue a circn lar, tj be sent round to all the fugitives in the city. A ciicular was subsequently issued, generally circus la tedi and reading as follows: "To the rescue! Three fugitive's about to be arrested ! William Crafts sunpjosed to be one ! Be on the alert! No time to be Idst ! . Friday, noon, Oct. 25, 1850." ring yesterday afternoon crowds continued. fo colli ct in the western part of the city, in expectation that some demonstration mightf be made. - We un iert land that the United States marshal, Mr. Devens. end avored during the day to secure the assistance of con tables, and other officers of the city government, in i aking arrests, but was generally refused. One of he constables a good-looking, able-bodied man said that Sooner than go in he would leave the city, and go out to Porter's and board, and let the parties "settle their own hash." L. Boston Times. By telegraph to the N. Y. Journal of Commerce. Boston. Oct. 28. . The fugitive-slave excitement. No arrest of fugitive slaves has yet taken place, and the city is quiet, although incendiary handbills are posted about the streets. Win. H. Hughes, of Macon, Georgia, who came on to reclaim Crafts, has voluntarily given bail in $10,000, to answer to a charge of slander in stating that Crafts 'was guilty of ttteft In stealing himself and clothes. . Knight, who was arrested on Saturday afternoon for slander, came on here on bis own private business, and was called on by Hughes us luenuiy ivniit9, wiiuiii ue imiu cuij'iujw iisavvu. - The vigilance committee has been increased to 100. C, G. Loring and other leading lawyers have volunteered to defend any fugitive who n.ay be ar rcsied. Crafts remains quiet at his house in Southac Street. The houses in this part of the city are barri oaded&nd.lentifuIly provided with arms and am munition. ''.' -The house or the fugitive slate is his castle. Tbe Boston Journal states that, inqoiry of the marshal, Judge Sprague has intimated that the pro cess for the arrest of a fugitive slave is in the na ture of civil process ; that in serving it an officer will ' hot be justified in breaking open the other outer door of aiy dwelling-house; that every dwelling-house is tbe castle of its occupants. This protection, how ever, is confined to the dwelling-house, or house where a person sleeps, and not to his place of busi ness. It is also confined to the outer door.v If this is left open, or if the marshal is admitted witbin it, be may break open any inner door. . - -t.v Thus it is that the laws and Constitution of. the epantry are disregarded and tram pied nnder foot, in ope of the most enlightened cities in America; and lawyers are found mean enough to advise the arrest of a master claiming his slave, on tbe ground that he bad slandered the slave in saying he had stolen him self! As the Washington Union well says: "A lawyer who would advise such an arrest must be as ignorant of law as he is lost to all sense of profes sional duty. The words imputed to the witness would not be slander if ottered a thousand times. To say that they would he is as absurd as to charge a man with slander for saying of another, He is guilty of murder -for he murdered a mad dog.' " - The houses of the fugitives in Boston are, it seems, "barricaded, and plentifully supplied with ammuni- The wronged and outraged slaveholders of the South look to the President of the United States to enforce ihe laws: High times, indeed, when runa way negroes, protected and fortified in the bosom of a sovereign State, are too strong for the laws of Con gress and the Constitution of the land ! W ho has any thing to say now about Southern " disunionists and Sou th Carolina " nullification " ! From tbe bot tom of our heart do we bepe that the vile fanatics and tbeirfcatural allies, the Freesoiiers, may be over thrown and crushed in the contt now going on, and the Union come forth anAattered and triumphant; bat while we hope wearalso, for it is apparent that the deadly poison Is circulating, more or less, in all Northern veins, and that the madness now prevailing amorijj large portions of the Northern people is des tined to increase both. in its intensity and sway. Here and there ,we can see a bright spot in tbe midst of darkness ;pnt in tbe very "cradle of liberty" the sub bf the onstitution now casts its palest and sick liest beams. AVe turn with hope to New York City, and to glorious, old Pennsylvania, and to portions of Michigan and New Hampshire; but we expect noth ing calcslated to -cheer any lover of tbe Union, or friend of Southern rights, from Ohio, Iowa, Wiscon sin, Massachusetts, or Maine.. Who, we repeat, are the " disuoionisU " now? Let events, rapidlly trans piring, give the answer. The fate of tbe Union hangs on this result, There is no doubt of h. If the people of the free States shall crush this fonl spirit of rebellion, and stand up to tbe Constitution and the" laws, the States of "the South wilj acquiesce in other measures already adopted, and the U nion will endure ; bnt if not, and this Fugitire Slave Law. is repealed, or its vitality destroyed, sep arafion wig and ought to ensue. ' ' - V "' The Virginia Reform Convention, now in session at Richmond, has at length organised its Committees, and is now fairly af work. . BOSTON "' N ULLIF1C A.TIQ N . 4. Mil . ... t r -