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North Carolina standard. [volume] (Raleigh, N.C.) 1850-1852, November 06, 1850, Image 2

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vrr-TPst as'imp at. GOOD SENSE. '
In a country where reJigi"" feeling prevails to V
wide an extent as is hpply case in the Uned
States, the acts of ecclesiastical bodies mast ee '
"a matter of great interest and importance; arx when
they are connected with great public measures, vitally
.r.,..;. Wpll-heinc knd nace of te country.
aucviuis i.n 1 . -
theyattrict the notice of a still wider than that
of those' who are by profession subjec' to their author
ity. Ours is pre-eminently a government of public
opinion; and as the sentiments ot men holding the
pastoral relation must, in the ture of things, exert
erf.il effect unon the kg they govern, it is
peculiarly gratifying whe we find their sentiments
distinctly avowed in iavul ul ouuhu, iu'no, ..-
YVehave been Iw 10 these remarks from having
coon oortain resolutions recently adopted by a church
hx.tr (lonnminnrcd, officially, the Synod if Pittsburg.
A Synod, according to the Presbyterian Ecclesiasti-
the union of two or more Presbyteries, and holding
a middfe place between the Presbytery (a loral asso
ciation of the ministers and elders within a specified
irnvpra iibiiw t-a, - ' " ' ' 1 " j 7
district of country) and the General Assembly, or
Grand Congress of the whole denomination, repre
sented by delegates chosen by the Presbyteries. A
-Synod, therefore, is a numerous body, uniting the
pastors of many churches, and laymen of respectabil
ity associated with them in the government of an ex-
and acts of such a body cannot but represent the col
lective sentiments of a very large mass of talent,
standing, and high moral principle. In Pennsylva
nia the Presbyterian denomination is strong, and ex-
- erts a powerful influence.
-These considerations give great weight 10 the res
olutions which we are about to quote, and their'im
portance is of the more consequence at the present
moment, as they relate to a subject that has so deep
ly agitated the public mind in all the Morthern Stales,
and especially at Pittsburg.
They were preceded by a debate which partook, in
a modified degree, of the charactor of those in our
National Councils, characterized, on one side, by ar
dent real and a somewhat ultra spirit, denouncing,
in no measured terms, the fugitive slave law lately
passed by Congress, and going, in some instances,
so far as to recommend a resistance of the law.
, Happily those advocating opinions like these formed
but a small minority of the body; their resolutions
and attempted amendments failed, and the Synod, by
a very decided majority, adopted the following tem
perate, wise, and creditable resolves :
I. Resolved, That it is inexpedient for the Synod at
this time to give any formal expression 01 u mum
in relation to the law aforesaid, leaving every man to
act as a citizen in conformity with his obligations as
a citizen and a christian, in the wisdom and meekness
of the Gospel.
2. Resolved, That it be earnestly recommended to
all our churches and people to observe with special
fervor the apostolical injunction to pray for our rulers
and all in authority, that they may be just, ruling in
the fear of God ; and that, under the Divine favor,
our Nation and Government my be preserved in their
integrity, and happily guided to the fulfillment of its
glorious vocation.
We hail the temper which breathes in these reso
lutions as affording a happy augury of future pence.
Nothing renders a disorganizing spirit so formidable
as the connexion it has sometimes exhibited with ,lhe
religious principle in the human breast. That prin
ciple is by its very nature indomitable. It disowns
all attempts at control from mere human authority,
and still more from any considerations of expediency.
Its appeal is to higher law. And whenever a feeling
like this allies itself with political notions and politi
cal combinations inimicable to the public peace and
safety, it becomes one of the most dangerous elements
of action that can be conceived. After all the unbe
lief and indifference manifested towards religion, re
ligious feelings of any kind, where they do exist, are
the most powerful springs of human action ; and
whoever can enlist them on his side in an attempt to
change the existing state of things in any communi
ty, has an ally of the most formidable character.
But, on the other hand, where the lovers of, order and
of peace seek for defences to preserve them against
assault, they have, in the same feeling, a friend of the
most potent energy. It is, then, most happy when
'a great public religious body, exerting, and deserved
ly, a strong and wide influence over the friends and
professors of religion, puts forth that influence in fa
vor of the supremacy of the law, the maintenance of
a just and wholesome subordination to the Constitu
tion, and in open opposition to the spirit of fanaticism
which seeks, by a plausible appeal to religious prin
ciple, to cover and defend designs in open hostility
with the plainest requirements of the Religion of the
Bible. National Intelligencer.
This great disederatum has been found at last,thongh
the means by which the gas is obtained from the wa
ter is more expensive than the method which Proles
' - r j ... i j;.. Ti,.
sor raine was supposeu io iraic uiavmcim.
proprietors of the Astor House have been using this
gas for the last two months. The light, they inform
us, is much superior to that obtained from the com
mon gas, with which the whole city is supplied,
while the expense is less than one half. The appa
ratus, which is set up in a small building at the rear
of the hotel, is very simple in its construction, re
quiring only the attendance of two men, who, in seven
hours, can turn off sufficient gas for 24 hours con
sHmntion. The following is, as near as we could
ascertain, the process by which the gas is produced :
The water used in its manufacture is discharged
from a can, in limited quantities, into a pipe passing
through the retort. This retort is kept constantly
supplied withiron and charcoal, the intense heart
from which converts the water, in its passage through
the pipe, into steam. The steam thus formed is
amalgamated with liquid rosin,-of which there is al
ways a large supply kepttn a boiler placed immedi
ately over the retort, so that the gas is obtained sim
ply from the combination of steam generated in the
manner described, and the liquid rosin. The volatile
oil produced during the manufacturing process is dis
charged through a separate pipe into receiving ves
sels." This oil is disposed of at half a dollar per bar
rel. The expense of the charcoal and iron consumed,
is very slight, and the amount of rosin required is
about a barrel and a half.
The apparatus was put up by the Union Uas Litght
Comnanv. which has its head-quarters in Jersey City.
The stock of this company has been taken np, and
the nresenl capital 13 about oUU.UUU. I lie Presi
dent is Mr. George M. Dapforth, and the Secretary,
Mr. Giddings. The whole of Jersey City, it appears,
is to be lighted 'up with this gas, and the company
has already entered into contracts tor lignung several
hotels in the different cities of the Union.
Jv. r. Evening Post.
Further Discovery is tub Solar System. A
circular from Professor Schuraaker, of Altona, re
ceived bvtheeditor of the Astronomical Journal, "an
noonces the discovery of a planet, on the I3th of
September, by Mr. Hind, at Mr. bishop s Ubserva
torv. London." Announcements of this kind latter
ly, from the frequency of.their occurrence, have lust
part of the interest they possessed a few years ago; but,
as an evidence of the advancement in this department
of science, and thus of the progress ot science gener
allv thev must still be regarded by many wiih feel.
intrs of no little pleasure. From the discovery of
Vesta by Doctor Gibers, of Bremen, in 1808, no ad
ditions were made to the number of known planets
belonging to our svstem till the discovery of the As
trta by Hencke, on the 8th of December, 1845, a pe
riod of nearly forty -years. Now, in less than five
years past, there have been added no fewer than nine
primary and two secondary planets, bo inaiourooiar
Svstem. a at present known, consist of twenty pri
mary and the same number of secondary planets or
The discoverer of the new planet has proposed for.it
the, name of ..Victoria, and "a star sorrounded by a
laurel wreath" for symbol ; but it is not probable
this name will be ' retained by astronomers. Lest
some of the readers of the Gazette, who feel an inter
est in "Buch subjects, have not access to the names of
the nine new planets discovered within the last five
years, a list is subjoined, viz : Astrea, Flora, Iris,
Hebe, Hyga, Metis, Parihenope, Victoria, and Nep
tune. ' To Neptune has been discovered a satellite,
and. an additional one to Saturn within that time.
" Alexandria Gazette.
'he- ourteTB Press says thai?trrsayerage wealth
Ot tbedvU males of PlaOneminM tiriVT-ia;,
. 1mIi1 fn-nitlitt .m aoc 4 t l. . Ll.t 1 . .. . r1- t
""!s ' -r vduw non -wutoii iipreutpMT
w.wiw u nracn as the census wiH snow to be
fhe average wealth f 4be . same class in B
New-Vora.-oria-aay city or State of the N
Bos ton-or
JTrdm the Philadelphia Pennsylvanian.
Philadelphia, Oct. 22, I 850.
Dear Sir The case of Henry Garnett, who was
arrested in this city last week under the recent act ot
Congress, commonly known as the Fugitive Slave
Law," is the first oi the. kind which has been heard
before a Justice of the Supreme Court. The opin
ions expressed Dy the Court in relation to the con
struction and operation of the Act, have been very
imperfectly reported, and the importance of the case
leads me to hope that yoo may find it convenient and
agreeable to yourself to put them in a proper form tor
puniication. , . .
I ne btli Section of the Act. contains .a provision ;
that " in no trial or hearing under the Jet shall the les
timony of the alleged fugitive be admitted as evidence"
It has been supposed that these words prohibit a per
son, who may be arrested and claimed as a fugitive,
from introducing any testimony whatever before the
Judge or Commissioner, in his own defence; so that
a negro may be arrested in a free State, surrendered
and sold as a slave for life on the unsupported oath
of a kidnanner. although .a hundred witnesses may
be present to prove that he is a free man ! This ab
surd opinion prevails to a great extent, and hence it
should be no matter of surprise that the more igno
rant part of our free colored population, encouraged
by the advice of bad men, are found ready to imperil
their lives by an open
and violent resistance of the
In the course of your observations in .Garnet 8
case, I understood you to intimate very distinctly
that the alleged fugitive is entitled to a full and fair
hearing. If he is able by competent testimony of
the claimant to prove that he owes him no service,
or that he is a free man, I understood your opinion to
be that it is his undoubted right to do so ; and the
clear duty of the Judge or Commissioner to hear and
properly weigh the testimony which he may offer.
The point was not directly presented or discussed,
but it seemed to be conceded that the words of the
Section which I have referred to, mean only that the
alleged fugitive shall not be admitted as a witness for
When it is judicially announced that the Act can
not operate as a general outlawry of the free colored
population of the North that it gives to every per
son claimed as a fugitive, all the rights which the
writ of habeas corpus secures to him and abridges no
right which he lawfully possessed before the Act was
passed, the main cause of the excitement which now
exists on the subject will probably be removed.
These general views of the construction of the
Act, I think were all sustained bv Judge Kane and
I yourself, on the hearing of Garnelt's case, and it may
. .. . . .. . ?. -i i
be desired tor the saKn ot me ijonsutuuon, me puo
lic justice, that the opinions which you have perhaps
informally expressed, may go forth in a more perfect
and authentic form than is presented in the loose and
unsatisfactory report which has been published.
I am, very respectfully, yours, &c,
Hon. Robert C. Grier.
Philadelphia, Oct. 25, 1850.
Dear Sir My official engagements have hindered
me from giving that prompt attention to the contents,
of your letter of the 22d iust., which it would other
wise have received.
Until informed by yon, I was unable to apprehend
what possible cause could be assigned for the un
measured denunciations with which the act concern
ing the fugitives from labor, passed at the last ses
sion of Congress, has been received by so many per
sons in the Northern 'portion of our Union. Al
though it would be improper for me to volunteer extra-judicial
opinions upon doubtful questions of con
struction of a public statute, yet if any opinions ex
pressed by the Court on the late case of Henry Gar
nett, or which, though not then expressed, seem to
me incapable of dispute, can have any tendency to
correct misapprehensions and calm the public agita
tion on this subject, I am perfectly willing to slate
In the case of Garnett, the warrant issued bv the
Court was foundeJ on the affidavit of the alleged
owner of the fugitive But " on the trial or hearing"
before the Court, after the arrest, this affidavit was
not received in evidence, nor did the counsel for the
claimant insist that it should be received. The claim
ant had wholly neglected to make the proper proof,
before some Court or Judge in Maryland, to establish
the fact, that he was owner of a slave or person held
to labor, and what was the name? age, size, and Oth
er marks of such person ; and that the person so de
scribed had escaped. Not having availed himself of
the privileges and facilities given hitn by the act of
Congress for this purpose, we decided that he must
be bound by the common law rules of evidence, as in
other cases, where a title to property has to be estab
lished before a Court. We refused to receive the
parties in interest as witnesses, and wills and other
documents of title, unless properly proved.
The act contemplates a trial and a decision of the
Court or Judge, involving questions both of law and
fact, and unless the rules of the common law, as to
evidence, be followed, when not changed by statute,
the tribunal would be without rule, governed only by
caprice, or undefined discretion, which would be the
exercise of a tyrannical, not a judicial power. It is
the duly of the Judge who exercises it, to render
equal justice both to the claimant and the persen
claimed. If evidence were heard on one side only,
and that, too, without regard to any rule or principle
Known to the law, gross oppression and wrong would
flow upon it. Free men and citizens of Pennsylvania
might be kidnapped into bondage, under forms of
law, and by the action of a legal tribunal, sworn to
do equal and exact justice to all men. This much
maligned law not only gives a " trial," before a le
gal tribunal, before the claimant can be authorized to
carry the alleged fugitive out of the State, but it takes
away from the prisoner no right which he would have
enjoyed before this act of Congress was passed.
In all cases of extradition, the evidence establish
ing the offence and escape of the person demanded,
is usually made in the country from which the per
son demanded has escaped, and is necessarily ex parte,
and the chief question to he decided by the tribunal
before whom he is brought, previously to making an
order for his extradition, is only the question of iden
tity. The party demanded has a right, of course, to
show that he is not the person described. But if he
be the person described, he has no right to claim a
jury trial as to the question of his guilt in the country
to which he has escaped. The question of identity,
and whether the person claimed is such a one as the
treaty between the two countries requires to be de
livered up, has always been tried summarily and
without the intervention of a jury. No complaint
has ever been made when while men have been sent
to Europe on a demand for their extradition, without
giving them a jury trial ; and why greater privileges
in this matter should be granted to colored persons is
not easily perceiyed. The State of Pennsylvania
guarantees a jury trial to her own citizens, or to per
sons who are charged with committing an. offence
within her borders. Fugitives from another State
have no snch rights.
The government to which the fugitive belongs, it
is fo be presumed, will do justice to its own subjects
or citizens, and whether they do so or not, is no
concern of ours. However individuals may fancy
they have a mission to rectify all wrongs on the face
of the earth, the State of Pennsylvania does not feel
herself bound to the Quixotic enterprise of avengino
the oppression of serfs in Russia or slaves in Geo?
gin. This act of Congress does not require that a
judge should, without trial, surrender a citizen of
Pennsylvania to a kidnapper. The provision, that
in no trial or nearing, under this act, shall the testi
mony of such fugitive be admitted in evidence." is
no more than the enactment of an established princi
ple of the common law, that no man shall be witness
in his own case. If this provision were not in the
act, I would not receive the testimony of the prison
er to prove that he was not the person described, or
that he was a free man. It wonld be a temptation to
perjury, which no tribunal should permit to be pre
sented to any man. No lawyer would urge, before a
Court, such an absurd construction of the act of Con
gress as, that it means that no evidence should be
heard on the part of the alleged fugitive. If such
were the intention of the legislature? it was easv in
express it in unequivocal terms. In troth there is
nothing equivocal in thelanzuara of the ant: It for
bids the judge to hear the testimony of the fugitive,
but not the testimony of disinterested n!tnl.o il
almost seems, that nothing but a desire to render the
law odious, for the sake of political
ever have led to w grots a miaeonatrdetiAn. nA
great, a. libel on our national legislature. -frIt
hs.een objected a ls -to this Iav, that it sus-'
Hmwi xBjiaoea corpus act inasmuch as it efiacts
that the CortfftaatA nf tKa InArra -
j.hallhe conclnstb-
whose fa vor granted,to remove such fugitive, and shall
prevent all molestation of goch person or persons, by
any process issued by any court, judge, magistrate, or
other person whomsoever." But this is a mistake.
The truth is, that this provision "of the law, forbid
ding the testimony of the fugitiveto be-recejvd, and
forbidding Interference by otherprbceSs,,after 3 certi
cate, is but an enactment of an established principle
of the common law, added through extreme cantion,
but wholly unnecessary." TKe;wrifof habeas corpus
is undoubtedly an immc
undoubtedly an immediate remedy for every illegal j
imprisonment z but no imprisonment' is illegal when
the processes a justification df the officer ;.. and pro
cess, whether by writ or warrant, 1s legal whenever
it is not defective in the frame'tjf,saM'fia8 issued in
the ordinary course of justice from a eWH or magis
tra'te having jurisdiction of the subjeA' matter."
(Commonwealth vs. Lectty, I Watts,7 67.)
A person held as fugitive under the certificate of a
judge or magistrate, under this act j is legally impris
oned, under process irom a court or magistrate nav
ing jurisdiction," and cannot be released by any oth
er court or magistrate, on a writ of habeas corpus or
honine replegiando. The. act of 1793 has no such
provision as that which is the subject of complaint in
the present case ; yet in the case of Wright vs. Dea
con, (5 Sergt. and Rawle, 52,) the Supreme Court
of Pennsylvania decided that a certifcate under that
act was a legal warrant to remove the fugitive to the
State pf Maryland, and no writ of honine repkgiando
would lie from a State Court to - try the question of
freedom ; and that a writ, issued under such circum
stances, was " in violation of the Constitution of the
United States."
The chief difference between the fugitive act of
u i i s., i i.i, , , ,1
warrant to be issued by a judge, and the arrest to be
a k o La 7,0. e.rtnnt
1850. and that ot 1793, is, that the former allows a
luafjc mj j v win"'" , 1 1. j-ui. v.u " ui .'".."
penalties on those who interfere, by violence, to pre
vent the execution of legal process. . TRose who be
lieve that the constitution and laws of their country
should be regarded and obeyed, have no ground pf
complaint, and those who do net,, will continue to
rail at both, as usual. "
I am happy to say that my brother Kane, fully
concurs with me in the views I here express. I am,
very respectfully, yours, &c. R. C. GRIER.
To Charles Gibbons, Esq.
Achievement of' Science. Night comes down
over a ship at sea, and a passenger lingershour after
hour, alone on the deck. The waters plunge and
welter, and glide away beneath the kee.l. Above, the
sails tower up in the darkness, almost to the sky, and
their shadows fall a burthen on the deck below.
In the clouded night no star is seen, and as the
ship changes her course, the passenger knows not
which way is East or West, or North or' South.
I What island, what sunken rocks may be on her
course, or where they are he knows not. Ail arounu,
to him, is mystery. He bows his head in the sub
mission of utter ignorance.
But men of science have read the laws of the sky.
And the next day this passenger beholds the captain
looking at a clock, and taking note of the place of the
sun, and with the aid of a couple of books composed
of rules and mathematical tables, makingcalculations.
And when he has completed them he is able to point
j almost within a hand's breadth to the place at which,
after unnumbered windings, he has .arrived in the
midst of the seas. s "tl
Storms may have beat, and current?.4Vifted, but he
knows where they are, and the precise point where, a j
i nunored leagues over the waier, lies nis native snore
i Mere is reason appreciating and making use of the
j revelations of science.
I Nitrht airain shuts down over the waste of waves.
land the passenger beholds a single seaman stand at motives of members who opposed, during their pass
i the wheel, and watch, hour after hour, as it- vibrates i aS through Congress, those measures, in our opin-
; beneath a lamp, a little needle, which points ever, as
jit were, a living finger to the steady pole.
This man knows nothing of the rules of navigation,
nothing ot the course of the sky. But reason nnd ex-
perience have given him faith in the commanding of
I ficer of the ship, faith in the laws that control her
course, faith in the unerring integrity of the little
I guide before him. And so without a single doubt he
i steers his ship on according to a prescribed direction
through night and the waves.
And that faith is not disappointed! With the
j morning sua he beholds far away the summits of the
Itrav mill mistv heartland, risinir like a cloud in the
; horizon, and as he nears ihem the hills appear, and
the light-house at the entrance of the harbor, the
spires and the churches and the shinning roofs, a sight
of joy, and he tries to detect his own dwelling,
i Pumping a Lake Drv. Dr. J. V. C. Smith, the
editor of the Boston Medical Surgical Journal, who
is now on a visit to.burope, gives an interesting de
scription, in his editorial correspondence from Hol
land, ot the manner in which the L.ake ot Haarlem is
boino-drained bv sleain engines, and its waters sent
to the sea
"Six miles from Amsterdam is) the land lake of Ha
arlem, 21 miles long by 11 in width, which, 300
years ago, was found to be perceptibly increasing by
shooting its waters further and further, and covering
up the land, threatening the first commercial port of
the realm with obstruction by flowing in upon its
banks. Various schemes at that remote epoch were
devised by able counsellors to stay the threatning dan
ger. Three Dutch engineers, of acknowledged abil
ity, proposed draining off the water, first raising it by
wind mills. They ire entitled to remembrance from
having suggested the plan adopted in-1849 for avert
ing an impending calamity. -v.
Seven years since, delay being no longer safe, a canal
was dug around the whole circumference of the lake
averaging 200 feet in width, by ten deep.' Three
monster engines arw housed on the sides of the lake,
some six or eight miles apart, each moving eight
monstrous pomps. All the pistons are raised at
once, at every revolution of the machinery raising
15,000 gallons of water, which is emptied into the
canal, whence it is hastened n by a-fourth,, engine
faster than it would otherwise move'to itia',Zuyder
Zee, and thus it reaches the-sea, fifteen miles distant.
In April, 1849, the pumps, worked by three of the
mightest steam engines perhaps ever constructed,
were set in motion, and up to this date," July 25th.
have lowered the contents of the lake seven feet.
By next April it is anticipa ted that the bottom wilLj
be fairly exposqd, and all the water conveyed away
from this ancient basin. All this is executed at the
expense ofGovernment.' ' -
It gives us pleasure to state that the Secretary of
tlie-Treasure has consented to the use of vessels in
the Revenue Service of the United States for the trans
portion of articles of American production from the
various ports along the Atlantic Coast to such point
as shall be selected for the departure of the. ship ap
propriated to convey them to the London1 Exhibition,
wherever it can be done without detriment to the pub
lic service.
W'e have before stated that there arrived at London,
on the 16th of October, from Russia, thirty-odd large
cases of articles for the Exhibition. A very large ad
dition from the same quarter was soonexpected.
France and Austria have appointed committees in
London to look to the interests of their exhibitors.
With reference to the expected influx of visiters a
correspondent remarks : "London, capacious as it is,
will have its capacity tested." ' .
National Intelligencer.
Constitutional Convention or Indiana. This
convention has adopted a proposirion for biennal ses
sions with only five dissenting votes."
A proposition is pending to prevent the emigration
of free negroes into the State. It is urged that the
la ws of Kentucky and other slave States tend to drive
the free negroes into the free States, and that in order
to guard Indiana from a " mixed population,'? which
is called one of the evils of slavery, such a prohibito
ry law is expedient.
Austin H. Brown has been elected printer to the
convention. .
The State Journal says that there will probably be
no separate submission of. the negro suffrage auestion
to the people, and very few members favor.its incor
poration in the consytution. . . , ,V";s :;f,v, it 1 i
J .
The Georgia Helicon setts down the number of cot
ton mills in the States of Georgia, Tennessee,; iouth
Cartel na, and Alabama at ninety -eight, jn.wbich are
invested about one million dollars. Some-' 16,000
hands are employed, and 152,000 spjndles. They
consume 94,000 bales of cotton per annum. : :
. ;. - , ..j. .!
CXCURSION TO THE J-iONDON . t AlR... ( 1 Juffi Jr (VljjjfleW
pia Inquirer states that two shi'ViairB?i tat
fort for the World's Fairi a't , Londan--the-;T,Mi ry
leasants,'? Captain Micheal, on the 15th of -Mar h
and the Shannndnah." nn tha fB,k .c.li.jii'. ...if'
and the Shenandoah,'
price of one-hundred dollars for pas68g,' gbW'hhd
returning. - -j n'Sl-s-iS'Tf
.. v w.ti v. 'i.y lit ,1 L
The great Union Meeting in New York City was
held on the night of the 30th ultimo. Castle Gar
den was densely packed with tne best portion ot the
City population. The masses were there in thou
sands. George Wood presided, assisted by orty Vice
Presidents and eigbj Secretaries, r Eloquent Speech
es were delivered by James W. Gerard, Charles
O'Connor, Edward ' Sand ford, 'Ogd'en -Hoffman, and
others. Whigs and Democrats stood shoulder shoul
der in sustaining the Fugitive Slave Law, and declar
ing that it must and shall be' enforced. The follow
ing Resolutions ware unanimously adopted : .
"1. Resolved, That we revere the wisdom and patri
otism of our ancestors, which framed the Union of
the States under the federal constitution; that we at
tribute our power, dignity, and prosperity as a nation,
the full possession and enjoyment of civil and reli
gious liberty, the security of property and the means
ot moral and intellectual elevation, which are the
birthright of every citizen, 'and. all the magnificent
results of our growth as a people, to the Union un
der 'the constitution ; that the maintenance and exten
sion of these great blessings during the present gen
eration, and their transmission to posterity, are se-
cure only in a faithful adherence to the Union, and
. ,. ... . ... .
luiplieit obedience to the constitution.
2. Resolved, That the fabric of our general govern
ment was the product of reciprocal concession among
the conflicting interests , of different sections of the
country, of mutual respect for the diversities of opin
ion which prevailed among the citizens, and of sin
Cere affection, begotten by their common origin, and
the common perils, toils, and sacrifices through which
their common liberties had been won and that the
general government can be sustained and perpetuated
only upon the same basis of concession, respect, and
3. Resolved, That we cordially approve of the re
cent measures of Congress for the adjustment of the
dangerous questions arising out of the acquisition of
territory under the treaty with Mexico; and that, in
consideration of the various and discordant interests
to be affected thereby, we hold that the Compromise
is a fair one, and ought to be sustained by every pat
riot in every part of the land.
4. Resolved, That the heartfelt thanks of this com
munity, and of the whole nation, are due, and on our
part are hereby tendered, to those eminent statesmen
and patriots Clay, Cass, W'eb'ster, Fillmore, Dick
inson, Foote, Houston, and others who, when they
saw the Union in danger, threw themselves into the
breach, disregarding all personal consequences, for
getting all party predilections, and willing to be sac
rificed, it need be,. for the good of the country. Re
solved, Ti'st by this patriotic devotion to their coun
try's good, in a crisis so momentous, they, have achiev
ed for themseves immortal honor, and for the Union,
we trust, an imperishable existence.
5. Resolved, '1 hat those members of Congress from
thin State who, against influences the most unfavora
ble to the exercise of a sound judgment, sustained the
, I peace-measures by their votes, have conferred a last
, J ing obligation upon their constituents aud upon the
w noie country.
6. -Resolved, I hat, while we do not impeach the
; lon 80 moispensaoiy necessary to the peace ot the
country, we do especially condemn the conduct of;
those who, alter the happy settlement of those dan-
gerous questions bythe passage of the compromise
bills, and while all were congratulating themselves
and each other that the era nf irnnrl fi.olinir had I
returned, have seught, by again agitating the subject,
and the country;
w uawtuaiu-a vs. uiiouiiici 1 11 If VUil"IC93
7. Resolved, That the fugitive-slave bill is in accor- j
dance with the express stipulations of the constitu- ;
lion of the United States, as carried out by the act of i
congress oi lyj, signed by Washington, and in
; force at lhe time when the present law was passed ; ;
! "u '" congress, in passing a law wincn should be
emcient ior carrying out the stipulations of the con- j
stitution, acted in full accordance with the letter and
spirit of that instrument, and that we will sustain i
this law, and the execution of thesame, by all lawful '
means. j
8. Resolved, That, in the opinion of this meeting, I
a further agitation of the slavery question in Congress j
would be fraught with incalculable danger to our i
i Union, and that we will support no candidate, at the
ensuing or any otner election, lor atate omcers, or for
members of Congress, or for the legislature, who is
known or believed to be hostile to the peace measures
recently adopted by Congress, or any of them, or in
favor of reopening the questions involved in them for
renewed agitation.
9. Resolved, That we regard our obligations to the
constitution and the Union as superior to the ties of
any of the political parties to which we may hitherto
have belonged ; and that on all future occasions we
will range ourselves under the banners of that party
whose principles and practice are most calclated to
uphold the constitution and to perpetuate our glorio'us i
Union." .
Banners and mottoes were placed at different parts
of the building, many of which attracted particular
attention and elicited much applause. Over the en
trance of the door was the inemerable motto of Gen.
Jackson: "The Union: it must and shall be preserv
ed." Also, Mr. Webster's celebrated declaration :
Liberty and Union, now and forever, one apd in
separable." And Mr. Clay's declaration : " We
know no North, no South, -no East, no West ; but
one common country." A portrait of Washington
was in the centre of the flags which decorated the
back of the stage, and the motto: "One Country,
one Constitution, one Destiny." At the front of the
gallery facing the stage flags were also suspended,
surmounted by the following sentence from Mr.
Dickinson : " I long since determined to stand or fall,
survive or perish, live or die, with those who would
maintain the integrity of the Union." There was
also conspicuously displayed the motto : "The-Union
first party interests afterwards."
A Committee of fifty citizens was also appointed,
charged with the duty of reviving and fostering among
the people the spirit in which the Union was formed
and the Constitution was adopted ; and to resist ' every
attempt to alienate any portion ol our country from
the rest, or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now
link together the various parts.
We shall publish extracts from the Speeches de
livered on the occasion, in our next
Direct Trade with Europe. Notice is given
in the Charleston papers that an application will
be made to the next Session of the Legislature of
South Carolina, for the incorporation of the "South
Carolina and Europe Steam Navigating Company."
This is just as it should.be. Let the Southern peo
ple go to work at once to live as far as possible with
in themselves ; and let them import their own goods
directly irom Europe.
The Steamship Alabama arrived at New Orleans on
Friday last. from . Chagres, bringing two and a half
days later news from San Francisco. Another des
tructive fire had occurred at San Francisco, which
destroyed one hundred buildings.
: :
; The Legislature of North Carplina will assemble
In Una City, on the third Monday (the 18th) of this
month. ; Congress will meet on the 1st Monday In
December ensuing ' ' - ;
The people of New York 'voted yesterday, for
Go verns, members ?f Congress, and .State, officers'.
We shall probably be able in .our next Hit giv the
. We. understand that the Hon. William A. Graham,
Secretory of the Navy,' passed Henderson, on Sunday
ast, cui his. way .to Iris home in Hillsborough. j
Froin tho Hornet'sNert and True Southron. i.i .
' To the Editor of the Korth Carolina Standard 7i . ;
. Dear Sir : What will the coming Legislature do in
regard to the -constitution of the Congressional Dis
tricts I . ..Will they permit them-to remain in their;
" present iniquitous shape, or will they fepeal.tb'e pres
ent law affixing their limits and boundaries, and let
them fall back upon their constitutional adjustment,
as once determined in the constitutional and tegular
Vnn will remember that at one time, when the
proper time' the legal periodhad arrived for re
" districting the State that the N. C. Legislature, a
majority of Democrats then constituting it, laid it. off
into convenient Districts, and made what thev Believ
ed an equitable distribution, as far as could be o the
parties interested. Extraordinary exertions were made
by the Democrats afterwards who had able men in
the field, and a majority of Democrats weTe retoroed to
Congress. What did the Whigs do upon thisresultl
At the first session in which, they had a majority, they
gerrymandered the State into such an unseemly, odd,
fantastic arrangement of districts, that their outlines
hav been patterns for all the boys to draw grotesque
figures from ever since. All this was done in pal
pable violation of constitutional right, at a time not
warranted by law nor precedent, and against popular
opinion which was averse from it at the time ; and all,
that two anti-southern Whigs might nws-represent the
State in Congress. .
It is known to yon that the Democrats opposed the
high-handed act with all the force of truth, the per
suasiveness of oratory and with the full endorsement
of the law and testimony. They warned the Whigs
of the danger of the precedent. They told them in
language which was positive and in terms which were
clear and explicit, that if. they did pass the infamous
gerrymander, they (the Democrats) would upon the
first fortunate opportunity, redress themselves, vindi
cate the law, and appease an outraged community. I
ask you, Mr. Editor, in all seriousness, has not the
time arrived for the Democrats to fulfill the righteotis
promises thus made! Has not the hour for a just and
impartial retribution arrrived 1
. " O I how glorious 'tis t, '
For th' oppressed, to bring the vile. j t
To just disgrace." 1
It is a principle of our nature, implanfed there for
wise purposes, to wish to avenge wrongi and he is a
chnrl who does not cherish it. One of the greatest
writers known to the world, has truthfully said
" There are th'ngs which make of wrongs redressed '
a virtue by reflection, and not an implause of mere an
ger." Now I would ask in view of the facts, and
the truth of our homely reflections, what the coming
Legislature will do 1 Will not its Democratic mem
bers repeal, the gerrymander, and let the Districts fall
into the shape they bore when they were constitntion
ally re-organized, or will they let the iniquity remain
a blot upon 4 the laws V I think U entirely just the
law should be repealed. The Whigs pretended they
had a right to violate the constitution and all estab
lished usages, because they had a majority in the State.
The Democrats now have an undisputed majority, and
certainly the argument is ten-fold strong in theircase,
with the additional fact that they would be making no
fieto law, buf simply repealing an unconstitutional one.
I trust sir the Legislature will do its duty in the
matter. v Your's respectfully.
Mecklenburg, N. C, Oct. 1850. :
' -
The Legislature of 1842 3, in accordance with
usage and established custom, laid off the State into
-nine Congressional Districts. At that session the
Democrats had a decided majority; and in the 'sum
mer of 1843, at the first election under the apportion
ment, the Democrats carried five and the Whigs tour
members of the House. The Legislature of 1844 '5
was Whig, but the Districts were not touched by the
j dominant party. At the second election under the
U 1 1 i III 11 J O BUU1IIIC?J Ul A 01 J fcllC VCUli;iyiat9 -
all the Districts they had before, and one more the
Ninth through the personal popularity, in a great
degree, of. Col. Biggs, of Martin. This gave ithem
six members and the Whigs three. In 1844 Henry
Clay had been defeated in the popular vote for the
Presidency ; and the only hope of Whigism on the
subject of the Presidency, "in the contestof 1848,
was to throw the election into the House of Repre-
sentatives, and secure the prize, as they had done in
1824, by arrangement, "bargain" and contrivance.
The vote of North Carolina was wanted in this emer
gency, and it was therefore indispensable that she
should send a majority of Whig members tenths
House. Consequently, at the session of 184C-'7,
with this object in view, and for the purposej also,
of providing for two or three hungry Whig aspirants,
the act of 1842-'3 was repealed, and the Districts so
arranged that the Whigs elected six out of the nine
members in 1847. It was a political movement, su g
gested and consummated with reference purely to
Federal affairs. The people of the State had not de
manded it, for It had not been even discussed in the
previous campaign ; and hence the most extraordin
ary efforts were necessary to,convice the Whig mass
es even," that such a measure was right and proper.
Inflammatory Speeches were delivered and printed,
and widely circulated ; the people were told that
they had been wearing the chains of despotism four
long years, without knowing it that they had been
"smothered" and oppressed by Democratic contri
vance and fraud and that Whigism embodied, under
the guidance of liberal principles and disinterested pa
tiotism, had determined to strike off these chains and
make them free again, by sending six W hig members
to Congress instead of three. And,Mr. Rayner, we
believe, did not hesitate to exalt his mission almost
to a sacred one, by declaring that liberty to the down
trodden masses was his object, and that the air must
be purified and the' State saved by the expulsion of
the " Goths and Vandals " meaning the Democrats
from the places which they held.
The Raynermander of 1846-'7 was based upon the
principle that the political complexion of the repre
sentation in thev House, must be determined by the
political majority in the State that is, as the Whigs
had a majority of the popular vote, they were entitl
ed to a majority of the members of Congresj. There
were other arguments adduced, but that was the ma.in
one. " It's a bad rule that won't work both ways."
Who Has the majority now ? Who elected the Gov
ernor in August last f VVhat"party will have, ai the
ensuing session, from fourteen to sixteen majority on
joint ballot-1 Will some " true Whig" tell us!
We do .pot propose now, ot hereafter, to discuss
the question of Constitutional power involved, in this
subject. It is sufficient that the Legislature of 1842,
in accordance with the usage and custom of both par
ties long-established and uniformly adhered to laid
off the State into the required number of Congression
al Districts; and that the Legislature of 1846, in ut
ter disregard of this usage and 'custom, chano-ed this
arrangement with poetical views and for political pur
poses. Uut there is no doubt as to the Constitution
al right of the ensuing Legislature to repeaifthis Whig
act of 1346, and re-establish the act of 182. Thai
is as clear as a sunbeam. : v -
The Correspondent of the " Hornet's Nest" asks
us " what the coming Legislature will do in regard
to the constitution of the Congressional Districts."
Wefeannot answer the question. We do not know
what the Legislature will do on this subject. This
;i8 a question to be put to that body, and to be deter
mined bv that body. The ensuing Legislature, will
assemble fresh from the people, and charged b the
.people, both in the election of a majority of that body
and of a Democratic Governor, with several
tant measures of justice and reform. .We can bare
no doubt that -the majority are d.uly impressed with a
sense of their responsibility, and that they are rully
informed as to., the views of the people and the public
w expectations. This matter will unquestionably, in
ourjopinion, be considered, and maturely considered
byhe majority ; and our confidence in the majority
is suchi that we believe they will do whatever is best
for th cause 'of justice, the . interests of the State,
and the advancement and welfare of the Democratic'
party. ,v .. - -
We shall lay before our readers, in the course of a
week or so, some extracts from the newspapers in
1846, embodying the jriews of both shies on this
subject, at the time the Raynermander was passed
and we shall also re-publish, in due time, the unan
swerable Speech of Mr.. Graves, of Cas well, zminsi
'the Raynermander, together with extracts from other
Speeches delivered at the same session.
John W. Forney, of he PennsyKanian, a Demo
cratic paper, holds the following noble sentiments in
relation to the Fugitive SlavX'Xaw and the present
crisia in public affairs i a .. .
" We not only stand ijrthis law in its integrity
but we takeground against any alteration of it, unless
the more effectually to carry out its provisions. To
say that it shall be obeyed, and at the same time to
denounce lis material points, or to declare that they
must be repealed, or amended, is the course of manv
of those who profess to be alarmed at the movements
of the ultra-Abolitionists, in regard to this very im
portant Jaw. We talk no such nonsense. We throw
no such tub to the whale. We are in favor of the
law as it now stands! It maj be defective as all
laws may be ; but we are opposed to Us amendment,
unless the more effectually to enforce that plain provis
ion of the Constitution upon which it is based. We
do not under-estimate the clamor which has been
raised against it, when we declare that we are not in
the least alarmed by it. Such clamor has no terrors
for us; We solemnly believe it this law had not
been enacted in connection with the recent measures
of Compromise, , that the present agitation in the
South would have toppled our present Union into
ruins. The law may be denounced as severe in
some of its provisions it is doubtless severe hut we
would rather see that- law carried out, in all its in
tegrity, and all its parts, than that a single feature of
the Union should be mutilated. It has indeed come
.o this ; and there is no nse in mincing matters about
it. To repeal the Fugitive Slave Law, is ro repeal
the Union. To alter it is to alter the Union. To
resist it is to destroy the Union. In brief terms,
such is the issue presented to us. We are told of the
black man's wrongs, and this law is therefore to be
defeated. But do not let us forget that the law is foun
ded upon the National Constitution that it derives
its vitality from the Constitution and that upon its
rigid enforcement, the whole fabric of the Constitu
tion depends. To keep the Constitution from peril,
is to keep the Union safe. Before this great object,
all imaginary matters sink into the ground. We
would rather see the blood flow in our gutters to sus
tain that Constitution, than that it should be given
op to a clamor or an intimidation. The American
founded this constitution, not for himself, but for the
whole white race. It is the instrument nf civilization,-of
freedom, and of Christianity. The whole
world is interested in its preservation. ' It never can
be subverted without a fearful struggle; it never
will-be subverted because the blacks raise an alarm
against the rigid enforcement of a. law carrying out
one of 'its most vital provisions. The public senti
ment of the country would not give way to the de
mand of the white man for the same object and it
will not surely do so for the black man. That senti
ment goes, as we believe, for the lawns it stands ;
goes for it without repeal or modification: except the
more effectually to carry out the provision of the
Constitution. Such, at all events, is our determina
tion, and we do not hesitate to avow it."
This talk reminds us of the old-fashioned days of
the Republic. Mr. Forney has been true to the
Constitutional rights of the South in all this fearful
struggle. We honor and applaud him for it.
Forney has never indulged as all the Northern
editors and many of the Whig Southern ones have
in reflections upon what are called Southern " ultra
8ts,'" and disunionists." He is too just a man to
stand by and see his own section trample upon the
rights of another section, and then denounce the as
sailed and the wronged section as guilty of " disun
ion "and treason. He has uniformly done the South
justice, and his course in this respect ought to make
the cheeks of many Southern men tingle ith shame.
If you must take a paper printed in zt free State,
take the Pennsylvanian. The Weekly paper is only
one dolJara year. Send on a dollar bill of any Bank
in the United States, and address i-enns yivanian
Office, postage paid, Philadelphia.
Boston Nullification is still in the ascendant. Mess
rs. Hughes and Knight, of Georgia, who went on to
reclaim the Crafts, fugitive slaves, were insulted by
the mob, and narrowly escaped with their lives. They
were arrested several times and held to bail in $10,
000 each time, on an. action of slander brought by their
own negroes'; and the ground of the action was, that
they had slandered the Crafts (their own negroes,)
in. saying they had stolen themselves and their clothes
from the State of Georgia !' '
It is stated by Telegraph, that on Friday last a
Constable proceeded to the United States Hotel, Bos
ton, armed with a warrant for the arrest of Hughes
and Knight, on a criminal charge of attempting to
kidnap Crafts and his wife, with orders to take them
before the Police Court. . But they had left for home.
The Marshal, it is said, can get no one to execute
a precept for him under the Fugitive Slave Law ; and
at this moment the City of Boston, and indeed the
whole people of Massachusetts, (with a few noble ex
ceptions,) ' are openly arrayed against the law and
the constituted authorities of the United States. South
Carolina threatened to nullify Massachusetts has nul- ,
What is to be done I We hear the rumor and we
gave it to'our readers on Saturday last that the Pres
ident would issue his .Proclamation against these
traitors and ftnatics, and that he would execute the
law. But lhe rumor, thus far, is all. It is not cer
tainly known that action has been had on the subject.
Has the President been informed by the Marshal of
this condition of things? And if so, why does he'
hesitate? We shall know his course in a few days.
He must either preserve silence on the subject, oract.
We hope he will march right up to his duty, and per-
foim it. Tbjp is no time for hesitation, equivocation,
or evasion.. Oh! that Andrew Jackson were now
President of the United States !
It is stated positively that Kossuth, and the other
Hungarian exiles at Keutaya, have received permis
sion to retire from the Ottoman territory, their term
of detention having expired, and most of these dis
tinguished individuals will at once proceed to the
United States where it appears they intend to settle.
The Porte has published a decree permitting all for
eigners in their service to resign, no matter what their
creed. This measure offers facilities to a number oi
refugees, who had adopted the Mussulman faith, to
return to Christianity. General Bern is mentioned as
being foremost in the list. : V
Mr. Calhoun's Statue, by Powers, which was lost
some monlhsfego from a vessel wrecked off Fire Island,
hat been recovered. The statue has been but slightly
injured. Part of the right arm, mostly, however, cov
ered by drapery, has been broken. .
, Horace Mann has been defeated in the Whig Con
vention of the 8th Congressional District of Massa
chusetts in the nomination for Congress. S.H. Wi
fey was nominated. The vote was Walley 64, Mann
43. Good. .' ' ' ; ' . ' v

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