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HO! FOR MEXICO! .
Mr. Holde: Having just road two highly inte resting Letters bf Lieut. Porter; published m t . e National Intelligencer, on the subject of the soil, .cli mate and productions of Tuspan, Mexico, for the in ELtionbf vour readers 1 will thank you to give tkem aa insertion in your useful paper. - : . MfTi.' Aoriculture is about to as sume in this country its natural position and impor tance. Heretofore it has been held in but a seconda ry consideration. The cause ot mis was was plenty and the population small ; but with ihe increase of population our agricultural andhrtlfuJ tural necessities have increased. Our lands have also : a ..t;nrr into the Union all climates, embrac- in those similar to the tropics and congenial to the crowth of tropical fruits and vegetation. Ve are 1 il i no- Asia-ward for teas, sujrar canes, fruits, RnmB"nf ihmi articles can no doubt be found hnmo. and nan be obtained at but little cost nn...i;..lv I therefore offer, for the benefit of those who feel Bn interest in this subject, a few agn wnlmral statistics, collected by myself at random dur ' in tho late Mexican war, while stationed in the pro- vinoosof Tusoan and CJiincoutepec. 1 must here re mark that but very little attention , was paid to agri culture in anv part of Mexico previous to their hide- nondence. or while a colony of Spain, from the fact ' that the mother country classified her colonies, some of which .she devoted toagncultural pursuits, whilelrom others she only abstracted the precious metals. The Island of Cuba on the Atlantic side, and Chili on the Pacific, were encouraged and directed by the Span ish Crown to pursue altogether agriculture. It is a well-known fact that both Chili and Cuba contain ed mines of copper, silver and gold. These mines were, not allowed to be worked; but the mines tf Mexico and Peru were extensively worked. In the latter departments agriculture was forbidden; so much sb that in Peru wheat was not cultivated, but it was supplied from Chili ; and Mexico was supplied in coffee and sugar from Cuba, although both these ar ticles courd be supplied by the former in greater quan tifesand of belter quality. She therefore reni'e.ed the colonies mutually dependant on each other in fact, keeping the natural resources oi eacn uormani : i eru possessed naturally a belter soil and climate for agri culture than Chili; her natural manures lay in mines inexhaustible, along her coast and on her hills ; yet she was not permitted to use them abundantly. Mex ico possessed naturally a better soil than Cuba, yet she was not allowed to cultivate more than enough to yield sparingly to her inhabitants but Cuba was taxed in the agricultural productions to her utmost extent to supply Mexico. The natural productions of the latter were never fully developed, but she was left to herself, and to run wild in a prolific natural growth, without the aid of art; and while agricultu ral instruments were plenty boih in Chili and Cuba, Mexico was destitute of ihem, and the native was left his matchett only to scratch up his prolific soil. The provinces of Tuspan aud Chinconkpec are blessed with all climates. While we find the de partment of Chincontepee very warm, we have the department of Tonticomatlan both cold and warm. But, in order to give a better idea of these provinces, 1 will here give their boundaries: They are bound ed on the north by the district of Tampico, on the east by the Guirof Mexico, on the south by the dis tricts of Papanlla (Stale of Vera Cruz) and Haun chinango, (State of Puebla,) on the west by the dis trict of Hugnlla. Its greatest extent from north to south is seventy miles, and from west lo east sixty five miles. It extends sixty miles on the gulf coast. Three rivers empty into the Gulf, off which there is good anchorage; these are Tanguino, Tuspan, and Cazonis. On the latter river there is a French set tlement, having purchased their lands under the Mex ican law encouraging emigration and settlement. They are employed in rasing vanilla, sartopuri Ha, su gar, colton, rice, procuring India rubber from the Palo de Uie, or caoutchouc, wnicn grows in great aoun dance, gum copal, &c. These are exported to France by the way of Vera Cruz. Tuspan, liie beautiful villa, is embraced between three flower-clothed hills, and is built on the banks of he river of the same name, the banks of which are covered with plants and flowers of all varieties; theorchidra: and legum inosea vex the air with their delightful fragrance. The soil and climate are both congenial to vegetation ; the river abounds in fish ; the wood resounds with the wild sweet notes of the feathered songster. The river meanders through a soil not exceeded in rich ness and productiveness by any in the world, nor ex celled by any of the West India islands in its trop ical productions. The gnava grows wua ; so aoes. of clean hulled rice: properly cultivated, there is no doubt it would yield much more. I recommend this variety to Southern planters. Indigo grows wild in every direction, but its cul ture is entirely neglected. This article could; no doubt, be profitably cultivated.' and the whole of the United States could be supplied from the provinces A of Tuspan and Chicpntepec. ' ' f ustic, wett Known in commerce as a aye-wooa, rrrows in the extensive forests of th's province in great aDunaance ana vast size, vuanuues are yean y suif ped to France, and from thence to this country, it could be transported direct to the United Stales at much less expense, and would no doubt be profitable. Pimento grows wild every- where and is ripe about the month of September. Sarsaparilla is indigenous, and grows wild in Rrea abundance, and can be obtained all the year round. Every rancho has its apiary, and honey and wax is in great abundance and cheap. This could no doubt be made a profitable business. , The argave Mexicana, petal, and long-leaved ma chetie grow here in great abundance, and hemp is made from them equal to jute or Sisal. I his part ot Mexico being near to us, the articles could be obtain ed here betteT and cheaper than at Sisal or the bast Cocoa rrows finely and of much better qualify than that Irom "Tabasco ; but, owing to the port of 1 uspan not beinjr one of entry, this article has not been ex tensively gather for exportation, but is used in prel ence to all other kinds by the inhabitants. The india rubber tree grows in great abundance, and the gum produced Irom it is of a superior quality ; yet, owing to the causes staled above, but little is gathered. Gum copal can be obtained in great abundance from the tree nroducinir it, as it is indigenous to this part of Mexico; besides, many other gums used in com merce can be and are found here in great quantities. The vanilla aromatica grows well, and those trees adapted to its culture are numerous. This plant, be ing a parasite, requires lor us propagation irees w mcit do not shed their bark a c'iinate warm, and regular temperature to cureand preserve them. It is used to flavor ice-creams, cakes, ca:.dies, soaps, and perfume ry. A specimen of this plant can be seen at me rsa- lional Conservatory ; it is worth in commerce trom twelve to sixteen dollars per pound. A few vines will yield this quantity. It is one of the most valuable productions of Mexico. 1 think the vine could bo propagated in Florida on the orange tree. Oranges, lemons, plantains, bananas, and pineap ples grow in great abundance, of a finer and belter quality than those grown in Cuba. Yours, &c. W. D. PORTER. Lieut. Porter's second letter shall appear in our next. Obeying Orders. The oldest inhabitant perfect ly remembers the W idow Trot lor, who used, many years ago, lo occupy a small wooden house away down irHauover street, in somewhat close proximi ty to Salutation alley. Well, this widow was bless ed with a son, who, like Goldsmith, and many olher men, distinguished in after life, was the dunce of his class. Numerous were Hie floggings which nis siu LETTER FROM THE HON. VVM. R. KING. Pine Hills, Dallas County-, Jane 16, 1851. My Dear Sir : I very much regret that my absence from home deprived me of the pleasure of receiving your friendly letter at an earlier day. I hasten to re turn an answer. You doubtless attach to my opin ions a much greater importance than they deserve, but, as one of your Senators In the councils of the Nation, you have a right to demand them on all po litical questions, and especially, on those affecting your personal sesurity and rights of property. I shall proceed lo lay them before you with the frankness that becomes a man. Concealments of opinions, de liberately formed, never has, and I trust never will, constitute any part of my character,' public or private. I shall never be deterred from giving utterance, from the apprehension that they may not be in accordance with those which others entertain, or that, by making them known, I may affect injuriously my standing as a public man. This is well understood by those who have known me longest, and know me best. If H fall into error to which every man i9 liablewhen convinced or it, 1 promptly admit and Tetraci n, oui much as I desire to obtain the approbation of the peo ple I have the honor to represent, 1 should feel that 1 was unworthy of ihe position in which it has pleased them to place me, if, to gain it, I were to trim my sails lo every popular breeze and violate the obligations I owe lo our common country. I con demn no man for honestly differing with me in opin ion, but 1 have too much self-respect, and, I trust, independence, to surrender my own to please any man or any set of men. ' I had supposed lhat my nclion on the so-called compromise bill of the last Congress, together with the reasons which governed it, had been so plainly narked by my public declarations and votes as to pre clude the possibility of misapprehension. From the tenor of your letter, this seems not to be the case. A brief statement will, 1 trust, nut an end to all doubt or cavil for the future. I was, as you know, one of the committee ot thirteen, whicn reported the com promise bill. Without going into detail, I will only say, it did not receive my sanction in committee, nor would I, under any circumstances, have given it my support as reported. The parts lo which I principal ly objected were, the admission of California as a State with a territory more extensive than any three States in the Union, and the clause which emanci pates slaves brought into the District for sale. I could not fail to see that most of those who advocat ed the admission of California with her extravagant limits, would, but lor the prohibition of slavery con tained in her constitution, have been the most violent in opposition to her reception into the Union. She owed her admission, then, to the fact that the people of the slaveholding Stales were deprived of an equal participation in a territory which, of right, equally belonged to the citizens of all the Stales. Finding that there was a fixed majority determined to perpet rate this actof injustice, it brought to the direct vote, I made an effort to curtail the limits of the Stale, so that a territorial government might be established South of the Sierra Nevada. At one time the they came very near defeating ihe passage of the civil and diplomatic appropriation bill, to winch, after the rejection of the Clayton bill, we had attached the pro vision. "..-. , - J - ;. , ' JVIy only reason for voting in favor of the proposi tion lo repeal the Mexican law, when made at the last session, was, that 1 knew property to be sensi tive, and I feared that many persons might be deter red from removing with their slaves to those territo ries, even should the discovery of valuable mines render their labor profitable, after Ihe opinions of such men as Clay and Webster were given in favor of tho validity of the Mexican law abolishing slavery. Fur that reason, and that alone, I would again vote for its repeal. ; You say that I am claimed by the Union-submission parly oi your county. If the claim set up rests upon the supposition that I am an advocate for the formation of a third party, either State or federal, it is moSt erroneous. When attempted at Washington, during the last session,! think 1 may safely say that no one contributed more to defeat the movement than I did. I have always considered the good old Dem ocratic party as the true Union party ; and that noth ing more is required to put down sectional divisions, and preserve peace and harmony, than to have the government administered in strict conformity with democratic principles. I have ever been a State Rights man of the Jefferson school, and can fearless ly appeal to my whole public life in proof of the as sertion. I am not, however, prepared to admit lhat the States possess either the constitutional or the re served right to secede from the Union. I consider it to bo a paramount right, inherent in every people, to free themselves from oppression, when the action of the government violates their essentia rights, and be comes too grievous to be borne; and that, from the nature of our federative system, it would be the most effectual mode to accomplish that object. I have heretofore given publicity to my views as to the position which 1 conceive the slaveholding Slates should occupy in reference to the action of the last Congress ; and I will not extend this long letter by recapitulating them, but refer you to my answer to the invitation of the citizens of Tuscaloosa, in the month of October last. Nothing has since occurred to induce me to change the opinions therein express ed.. It will at all times afford me pleasure to commu nicate with you freely upon ail subjects of public in terest. Faithfully, 1 am your friend and obedient servant. WILLIAM R. KING. Col. A. 6. Clitherall. ' , i From the St. Louis Reveille. -.. X STEPHEN A. DOUGLAS. The State Register hoists the name of Judge Doug las for the next presidency, subject to the decision of the democratic national convention. We take the following just trrbute to the 44 Little Giant" from the introductory remarks of the editors : 44 We have, as our readers will perceive, placed at the head of our columns the name of Stephen A. Douglas as a candidate for the presidency. In doing this we give expression not merely to our own con stant and long-cherished preference,' but, as we are fully convinced, of an overwhelming majority of the people of Illinois. In the ranks of the democracy of the State there is no diversity of opinion on th subject. Mr. Douglas is, beyond a doubt, the first choice of the entire party. lie is emphatically the favorite of the West; he possesses the unlimited con fidence of the people, and has always proved himself worthy to enjoy it. Endowed with, ability of . the highest order, and animated on all occasions by a pure and devoted patriotism, he has, in a compara tively shcrt time, acquired a reputation coextensive with the Union, and honorable alike to his State and country. As Illinoisans we have reason to be proud of him, and cannot but rejoice that a discriminating public sentiment points hi in out as worthy to receive the highest civic honors which the constitution allows to any citizen. . .. - 1 1 o any man who might be the choice of the demo- -Publi, 1 rn -- . 1 L ra me MalifaT p, - . ivcaoure in iayinr befaro .... following correspondence in relation . ".W Act, passed at the last ... iae Ki semblv. ,r- eurrje A Zthnnrvh m -is the letter of the Atfy. Genl. V? Pob''eaii. contains an able and lucid explanation i er'.f'- to which his attention was diij '. "eDoi! not, will remove all difficulty as to ih ' e W . . .. ' HALIFAX, June 1, 4 . uir i Aiinongn l nave not the nl S1 personal acquaintance, 1 trust that yoSWml,f .u.vj v. .ma communication, and oi 1 "a some dimculties ansiner out nf ii.- D UIve for lit. neran. passed by the last General Assemblr Rw 4Iia fi .ot n : C .1 J ' . J " o-'iuii ui uiai ACl a DPren. ed to pay three cents, on everv doll,, . 18 or debtors' &c own liabilities, A . J . ll ... r 'J. UI n. vuicu auu aciuany uue irom or by any got le- upon all sums at interest iTf' , by way of interest, be what 61 k' But the second section of the Acl contain J J. . "o m r.i Rh, I L 'U . lowing Proviso.- " That every person .j v. ,uICB, uiriuenu or profit i mount equal to the sum of interest which k a" they owe, or pay or secure to be paid on hi their own debt or debts, which shall nnI I ' he,f to me tax imposed by this Act." Now u wt Know wnemertnis Proviso annlioo . .l ere u roviao i,e. rr : : cratic party we would feel ourselves bound to vield a .j;i : . ... - .J. ... .;nt If . ,k- d r. " lu 1 -''' oiuucio BuiMiori i dui we coniess mai wiui iuvibu iiseii la nni Stephen A.Douglas as the standard-bearer of the t0 me- For instance suppose A has securprf t'f" democracy, we could go into the contest with an en- interest to the amount of $150 upon sums of u thusiasm and energy which it would scarcely be at i n teres tr and that he owes, by way of ' possible for any other name lo excite. The Little $100 has A a right to reserve from t,..,,: 'Dle'ML Giant ' of Illinois would afford a rallying cry which i tne $150 ol interest secured to him nm ' ? OBiof . i r f .mi ... , - v -.. ! .! I ! a I .i . . ' -" uiiit ucr man since uie uays oi 'via MicKory could command. Ihe lime and lemon. Coffee, cotton of two kinds, tin t.-ee grape, sugar cane, rice, cocoa, tobacco, vanilla, indigo, pimento, sarsaparilla, are the indigenous plants of this department. The forest, plains, banks of streams, and ihe rivers are prolific in all kinds of woods-flowers and beautiful birds. The rich, gaudy, and fragrant plumerea fatigues the air along the tip land banks of the river by its beauty and fragrance; the datora, single and double, with its bell-like blos soms, cloys the sonsps with its fragrance ; and the waters are green and fragrant with the leaves anJ blossoms of the sea-side daffodil, lotus, and other aquatica. In this nature's favored spot the shades of nigh tare scarcely drawn over youbefore theearisassail edby the sweet soft notes of a feathered songster, which comes floating in almost seraphic strains through the calm solitude ofthe night; you are lulled to sleep imperceptibly, and the senses become dormant in a gush of fragrance and music. The morning is ush-1 fered in by the loud serearn of the eojoleto, or tufted ; purple turkey, and the noisy chichilaea and chatter ing voluble parrot. Every tree-top soon has an oc cupant of the feathered trihe, making the air melo dious With their songs ; each hour brings from the shady recesses oflhe forest a new songster, each day and month its own plant, and each month a climate which vies in healihfulness and balminess with its predecessof. Such are the departments of Tupnn and Chiconteped. it was here in these delighifuJ groves, among its flowers, listening to the delightful xungsiers, mingling wiui us mnu ana nospitanie in habitants, 1 spent a pleasant year. It is of the duction&yof this country I intend lo give you the dull statistics. We will commence With sugar canp. This article grows in great abundance, and far superior to any of the Cuba varieties. While the Cuba cane requires to be laid every threeyears, this will eoniinue to yield in gocd quantity ten or twelve. It is to be much re gretted lhat the mills here are of such miserable con struction ; merely made of wood, they simply produce irom tne cane a material called peloneiila, which is done up and sent away to be manufactured into suar, 1 tie quantity ot peloncilla lo the alrntn), or ni pros- I pect was fair that my proposition, so proper in itself, f -.iill Dnnrifinil . 1 1 hnwoffur f:WoA am! C- -yftrr ho. niditv brought upon liim, and the rc.M 10 Knowieage i . -,,, i!,nc.ni miloo r ni !ST was ivilh ri;in trulv a " vaie or lears. One day he came home, as usual, with red eyes nnd hands. " O, you blockhead !" screnm?d was a bit of a viiago, Mrs. Trotte been rettin' another lickin' I know O, yes," replied young Mr. Trotter ; " that's one uv the reg'lar exercises lickin' me. "Arierl've licked Troiter," says the master, " I'll hear the 'riih matic class." But, mother, to change Ihe subject, as the criminal said when he found the judge was get ting personal, is Ihere any arrant 1 can do lor you i " es. " prumbled the widow: " only vou re so eternal slow about anything you undertake so get a pitcher of water, and be tour years about ll, will ye I JJob Trotler took Ihe pitclier, and wenoeu ins way in tho direction of the street pump ; but hehad'ntgot far, when he encountered his friend, Joe Buffer, the mate ot a vessel, issuing from his house, aud drag ging a heavy sea chest along after him. Come Bob," said Joe, " bear a hand and help me down to Long Wharf with this." " Well, so I would," said Bob, " only you see mother sent me after a pitcher of water." What do you care lor your mother she don't care lor you. Come along. " Well," said Bob, " first let me hide the pitcher where I can find it again." iiii mese wura ne tioweu aoy ins eurmern i - r . . 7 - " , J ware under a flight of stone steps, and accompanied ' 7otS7X t1hat b? 8"C,h ? measurf y ards.ip. The pilot was urging tho i L" "" !: .V "c,leu 'm.."usiy. 1 r,e man could have felt more indignant than 1 did at this I partial and unjust legislation, but I am free to declare I .linf T inA It 1 ItAAn . l t U fn PUD an llm m s n a h!a d his mother sne 1 .. of the Uonsljtutjon as con,ended for by many ; ter, was you ve jdiJ j SQ consjjpr j,f j neither could nor would have I expressed the opinion that the people of the South : could, with honor, and nnder the circumstances should I acquiesce in what had been done. The Constitution 1 simply gives to Congress the power to admit new j States, and the only restriction upon the exercise of this power is. that the State Constitution shall be re publican. No territorial training is required, ho as- i sent nt Uongress lo the formation of the Constitution, t .. ; : i. c .1 n. . iiriuu3i. witeu, is 10 11 u iuui u. t no wiiuie iimuer rests with Congress So exercise a sound discretion. As respects the Bill for abolishing the slave trade j in the District of Columbia, to which you parlicular ! ly call my attention, I wish to be distinctly under j stood. At an early period of the first session of the last Congress, I declared in my place in the Senate, that I stood ready at any time to authorize the break ing np of those slave marts in the midst of the city Dltensive as ihey were to decency, prejiidici.il lo i neaiin and in many respects shocking to humanity. Ill was my desire to clothe the corporate authorities ! of the city with the power to abate them as nuisances ; whenever ihey conceived it proper to do so ; and for I such a bill I would unhesitatingly have (riven mv his friend aboar caplain to cast off and take pilot advantage cf the wind and tide, but the captain was wailing the arrival of a bey who had shipped the day before, and wishing no good lo his eyes for the delay he had occasioned. At last he turned to Bob and said : peoule more directly interested entertained no anore- i hension ofthe kind and I think I can say with cer j tainty that nine-tenths of the citizens desired those ; slave marts to be suppressed. 1. however, voted (against the bill as it passed, because the penally for " What do you say, youngster, to shipping with I """""V swancipauon 01 no le; rael I'll treat vou well ar.d give you ten dollars a an'' 1 W0l.t!d not unde.r an circumstances, have given ,,!, 'i I my sanction lo emancipation in the District nf Colum "Should like lo go," said Boh, hesitatingly, ' but ! b.'a 'ff penalty for the violation of a law or mv mother " in any olher manner and Ishouldfeelttabounden ' She 11 I '"""''l"' "c " v ,c ciiiuncipaiing clause " Hang your mother," said the captain. be glad lo get rid of you. Cuine, will you go.' " I hain't got no clothes." Mere's a chest full. The other chap was your size, and they'll fit you to a T." " I'll go." " ('asi off that line there !" shouted the captain, 1 .1., ,1 ; . p i, i- . t -i . 1 1 anu uie snip ten 01 wim me uue ane was soon Stan just whenever proposed. Permit me to advert for a moment to ihe other pro- visions 01 uie 0111 as reported oy me committee; and lor winch, alter undergoing several modifications. gave my vole and first as to the boundaiy of Texas. I am fully satisfied thai in giving my support to the line as agreed on, although 1 had contended tor a dil- ,lir.fr l,.u-n ti. h n-ith , n.ir ..;nk ereni Dounoary, 1 was promoting me irue interest ol -" J. - .... ...ut..u .v,jr o.i iv... , Mi r, J -f ,La .U1 C-..,l. 1H -1 tl.. X( ...t k ... t i.v.(i uiiu j 1 mi., njiuic uvu&ii. BHD vldUtur WI1IUII of canvass set. She was bound for the Northwest via Canton and back again, which was then called has been raised against the measure, " that slave ter- the double vovarre and iis,i!l- nnonnirrl ahr.,,1 f. Tn0T3 "aa Deen surrendered to treesoii," has no toun- ,0 j , .r ui ro I the meantime the non-appearence of Bob seri- rro-! off. ously alarmed his mother. A night passed, and the town crier was called into requisition a week, when she gave him up, had a note read for her i. the meet ing, aud went into mourning. Just four years after the above occurrences, the ship got back to port, and Bob and his friend was paid I he wages or the widow s son amounted to just j four hundred and eighty dollars, and he found 0:1 (Squaring his accounts with the caplain that his ad vances had amounted to the odd tens, and four hun dred dollars clear were the fruits of his Jong cruise. As he walked in the direction of his mother's house, in company with Joe, he scanned with a curious eye the housos, the shops, and the peope that he passed. Nothing appeared changed ; the same signs indicated ; an ' unchanging hospitality on the pari of the same ls landlords, the same loafers werestanding at the same r n .1 r o 1 1 cAamBil OS WI.a tin. I lin.. rrnr.a nnlit il.n V.UII.IT.O .. .-H.V....V.V. ..I ........ j,V.,V. ,..J O UUJ. ! Willi the old sights and sounds, uob s old feelings square yards, is about seven thousand pounds. T think j revived, and he" almost dreaded te see. debouching L-M : 1 , ' . . . ... - . . " his ancient enemy, the school master to know why he r f ZiVn. -.!. WU ,.Srer WP" '." Klor,da from some alley, a detachment of boys, sent by w. w "v " " ', mviuuutm uisinci l 1 p" , v " "'3inen ihrongh tho hai, been playing truant and to carry him back, to re American tonsul at lammcn aa tlin... ; . 1 J ... J 1 1 . " .... .0 a, a 1. .1111,1 ill , r..ivf liin rMistoninrv wallonintr. communication through an interior natural cunal from that place to the town of Tuspan. Td. Inliqniln nlnn Ml .1. t . . no .uunv.v.1. jiaui. Ki.ia uu iiirougnoul the pro- When he was quite near home, he said, "Joo.,1 wonder ifanybody's found that oM pitcher.' lie stooped down, thrust his arm under the stone- wanMne rr i on, n n r rt I u. a rti . i v w - -i'v. u .ii w ii ibiyiitc-FCi.T. I MIK iiriH'lo itt't i ... i ? i j -t. : i i rAMnmrt i i At r i sieps ana wiiuorew uie .uemicui piece 01 eurmern Oovernment monopoly, anil therefore not pxtpnctivolt- 1 i j j s .u . n . . . J' ii;ivic uvi rxiKflHl VCI I i7o ru l l IioH rlonncif o.l thorn nissl Ion r vpa ra nrrn Ha v. : : i i c w l :. . i i i : . a annnvi 11, . . . rn , i I " 4 I I v utiu uuu u i iu uinvvi siv u A. "..i.i " u" . v,ur " lo his mother's house and found her unv..ip .irai -a-iuj up laitseu per annum in this narl . , 1 . . in una pari niiatoiii!fI arm-chair. of Mexico, and at much less expense than in any part of the United States. The country and land is well adapted to the culti vation of cotton. It is produced abundantly and of a very superior quality. There are found here two species of cotton, both of long staple the one a bush, the other a vine, which is very prolific, bearino- bolls nearly the whole year, or with the exception of one or lwo montb8. In the careless manner it is cultiva ted and cleaned, ninety yards square produce easily 600 pounds of clean cotton ; bnt I have no doubt, by proper attention, with the aid of machinery, &c, this amount could bo vastly increased. I would recom mend to our Southern cotton-planters to obtain varie ties of the seed, and try them in their plantations. The staple is long and fine. mi - i .cc oi corn are raised, and two fullcrons in one year, yielding 70 bushel to the 90 varas or about 85 yards square The varieties are soft white, hard yellow, and prolific white, besides a small blue corn of a very prolific kind. Bread from corn is the principal food ofthe people, as no wheal is raised in the provinces. Ninety square yards will yield annu ally 140 bushels of corn. Tho black beans of the famous frigole prow here in vast quantities, and of a quality far superior to any part of Mexico. Every one who has ever visited any part of Mexico is well acquainted with the famous frtgols dish brought on the breakfast table by all Mex icans. - li. l Rrow" ,B Krbndance, and of a finer qnal Ia s.!5er ,n rin and whiter, than any in the Uni- . v.. n. . iNinety yards square yield 1,200 pound seated in her ac- Slie looked at him foru minute, recognized him, screamed and exclaimed : Why Bob, where have you bteu? What have you been doing 1" " Geilin' that pitcher of water," answered Bob, setting it on the table; 1 always obeyed orders you told me lo be four years about it; and was." Valuk Given to Cotton is its Transforma tions. The enormous value given to cotton in its varrious transformations, is shown in the article of L ic-.e, of which there is at the London exhibition, doubtless, a richer display than the world ever saw together before. India, France, Belgium and Eng land are vieing for supremacy in this manufacture. A manufacturer of Manchester furnished samples of. one pound ot cotton spun into U00 hanks of 810 yards each, making a distance in all of 430 miles, should the single thread be extended to its utmost. Another firm exhibited 1200 hanks, of the same num ber ot yards eai;h, from a single pound of cotton. The first then exhibited one pound of cotton spun into a thread 200 miles long, which shows the per fection to which cotton machinery had arrived. Brussels lace, all made from cotton is exhibited, worth 2001 sterling (1000; per yard. A lace shawl, made in Prance fjr the Duchess of Sutherland, is ex hibited, the cost of which is 10001 sterling. A bri dal dress is shown, for which the owner wants 50001. The girl who wrought at it the first three years be came blind from the heavy task it put upon her eyes. Just think of simple handiwork enhancing the value of a shilling's worth of cotton to $25,000. Philadelphia Ledger , alion in fact. Many, however, without "ivinc to me sunject a thorough examination, have been made to believe that the boundary of Texas had been es tablished at '.he time ol her annexation, and that her right to the whole territory east of the Rio Grande, from its mouth to its source, was unquestioned. No thing can be more erroneous. When Mr. Calhoun, as Secretary of State, negotiated a treaty with the Texas Commissioners, he openly declared that he considered her true Western boundary to be a line to be drawn through what was known as Ihe desert, ly ing between the iNuecesand Kio urande. 1 hat treaty was rejected by the Senate. At a subsequent session, the resolution which passed, authorizing the ad mis sion of Texas, expressly reserved the right of this government to fix, by negotiation with Mexico, her western boundarynothing was said about the Rio Grande .nd thus Texas came into the Union, her western boundary unsettled. The effort to settle it by negotiation having failed, Gen. Taylor was direct ed to take a position on the east bank of the river he removed fiom Point Isabel and encamped opposite iVlata moras. I lie Dames ol falo Alto and Kesaca de la Pa! ma followed. What was then said by Mr. Calhoun, the bold, fearless and uncompromising ad vocate and defender cf Southern rights and Southern interests 1 He denounced, in most indignant terms, Ihe administration of Col. Polk for having involved the conntry in an unjust and unnecessary war, by the invasion of Mexican territory. Texas, then a Slate of the Union, had not, in the opinion of that distin guished man, any well-founded claim to any territory bordering on the Rio Grande, and in lhat opinion' he was sustained by many who now denounce, as faith less to the South, all those-who aided in securing to Texas the undisputed possession of territory large enough for two States, the right to which tbey had stronoiy denied to her. iNo territory has been. sur rendered to free-soil, unless the people of Utah and New Mexico, when they forma constitution, and ap ply for admission as Slates, think proper to prohibit slavery and for the unrestricted exercise of this right, we of the South have always contended. Gov ernments wereeslablished for these territories in strict accordance with all the territorial acts heretofore pass ed, with the exception of that for Oregon. There is no restriction as to slavery ; and the ablest statesmen, and most distinguished jurists of the South, enter tained no donbt that the owners of slaves may wil'i perfect security take them lo either of these territo ries, regardless of the Mexican law. Had the Southern Senators and Representatives entertained any doubt on this subject, do you suppose that they, one and all, would have voted for the bill known as the Clayton bill ; which left the question as to the validity of the Mexican law. to be decided by the Supreme court ; satisfied as we all were, that that decision could not fail to sustain, the rights of the South 1 Yet then, as now, the advo cates for resistance contended that the law ot Mexico excIudetLslavery That they did not themselves be lieve what they so roundly asserted, is apparent from ihe fact that they voted against the amendments to the appropriation bill ofthe same session, which au thorized the President to establish territorial govern ments, saying nothing on the Bubject of slavery 5 and so urgent were they - for a positive restriction, that j We heard, a few days since, of a gentleman in Alabama who had made up his mind not to vote at the approaching election, and gave the following reasons for hisin tended course: Said he, " I want the Union ticket in this State to be elected by a very small majority, for I believe that an overwhelming de feat of the Southern Rights party would ruin us. The North would be emboldened to yet greater disregard of our rights, whereas, if the majority is a small one, it will be construed into evidence of a stron resis tance feeling here, and will restrain the encroach ments of the North." Last winter, while the elec tion was going on in this city, we happened lo stand at the polls with a New Yorker, who had been resi dent here just long enough to vote, and perceiving a roll of Southern Rights tickets in his hand, we asked, with some surprise, if he was distributing them. " Certainly," said he, ' 1 should like to see that box full of them. I vote this ticket," he continued, " not only because I believe .that justice is on the side of the feoutli in this controversy, but 1 am so well ac quainted with the slate of the public mind at the North, and know so well how it is acted upon by the stale of feeling here, that I am satisfied that the su rest way to restrain fanaticism there and thus save the Union, is to roll up a tremendous popular majority for Southern Rights." The moral of these incidents is apparent. The Southern Rights party is the Resistance party, and in the spirit of resistance is to be found the only true conservatism, not only of our rights, but of the Union itself. There is not to be found in the history of the legislation of the last few years, one single redeeming feature which did not originate in regard for this spir it. Had the Southern States acted with union and zeal in sending delegates to the first Nashville Con vention, the compromise measures would never have passed. Had the Southern Rights mass meeting at Macon, last August, mustered twenty thousand strong, we never should have heard of submission in Georgia. What was true then is true now. The Southern Rights party is yet regarded at the North as the party of re sistance, and so, too, the Union party, however it may repudiate the name, is looked upon there as here, the parly of submission. The people on both sides of the Chattahoochee are now engaged in a struggle in which these identical issues are involved.- Not, in deed, whether they will resist or submit to the meas ures of the compromise, but whether the Slates are ' !he provinces of the general government whether an irresponsioie majority at wasningtcn or me peo ple of the several States are really the sovereigns of the land. The country is divided into parties, one of which is 'essentially Slate Rights, and the other a consolidation party. Columbus (Ga.) Scutinal. Poultry. There seems to be no branch of domes tic economy less understood than profitably raising poultry. When we say profitably we do not speak of their value in dollars and cents, for we hold that every dwelling, however humble or splendid it may be, should have a few chickens around ihem ; for there are times in almost every family, both in sick ness and health, whsn money cannot buy the little luxuries that the chickens give us. What profit is there in keeping buy or one hundred hens, without a corresponding supply of eggs 1 Most people think that chickens must pick op their own living, and yield a good supply of eggs in the bargain, but we have found thai chickens forced to roam for their daily food, have little time or inclination to lay ; and those who expect a good supply of eggs without generous feed, may as well plant their choice vegetable seeds in a sand bank, and look for tender, delicious vegetables. We have had some little experience in the "henery," and have found the great secret in getting a supply of eggs through the season, but not in driving the hens up hill, or in feeding then, exclusively on gravel or in supplying them with chalk nest eggs. The whole secret consists in giving them plenty of food, grain and flesh ; any of the grains will answer, as the chicken's mill is very convenient. For eight or nine months in the year chickens will supply them selves with animal lood in vthe shape of insects, but the rest of the time we feed them regularly with flesh as well as corn. Boiled sweet potatoes is an ex cellent food for fowls, but with it they want grain of some kind, and flesh also. In our long, hot sum mers, poultry are inclined to become lousy, but if clean, good ashes are placed near the hen-house, the hens will dust themselves in them until the vermin disappear. Nature is their teacher, and hers is an unerring guide. . A good shelter should be provided for the chickens to roost under ; the manure of chick en properly saved, will repay the expenses of feed ing. It is a great error to crowd too many chickens together. We know nothing of the patent chicken haiching machines, but we do know that fifty hens will lay more eggs and raise more chickens upon one lot or enclosure than will one hundred. They do not flourish in a crowded state, neither will hens lay as j well when great numbers are logeihe.. A hen is a right prudish old lady, and affects treat modesty in selecting her nest and layino- her eirs. always taking a quiet, sly place when it can be found. We say, then, to our readers, keep no more fowls than you can and will feed well. Provide good shel ters for them, save all the manure, and your gardens will pay in their increased productiveness, for all your culture of chickens and then when beel resem bles sole leather, and bacon becomes stale, vou no- chickens - and fresh eggs will prove luxuries in deed. Soil of the South. Pompeii. A recent letter from an American ffen- tleman in Naple3 says; " v esuvius is now calmly smoking, and seems disposed to repose himself from the fatigues of his devasiing labors of last year. Pompeii is slowly ap pearing above ground. About twenty laborers are kept at work, who manage to get off a cartload of earth a day from the subincumbent city. Not one hall ol ihe entire city is yet excavated. The earthy mound which covers it is an exceedingly beautiful and rich vineyard, with houses of peasants scattered over lis suriace. :.a bastion oi tue sea-wall has re cently been unearthed, which goes to confirm the opinion lhat the saa, now nearly a mile distant, onco laved tne walls of Pompeii." We learn from the Wilmington Commercial, that the tress work at the Neuse River Bridge, about 900 feet, which-was destroyed by fire, has been reDlaced and lhat the cars run to the river. The bridge will be in readiness by the first of August. - ? ,". : -.- - From the beginning we have been animated by these feelings. We have entertained a full confi dence, that Mr. Douglas's position would designate him not only the most eligible and popular candidate of the democratic party, but as the man above ail others whose standing and character were suited to the times and exigencies of the age, whose abilities and services would commend him to the firm and un yielding democracy ofthe nation, and whose charac ter and past services, entirely separated from the fac tions and broils of the past, would secure tho confi- j dence and respect of all true men devoted to the U- nion, in every section of the country. But, while entertaining these views, we hesitated as to the pro priety of puling forward his name, lest it might be thought that a spirit of selfishness influenced our people in pressing the claims of their favorite. We preferred lhat demonstrations should first be made in his favor elsewhere. We had an abiding confidence ! that his services would be appreciated, and his emi- j f "' , nent character and merits in due time acknowledged. I . 5 1, Nor have we been disappointed. The result has ve rified the correctness of our anticipations, and justi fied the course which we deemed it prudent to pur sue. Everywhere there are indications, which can not be mistaken, that Stephen A. Douglas is the ehoice of the people. From the North; South, East, j and West the popular voice is heard in his favor, and his name is heard only in accents ol praise. Hi3 course as a public man is everywhere hailed in terms of approval. Unall sides he is acknowledged as the dollars specified in the proviso, but also $ico L .muiu.i.in.i uie sum ot interest which t ready owes If A has such a right. thenT ble to a tax on $20 of interest only. eu There is another point connected with ih j which I beg leave to direct your attention ' tenth section every person is required to ? "e nually, to the Justice appointed to take th. , . The amount of tax which he, eifher in hi right, or in ihe right of any other person or . whomsoever, either as guardian, ati'y BWiit M tee, or in any olher manner whatsueocc ILm"!" undei the revised laws of this Slate" Vi .efot know whether Clerks and Masters in Euuilv aH?1? under the said 10th section, to give in e . . d' collected by them or secured to them, in bSi parties to suits in their Courts ? The on know is different, but I have heard many doubif'1 pressed on the point, and, therefore, your own "' requested. 3 uroP""ooi3 Permit me also to inquire whethpr i!. .. der the revised laws of this State " am .. Bn" or of the Engrossing pu 7" what eflect has the error in ihe constrnniin r .. """ll UI 10th section 1 An early answer is solicited. Very Respectfully Your ob't. serv'i EDW'D. COMGLAXD Esq. c. Wm. Eaton, Jr. Warrenton, N. WaRRENTON. Julv 2n,l IH.-;i J 1 on jes. I 1 i I - . . J always sternly opposed lo the ! ' -' 'e ajru ult. jt friend of Union as the efficient and determined pat- I . ,r ir uPon y .return Irom lialei.rh riot whose exertions have ever been directed to the i ""'""J' d,,er an fence irom homed nearly a frt. irnrwl nf th rnnntrir efforts which faction has made for the subversion of iafiord mf PIeasure. 10 nder you an, aid i miDOw. our free institutions. I er ana. 1 r.eret t,,at 1 " "ft receive your letter at an cauici uajr. j I am of the opinion that the 2nd proviso of ihe 2j "-"" " mo uciciius a gi ine last sess:on it ap plicable to the first section of that Act, as full, to ail intents an.l purposes as if it had been added us a pro. viso to the first section. - 1 am also of the opinion that every person is ex empt Irom paying any lax upon thirty dollars of in terest, dividend or profit, and is further exempt Umu paying any tax upon an amount equal lo the imprest which he pays or owes upon his own debt crdebis. If ( to take the example suggested by yourself) . has interest secured to him to ihe amount of 8150, and owes by way of interest $100, the sum of $100 is exempt from taxation, and in addition lo this, the sum of $30 is also exempt, so that the individual is only bound to list the sum of $20. la relation to ihe lOlh section of the Act which re quires of every person to render " Theainount of tax which he, either in his own right, or in the rilit oi any other person or persons whomsoever, either aa j guardian, attorney, agent or trustee, or in any oilier j manner whatsoever, is liable for " &c, I am of ihe opinion lhat no one is required to list funds held bp him in bis official character. The Act of 1818, for which the last Acl is a sub stitute, upon this point uses in substance and almosl in words, tne same language as the last Act. The usage nnder the Act of 1818 appears to hare hern universal throughout the whole Slate, for no officer lo render a list of funds held by him in his official ca pacity, and the opinion seems to have prevailed with scarcely an exception lhat he was not bound to do anything of the kind. Neither in conversation orde baie, during the late Session, did 1 hear it sugwsled from any quarter, that funds held by a Clerk and Mas ter or any other public officer were subjects of taxa tion, either under the revenue law of 1848, or lhat of 1850. If the Legislature had intended to introduce a principal so novel and so important into the reve nue system of the State, as that of taxing moneys neid oy puoiic officers, I think that the purpose would have been explicitly declared by the Statute. The difficulties and embarrassments likely to arise from such legislation are such, that it ought not lo be pre sumed, from the general words or in any other man ner" (broad as 1 admit the language to be) that the law makers had this purpose in view. There is an evident mistake in the 10th section of the last Act, and in the 7th line. Instead ofRetited laws, it should be Revenue laws. As the printer seems to have directed the attention of the reader to the word revised, it is probable that the mistake was not made Under these circumstances, we can no longer hes Hate. Our preferences, long entertained and well founded, we find sustained by the earnest, true, and ever-constant democracy of the country. We throw to the breeze ihe banner of Douglas. We see in it ihe omens of victory ; we hail it as the prestige of our hopes, our wishes, and our success. . To the people of this Stato it is needless to address any considerations in his favor. They have seen him, poor and friendless, without patronage or re sources, struggling against adversity, and bravely contending against untoward fortune. They know his truth, his honesty, and his devotion to the prin ciples of republican freedom. They acknowledge his worth and patriotism. He has been tried in their service, and was never found wanting; on no occas ion has he ever betrayed a trust, or disappointed the confidence of those who placed their reliance in his trustiuiness and capacity. In one of the eastern pa pers we have seen him characterized as " the honest Douglas." The euloium was well considered and faithful. His whole caieer has afforded an example which may serve as a model, and be pointed out as worthy of imitation and praise. Such is ihe man whom the Illinois democracy com mend to the popular confidence. We misrepresent no portion of that democracy in taking this course. Their unanimous voice is in his favor. There is no doubt, no hesitation as to his qualifications, or the policy of engaging in his support. None will with draw their assent, or deny that we have expressed the popular wish. We repeat, we throw his banner to the breeze. We call upon the friends of the Union everywhere to respect his worth, his ability, and his integrity. Under his command the Losts ot democracy have no occasion to fear defeat. The prestiges of victory are on his side the omens have declared in his favor success is emblazoned on his standard his very name is a watchword of triumph. He is no advocate ot disunion no wretched tool of faction, who places his own advancement above the integrity and pros perity of the country. All his energies have ever been devoted to the cause of union, peace, and har mony ; and if the past may be regarded as any guar antee of the future, he will always be found in the path which patriotism points out; he will never fail to be recognised as the sincere republican, the true patriot, the unswerving friend of popular rights, the honest advocate of justice, the determined foe of eve ry wrong. This is our estimate of Stephen A. Douglas. It is founded upon-long observation and actual know! edge It has the sanction of the people of Illinois : and we speak in all confidence when we say there is none more worthy, none more available, none more competent to fill ihe highest dignity which freemen can bestow." The Press is unfaithful and corrupt, because the peo ple u-ill not sustain it in independence. The great mass of mankind are under the influence of passion, rather than reason, in their political views, and hence they require to have their prejudices flattered. Private in terest is thus advanced by ministering to these feel ings, and therefore we find the organs of one party approving oi every measure, However atrocious or un constitutional, advocated by its leaders, and condem ning every measure, nevermind how justand lawful, espoused by its opponents. Can a country prosper under such a w retch eJ per version of the blessings designed to be secured by a free press 1 Are we forever to be the sport of dema gogues and selfish aspirants, who know no other mo tive of action but their own advancement and glory ? Is it not worth some sacrifice on the part of every lover of truth and the welfare of the republic, that the press should be regenerated 1 Many will answer in the affirmative, but they almost despair of seeing it accomplished. We are aware of the difficulties that interpose in conducting an independent journal. The displeasure of patrons is constantly held up in terro rem over the editor's pen. The laconic phrase, " Stop my paper,1" from a subscriber, has a magic influence in stopping an editor's ink. Forourself, we can with propriety declare, that we never told a wholesome troth in our columns, which did not cost us six dollars. But, nevertheless, the work is practicable, though, like all great reforms, it will require time for its ac complishment, and the sustaing influence of the pat riotic and disinterested. Norfolk Argus. by hiin, but by the Clerk in the engrossment or en rollment of the bill. The 10th section of the Act is We have had a succession of delightful showers for the past few days. The corn crons Innfc fini. and indeed vegetation of every, sort appears to be in a most nourishing condition. The latter rains" have come to gladden the heart of the Farmer and to strengthen the faith of sinful man in the great Dispo ser of events who orders all things for the best." Graham Democrat. " Mammoth Hbad or 'Wheat. We have been pre sented, by one of our subscribers, J. W. Murray Esq. of this county, with a head of wheat, which meas ured nearly seven inches in length, weighed half an. ounce, and yielded one hundred and seven beautiful and perfect grains. . The kind of wheat of which this is a sample, we. believe is known as the golden chaff. We wish -our friend many returns of such a golden harvest.' .." -,.' Graham Democrat. a copy of the 1 1 th section of the bill reported hy the Committee on Finance in the Hsuse of Commons, with the single exception that it uses the word reriiei, instead of the vord revenue, and this was a mere mistake in copying. You will find the bill reported by the Committee on Finance, in the bound up Doc uments of the last session, 2nd vol., page 673. Ev ery member ofthe Assembly is provided with a cop, ot the Documents. I do not think that the above mistake will in prac tice do any harm, although it certainly wears an un handsome appearance.- - ft is yery obvious from oth er words in the 10th section and from the provisions -r.i . . . n .. ... . . '. . oi me aci generally, mat the word revised is a mis take, and I think it almost impossible upon a careful reading of the whole Act lo misconceive ihe purpose of the Assembly. They certainly intended, as we may well infer from the Act itself, that a man should list all property and money which he is liable lo list under the revenue laws ofthe State. The Act being one to raise revenue in order to provide for the public necessities, would doubtless receive a liberal and favorable interpretation from the Courts, and the, would not, unless it were inevitable, adopt a construc tion which would render it nugatory or seriously im pair its efficacy. Yours very Respectfully, WILLIAM EATON, Jr. Edward Cowiolahd, Esq., Halifax, N. C. How to be Miserable. Sit at the window, and look over the way at your neighbor's excellent man sion, which he has rectntly bought and paid for, and sigh out : Oh, that I was a rich man." Get angry with yoor neighbor, and think you have not got a friend in the world. Shed a tear or two ; take a walk in the burial ground, continually sayinjj to yourself,- " When shall I be buried here?" ' Sign a note for a friend, and never forget your kind ness, and every hour in the day whisper to yourself,'- 44 1 wonder jf he will pay the note 1 " Think every body means to cheat you. Closelv exam inn men hill vnn lake., linubl its be ing genuine till you put the owner to a p-reat deal of trouble, -j ; - ri? .. .. ... a oeueve every dime passed to yon is but a 8ixpem. crossed, and express your doubts about getting rid of it if you take it.' ' Never accommodate, if yon can possibly help H Never visit the sick and afflicted, and never giv a farthing to the poor. . . ... . Grind the faces and hearts of ihe poor and unfortunate.- , - ." s - .. ; . . A Parallel. The Devil quoting Scripture and Whig editors and orators quoting Gen. Jackson. - '"'- Tuscumbia ( Ma.J Democrat.