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THE PITT&BTJRG- DISPATCH; SUNDAY,' JUNE 9, 1889.
10 I conditions of the atmospheric trap would be established, and as now a great deal of beat from the sun would be for a time im prisoned in and near the earth's crust, and bo made to do the work which renders our planet habitable. All the movements which affect the earth's atmosphere, which constantly mix the good and the bad air, bringing refresh ment to plant and animal alike, are due to this peculiar fact just above noted, viz, that the heat does not get out as easily as it comes in, and therefore, warms the earth's surface, which communicates that warmth to the lower levels of the air. The method in which this heated lower level of air cre ates atmospheric currents is simple. The operation is due to the fact that HEATED A1E EXFAJTDS. The reader is familiar with the fact that hot air rushes upward through a chimney, and irthe chimney be tall the energy thus developed is very great. He is probably al eo familiar with the fact that a balloon moves upward if it be filled with heated air. "We can, therefore,imagine that this warm air, next the earth's surface, seeks naturally to : i c , Flo. 3 Showing the formation of cloud banners on the MatterSorn. rise, but it is overlaid and held down by a layer of cooler air of vastly greater thick Bess than the warm stratum. The thickness of the layer warmed by contact with the earth may be accounted as a mile or less, While the overlying layer (but slightly or Jiot at all affected by this heating process) is tome scores of miles thick. It is this in ertia of the overlying air which causes the heated atmosphere or the summer time to lie next the earth's surface, while directly un above at the height of two miles or so, the vapor in the clpuds is in the frozen State. There are several ways by which the hot sir next the surface works upward, and in lhe main the movements of the wind are de termined by these modes of upward escape. Under the tropics, where the sun acts with most energy, where from year's end to year's end the mean temperature does not fall below 70 degrees of Fahrenheit, the land and sea are alike greatly heated, and there is a steadfast upstreaniing of air from the earth's surface to a great height The warm air tends to rise because of it warmth; the cooler air, to the north and Bonth ot the equatorial belt tends to flow in, because, being cooler, it is heavier. The result is that there is an upward movement, Which, save where it is interrupted by local Influences, exists beneath the equator'round about the world. Attaining a given height, this air of the equatorial belt flows off to the north and south, and so the great circu latory movement of the earth's atmosphere, that of the trade winds, is originated. I"ig. 1. TEADE wixds. Although these trade winds do not pro duce what we term storms, but rather serve Fig. 4 Plan or a village, showing the action of a cyclone cone 1,000 feet in diameter. Tbe arrows indicate the directions from which the Etora attacks the buildings. to prevent the occurrence of such temporary disturbances of the atmosphere, they have a great influence on the movement of violent perturbations of the air over more than one tali of the surface of the earth. It is, there fore, necessary to note certain features of their movement. But for the rotation of the earth on its axis, the air which flows down along the surface of the earth to the equatorial belt and that which flows away to the upper re gion of the atmosphere toward the poles, would move along the meridians straight toward the south in the descent toward the equator and directly toward the north in the return current through the upper at mosphere: but as the earth turns around once in 24 hours, these currents are com pelled to turn to the right in their journeying, the current along the surface blowing from the northeast in the region north of the equator and from the southeast in the part of the world south of that line. The uppercurrent has a contrary tlnotion. In the northern hemisphere it moves from the southwest toward the north cast, and in the southern hemisphere from the northwest toward the southeast. Near the tropics these movements are vigorous; tut as we go awav from that belt, they be come less and less energetic, until in about -..;' m "wS'.-V Fig. 6 From an Instantaneous photograph, periphery of the cyclone. the parallels of 40 North and South lati tude they die away, and are replaced by the Yariable winds which mark all the higher latitudes of the earth's surface. The trade winds which flow along the sur face or the earth, owing to their friction on that surface, do not attain any great speed rarely exceed 20 miles an hour. The upper current which moves obliquely toward the poles not being hindered by the friction of tbe surface attains a far higher Telocity, joften flowing with a speed of 40 miles or more. As we shall see hereafter, this up- current operates to propel local storms in J BP.Co . particular directions across the surface of the continents or seas. OKIGIX OF STOBMS. Meteorologists have recognized the fact that the greater number of storms, if not all, originate in essentially the same fash ion as do the movements which create the trade winds, that is they are due to the greater heat of the air next the earth's sur face and to the lact that this air occasion ally escapes upward from the surface of the earth into the higher realms. The reader may readily make himself acquainted with this process by observations which he can make in the summer season at almost any point on the earth's surface. "When the summer sun pours its rays upon the earth's surface in the longer days of the year, that surface becomes greatly heated. In a period of calm weather and bright sunshine, we can often see the air next the ground set a boiling by the swift tide of heat which the earth pours off into it. for the depth of a few hundred feet, the temperature may -rise to 90 or more, though at the height of 10,000 feet the air may be as cold as zero. This lower lying heated air seeks to get upward through the overlying colder layer and now and then bores a hole'tbrough it, forming a channel of escape. Any little accident of the sur face may determine the point at which this heated air, tending upward like a balloon, forces its way through the cold air which presses down upon it. A tall tree or chim ney may make an updraft and create a point of escape. Fig. 2. As soon as the air begins to move upward, we perceive that it takes on a whirling motion, which at first in volves a column only a few feet in diameter; but under favorable circumstances it may extend this diameter until the whirlwind has a width of 50 feet or more, a great amount of air then rushing from every side to find its way upward through the new won path of escape. In this manner the fa miliar dust whirls of our open plains and streets are formed. Thev continue until all the patch of locally heated air, which occu pies a given field, is drained away into the upper levels ot the atmosphere, and so the overlying cooler air is allowed to settle down upon the surface. 'Waterspouts on the seas are due essentially to the same cause as the WHIEIAVINDS ON THE LAND. lhe air next the surface of the ocean, es pecially in regions where the sea is warm, as in the tropics or in higher latitudes over the surface or the Gult Stream, is, on ac count of its warmth, struggling to find a way upward through the overlying cooler air. When the wind is blowing as in the district of the trades the atmosphere is con stantly rolling over and over, and so the heated air has a chance to escape from the surface of the sea; but in calms this relief is not afforded, and so we have exactly the phenomena of the small, upward setting streams which make our dust whirls, only they are on a larger scale. The greater size of the streams is due to the fact that the ocean, being a great plain, a larger amount of air is heated than on the irregular sur face ot tbe land. -Sometimes the whirl winds which -produce the waterspouts are strong enough to lift the surface of the water in the lorm of spray or upward-bounding waves to theheight of a, scoreof feet above the sea-level. The dark cloud of the waterspout is not produced as is commonly supposed by tbe drawing down of the clouds, or the up ward making of the water, but in a totally different manner", viz.: The warm air tha't sets upward in the spiral column is very moist As it rises above the sea leveLit ex pands and becomes cooler by that process. As soon as it is cooled the moisture enters into the state of mist and so becomes the dark column which is a conspicuous feat ure in all waterspouts. Those who are familiar with high mount ains have often had a chance to observe how the warm, translucent air of the valleys driven against the steep mountain side, and by its slope carried to a higher level, gener ates a Bheet of cloud which sometimes hangs like a banner about the peak. Figure 3 Passing the summit of the moisture-laden air, being heavier than the atmosphere about the height, quickly falls again to ward the plain. As it descends it again be comes warmer, and the mist returns to the state of unseen vapor. MOUNTAIN CTJBRENTS. It is not only in high mountains that we may observe this interesting phenomenon, but even with hills not more than 500 feet in height it may sometimes be seen, especially after heavy rains, when the air is saturated with moisture. Something of the same sort may, in rainy seasons, be observed in our forests where the warm air beneath the boughs escapes through occasional gaps in the loliage 'and moves upward on the prin ciple of the dust whirl. This uprising air is translucent as long as it remains in the wood, but it quickly becomes a mist as it escapes into the cooler region above. The most peculiar feature in our ordinary dust whirls consists in the rotary movement of the column. At first sight this spinning action appears very mysterious; but a little observation convinces "us that the type, of motion is one which is necessarily assumed showing the overturning power exerted on the in particles of a fluid or gaseous nature which seek to make their escape through a narrow orifice. Iftbereader will observe the flow of water from any basin, such as a bathtub, through tbe opening in the bottom, he will perceive that the particles of waer whirl about in their downward course in a manner precisely comparable to the whirl ing action of the air when it flies upward through the rift it has formed in the overlying colder part of tbe atmosphere. In a less distinct way he will note that the water escaping from the nozzle ot a fire engine hose is apt to take on the whirling ,' w- "V . '.I --." JllUIt "!.. . movement which causes the hose pipe to twist about so that the strength of several meu is required to hold it in proper posie tion. "With these observations in mind, h may then readily proceed to the explana tion of the spiral lorm assumed by the as cending air. Taking a bit ot paper, let him draw a circle to show the space occupied by the vent through which the fluid or gas es capes; then let him draw a number of lines radiating from the center of that circle which will represent the paths along which the particles tend to meve as they come in towards the central path which THEY AEE TO FOLLOW. Now, if every particle of air or water could travel on perfectly straight lines, the move ment might take place without any twist ing of the current; bnt if the wind is a little stronger on one side of the column than the other, or if in any other way a particle of air is turned aside from its straight path, it will then as it moves toward tbe center with a constantly accelerating velocity -press a little on one side of the center of the column. A column of this sort, be it the descending stream of water in a basin or the ascending current of air in the atmosphere, is swayed in its course with the utmost ease. A little more pressure on one side than on the,other will cause it to turn about toward the side where the pressure is greatest. As soon as it begins to turn, then all the other particles of- air are di verted in the same directionfrom the normal conrse, applying their pressure to accelerate the speed ot the column. The faster that column whirls, the more energy every parti cle applies to promote the spinning action. Therefore the faster it spins the faster it is made to spin. The process is an accumu lating one which may lead the whirling to almost inconceivably great velocities. Al though in the little sand whirl the rotary motion is of no great effect, forat most these trifling storms lift small objects or push the straws aside, the process in the great whirls of tornadoes, which we are about to describe, being carried out on a far larger scale comes to have a great importance with reference to man. THE AWFUL TOENADO. Having studied the sand whirls the stu dent may then proceed to consider the methods of movement in the far greater ,' Fig. 6 From an instantaneous pnotograph of a cyclone 20 miles off, traveling away from the spectator. Note thelrelative size of tbe buildings m the foreground and the cone 20 miles off. spinnings which constitute the devastating tornadoes which afflict a large part of the United States. At certain seasons of the year it often happens that the layer of heated hair next the earth's surface, over a large area, attains to a considerable thick ness, two or three thousand feet or more, and is immediately overlaid by a very cold stratum. Under these circumstances, the mass of air tending to move upward through the overlying cold layer is vastly greater in amount than in our summer dust whirls In this case the phenomenon of the dust whirl is repeated on a far larger scale. To this heated air is generally, if not invar iably, due the movements of the greater storms, those movements which bring our blizzards, and other autumnal and winter storms, tbatsweep across the riorthern part of North America. These great whirls, the ori gin of whicn we have yet to consider,; press before them on their south-eastern side a mass of warm air, which slips along in ad vance of the storm, entering like a wedge between the surface of the earth and the cold air of the upper atmosphere. When this heated, mass is imposed on the surface it is apt to strain upward and break through the overlying layer of heavier air, and pro duce a vaster type of whirl, in all respects Fig. 7 The path of tbe cyclone, showing the comparative immunity of some of the trees. except size, like the dust whirls. In place of the ascending column of a width of at most of 10 or 20 feet as in the dust whirl, it may have a diameter of from 1,000 to 10,000 feet. Fig. 4. In place of draining away the air over a few acres of surface, it may give upward passage to the heated atmos phere from an area of ten square miles or more. Owing to the greater diameter of the column, and the greater distance to which the air journeys toward the path of up; ward escape the speed of the movement is vastly enhanced, and its duration .made pro portionately greater. In the first stages of its movement THE TJPyAED BUSH t of the tornado commonly involves the air at the height of some thousand feet above the surface, but the ascending column speed ily extends downward until it touches -the surface of the ground. Toward the spout, up which the air is streaming, the particles of the atmosphere pour from a distance of miles with a constantly accelerating veloc ity. As they whirl in toward the center their speed becomes so great as to tear away all movable objects from the 'surface, of the earth. Fig. 6. The swift spinning of the air causes it to fly away from tbe centerof the whirl; just as in the basin the descend ing water by its motion forms a hollow cone reaching downward into the orifice of the vessel, so in the whirling of the air-spout is a space almost empty of air extending up ward irom the ground. into tms vacuity any movable objects may be sucked and lifted far above the surface of the earth, until, by the irregular movement of the columns, they are cast outward, and allowed to fall upon tbe earth. ' Among the most conspicuous features of our tornadoes is the vast mass of whirling clond which forms high in tbe air abont the top of the ascending column. This tumult of the clouds is produced -in the main by the rapid condensation of the vapor in the. air, which has been sucked upward. Owing to its heat the air next the surface retains its moisture in the form of invisible vapor, much as in the steam boiler the steam remains transparent on account of tbe high temper ature to which it is exposed, so in the' lower heated atmosphere the moisture does not af fect the transparency of the air. 'When, however, the air ascends, expands, and ; thereby rapidly cools, its contained water passes swiftly into the form of clouds, which roll away in the tumultous winds formed about the top of the spiral. Fig. 6. SOME CUEI0U3 FEATTJBES. Among the many curious features of these tornadoes, we note their continuous move ment in an easterly direction from the point where they are first formed. This move ment is to be explained by the action of counter trades at' a few thousand feet above the surface; in the countries where these tornadoes are formed, the air is almost al ways in rapid motion toward the east or northeast. Thus the vent through the colder upper air, into which the ascending column escapes is constantly carried across the surface in an easterly direction. "We can readily imagineHhat if the opening in a basin, for instance, in a bath tub, could be drawn across tbe floor of the vessel, the descending spout of water would follow it in its movement In a similar manner the passage which is followed by the ascending air moving off to the eastward the depend ent spout is dragged away in the same direction, often curving backward in the direction whence it came, like the string of a kite. In this order it moves across the surface at the rate of from 20 to 40 miles an hour, carrying utter ruin in its path. Fig. 7. In the tropical regions, where for months the sea is heated by a nearly vertical sun, a great thickness of hot and moist air ac cumulates over the surface, and, precisely as in the tornado, breaks upward to the upper atmosphere. Owing to the fact that the thickness of the heated air is greater, and the field it covers wider, these cyclones of the sea are of vastly greater area, and of longer continuance, than those ot the land. They often march slowly over the ocean surface, enduring, it may be for weeks, un til their movement, dependent on the motion of tbe upper air currents, carries tbem beyond the field which affords the con ditions of their maintenance. THE OCEANIC CYCLONE. The oceanic cyclone or hurricane has its magnitude and violence increased by a curi ous process. As can be well imagined, the lower heated air over the sea is extremely moist, though transparent. A vast amonnt of energy has been employed to evaporate this water contained in the air. As the air goes upward through the -great ascending r column ot the hurricane the moisture con denses into the form of cloud, whence it falls in rain. The energy which held the moisture in the shape of vapor is thus set free, and nets still more rapidly to elevate the ascending column. In a certain limited sense, we may say that the tropical cyclone is a great steam engine, the sun being tbe fire, the ocean the boiler and the atmosphere the rest of the mechanism. "We have next to consider a class of whirlwinds which gives the swift marching storms that pass so frequently across the surface of our continent. These, in the circumstances of their movements, are es sentially like the oceanic cyclones, but their'actions are less explicable than those of the tornado or the hurricane. In fact, the better understood storms, those of the blizzard type, exhibit an ascending column, wth a layer of air pouring in from every direction towards it. In the center of ' the storm, as is shown by the signal-service maps, there is a low barometer marking the upward 'set of an atmospheric column, many scores of miles in diameter. The difficulty with the theory of these storms is found 'in the narrowness of the path of this storm and the fact that they occur in seasons when the surface of the earth is not warmed to a high temperature. Nevertheless, even when the earth's surface has a temperature of zero, the difference between the heat of the air next tbe ground and that at the height of five miles may well be as much as 100 F. Thus it is likely that, even in winter, we have a sufficient tendency of the superficial air to rise, as it does in an ordinary chimney, and so to prodnce the cyclonic movement. The peculiar violence of these storms of the blizzard type is probably due to the wide differences in the temperature in diverse parts of the continent in the winter season. VARIATIONS IN TEMPEBATUBE. In the summer we rarely have a variation in the average daily temperature in the dif ferentparts of the United States amounting to as much as 60, while in the winter the range between the northwestern region and the Atlantic coast not infrequently amounts to twice as much. The reader has already seen that all our air movements depend on differences of temperature, and he may read ily imagine that in the season when the local differences are greatest, the energy ot the movements will be most considerable. Moreover, in the winter season the tempera ture of the Atlantic coast is relatively warmer than that of the land, so that the air of that region tends upward, while that of the interior of the continent being at a lower temperature is not equally affected. The swift march of the blizzard: across the continent and to the eastwara over the ocean is accounted for. as is the movement of the tornado, by the eastward set of the upper current of the counter trades. The movements of the atmosphere are thus in the main to be explained by the warmth of the earth's surface, and the irregular dis tribution of this heat in different regions, together with the tendency of the ascending air to assume the spiral motion. Although the winds which are thus cause'd are fre quently harmful to life, the effect of the cir culation is, on the whole, most beneficent. "Were the air destitute of motion all the stratum next the surface of the earth would soon be rendered unfit for life by the proc esses of life itself. It is only by the con stanlstirring which the storms bring about, that the materials of the atmosphere are constantly mingled together, and so kept in a condition to maintain the operations of animals and plants. ' A FAMOUS FESTIVAL. How Whitsunday is Observed in En gland and Other Conntries. A EELIO OP A PAGAN HOLIDAY. Morris Dancer Kemp's Eemarkable and Adventures. Feat 0LDE5 MIRACLE PLAISAND MISTEEIES rwMTTZx roa Tint rnsrATcn.3 To-day, June 9, is "Whit Sunday, a festi val of high importance in the Episcopal, Roman Catholic and Lutheran churches, and a day which, amng the peasantry of Great Britain, Ireland and the Continent of Europe, is as generally and joyously cele brated and is as rich in quaint folk-lore, pe culiar customs, sports, superstitions, legends and traditions as anyotherday be it fast or festival in the whole 12 months. In the calendar of the churches above named it is proclaimed the greatest of all the festivals, except Christmas and Easter. Not only is it a Christian festival, but it is a Hebrew one as well, the event which it commemorates in the Christian church having occurred on the Hebrew day of Pentecost. That event was' the descent of the Holy Ghost on the Apos tles when "they were all with one accord in one place," after the ascension of our Lord, on which occasion they received the gift of tongues or different languages that they might impart the gospel to foreign nations. Among the ancient, Hebrews the day of Pentecost was a species of harvest home. It was calculated trom the second day of the Passover, the 16th of Nisan. The Hebrew law prescribed that a reckoning should be kept from the morrow after the Sabbath to the morrow after the completion of the sev enth week, which would, of course, be the fiftieth day after the Passover. These fifty days included the period of the Hebrew grain harvest, which commenced with the first sheaf of the barley harvest gathered at he Passover and ended with the making,on the day of Pentecost, of two loaves of leav ened bread from the finest wheat flour of the new crop. Thus we see in the "Whit Sunday of the Christian church another in stance of the substitution ot a Christain for a Hebrew festival, as in the case of replacing the Hebrew Passover with THE CHBISTIAN EASTEB. Yet, as is the case with many of the holy days of the Christian Church, it is gener ally thought by antiquarians that our "Whit suntide was also identified with one of tbe great summer festivals of the Pagans of "Western Europe. Among the English peasantry from the earliest Christian times down to the present day, the most elaborate folk ceremonies of the whole year have been performed on "Whit Sunday. Among the most notable of these is what is called the Whitsun-ale Ale was so universal a drink among the early En glish that by its association with various testivities it has added more than fine ncv word to our language notably "bridal," a corruption of "bride-3fe," which was a term applied to ale of a peculiar quality and strength, specially brewed in honor of the bride at a wedding. The ale used at "Whit suntide, or the "Whitsun-ale, was remark able for its strength, and was consumed at an assemblage of the whole parish, usually neia in some Darn near ine cnurcn. xne ale was dispensed to those present by the church wardens, and the profits arising from its sale were devoted to a fund for the repair of the church. Two persons, previously chosen, were designated as lord and LAST Of THE ALE, a sort of throne was provided for them at one end of the barn and they were attended by their steward, sword-bearer and other offi cials. The persons filling these offices were frequently paid small sums for their ser vices, and in the old Church "Wardens' ac counts in the English parish churches there frequently occurs such entries as "Payd to her that was Lady of the Ale at "Whitsuntide, by consent, 5s." But of the old English sports of "Whitsun tide the greatest favorite was the Mom's dance. This is believed to have been de rived from Spain through the Moors, and its name is regarded as a corruption of the Spanish Morisco, a Moor. Originally danced by five performers, it at length be came customary to have it performed either by a single individual or as many as cared to participate in it. There was finally grafted on to it some features of an old English country dance performed at certain periods in honor of Bobin Hood and his outlaws, and from this circumstance a female partici pating in it was -called a "Maid Marian," alter one of -Bobin Hood's sweethearts. One of tbe most distinctive features of the Morris dance was a pair of garters hung with bells and worn bv each ot the dancers. In 1599 "William "Kemp, a celebrated comedian.'of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, danced tbe Morris all the way from London to Norwich. This feat at the time of its performance was considered one of the most remarkable ever attempted. Kemp pub lished a most interesting and curious pamphlet, giving a full account of his ad ventures en route, and his wonderful exploit continued to be a theme of popular allusion for many years afterward. All along the way the country people turned out to greet thedancer in such crowds that at times it was with great difficulty he could make his way through them. He was entertained by the nobility and gentry during his progress, and on his arrival at Norwich was publicly received by the Mayor with great honor. A STUEDT MAID MABIAN. One of the most amusing passages in Kemp's curious book one ot the rarest and most valuable in my collection of folk lore is where he tells how a sturdy butcher un dertook to dance with him from Sudbury to Bury, but gave out exhausted before they had dancea half a mile. He then goes on to say: "As he and I were parting, a lusty country lasse being among the people, cal'd him faint-hearted lout, saying: 'If I had begun to daunce, I would have heldout one myle, though it had cost mv life.' At which words many laughed. 'Nay,' saith she, 'if the dauncer will lend me a leash of his belles I'll venter to treade one myle with him myselfe. I lookt upon her, saw mirth in her eies, heard boldness in her words and beheld her ready to tucke up ber russat pe tieoate: I fitted her with bels. which she. merrily taking, garnisht her thicke, short legs, and, with a smooth brow, bade tho tabrer begin. The drum strncke, forward marcht I with my merry mayde Marian, who shooke her fat sides and footed it merri ly to Melford, being alongmvle. There parting with her (besides her skin full of drinke), an English- crowne tobuy more drinke; for, good wench, she was in a pite ous heate; my kindness she requitedwith dropping some dozen of short courtesies, and bidding God blesse the danncer, I bade her adiue, and, to give- her. her due, she had a good eare, daunst truly, and we parted friends." Dancing of almost any kind is saidto be among-the healthiest and most conducive to longevity of all occupations, but Morris dancing would seem entitled to the palm in these respects if we are to believe a pam phlet printed dnring the reign of James I., which states that the united ages of ten re tired Morris dancers then living in Here fordshire amounted to 1,200 years' -while of eight others the youngest "was 79 and the oldest 109 years, their united ages being 800 years. Morris dancing continued a favorite Whitsuntide diversion in England down to the early years of the present century, and was publicly danced in Goswell street .road, London, as late as 1826. WHII3UNTIDE MYSTEBIES. Down to the middle of the seventeenth century the representation of "mysteries" and "miraole plays" always took place at "Whitsuntide throughout Great Britain and in many countries of Continental Europe. J They were dramatic spectacles aevisea dur ing the dark ages when.the Bible was an interdicted hook to instruct the people In sacred story. The "mysteries" represented the narratives of the Old and New Testa ments, while the "miracle plays" delineated the lives of the saints. Originally written and acted by monks, they continued a favor ite Whitsuntide diversion for nearly two centuries after the reformation, for though they were strongly condemned by some churchmen among them "Wickliffe and his followers as a profane treatment of sacred subjects, yet Luther gave tbem his sanction, saying that "such spectacles often do more good and produce more impression than sermons." These religious dramas were usually fierformed in churches, though frequent y in cemeteries, market places and public Squares as well. Three stages were usually erected, one above the other. Upon the highest was a representa tion of the Creator "and His angels,and upon tne next lower oi tne Faints, while tne action of the drama took place upon the lowest Upon one side of the last named there was a representation of the mouth of hades. whence came fire and smoke and the cries of the lost Demons also issued from it, their coarse jests and horseplay forming the low comedy part of the entertainment, and affording infinite amusement to the audience. IIT OTHEB COUNTBIES. It was my good fortune, while sojourning in Naples some three vears ago, to partici pate in the elaborate Festa di Monte Vir ginie, which the Neapolitans annually celebrate on "Whit Sunday and during the two succeeding days. The principal feat ures of the celebration takes place at a church erected- upon a mountain, near Avelino, a day's journey on foot from Naples, and the prettiest and most inter esting part of the ceremony is the long train of carriages, wagons, carretas and all sorts of nondescript vehicles, gaily decorated with flowers, ribbons and garlands as are also the horses, oxen and asses which draw them which winds from the city along pictur esque roads to the summit of the mountain, attended by great crowds of merry-makers on foot, singing and dancing untiringly, and bearing sticks which support pictures of the Madonna. In St. Petersburg, in 1875, I witnessed what was perhaps the last observance of a "Whitsuntide custom, which, thought once highly popular, had long been gradually dying out It was a show of marriageable women and girls desirous of obtaining hus bands, and took place on "Whit Sunday afternoon in the "Summer Garden," a place of popular resort The young women were attended by their parents or some other elderly relative, through, whom, if a young man were smitten with a maid, he con ducted his negotiations for her hand. It is, of course, heedless to say that this usage was confined to the lower and middle classes. FbankFebh. - FOR WOMEN READERS. A Few Paragravha About Fashions Picked Up' for tho Fair Sex. "We hear a great deal about plain skirts and the elaborate bodice, when in reality the plain skirt is a myth and a delusion unless used as a foundation for innumera ble bows, loops and sash ends. Showers of ribbons fall in all sorts of odd and gro tesque ways upon it Twenty-five yards of ribbon dangling in long streamers from my lady's waist to the hem of the skirt is con sidered by no means elaborate. Loops of ribbon, otten in two and three shades to match the tints of the gown, are started from the right shoulder seam, carried across the bodice to the left side and allowed to fall in long ends to the feet These ribbons are also arranged in a similar way at the back and are then so placed that they fall in an oppo site direction from those in front Sash ends are permitted to wander at their own sweet will across the gown, one end falling at the front or side, and the other to be found straying far away from its mate. These have very much the appearance of a panel when allowed to fall in straight lines to the bottom of the skirt Frnit is now nsed upon the frailest and dainties't of chapeaux the reddest and roundest of cherries., luscious bunches of grapes, tempting ;looking currants, rosy cheeked crab apples, dewy blackberries.and tiny branches of gooseberries, their delicate skins sonaturally veined that one's thoughts rapidly travel back to that old-fashioned garden in which was once experienced such childish delight Many cotton gowns have a broad edge of lace fitted into the arm's eye so that it will simulate a Zouave jacket. Deep caps of lace are also arranged to fall over the top of the sleeve. Loops of ribbon falling from the wide frill of lace at the neck and reaching to the waist band give a very jaunty finish to the most matter of fact bodice. Bonnet wires are also longer obtrusive. The newest and prettiest capotes have their framework well hidden beneath a dainty cloud of tulle net or lace. Girls who aspire to lift their Inexpensive challie gown above the commonplace must use with a prodigal hand the daintiest lace3 and ribbons. So treated the modest mater ial will rise to the fascinations of the love liest of lonely garden gowns. Narrow ribbons have grown to be posi tively tiresome, and we hail with delight the broad bands that have taken their places. They are not only used upon street and house dresses, but are to be seen upon some of the most charming ball room cos tumes. Mull hats are no longer confined to the small girl, bnt have bloomed out into most expansive shape. " They are coquettish enough to suit the most frivolous of girls or sedate enough tor the most dignified of ma trons, and come in colors so varied that to match the oddest of costumes is by no means a difficult task. Silk mull is just the daintiest of dainty materials for the best white gown. It is so soft and fine that it can be drawn through a finger ring. Some of the net skirts are finished at the bottom by a broadband of velvet or ribbon. The net is then turned up over the trim ming, forming a hem, and in this way pro tecting the velvet from constant wear. This is a French fashion which our modistes are gradually adopting. The pattern selected for braiding or em broidery is now an artistic jumble, mathe matical regularity being a thing of the past. Satan's Diligence Teaches a Moral. Texas SIftlnes.3 Mrs. M. was a remarkably charitable old lady, w'ithagood word for everybody and toleration for every fault. "I do think mother could even find some thing to say that was complimentary and pleasant about the devil," her son re marked one day to a number of young friends. "Here she comes, let us question her. Mother, by the way, what do you think of his Satanic Majesty, at his best, say?" "Well," replied the old lady, mildly, "I think we would all do well to copy his dili gence." Agnaslz's Snnkcs. Eecollectlons of Court and Society. That famous naturalist missed one morn ing three snakes he had brought home the. night before. On searching high and low he found 'two, but one was still missing. Mrs. Agassiz(who was dressing) in putting on her boots found it coiled inside her boot. Her screams ot surprise brought Agassiz, who exclaimed: "On, Lizzee, how terree ble it might have been." "What," said his wife, "are these poisonous?" "Oh, yes, the most poisonous little serpents you can think so rare and you might have crashed the nioe little thing." SAMPAN CONFEREES. Pen Pictures of the English, German and American Commissioners. PEESIDENT HERBERT BISMARCK Said to be a Worthy Son of His Shrewd and Autocratic Sire. THIS COUHTEI WELL EEPEE8E5TED tconitEsrosDrxcE of the dispatch.: BEBLnT, May 28. On the south side of the "Wilhelmstrasse, the most aristocratic street in Berlin, stands a plain old-fashioned two-story building. It looks very shabby from the outside, nor does it present a more attractive appearance within. The only beauty it possess lies in its vast garden con taining 100 -year-old trees, a very park in the center of Berlin. This garden extends for several hundred yards back to the Koniggratzerstrasse, and here Bismarck is in the habit of taking his constitswonal walks, screened from the eyes of the carious pnblic. Here also Emperor JWilliam usu ally halts for a quiet stroll before startingon his long rides through the Grunewald. But the long, low building lying in front of this miniature paradise does not partake of its beauty, nor does its homely, weather stained exterior lead the stranger to suppose that here center the wires which control the destiny of Europe to-day. But so it is, for this shabby house contains the German Foreign Office. Here are the plans laid and the intrigues initiated which keep Ger many at the head of European diplomacy and power. Entering the rickety doorway, passing up a few steps and through a gloomy ball, with whitewashed walls and carpeted with cheap matting, one ascends an old, worn stairway to the second story. Old and worn every thing appears in the building. But it has none ot the romance which lingers about somce anient houses. The impression one receives from it is rather that of a shabby genteel tenement house, like those seen in the lower part of New York. -WHEBE THE COMSHSSIOIT SITS. In the second story, facing the park, is located the room in which the Samoan Con ference holds its sessions. It is about 30 feet in length by about 20 feet in width. It is fitted up with the same Spartan simplicity not to use a stronger word as the rest of the building. The floor is innocent of carpets a bare pine floor the walls are painted a dirty white, a picture of the Kaiser is the only ornament. Around the walls maps of the Samoan Islands are hung. In the center stands a plain table covered with green baize; on the table lie nine black leather portfolios. Around it are grouped a dozen cheap armchairs, upholstered with tawdry red plush. At the head of the table sits Count Herbert Bismarck, at the foot the two secretaries, on either side are ranged the commissioners. Snch is the room in which the destinies of Samoa will be decided and the questions at issuo between America and Germany are being discussed. It is not a very attractive spot. Has it been chosen for its very dis comfort in order to drive the commissioners to a quicker decision, on the same principle by which juries are locked up in dark, dreary rooms? "Who knows? Bismarck is shrewd and may make use of even trifles. As for the men who compose the con ference, do they present a more attractive picture than their surroundings? Let us see. Count Herbert Bismarck, who acts as President of the conference, has been so frequently described that it is not worth while to reiterate the many things said about him. In appearance he much resem bles his father, when the latter was in his prime. He has the manner and the tricks of speech that distinguished the great uni fier of Germany. As to his mental quali ties opinions diner, widely. "While some proclaim him. the .great statesman of the future, a worthy successor of his distin guished sire, others say that he possesses no originality of thought or action, -that he only repeats the lessons drilled into him by the Chancellor. The truth probably lies somewhere "between the two versions. "While not as brilliant as his father, Count Herbert certainly bears in his countenance unmistakable traces of energy, resolute will and intelligence. BBAKT AKD TOKGXTE. Next in importance comes Privy Conn cillorof Legation, Dr. A. Krauel. He has the appearance of a bureaucrat and a schol ar. He is simple in his language and pos sesses but little rhetorical ability. The press reporters in the 'Eeichstag scarcely ever pay attention to his speeches, so unin teresting 13 his delivery. It Is only when he has finished and his opponent replies, that they discover from the quality of the latter'sspeech, that Dr. Krauel has said something important Then they hurriedly get copies of his speech from the official Veports. He is of medium height, dark complexioned, with his thoughtful face framed by a full growth of black hair. No body would take this meek, plain-looking man to be tbeimportant factor that he really is in the Foreign Office. But his thorough knowledge of colonial affairs and interna tional law are invaluable to the Chancellor. Only whenone meets the sharp gleam of his intelligent eyes does one fully realize the mental power that lies behind. On his shoulders rests much ot the real work on the German side of the conference. But whatever glory is to be earned will go of course to Count Herbert Bismarck. Such is the unvarying custom of the Foreign Office. Woe to him who aspires to beknown beyond its walls. His official head will fall forth with. If Dr. Krauel is the brain, Privy Coun cillor Baron Holstein is the tongue of the German delegates, at least as far as Bis marck permits. He is the beau ideal of a man of the world and also a great sports man. He had much rather talk of the hunt than of diplomacy. Like Krauel, he is in the prime of life, dresses well and has fine manners. His voice is melodious and pleas ing, but his1 delivery is monotonous and one quickly tires of hearing him speak. His eyes have a kindly, tender expression. Krauel is a thinker; Holstein has the poetic temperament. His knowledge is not pro found, but he gets beforehand from Krauel whatever facts are necessary. He is com bative when he tells his little tale in tbe Reichstac: and when RichterandBamburg. the Liberal leaders, attack him his face fires up with the desire lor battle, but he keeps a discreet silence. Prince Bismarck has his subordinates well in hand and will not al low them to take his role in the debates. Holstein says during the conference only what has been carefully told him be forehand bv his master. THE BBITISH BEPKESESTATIVES. Of the British delegates, Sir Edward Malet, British Ambassador to the Court of Berlin, is the most important. He is a quiet, self-contained gentleman. At first sight he appears rather stiff in his manners, but on nearer acquaintance one finds him a most charming gentleman. He is a shrewd observer and a fine scholar. It is said that his official reports resemble the writings of Bacon in their brilliancy. He speaks Ger man, fluently, having been educated at Frankfort He has rather a thin voice, which, in moments of excitement, however, becomes strong and resonant. His step is elastic, his eye bright and clear. A short, full beard frames his handsome face. He and Bismarck have not been friends since tbe attacks in the German official press on the late Emperor Frederick and his widow. Sir Edward holds Bi-marck responsible for these and for the decadence in political morality lately shown in Germany. Hon. Edward Scott, the second English Commissioner, was for a long time First Secretary of the British Legation, and is well liked at court and in society. He is now Minister to Switzerland. He has a thorough knowledge of German diplomacy, and knows a great deal about Samoa. He is a young man, slightly above medium height, -somewhat inclined to embonpoint, and wears a short, fall beard. He has ex quisite manners. Mr. Grant, the other English Commis sioner, is the commercial attache to the British Legation at Paris. He was lor many years English Consul at Leipsic and distinguished himself so much, that he was advanced to his present post He was also delegate to the Congo Conference, held in 1885. He is persona gratissima in Berlin and his popularity among the Germans is increased by the fact that he has a German wife. He married a Franlein von Holzen dorff. THE AMEBICA2T COMMIS3I02TEB3. Of the Commissioners who take care of American interests at the Samoa Conference, the Hon. "William "Walter Phelps is so widely known as to call for little attention here. His is certainly a striking figure. Tall, gaunt, yet apparently full of physical force and nervous energy, his keen face sur mounted by a head of full, short-cut hair, "banged" over the forehead, he would be a remarkable person in any assemblage. That "bang." by the way, of which bo much fun has been made, covers a scar that Mr. Phelps can be proud of it is the scar of a wound received in his country's service. His eyes have a shrewd, but withal kindly, look. A short mustache covers his upper lip while a short "goatee" adorns the cnin. Mr. Phelps is a good talker, very pleasant and affable in his manner. He is a keen poll tician and a good diplomatist. He made a good record as American Minister at Vienna, and would no doubt prove very acceptable to the German Court in the same capacity. The knowing ones say that after the- conference is over Mr. Phelps will receive the appointment to the vacant post of Minister here. He himself is silent wben questioned on this subject, as, indeed, on any subject connected with his mission here. But he evades the quesiiops put to him with so much tact and good nature that he has become a general favorite with the newspaper correspondents in this city. Except the gray hairs sprinkled liberally through his brown hair, mustache and close-trimmed sidewhiskers, Hon. John A. Kasson, of Iowa, shows no trace of his 57 years. He is a small, alert man, with a rosy, smiling face and keen eyes. He is a confirmed bachelor, though very popular among the ladies. Always well dressed he appears to good advantage in his perfectly fitting frock coat, dark striped trousers and well-ironed silk hat He was much liked here while Minister during the short Gar field administration, and his appointment to the Samoa Conference was well received by the German Government SOME BRIGHT HE2T. George H. Bates, the gentleman whose Century article-called forth so much com ment from the press, is certainly the most distinguished-looking of the American dele gates. He has a tail, graceful figure, a finely shaped head, and a handsome face. A long, pointed mustache gives a look of decision to his features, while a double eye glass increases the aristocratio cast of his countenance. He dresses well, is very polite and agreeable in his manner, but has little to say outside of the commission. His recent experiences have probably taught him the value of diplomatic silence. His wife and son have accompanied him. Next to the three Commissioners the most interesting person is ex-Consul Sewall, of Samoa, a native of the Hub. He is a small dapper man, with a resolute, but refined face. Owing to his warm defense of Ameri can interests, the Germans have no great liking for him, and he has, so far, not taken any part in the conference, at least, not publicly. He is a very cultured man, a typical Bostonian, and has kept rather quiet while here, being rarely seen in public Lieutenant Parker, of the U. S. navy, one of the secretaries of tne American Commis sioners, is a man of slight build, has a very bright expression, and is the possessor of a fine mustache, while Lieutenant Bucking ham, also of the navy, the other secretary attached to the commission, is a quiet, gen tlemanly officer, who says little, but who might say a great deal, for few are the Americans who know as much as he of the military condition of the leading European powers. It will be thus seen thai the American commission is in no respect inferior to tag commissions of the two other countries.- ja fact, I have heard more than one shrew and impartial observer remark: "ThostS Yankees are a strong body and pull together excellently. Look out for them I" Theodoee Stastojt. WOMEN AS CUSTOM INSPECTORS. Their Impudence In Kanaacklsg IheLnggtif of tadlen. I saw a woman inspector this morning, says Joe Howard in the Boston Globe, after a passenger had opened her trunk, she hav ing declared nnder oath that there was nothing dutiable in it, and having told pre viously what there was in it, turn the con tents topsy-turvy, down-side-up, and leave them in a condition of mixedness which was simply outrageous. She asked questions about this, and questions about that, and questions about the other, which the passen ger answered with marvelous patience. There was an indefinable sneer on the in spector's lip, a horrible suggestion of "I don't believe you" in every look, in'every gesture, in all she did, and when she had ended her utterly unnecessary and fruitless task she turned on her heel, leaving the passenger, an elderly woman, fragile, dis concerted, as upset as her, things were physically, to rearrange as best she could her little wardrobe, and fasten, lock and strap the trunk, with her own hands. That women smuggle is simply an asser tion that human nature is the same in both sexes. That smugglers ought to be de tected, in the common weal, we all recog nize. That women should be searched by women, and not by men. common decency exacts, but I am not talking about search ing suspected smugglers, and I am talking about women inspectors on the open piers overhauling and needlessly disturbing the luggage of ladies, who have made affidavits as to the contents of their trunks, and who should be known at once, and would be known at once by a man inspector, to be precisely as they appeared, and to be truth ful in their statements. I would not put my own observation forward as an argument unindorsed, but as the frequent experience of ladies who are travelers tallies with my observation this morning, and as the record of women inspectors is absolutely impeach able, I think the sooner we do away with that line of industry for our dearly beloved sisters the better. A YALUABLE EAE OP COBS. A Place Where Theft la Promptly ud Be Terelr Pnnlihed. From tne London Figaro. 1 A report from the Governor of Yunnan shows the barbarism that still lingers in some of the country districts of, that pro vince. The villagers have a horrible cus tom of burning to death any man caught stealing corn or fruit in the fields. A man named Peng Chao-sheng was going down to watch his own field, and on theway he plucked an ear of corn from a neighbor's patch of maize. He was seized and brought before' a village assembly, which decided that he must be burnt to death, though his mother tried to ransom him by the offer of her whole property. The unfortunate man was burnt alive, his own mother being com pelled to set fire to the faggots, so as to pre vent her lodging a complaint afterward, which, however, turned out an unsuccessful precaution. Of the two ringleaders of the outrage one has died in prison and the other has been decapitated. The incident shows the excessive poverty in which the people must live, tor it would be impossible that such a custom should exist except in a coun try where every ear of corn was as valuable as a man's life. More Practical Tban She. Kew York Herald. She (romantier-Oh, how beautifully sig nificant those Indian names are I Alabaaa, for instance, "Here let us rest" ' ' He (uuromantio, but determined to go h one better) Yes, and there's r Mee- gahela, "Here let us drinkl" .A pause louows. i jtflSJtoBMflfcfl--y f -fi. i ff-A ifcditfftjb Md3ulUfPjifiBiaHBSBUlBSfltiatilMUB