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BITIZENS IN EMBRYO.
-Mrs. E. Lynn Linton, the Well-Known Authoress, Talks Abont THE CRIMINALITIES OF CHILDREN. Little Ones Punished Really Because Thev Know No Evil. WHI GIELS ASD BOTS LIE AXD STEAL 'Witiiicy ron Tin msr A-rcn.l Sentimentality is one of the false angles which alter the perspective of our thoughts; snd children arc the objects of a great deal of sentimentality. They are naturally loved because of their helplessness, their prettiness, and the overwhelming force of the instinct for race preservation without which all things would come to a standstill. Besides being loved, they are idealized as morally beautiful, because they are igno rant and undeveloped; an argument on all fours with that paradox about the blessings of comparative lrriisitivencss, by -which we come down to the positive demonstration that an oyster is happier than a man. It is not everyone who remembers that children are our embryonic selves in all things, holding the germs of the passions and appetites, which necessitate laws if we are to have society, polity, or government. As little is it remembered that the great difference between them andadults, and the real meaning of their idealized innocence, is in certain follow tracts both of moral con sciousness ard physical development, by which they are free from the doubt and sus picion born of experience, as well as from some actively disturbing influences which upset important social arrangements and trample on some of the rights secured by law to the individual. The whole point of the difference lies in the word embryonic; for we too often forget that thi is the real distinction between children and ourselves, and treat them as if they were as Jully de veloped in consciousness and conscientious ness as grown and well-tanght men and women. In moral consciousness children are on a par with savages. The embryology of the mind, of morals, of social polity, of equit able dealing, follows the same law as the physical; and what we have been in far off ancestry is as clearlv discernible in the mora characteristics of the living child as in the material conditions of the unborn. Children have no social virtues and no per sonal shame. They do not know the differ ence between right and wrong for right and wrong are relative to conditions of which they know nothing, though they are begin ning to learn the rudiments in the nursery, which is their cosmos. The conscience must he developed before it can be educated, and it must be educated before it can exert in fluence. If we inherit the potentiality, the plasticity given by long generations of edu cation, we do not inherit the clear direction. A2T UKCEKTAUT QUANTITY. "We can be taught without great difficulty the formulas of a code, but that code is an uncertain quantity and shifts its form and plans like a drifting cloud. A man must be indeed short-sighted who does not see that the whole scheme of morals that is the whole development of the conscience is de termined by our own personal relations to society, as well as by geographical position, popular religion and historic time. The honor in endurance of the Spartan boy does not now exist; the cleverness of the dacoit, Who gains kudos among his fellows, would be rewarded with a rope's end here. To come to one unvarying code of right and wrong, good for all ages and countries alike, would be to reach out to the absolute and touch the very feet of truth. As things are, we are taught according to the chang ing aspect of cur own environments; and even in England, homogeneous as it looks from the outside, children hare to learn the laws of right and wrong not from one rigid rule like the multiplication table, but ac cording to the varying light of individual conditions. J Hence the wrongdoing of children is vari ously judged of according to the moral standpoint of their parents. Things severely punished by one are held as unimportant by another, or are laughed at as quaint traits by a third, orapplauded as the signs of pre cocious intelligence and alert faculties by a fourth. The child of a pickpocket will be rewarded for bringing home a strange purse that he has found or "conveyed," but the child of an honest man who stole a turnip out of a field would probably be met with a thrashing, as the best means known to the father of inculcating the force of the eighth commandment. A father known to us7 of more sternness than compassion, made his child wear two figs, abstracted from the des sert dish, as a necklace ol shame, round her little throat for all the evening of that fear ful day of sin. He took her to each guest in turn, and told the story of the theft and its detection with, the punishment to follow, till the poor little transgressor was nearly dead for grief and shame. That was his way of burning into her soul abhorrence of all forms of dishonesty lor the rest of her life. But the punishment was too great for the offense, and less would have sufficed. UNJUST PUNISHMENT. In the education of the young, punish ment must of necessity be often unjust in application as well as too severe in propor tion, fallible in our own judgment we are angry with the results of the ignorance, un development, want of thought characteristic or childhood. Wejudge from the stand point of knowledge things which can only be rightly appreciated by this theory of ig norance and general undevelopnient. Be sides, the mott candid child has not a win dow in its breast, through which the truth may be read; and much which looks like willfulness is aslittle consciously willlul as .little intentionally recalcitrant as the wind that blows down the apple tree means to do harm, or the rain that soaks the cut hay means to prevent the carrying that night. What we judge of as obstinacy is often sismle torpor of the brain, producing inability of action or such entire preoccu pation with one thing as comes to the same result. We, with all our senses awake and astir, do not credit an unresponsive child with this sleep of the intelligence this inatten tion because of absorption, which looks like a moral fault and is not. "We cannot realize this dumb, unreceptive state, because we have so long passed from it ourselves as to have forgotten it. But those whose memory carries them far back into the dim distances of childhood can surelv recall certain diffi culties which arose from that curious state of temporary paralysis, and had nothing to do with intentional disobedience. Looking like obstinacy it was really the sleep ot the brain. It was irresnonEiveness because of preoccupation. The words leard conveyed no practical mean ing. They were heard and in a sense un derstood, but only as the wind whipping the rose branch on the window was heard. The mind was for the moment paralyzed, and received but did not register, till the slug gish current of mental consciousness was set loose nnd flowing once more by the sharp stimulus of physical pain. That sharp stimulus might be wholesome enough in its own way. It was none the less ap plied on wrong principles aud for a non existing fault for it was neither obstinacy nor selfishness, neither disobedience nor willfulness, which held the eyes and bound the tongue, and made the poor little childish dreamer look so like a Jagging mule who has to be quickened by the whip. JEALOUSY OF JOY. In our education of children we do not understand the difference between teaching them better things than they already know, and punishing them for the evil of which they are Ignorant Yet In this distinction lies the whole difference of the two methods of education whether it U to be by exhorta tion and example, by heartening and draw ing forth, cr br repression and the stimula tion of fear, ft is human nature not to wish to make things too pleasant even for the little -j ones. The sourness born of pain and the bitterness which comes from experience, lend a certain jealousy of joy. "Wo see it in the rulers and care takers of childhood, as well as in the masters of labor, the mistresses of serv ants and the comments of the old on the young. We think too much serenity ener vating, and prefer to have a sky enlivened by lightning and shaken by thunder. Hence we a little grudge the little ones their un clouded sky, and prefer the rod of iron to that ot roses. We hold to the good in itself of punishment not onlv in its results im mediate to the matter in band, bnt in its general formation of the character. It is a kind of tan-pit or pickle into which thesoul of the child is plunged; and we regard it as an antiseptic in proportion to its strength. We must, however, have education and teaching, whatever the method we employ. We must make the ignorant and non-discerning child the critical and analytical man, but the difficulty is as to the method. How best to come to the desired end is no more settled to-day than it was when Kabe lais drew his sketch of a perfect education, and Montaigne told how tenderly his father had dealt by him. Children have to be taught everything that makes society possible and citizenship honorable. Truth, honesty, decency, reti cence, caution, humanity, unselfishness, jus tice all these the gradual results of civili zationthe tardy growths of the slow de velopment have to be implanted in the childish mind, naturally of itself as empty of conscience as a savage's as barren of moral perception as that of a bird of prey. We cannot remember this too clearly. Virtues have to be taught They are not natural to the individual like his eyes and his hair. They have been formulated bit by bit, according to the social needs and moral perceptions of human development, as man grew higher in the scale of mental consciousness and came into a clearer light of spiritual truths. WHY A CHILD STEALS. Take stealing for an instance. A child clutches at what it wants without the re motest idea of such a thing as stealing. This is a branch of ethics understood as little as mathematics. It takes the sugar from the table, the toy from its sister anvthing it fancies the subtleties of the moral law be ing like creatures in a drop of water without the microscope. There they are, but the sense is not there which can discern them. The child has to be taught how to reason, to judge, to spiritually ken. Because we are unable to reach that latent moral conscious ness by words, we touch it by pain. We punish the sinless thief by slapping its hands and takine away from it what it must not have. We approach the mind through the body, aa in other matters. We teach it by pain pain , which begets fear which begets lying. The one-year-old marauder took its sugar boldlv clutched at its sister's dolly openly thinking no evil and knowing none wishing only to gratify its appetite, aswasnaturaL The 2-year-old, grown a thief, conscious of punishment to follow, steals what it wants takes it slyly, fnrtively, hoping to escape detection glancing round at nurse to see if it is watched. This, too, is instinctive, and has no element as yet of conscious immorality. To be afraid of punishment is not to be con scious of wrongdoing in any moral sense. To break a law is not always to "star" the conscience witness the trespassers on for bidden ground, and the irrepressible little woman who dives under the denying rope. This fear of punishment, however, is the be ginning of wisdom; but the beginning is not the end. Still (he education has to go on, and our 2-year-old must learn not to take what is not given, and that to breakthis rule is to incur displeasure and receive its "whips" in preparation for the time when it shall understand more clearly. Truth again is a difficulty with children. They tell lies for fear of being found out and this is but another word for self-preservation. Katnre herself does the same when she makes her stick and leaf insects exactly like the sticks and leaves among which they live mottles the under wings of heroutter flies like the moss or bark on whj& they settle stripes her tigers like the bamboo canes in the midst of which they crouch and gives innocuous caterpillars the color of the noxious, that they may be preserved by the deceived senses of their pursuers. To protect ourselves in every way possible to us is one of the first laws of nature; and lying and denying come intothe elements ot this law until "crowded out" bv a nobler morality. We have to teach children that lying is base, mean, vile, cowardly, im moral what you will; but to be angry with them for their instinctive art of self-protection, brought about by our own method of punishment, is nnphilosophie and cruel. LYING AND CBUELTY. Children tell lies too from the simple force of the imagination. So do savages when they construct their cosmogonies and give a fanciful genesis for natural phenom ena. A child comes running to you from the garden and tells you that she has met and talked with the most beautilul bine fairy. She tells you all that has been said and sticks to her point With infinite pains and patience and sympathy if you are of the right sort you unravel" the tangle and come to the straight end. She has seen. caught, talked to, and idealized a shining blue, beetle, on which slender basis she has constructed her fairy edifice. Again, there is the splendide mendax of childish heroism; when the sturdy little champion takes the thrashing due to the weaker and gentler, and never tells that he has not done this naughty mischief, and that the other more nervous "and delicate little coward has. If we were to class this kind of untruth with the lies that demand punish ment we should hammer down one of the finest of all the towers built by the virtues and inhabited by nobleness of nature. After all. this whole tract of truth aud lies is in stinctive, belonging to the time of life and the special development characteristic of that time. It is all inchoate, all embrvonic; and to judge of it as one would jndge of adult lapses is to go far astray from wisdom and common sense. Cruelty in children is for the most part curiosity backed by want of sympathetic imagination. Just as the blue fairy that grew out ofthe blue beetle was the result of creative imagination unchastened by scientific accuracy, so is cruelty the exact converse. Children want to see "how funny" a fly looks with its wings torn off. They" watch the movements of a wasp cut in two "and wonder how it can sting at the one end and peep at the other, independent of relation. They think it rare sport when the frightened dog rushes helter-skelter bv, clattering the tin kettle tied to his tail as he goes. Thev are charmed when the startled horse, terrified out of his five wits by the sudden snout and stone from over the hedge, capers over the field, tail and mane flying and its wild eves distraught with fear. As for cruelty, thev have no notion of it. Still we repeat it we have to educate children to the clear perception of right and wrong as men and women have determined. But we have to educate wisely. We must not jndge the youn;; as we judge ourselves, nor ever in the punishments which must be awarded treat them as willlully wicked. We must always remember that they are ignor ant and undeveloped; and we must allow for this, putting our energy into teaching, not wasting it in wrath. All the same, we must never forget that childish evil is extant that childish criminalities are-possible and that the adoration of childish innocence is a pretty fallacy, useful in its own way but not goqd for guidance. In all that we have to do with Our young we ought to possess our own minds in clearness of perception and philosophic calmness. To be angry with them is to go down to their own level, when they break their toys and fling stones at the dog, beat their dolls and kill the flies, be cause these will not do as they in their child ish ignorance think thev ought E. I.YNN Likton. A Cordial Indention. Frankfurter Zeltang.l In a small town in Baden a minister closed his sermon the other day with these words: "We would be pleased, moreover, to have the young man who is now standing outside the door come in and make certain whether she is here or not That would be a great deal better than opening the door halt an inch and exposing the people in the last row of seats to a draught" t;x EVERT DAT SCIENCE. Effect of the Destruction of Forests Upon Our Streams. THE DAKGERS OP DAKK HOUSES. How Habits of Life Affect Mankind. the Health of SCIENTIFIC AKD INDUSTRIAL KOTES rrp-EPXEED ron the dispatch.i Beaders of The Dispatch who desire information on subjects relating to indus trial development and progress in mechani cal, civil and electrical engineering and the sciences cau have their queries answered through this column. At the recent American Forestry Congress at Philadelphia, the report of the Recording Secretary, J. B. Harrison, discussed at considerable length the effect of the destruc tion of forests upon streams and water sup plies. The water falling on the denuded areas flows away rapidly and gradually washes away the soil, so that the streams will be destructive at one season and their beds dry, dusty wastes for the rest of the year. Mr. Harrison thought that every State having forest lands should appoint an officer to look after the forests and the rivers, and to have supervision of the construction and maintenance of dams. He considered the question of the effect of forest, preserva tion upon the water supplies should be a point for the attention of engineers ap pointed by the Govcrnmentto survey the arid regions and lay out systems of storage reser voirs. During an examination of the for ests of Pennsylvania in Hay, he had op portunity for observing the effects of very heavy rainfall, and of comparing the rate of descent of the water over the hillside areas covered with forests with the rate of areas of equal slope where the iorest had been destroyed. In this region, as well as in the Adirondack?, he found that on the denuded hillside areas the water descended to the brooks and rivers much more rapidly than where the forests were still standing, or where, if cut down, the forest floor was still intact; and after a heavy rain the de nuded areas became dry much sooner than those of similar slopes on which forest con ditions had been maintained. Tnleanlzatton of Rubber. Bubber is vulcanized either in vulcanizers or in steam presses. Vulcanizers are vessels provided with a steam-tight cover which can be securely clamped down. They are of all sizes and shapes, and placed either hori zontally or vertically. In the former in stance they are usually very large, the cover being hinged to one side of the opening, and have tracks running into them, on which are cars containing the goods to be vulcan ized. All vulcanizers and steam presses are in communication with the steam supply pipes of the works, and are provided with pressure gauges and thermometers in order that those in charge may be enabled to regu late the inflow of steam, and the temperature within. The vulcanizing medium, that is, the medium in which the goods are placed when run into the vulcanizer, may be gaseous, liquid or solid, according to various requirements. Air may be the medium, or it may be water, or it may be soapstone. The goods being placed into the vulcanizer and the cover clamped down, "live" steam is turned in and left on for a length of time, varying with the require ments of the product whether it be light or heavy, thick or thin, almost pure or heavily adulterated. The time varies from half an hour to several hours. The temperature required for vulcanization also varies with the nature of the product, being from 260 Fahr. to 300 Fahr. The latter temperature is about as much as it can stand. When the rubber is adjndged to be properly vul canizedjthe steam is blown off, the cover undamped, and the goods taken out. They are then cleaned and packed, unless they require some special treatment, such as polish or deodorization, and are ready for the market The Grnpbopuone In Medicine. While discussing the graphophone as a help to medical art in diagnosis, Dr. B. W. Bichardson lays great stress on its useful ness in the matter of securing cough records. To be able to compare a cough of to-day with a cough oi a month or a year ago is a consid erable clinical advantage, and may be so im mediately available In the consulting room that Dr. Bichardson has decided to adopt it in his own practice. , For lecture purposes also this part of the work would be most use ful, since every class of cough could be taught to the student by direct practice and demonstration. The different kind of cries indicative of different sensibilities to pain can also be rendered diagnostically. In a word, any sound whatever, indicative of health or disease, and any animal motion of health or disease that admits of translation into sound, can now be recorded, made per manent and reproduced any number of times, either for comparison, demonstration or observation. The utilization of such a power in medicine is likely to be continued nntil it reaches all the greater departments of the medical art. Producing Arilflclnl Currents. A novel method of removing or prevent ing the formation of sandbars at the en trance of harbors, inlets or rivers, has just been patented, which possesses at all events the merit of ingenuity. It is designed to in crease by artificial means the flow of the current at certain points, and thns to wash away the accumulation of matter and have it carried away by the currents that have helped to form the bar. These bars are usually formed by the meeting of two oppo site currents. An incoming current from the ocean and an outflowing current from the river meet with abont equal force at a certain point, and any material carried by these currents will be deposited at that point, forming a bar. lithe forcef the outgoing enrrent can be increased so as to be greater than the counteracting current at one or more points this accumulation will be prevented and the bar gradually worn away. This is proposed to be effected by driving at a high rate of speed the propellers of vessels anchored in close proximity at some point near the bar, when the swift cur rent thus produced will, it is supposed, so increase the force of the natural current al ready existing as to secure the desired end. Tbe Notnro of Necatfve Hallucinations. Many of the phenomena of hypnotism are now engaging the serious attention of scien tists. M. J. Foutan has recently devised an interesting method of showing that in hyp notism the physiological processes remain, while their psychic interpretation is altered. If a subject be told that he sees nothing red, everything of this color falls out of his men tal horizon, and we have an ordinary instance of a negative hallucination. If, now, the red object viewed be a red light, and if we suggest to the subject that when a bell is sonnded he will again be restored to normal vision, and if as the bell is sounded the light is put out, the subject sees a light of the complimentary color, green, just as be would have done when normally viewing a red light While the brain refuses pass age to the sensation of red, the retina is im pressed with it, and reacts to it, just as though the -action were normal in every respect ' Duration sf a Lightning FloiB. Late researches have shown that the du ration of a lightning flash Is not infinitesi mal, as has been generally supposed, but that the flash lasts a measurable time. For instance, if a camera is set in rapid vi bration and the plate in it is exposed so as to receive the impression of the flash, it is LflB "PITTSBHRGTiSPATOH, SUNDAY fonnd that the impressions appear widened out on tbe negative, showing that the nega tive has moved during the time the flash was in existence. The Overloading of Oar Homes. Prominent among the subjects discussed at the late convention of the American Pub lic Health Association In Brooklyn was that of overshading. Dr. C. A. Lindley said: Overshading is a serious fault, and it directly leFsens the value of real estate and noticeably increases disease and shortens life. Houses overshaded are not healthful, no matter haw commodious or well built they may be. This condition of overshading is very noticeable in our New England and middle State towns. The white faces and sickly appearance of so many of our people are largely attributable to this cause, and suggest that medical men should call atten tion to the growing evil. Where houses are overshaded the nervous system also suf fers, as well as the general bodily health. Dr. Bindley lurther showed that plenty of sunlight was one of the main essentials to mental and physical health. Henfth Is Affected br Habits of Life. The medical journals have been drawing a moral from the fact which has been lately brought forward that the native Egyptian is an extremely "good subject for surgical operation. Clot Bey, the founder of modern medicine in Egypt, says: "It re quires as much surgery to kill one Egyptian as seven Europeans. In the native hospitals, the man whose thigh has been amputated at 2 o'clock is sitting up, and lively at 6." Shock is almost entirely un known, and dread of an impending opera tion quite an exception. The explanation given for this abnormal physical excellence is the resignation inculcated by the religion of the people; the very small proportion of meat in, and the total absence ot alcohol from, their, diet, and, in general their regular, abstemious, out-of-door life. More Artificial Leather. A still further -addition to the numerous recent forms of artificial leather is reported from Germany. Very finely divided leather cuttings are mixed with a solution of glue and a certain quantity of tannic aqjd until a thick mass is formed, which is then pressed into any required shape. To render it more impervious to damp it is impreg nated with India rubber, glycerine and linseed oil, and a little sawdust is added. The material becomes hard when dry, and is said to be capable of being used for many purposes as a substitute for real leather. The suppleness and durability of tbe imita tion, however, as compared with the real article would appear open to doubt Sawdnst ns n Dressing for Wounds. The use of fine, soft sawdust as a dressing for wounds, and asa vehicle for medicaments or antiseptics is suggested. It is said that the dust, freed from splinters and sharp bits of wood by sifting, when used alone and dry, make a clean and grateful dressing; that it readily takes up and holds the dis charges without packing or adhering; and that it is easily rendered antiseptic by any of the methods used in preparing antiseptic cotton or wool. A well known medical authority also suggests that our yellow pine sawdust, rich as it is in turpentine, would prove of itself a valuable antiseptic appli cation. HOT THE EIGHT EXPLANATION. An Untenable Reason Concerning Woman's Physical Degeneration. Detroit Free Press. The physical degeneracy of American women is explained by a medical journal, which says the household utensils are all too big for women to handle with comfort. Bnt this is an explanation that doesn't ex plain, for the women who show the greatest evidence of physical degeneracy are the women who never under any circumstances handle these heavy household utensils, while, on tbe other hand, the women who do handle them are, as a rnle, well developed physically. Perhaps the physical degeneracy of so many women Is due to the fact that they don't handle Household utensils enough. An ignoble Weapon. "Thet onery ole b'ar an no gunl Jest my blamed luck. "Hoi ont Ton don't git them groceries without a rassle for 'em." - "Now light out, darn yerl" Judge. Mimm " ' sSo- " 2 "How's that strike yer ?" Ki i . - f . . . nxr ,JNUV.tt.QUB.EiJK. A PHENOMENAL CITT. Jeannette's Remarkable Boom Its Jfopid Development. and HO HEED TO GO WEST, Y0UH6 MAN, For Fortunes Are Awaiting Ion in the Keystone State. SOME FIGDEES THAT TELIi THE 8T0EI No more wonderful evidence exists in Pennsylvania or elsewhere of the results to be obtained'from the intelligence and en ergy of the American capitalist and manu facturer than in the growth of the little city ot Jeannette that nestles in the beautiful valley of Westmoreland county. Natural gas, in itself a wonder, is the means by which the manufacturing interests of West ern Pennsylvania have been enabled to at tain ideal results. All the new and im mense expansion of industrial enterprises is, in a measure, confined to the natural gas districts. Tbe benefits arisiug from natural gas can be readily calculated, when we know that free gas to a plant like the great Chambers & McKee Glass Co. means a tree fuel to each tank worth $70,000, ' aggregating for the firm when finished the large sum of $280,000, or nearly 3 percent interest annually on the enormous amount of $10,000,000. Apply this to all the factories now at Jeannette, viz.: the great elass tanks, the flint factory of H. Sellers McKee, the brick yards, the planing mills, to the immense factory of Hussey, Binns & Co., the plans of which are about complete, and the various other industries planned for the place, and an immense golden total in profits that nature supplies free to all for the small expenditure of a pipe line and a well, astonishes the great manufacturers who use coal as a fuel and pav for it even the lowest possible prices. Tbe general tendency ot the great facto ries of the country irom the very necessi ties of the case is to seek locations where A SAMPLE tbe first essential is close proximity to na ture's great ideal fuel, natural gas. This fact accounts for this industrial center that gives employment to thousands of skilled artisans and furnishes them comfortable homes in the pure and healthy air of the western slopes of the Allegheny Mountains, close enough to Pittsburg to have the benefit such a city affords, and 1,100 feet above tide level and all the malaria and disease that low situations breed. It is the intention of the writer to reach new readers as well as the old who are familiar with Jeannette, aud we will be forced to give descriptions that have been read before by a large part of our people, but could not be better said than it has been in the following lines de scriptive of Jeannette by one who is best qualified to treat the subject: X.OCATJON. The town is situated on the main line of the Pennsylvania railroad, 25 miles east of the.cityof Pittsburg, in the great natural gas belt of Western Pennsylvania, in a beautiful pastoral valley on the western slope ot the Allegheny Mountains, 1,150 feet above sea level. The site is traversed by Bull run and Brush creek and tbe main line of tbe Pennsylvania railroad running centrally through tbe town affords easy ac cess by rail to many good sites for manu facturing plants. NATUKAL GAS. The great natural gas reservoir lies one half mile east of the center of the town. The gas is found at .a depth of from 1,200 to 1,400 feet beneath the surface with the enormous gas rock pressureof 550 pounds to the square inch. A six-inch hole will permit the flow daily of 12,000,000 cubic feet of ga, equiva lent as a fuel power of 400 tons of the best bituminous coal. It is estimated by experts that the least time in which the supply at this point can be exhausted will be 50 years, that this gas field is the largest, most per sistent in existence. Three miles of gas pipe already supplied the town with fuel and lights, and in the summer of 1889 at least ten miles more were laid. A large portion of the gas field is under the control of the parties interested in the town and will be secured to the inhabitants of the place at the lowest rates. As to the permanency of the supply of natural gas we can only refer to facts that exist for more than seven years the Mur rysville field has been drawn from through hundreds of wells, and such is the confidence of experts in its stability that in the past summer several large new lines, costing millions of dollars, have been laid from it to Pittsburg and to other points, and whils there are signs of decrease in tbe pressure there are no signs of exhaustion. TheGrape ville' field, compared to the Mnrrysville field, is a new one, and the drain upon the territory is yet light, though several large lines are, however? in use one to'tbe great Carnegie Steel Mills, one to the Cambria Iron Company at Johnstown, and a large line is now being built to McKeesport When millions are being spent in this field to transport the gas to distant points we have the best assurance of the confidence of knowing ones in the value and permanency oi the field. WATEE. Tbe comfort of a town depends much on its drainage and its water supply. The location of the town on hill and valley meets the requirement of the situation as to drain age coupled with the fact that two consider able brooks flow rapidly through the town site, in deep cuts in the earth's face, washing all impurities swiftly away. Just beneath tbe town exists a large arte sian supply of the best soft water, now furnished the town free from 12 wells, con veniently located. jfe. - '"ti. -,"w-iS - ; I -t- m srr r .c-. - i -ys If "sffrT: Tsijrar ! . .nrjBTff umtjifW i i x JottMBW ' MilsT HiHsffyiMfflfrrJ tj&X3frNysTftsTGTS7asTBsTl9fiM2P'7lira 31889. rV: -,. In addition, the Delaware "Water Com pany will have extended pipe lines' a dis tance of 15 miles irom Chestnut Bidge to this point, delivering to the town from the mountains a million gallons dally of purs spring water. The great glass works are accurately de scribed by J. M. Kellv, of the Qlast Worker and Commoner, as follows: t The window glass plant in itself will con sist of 17 buildings, or four completed window glass factories, so arranged that each can be operated independently of the other, and tbe materials used in manufacture can be received at the east side and loaded upon the cars in boxes on the west side by a con tinuous method. A description of one of the factories is a description of all of them, for they are identical as to size, construction and method of .work. The factories are numbered 1, 2, 3 and 4, No. 1, abutting on the P. B. B. and 4 on the creek, 2,000 feet away. To the east of the plant are the re ceiving tracks connected with the P. B. B., and to the west tbe shipping tracks. No. 2 factory was begun first, and is now fast ap proaching completion, No. 3 following close behind. When the material used in the manufacture is received it is unloaded from the cars on the receiving track into tbe stockhouse. This is a structure 150x80 feet, divided into bins for keeping sand, soda, lime, etc. In this structure, which is of stone, with iron roof, and one-storv high, is also the mixing floor. The material, when ready for the furnace, is taken on trucks into the melting and blowing department also a separate stone building with ironl roof. This strncture is shaped like the re versed upper end of a cross, the spur con taining the continuous tank. This spur is 170x60 feet in size, aud the other end of the structure is 180x90 feet in size. The furnace itself is filled from tbe rear with the mate rials from the stockroom. The front end has 24 openings for the gatherers, 6 on tbe extreme end aud 9 on each side. The tank will hold about GOO tons of melted glass, and as it is proposed to work three shifts of men eight hours each, each tank will give employment to 72 gatherers and 72 blowers. Multiply that by four and we have 576 blowers and gatherers who will find employment there. As each tank will hold about 600 tons of glass, it is estimated, taking the product at one-third double strength and two-thirds single strength, that STKEET SCENE. each factory will produce when in operation 6,200 &0-foot boxes df glass each week, or over 1,000 boxes a day. Mnltinly this by four, the number of tbe furnaces, and the entire product of the plant will be 24,800 50-foot boxes a week. An ordinary ten-pot furnace will produce about 900 boxes single thick or 800 boxes, in tbe usual percentage of single and double thick, per week. Put that alongside of nearly 25,000 boxes per week, or, working 44 weeks a year, the product of the Chambers & McKee plant of 1,100,000 50-foot boxes annually. This comparison gives an idea of how much superior the new plant will be. Tbe con tinuous process requires no stop for filling bibd's-ete view op jeasnette. pots and waiting on the melt, and the builders say the tank is beyond the experimental stage, and that it will be a success beyond a doubt In fact, they anticipate even more success than is enjoyed in Europe, as natural gas, perfect fuel, which can be controlled, will be used exclusively. Prom the blowing department the cylin ders will be transferred on trucks into the flattening house, the greatest structure of all. This immense stone building is 460 feet long and 105 feet wide, inside measure ment, and has attached to the west side of it a sub-structure 460 feet long and 40 feet wide. The main building contains eight flattening ovens of a most improved style, located in pairs down the center of the structure. The sub-building will be divided into three cutting and two packing rooms. Bach cutting room on the.ends will be 75x40 feet and each packing room next to them 95x40 feet Between the packing rooms is the third and largest cutting room, 120x75. According to the plans the product of the first two flattening ovens will go into the first cutting room, and the product of the four central flattening ovens into the middle cutting room, and of the last two ovens into the remaining cutting room. The glass, when cut, from the two end rooms will go into the packing Bur the most the difference in his home if vowusm SftBOnO' ft Cleanliness and neatness comfort, and If he cant find know that SAPOLIQ makes in a comfortable home. Do you rooms on each side, and the glass cut In the center room will half each go Into the two packing rooms. There wilLbe stalls for 24 single strength and 8 double strength cutters in each factory or a total of 94 single and 32 double strength cutters in the plant From the packing rooms tbe product is transferred on tracks into the last structure, the shipping room. The building, like every other one in the window plant is of stone, with iron roof, and measures 350 feet long by 50 feet wide, and stock will be stored here and loaded upon the cars, the floors of which will be on a level with the floor of the ware house. This completes a description of any one of the factories, and if the reader will not fail to remember that there are just four such factories as described, the great size and capacity of the plant will not escape A STREET OF him. The seventeenth structure of the plant is the clayhouse, which is made to do dnty for the tour factories. The structure is 150x75 feet, three stories high, with an ad dition to it for engines and boilers for the grinding mills. The material used in the structures is sandstone of excellent quality. The roofs are all of Iron trusses and corrugated iron and reach from side to side without support ing pillars. The product of tbe plant will be window glass exclusively. It is expected that No. 2 factory will be completed aud be gin operations by November 1. No. 3 will be making glass two months later and'Nos. 1 and 4 soou alter. The fuel for tbe plant is obtained from a well owned by Chambers & McKee, 4,000 leet from the works, and is supplied through two six-inch pipes. The well is 1,300 feet deep and shows a very great pressure. M,'KEE BB03.' TLIST yACTOET. Xike the window glass works, the flint factory is fireproof throughout, built of sandstone with iron roofs, and having plate glass skylights In all departments needing them. Across the switch from the stock room of No. 3 window factory is the stock room of tbe flint factory. This is a struc ture 225x65 feet, and is divided into mold shops, moldroom, engine room, mixingfioor, sandhouse and soda ash house. Much of the machinery is in place, and there is a good stock of materials on hand to begin work as soon as tbe first furnace is com pleted. The material is carried on trucks' into the furnace building, a structure 225x80 feet, all iron above the foundations. There are three great furnaces, each of them for 15 .pots of a large size. Each pot measures 48J inches front, and will hold two tons of melted glass. In fact each 15-pot furnace is equal to the 22 pots in other factories. The furnace building is a model es tablishment with fire brick floors, and every improvement that will facilitate work and give comfort to the men. Sixteen lean 0 leet long- with 60-inch pans connect the fur nace building with the lear room. This lear room is part of four structures, all grouped together with separate roofs, and so arranged that if the material in any part of them should take fire, the flames could not com municate with the other rooms. The lear room in rize is 180x40 feet, and immediately in its rear is tbe open goods house, 180x40 feet The packing room at the lower end of the structure is 180x30 feet and the cutting room at the north end is 116x65 feet The skylights in this structure will be of the finest plateglass, and will make. the. Interior as light as day. In the rear of the building is the shipping warehouse and stock room, 225x100 feet so arranged with a turntable for cars at one end of the structure that eight cars can be loaded at one time. Like the window factory, it will be observed that the product is moved automatically from the furnace room into the cars, and there ia no rehandling. The Jeannette Planing'Mill Company is the best of its kind, and gives employment to 80 hands. The Standard Brick Company, working double time, produce 30,000 brick of superior quality daily. The great shovel works of Hussey, Binns Ss Co. will employ 300 skilled workmen, making the finished product from the raw material. The pay roll now, weekly, reaches the sum of more than $30,000, and will later on. more than be doubled when all the machinery is in mo tion. The method of making glass by tanks is a new one in America, and its introduction found many bitter and formidable enemies who scattered broadcast over tbe land the positive charge of failure aud bad product, and it was with difficulty that the factory conld be manned. "Nothing succeeds like success," and the triumphant production, both in quantity and Quality of an immense output, satisfies the owners of the works and loving husband vvlHsegS saves - labor tn about a house are necessary to invars oomfcrt. it at home, ha wffl seek elsewhere for it Goo a house clean and keeps it height want cleanliness, eossfcrt aad. confounds its enemies. the glass on the Atlantic coast where,! product of foreign factorial had always" held them. M Now the factories are running day m night, and there is little use &e-storage- room, as every outgoing train is loaded wita one or more cars oi tan, glass oi tne,De kind, more than $200,000 in sales having been reported in the la t eight weeks.! The policy pursued 'jy the Land Company nas suppressed excessive speculation anal given a conservative Tone to the business the town in marked contrast with the booiPa ing methods used in paper towns, that sal often bring grief and disappointment ' to thai honest investor. To effect .this object tbil .Land iwmpany mace fair schedule pneest ror ineir lots ana strictly- aanere to isest BEICK HOUSES- The man of small mqans is given the op-j portunity to buy as. cheaply and npon sjj isvoraoie terms as tne man witn bis rhou-g sands. Good business lots, on good sir "isi range in price from S10O to S500. am) mnS1 dwellinghouse-lofs fronut200'to?500. Thewi is now in course of erection a freight and! passenger depot that wiH cost abont $13,009,1 that has been found necjessarT-toacconusoj date the growing business of tha town. Thai population of the town; ia the; short space ofj xo montns dps grown n-om two onthree fan ilies ta about 4.000 inhabitants. The natural consequ' enee is that bona fids settlers noia nearly an; the property sold bj the. company, and thei e is a building boosa:. in the best class of dwelling houses that U1 unpreceaentea. xne landj company is grad-f ually qpening, as ocajilon, demands it'1 properties, and bas in) the market a large J number of desirable. business and reridenc lots held at reasonable prices and npon eftsrj terms. Careful and thinking investors are-l buying and improviriir steadily. aniT. tblift growth of the town, is both-rapid and rebSi sfnntlitl i Tm1 iOOO 'aL . t m 5?H qmwjwm. iu u ujj, aooo, toere were two olaa farm houses -on ihe town. site. "We append! a list of the improremen is as ther stand iSx day: A STATZJIEST TJIOH wmoAX, Bxpoirr.'J xxhb or BTJttDlirO. k? Bank...:.. Barber shops .., Boarding houses... ,..,..., Brick store, two-story, plate glass., Bridges ....TTI.. Cn arches Clothing, stores Dwellings ,,, Doctors Depots, 1 passenger, 1 freight , Druggists.. ....... ................, Express offices... , Eating nooses. ........, ........... Furniture stores....... , Brick kilns General stores Groceries.. ....... ...... ............ Hard ware.. .......... ....... Hotels Insurance agents....... .., lawyers , 4i Livery stables , Meat markets Ji ini nery....... .............. ........ Newspaper printing ofilce... ....... x-uoioBrapu gauerics..... .........4..,., .riauiii); uuu. Postoffice j, Bailroad station; .L Shoe, .store... ...... Shoemakers , Stove and tinware ....,' DCHOOlB KOIItfHdttllHftlCtSKBd AWIVlHV HUIIVlHIMttltltiamM warenouses ...fAT Undertakers. . ............. ............. Land company. Totals The Chambers & McKee glass factory UUUlUgS ...... McKee Bros.' buildings. AOUUatiaaiiti aaaM.AAAAi The increase in buildings at JeaaiUitWiil abont 14 months is 531 building. TkSitA crease in the value of lots hm kept m)m1 steady advances with the growth. of.,tkJ town. Business lots that cost f400 now..sMl mr ?i.zw to 51,000. Dwelling lots cesti 5300 to S350 are selling from KBO ta MM.1 There are manyinstances ol' pireW5 0U1B1J. 1UC4119 JIBTlUg lUYeStCU Sfiti MS over their money freauentlv. aadV-l reaped handsome little lortuaM finat M to 20,000 by their foresight. The history of the success of tbe tmiTSfJ Jeannette Is the history of 'every sustilsM scheme like managed, and money weKjI4 vestea in mem nas always. yielde pronts. IN LmSESILNQ OLD FAMK.J A Halne Lawyer MUtafeeftKioMH Shw5(J t-.i- eg H AHtnra r 1 Kennebec JoornaLI A Hnulton lawyer ran acrois as fafifiiij ins old farmer on a train not Iosffje They went to discussing railroad-s 6 wa tbe lawyer is well informed, and the ventured ta correct what ha deeswel MRM- roneous statement In regard to the i of a New York road, made by the oU.t mer. But the farmer knew "better, fcrjiwi had been a director of the road tot 3 y . Then they went to talking about eleviill roads: and tbe farmer acknowledged tint fcsj had "some shares" in the New Xork llsai?lsjl surprise the lawyer asked: "Who are v? "My name." replied the old fstnHrJu; Sage ittusell Bage." The lawyer very soon changed his i Trot Acquainted la TittakmrttJ x4Mt-a iwwM ory Secretary Windom thinks tt VM-jwtf money is equal to all demands. It Ml rj to see mat tne oecxeury s circle ei MMiitM ance is umiiea. f SOTU SHTSPM housworta Happinerjs ahrsja hoppjaem? Try V