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Pittsburg dispatch. [volume] (Pittsburg [Pa.]) 1880-1923, November 03, 1889, SECOND PART, Image 15

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BITIZENS IN EMBRYO.
-Mrs. E. Lynn Linton, the Well-Known
Authoress, Talks Abont
THE CRIMINALITIES OF CHILDREN.
Little Ones Punished Really Because Thev
Know No Evil.
WHI GIELS ASD BOTS LIE AXD STEAL
'Witiiicy ron Tin msr A-rcn.l
Sentimentality is one of the false angles
which alter the perspective of our thoughts;
snd children arc the objects of a great deal
of sentimentality. They are naturally
loved because of their helplessness, their
prettiness, and the overwhelming force of
the instinct for race preservation without
which all things would come to a standstill.
Besides being loved, they are idealized as
morally beautiful, because they are igno
rant and undeveloped; an argument on all
fours with that paradox about the blessings
of comparative lrriisitivencss, by -which
we come down to the positive demonstration
that an oyster is happier than a man.
It is not everyone who remembers that
children are our embryonic selves in all
things, holding the germs of the passions
and appetites, which necessitate laws if we
are to have society, polity, or government.
As little is it remembered that the great
difference between them andadults, and the
real meaning of their idealized innocence,
is in certain follow tracts both of moral con
sciousness ard physical development, by
which they are free from the doubt and sus
picion born of experience, as well as from
some actively disturbing influences which
upset important social arrangements and
trample on some of the rights secured by
law to the individual. The whole point of
the difference lies in the word embryonic;
for we too often forget that thi is the real
distinction between children and ourselves,
and treat them as if they were as Jully de
veloped in consciousness and conscientious
ness as grown and well-tanght men and
women.
In moral consciousness children are on a
par with savages. The embryology of the
mind, of morals, of social polity, of equit
able dealing, follows the same law as the
physical; and what we have been in far off
ancestry is as clearlv discernible in the
mora characteristics of the living child as
in the material conditions of the unborn.
Children have no social virtues and no per
sonal shame. They do not know the differ
ence between right and wrong for right and
wrong are relative to conditions of which
they know nothing, though they are begin
ning to learn the rudiments in the nursery,
which is their cosmos. The conscience must
he developed before it can be educated, and
it must be educated before it can exert in
fluence. If we inherit the potentiality, the
plasticity given by long generations of edu
cation, we do not inherit the clear direction.
A2T UKCEKTAUT QUANTITY.
"We can be taught without great difficulty
the formulas of a code, but that code is an
uncertain quantity and shifts its form and
plans like a drifting cloud. A man must
be indeed short-sighted who does not see
that the whole scheme of morals that is the
whole development of the conscience is de
termined by our own personal relations to
society, as well as by geographical position,
popular religion and historic time. The
honor in endurance of the Spartan boy does
not now exist; the cleverness of the dacoit,
Who gains kudos among his fellows, would
be rewarded with a rope's end here. To
come to one unvarying code of right and
wrong, good for all ages and countries
alike, would be to reach out to the absolute
and touch the very feet of truth. As things
are, we are taught according to the chang
ing aspect of cur own environments; and
even in England, homogeneous as it looks
from the outside, children hare to learn the
laws of right and wrong not from one rigid
rule like the multiplication table, but ac
cording to the varying light of individual
conditions. J
Hence the wrongdoing of children is vari
ously judged of according to the moral
standpoint of their parents. Things severely
punished by one are held as unimportant by
another, or are laughed at as quaint traits
by a third, orapplauded as the signs of pre
cocious intelligence and alert faculties by a
fourth. The child of a pickpocket will be
rewarded for bringing home a strange purse
that he has found or "conveyed," but the
child of an honest man who stole a turnip
out of a field would probably be met with a
thrashing, as the best means known to the
father of inculcating the force of the eighth
commandment. A father known to us7 of
more sternness than compassion, made his
child wear two figs, abstracted from the des
sert dish, as a necklace ol shame, round her
little throat for all the evening of that fear
ful day of sin. He took her to each guest in
turn, and told the story of the theft and its
detection with, the punishment to follow, till
the poor little transgressor was nearly dead
for grief and shame. That was his way of
burning into her soul abhorrence of all
forms of dishonesty lor the rest of her life.
But the punishment was too great for the
offense, and less would have sufficed.
UNJUST PUNISHMENT.
In the education of the young, punish
ment must of necessity be often unjust in
application as well as too severe in propor
tion, fallible in our own judgment we are
angry with the results of the ignorance, un
development, want of thought characteristic
or childhood. Wejudge from the stand
point of knowledge things which can only
be rightly appreciated by this theory of ig
norance and general undevelopnient. Be
sides, the mott candid child has not a win
dow in its breast, through which the truth
may be read; and much which looks like
willfulness is aslittle consciously willlul as
.little intentionally recalcitrant as the
wind that blows down the apple tree means
to do harm, or the rain that soaks the cut
hay means to prevent the carrying that
night. What we judge of as obstinacy is
often sismle torpor of the brain, producing
inability of action or such entire preoccu
pation with one thing as comes to the same
result.
We, with all our senses awake and astir,
do not credit an unresponsive child with
this sleep of the intelligence this inatten
tion because of absorption, which looks like
a moral fault and is not. "We cannot realize
this dumb, unreceptive state, because we
have so long passed from it ourselves as to
have forgotten it. But those whose memory
carries them far back into the dim distances
of childhood can surelv recall certain diffi
culties which arose from that curious state of
temporary paralysis, and had nothing to do
with intentional disobedience. Looking like
obstinacy it was really the sleep ot
the brain. It was irresnonEiveness
because of preoccupation. The words
leard conveyed no practical mean
ing. They were heard and in a sense un
derstood, but only as the wind whipping the
rose branch on the window was heard. The
mind was for the moment paralyzed, and
received but did not register, till the slug
gish current of mental consciousness was
set loose nnd flowing once more by the
sharp stimulus of physical pain. That
sharp stimulus might be wholesome enough
in its own way. It was none the less ap
plied on wrong principles aud for a non
existing fault for it was neither obstinacy
nor selfishness, neither disobedience nor
willfulness, which held the eyes and bound
the tongue, and made the poor little childish
dreamer look so like a Jagging mule who
has to be quickened by the whip.
JEALOUSY OF JOY.
In our education of children we do not
understand the difference between teaching
them better things than they already know,
and punishing them for the evil of which
they are Ignorant Yet In this distinction
lies the whole difference of the two methods
of education whether it U to be by exhorta
tion and example, by heartening and draw
ing forth, cr br repression and the stimula
tion of fear, ft is human nature not to wish
to make things too pleasant even for the little -j
ones. The sourness born of pain and the
bitterness which comes from experience,
lend a certain jealousy of joy. "Wo
see it in the rulers and care
takers of childhood, as well as in
the masters of labor, the mistresses of serv
ants and the comments of the old on the
young. We think too much serenity ener
vating, and prefer to have a sky enlivened
by lightning and shaken by thunder. Hence
we a little grudge the little ones their un
clouded sky, and prefer the rod of iron to
that ot roses. We hold to the good in itself
of punishment not onlv in its results im
mediate to the matter in band, bnt in its
general formation of the character. It is a
kind of tan-pit or pickle into which thesoul
of the child is plunged; and we regard it as
an antiseptic in proportion to its strength.
We must, however, have education and
teaching, whatever the method we employ.
We must make the ignorant and non-discerning
child the critical and analytical
man, but the difficulty is as to the method.
How best to come to the desired end is no
more settled to-day than it was when Kabe
lais drew his sketch of a perfect education,
and Montaigne told how tenderly his father
had dealt by him.
Children have to be taught everything
that makes society possible and citizenship
honorable. Truth, honesty, decency, reti
cence, caution, humanity, unselfishness, jus
tice all these the gradual results of civili
zationthe tardy growths of the slow de
velopment have to be implanted in the
childish mind, naturally of itself as empty
of conscience as a savage's as barren of
moral perception as that of a bird of prey.
We cannot remember this too clearly.
Virtues have to be taught They are not
natural to the individual like his eyes and
his hair. They have been formulated bit
by bit, according to the social needs and
moral perceptions of human development,
as man grew higher in the scale of mental
consciousness and came into a clearer light
of spiritual truths.
WHY A CHILD STEALS.
Take stealing for an instance. A child
clutches at what it wants without the re
motest idea of such a thing as stealing. This
is a branch of ethics understood as little as
mathematics. It takes the sugar from the
table, the toy from its sister anvthing it
fancies the subtleties of the moral law be
ing like creatures in a drop of water without
the microscope. There they are, but the
sense is not there which can discern them.
The child has to be taught how to reason, to
judge, to spiritually ken. Because we are
unable to reach that latent moral conscious
ness by words, we touch it by pain. We
punish the sinless thief by slapping its
hands and takine away from it what it
must not have. We approach the mind
through the body, aa in other matters. We
teach it by pain pain , which begets fear
which begets lying. The one-year-old
marauder took its sugar boldlv clutched at
its sister's dolly openly thinking no evil
and knowing none wishing only to gratify
its appetite, aswasnaturaL The 2-year-old,
grown a thief, conscious of punishment to
follow, steals what it wants takes it slyly,
fnrtively, hoping to escape detection
glancing round at nurse to see if it is
watched. This, too, is instinctive, and has
no element as yet of conscious immorality.
To be afraid of punishment is not to be con
scious of wrongdoing in any moral sense.
To break a law is not always to "star" the
conscience witness the trespassers on for
bidden ground, and the irrepressible little
woman who dives under the denying rope.
This fear of punishment, however, is the be
ginning of wisdom; but the beginning is not
the end. Still (he education has to go on,
and our 2-year-old must learn not to take
what is not given, and that to breakthis
rule is to incur displeasure and receive its
"whips" in preparation for the time when
it shall understand more clearly.
Truth again is a difficulty with children.
They tell lies for fear of being found out
and this is but another word for self-preservation.
Katnre herself does the same when
she makes her stick and leaf insects exactly
like the sticks and leaves among which they
live mottles the under wings of heroutter
flies like the moss or bark on whj& they
settle stripes her tigers like the bamboo
canes in the midst of which they crouch
and gives innocuous caterpillars the color of
the noxious, that they may be preserved by
the deceived senses of their pursuers. To
protect ourselves in every way possible to
us is one of the first laws of nature; and
lying and denying come intothe elements
ot this law until "crowded out" bv a nobler
morality. We have to teach children that
lying is base, mean, vile, cowardly, im
moral what you will; but to be angry with
them for their instinctive art of self-protection,
brought about by our own method of
punishment, is nnphilosophie and cruel.
LYING AND CBUELTY.
Children tell lies too from the simple
force of the imagination. So do savages
when they construct their cosmogonies and
give a fanciful genesis for natural phenom
ena. A child comes running to you from
the garden and tells you that she has met
and talked with the most beautilul bine
fairy. She tells you all that has been said
and sticks to her point With infinite pains
and patience and sympathy if you are of
the right sort you unravel" the tangle and
come to the straight end. She has seen.
caught, talked to, and idealized a shining
blue, beetle, on which slender basis she has
constructed her fairy edifice.
Again, there is the splendide mendax of
childish heroism; when the sturdy little
champion takes the thrashing due to the
weaker and gentler, and never tells that he
has not done this naughty mischief, and that
the other more nervous "and delicate little
coward has. If we were to class this kind
of untruth with the lies that demand punish
ment we should hammer down one of the
finest of all the towers built by the virtues
and inhabited by nobleness of nature. After
all. this whole tract of truth aud lies is in
stinctive, belonging to the time of life and
the special development characteristic of
that time. It is all inchoate, all embrvonic;
and to judge of it as one would jndge of
adult lapses is to go far astray from wisdom
and common sense.
Cruelty in children is for the most part
curiosity backed by want of sympathetic
imagination. Just as the blue fairy that
grew out ofthe blue beetle was the result of
creative imagination unchastened by
scientific accuracy, so is cruelty the exact
converse. Children want to see "how
funny" a fly looks with its wings torn off.
They" watch the movements of a wasp cut in
two "and wonder how it can sting at the one
end and peep at the other, independent of
relation. They think it rare sport when the
frightened dog rushes helter-skelter bv,
clattering the tin kettle tied to his tail as he
goes. Thev are charmed when the startled
horse, terrified out of his five wits by the
sudden snout and stone from over the
hedge, capers over the field, tail and mane
flying and its wild eves distraught with
fear. As for cruelty, thev have no notion
of it.
Still we repeat it we have to educate
children to the clear perception of right and
wrong as men and women have determined.
But we have to educate wisely. We must
not jndge the youn;; as we judge ourselves,
nor ever in the punishments which must be
awarded treat them as willlully wicked. We
must always remember that they are ignor
ant and undeveloped; and we must allow for
this, putting our energy into teaching, not
wasting it in wrath. All the same, we must
never forget that childish evil is extant
that childish criminalities are-possible and
that the adoration of childish innocence is a
pretty fallacy, useful in its own way but not
goqd for guidance. In all that we have to
do with Our young we ought to possess our
own minds in clearness of perception and
philosophic calmness. To be angry with
them is to go down to their own level, when
they break their toys and fling stones at the
dog, beat their dolls and kill the flies, be
cause these will not do as they in their child
ish ignorance think thev ought
E. I.YNN Likton.
A Cordial Indention.
Frankfurter Zeltang.l
In a small town in Baden a minister
closed his sermon the other day with these
words: "We would be pleased, moreover,
to have the young man who is now standing
outside the door come in and make certain
whether she is here or not That would be
a great deal better than opening the door
halt an inch and exposing the people in the
last row of seats to a draught"
t;x
EVERT DAT SCIENCE.
Effect of the Destruction of Forests
Upon Our Streams.
THE DAKGERS OP DAKK HOUSES.
How Habits of Life Affect
Mankind.
the Health of
SCIENTIFIC AKD INDUSTRIAL KOTES
rrp-EPXEED ron the dispatch.i
Beaders of The Dispatch who desire
information on subjects relating to indus
trial development and progress in mechani
cal, civil and electrical engineering and the
sciences cau have their queries answered
through this column.
At the recent American Forestry Congress
at Philadelphia, the report of the Recording
Secretary, J. B. Harrison, discussed at
considerable length the effect of the destruc
tion of forests upon streams and water sup
plies. The water falling on the denuded
areas flows away rapidly and gradually
washes away the soil, so that the streams
will be destructive at one season and their
beds dry, dusty wastes for the rest of the
year. Mr. Harrison thought that every
State having forest lands should appoint an
officer to look after the forests and the rivers,
and to have supervision of the construction
and maintenance of dams. He considered
the question of the effect of forest, preserva
tion upon the water supplies should be a
point for the attention of engineers ap
pointed by the Govcrnmentto survey the arid
regions and lay out systems of storage reser
voirs. During an examination of the for
ests of Pennsylvania in Hay, he had op
portunity for observing the effects of very
heavy rainfall, and of comparing the rate
of descent of the water over the hillside
areas covered with forests with the rate of
areas of equal slope where the iorest had
been destroyed. In this region, as well as
in the Adirondack?, he found that on the
denuded hillside areas the water descended
to the brooks and rivers much more rapidly
than where the forests were still standing,
or where, if cut down, the forest floor was
still intact; and after a heavy rain the de
nuded areas became dry much sooner than
those of similar slopes on which forest con
ditions had been maintained.
Tnleanlzatton of Rubber.
Bubber is vulcanized either in vulcanizers
or in steam presses. Vulcanizers are vessels
provided with a steam-tight cover which
can be securely clamped down. They are of
all sizes and shapes, and placed either hori
zontally or vertically. In the former in
stance they are usually very large, the cover
being hinged to one side of the opening, and
have tracks running into them, on which
are cars containing the goods to be vulcan
ized. All vulcanizers and steam presses are
in communication with the steam supply
pipes of the works, and are provided with
pressure gauges and thermometers in order
that those in charge may be enabled to regu
late the inflow of steam, and the temperature
within. The vulcanizing medium, that is,
the medium in which the goods are placed
when run into the vulcanizer, may
be gaseous, liquid or solid, according to
various requirements. Air may be the
medium, or it may be water, or it may be
soapstone. The goods being placed into the
vulcanizer and the cover clamped down,
"live" steam is turned in and left on for a
length of time, varying with the require
ments of the product whether it be light or
heavy, thick or thin, almost pure or heavily
adulterated. The time varies from half an
hour to several hours. The temperature
required for vulcanization also varies with
the nature of the product, being from 260
Fahr. to 300 Fahr. The latter temperature
is about as much as it can stand. When
the rubber is adjndged to be properly vul
canizedjthe steam is blown off, the cover
undamped, and the goods taken out. They
are then cleaned and packed, unless they
require some special treatment, such as
polish or deodorization, and are ready for
the market
The Grnpbopuone In Medicine.
While discussing the graphophone as a
help to medical art in diagnosis, Dr. B. W.
Bichardson lays great stress on its useful
ness in the matter of securing cough records.
To be able to compare a cough of to-day with
a cough oi a month or a year ago is a consid
erable clinical advantage, and may be so im
mediately available In the consulting room
that Dr. Bichardson has decided to adopt it
in his own practice. , For lecture purposes
also this part of the work would be most use
ful, since every class of cough could be
taught to the student by direct practice and
demonstration. The different kind of cries
indicative of different sensibilities to pain
can also be rendered diagnostically. In a
word, any sound whatever, indicative of
health or disease, and any animal motion of
health or disease that admits of translation
into sound, can now be recorded, made per
manent and reproduced any number of
times, either for comparison, demonstration
or observation. The utilization of such a
power in medicine is likely to be continued
nntil it reaches all the greater departments
of the medical art.
Producing Arilflclnl Currents.
A novel method of removing or prevent
ing the formation of sandbars at the en
trance of harbors, inlets or rivers, has just
been patented, which possesses at all events
the merit of ingenuity. It is designed to in
crease by artificial means the flow of the
current at certain points, and thns to wash
away the accumulation of matter and have
it carried away by the currents that have
helped to form the bar. These bars are
usually formed by the meeting of two oppo
site currents. An incoming current from
the ocean and an outflowing current from
the river meet with abont equal force at a
certain point, and any material carried by
these currents will be deposited at that
point, forming a bar. lithe forcef the
outgoing enrrent can be increased so as to
be greater than the counteracting current at
one or more points this accumulation will
be prevented and the bar gradually worn
away. This is proposed to be effected by
driving at a high rate of speed the propellers
of vessels anchored in close proximity at
some point near the bar, when the swift cur
rent thus produced will, it is supposed, so
increase the force of the natural current al
ready existing as to secure the desired end.
Tbe Notnro of Necatfve Hallucinations.
Many of the phenomena of hypnotism are
now engaging the serious attention of scien
tists. M. J. Foutan has recently devised an
interesting method of showing that in hyp
notism the physiological processes remain,
while their psychic interpretation is altered.
If a subject be told that he sees nothing red,
everything of this color falls out of his men
tal horizon, and we have an ordinary
instance of a negative hallucination. If,
now, the red object viewed be a red light,
and if we suggest to the subject that when a
bell is sonnded he will again be restored to
normal vision, and if as the bell is sounded
the light is put out, the subject sees a light
of the complimentary color, green, just as
be would have done when normally viewing
a red light While the brain refuses pass
age to the sensation of red, the retina is im
pressed with it, and reacts to it, just as
though the -action were normal in every
respect
' Duration sf a Lightning FloiB.
Late researches have shown that the du
ration of a lightning flash Is not infinitesi
mal, as has been generally supposed, but
that the flash lasts a measurable time. For
instance, if a camera is set in rapid vi
bration and the plate in it is exposed so as
to receive the impression of the flash, it is
LflB "PITTSBHRGTiSPATOH, SUNDAY
fonnd that the impressions appear widened
out on tbe negative, showing that the nega
tive has moved during the time the flash
was in existence.
The Overloading of Oar Homes.
Prominent among the subjects discussed
at the late convention of the American Pub
lic Health Association In Brooklyn was
that of overshading. Dr. C. A. Lindley
said: Overshading is a serious fault, and it
directly leFsens the value of real estate and
noticeably increases disease and shortens
life. Houses overshaded are not healthful,
no matter haw commodious or well built
they may be. This condition of overshading
is very noticeable in our New England and
middle State towns. The white faces and
sickly appearance of so many of our people
are largely attributable to this cause, and
suggest that medical men should call atten
tion to the growing evil. Where houses
are overshaded the nervous system also suf
fers, as well as the general bodily health.
Dr. Bindley lurther showed that plenty of
sunlight was one of the main essentials to
mental and physical health.
Henfth Is Affected br Habits of Life.
The medical journals have been drawing
a moral from the fact which has been lately
brought forward that the native Egyptian
is an extremely "good subject for surgical
operation. Clot Bey, the founder of
modern medicine in Egypt, says: "It re
quires as much surgery to kill one Egyptian
as seven Europeans. In the native
hospitals, the man whose thigh has been
amputated at 2 o'clock is sitting up, and
lively at 6." Shock is almost entirely un
known, and dread of an impending opera
tion quite an exception. The explanation
given for this abnormal physical excellence
is the resignation inculcated by the religion
of the people; the very small proportion of
meat in, and the total absence ot alcohol
from, their, diet, and, in general their
regular, abstemious, out-of-door life.
More Artificial Leather.
A still further -addition to the numerous
recent forms of artificial leather is reported
from Germany. Very finely divided leather
cuttings are mixed with a solution of glue
and a certain quantity of tannic aqjd until
a thick mass is formed, which is then
pressed into any required shape. To render
it more impervious to damp it is impreg
nated with India rubber, glycerine and
linseed oil, and a little sawdust is added.
The material becomes hard when dry, and
is said to be capable of being used for many
purposes as a substitute for real leather.
The suppleness and durability of tbe imita
tion, however, as compared with the real
article would appear open to doubt
Sawdnst ns n Dressing for Wounds.
The use of fine, soft sawdust as a dressing
for wounds, and asa vehicle for medicaments
or antiseptics is suggested. It is said that
the dust, freed from splinters and sharp bits
of wood by sifting, when used alone and
dry, make a clean and grateful dressing;
that it readily takes up and holds the dis
charges without packing or adhering; and
that it is easily rendered antiseptic by any
of the methods used in preparing antiseptic
cotton or wool. A well known medical
authority also suggests that our yellow pine
sawdust, rich as it is in turpentine, would
prove of itself a valuable antiseptic appli
cation. HOT THE EIGHT EXPLANATION.
An Untenable Reason Concerning Woman's
Physical Degeneration.
Detroit Free Press.
The physical degeneracy of American
women is explained by a medical journal,
which says the household utensils are all
too big for women to handle with comfort.
Bnt this is an explanation that doesn't ex
plain, for the women who show the greatest
evidence of physical degeneracy are the
women who never under any circumstances
handle these heavy household utensils,
while, on tbe other hand, the women who do
handle them are, as a rnle, well developed
physically.
Perhaps the physical degeneracy of so
many women Is due to the fact that they
don't handle Household utensils enough.
An ignoble Weapon.
"Thet onery ole b'ar an no gunl Jest my
blamed luck.
"Hoi ont Ton don't git them groceries
without a rassle for 'em."
- "Now light out, darn yerl" Judge.
Mimm
" ' sSo- " 2
"How's that strike yer ?"
Ki i . - f . . . nxr
,JNUV.tt.QUB.EiJK.
A PHENOMENAL CITT.
Jeannette's Remarkable Boom
Its Jfopid Development.
and
HO HEED TO GO WEST, Y0UH6 MAN,
For
Fortunes Are Awaiting Ion in the
Keystone State.
SOME FIGDEES THAT TELIi THE 8T0EI
No more wonderful evidence exists in
Pennsylvania or elsewhere of the results to
be obtained'from the intelligence and en
ergy of the American capitalist and manu
facturer than in the growth of the little city
ot Jeannette that nestles in the beautiful
valley of Westmoreland county. Natural
gas, in itself a wonder, is the means by
which the manufacturing interests of West
ern Pennsylvania have been enabled to at
tain ideal results. All the new and im
mense expansion of industrial enterprises is,
in a measure, confined to the natural gas
districts. Tbe benefits arisiug from natural
gas can be readily calculated, when we
know that free gas to a plant like
the great Chambers & McKee Glass Co.
means a tree fuel to each tank worth $70,000, '
aggregating for the firm when finished the
large sum of $280,000, or nearly 3 percent
interest annually on the enormous amount
of $10,000,000. Apply this to all
the factories now at Jeannette, viz.: the
great elass tanks, the flint factory of H.
Sellers McKee, the brick yards, the planing
mills, to the immense factory of Hussey,
Binns & Co., the plans of which are about
complete, and the various other industries
planned for the place, and an immense
golden total in profits that nature supplies
free to all for the small expenditure of a pipe
line and a well, astonishes the great
manufacturers who use coal as a fuel and
pav for it even the lowest possible prices.
Tbe general tendency ot the great facto
ries of the country irom the very necessi
ties of the case is to seek locations where
A SAMPLE
tbe first essential is close proximity to na
ture's great ideal fuel, natural gas. This
fact accounts for this industrial center that
gives employment to thousands of skilled
artisans and furnishes them comfortable
homes in the pure and healthy air of the
western slopes of the Allegheny Mountains,
close enough to Pittsburg to have the benefit
such a city affords, and 1,100 feet above tide
level and all the malaria and disease that
low situations breed. It is the intention of
the writer to reach new readers as well as
the old who are familiar with Jeannette,
aud we will be forced to give descriptions
that have been read before by a large part
of our people, but could not be better said
than it has been in the following lines de
scriptive of Jeannette by one who is best
qualified to treat the subject:
X.OCATJON.
The town is situated on the main line of
the Pennsylvania railroad, 25 miles east of
the.cityof Pittsburg, in the great natural
gas belt of Western Pennsylvania, in a
beautiful pastoral valley on the western
slope ot the Allegheny Mountains, 1,150
feet above sea level. The site is traversed
by Bull run and Brush creek and tbe main
line of tbe Pennsylvania railroad running
centrally through tbe town affords easy ac
cess by rail to many good sites for manu
facturing plants.
NATUKAL GAS.
The great natural gas reservoir lies one
half mile east of the center of the town. The
gas is found at .a depth of from 1,200 to 1,400
feet beneath the surface with the enormous
gas rock pressureof 550 pounds to the square
inch. A six-inch hole will permit the flow
daily of 12,000,000 cubic feet of ga, equiva
lent as a fuel power of 400 tons of the best
bituminous coal. It is estimated by experts
that the least time in which the supply at
this point can be exhausted will be 50 years,
that this gas field is the largest, most per
sistent in existence. Three miles of gas
pipe already supplied the town with fuel and
lights, and in the summer of 1889 at least ten
miles more were laid. A large portion of the
gas field is under the control of the parties
interested in the town and will be secured
to the inhabitants of the place at the lowest
rates.
As to the permanency of the supply of
natural gas we can only refer to facts that
exist for more than seven years the Mur
rysville field has been drawn from through
hundreds of wells, and such is the confidence
of experts in its stability that in the past
summer several large new lines, costing
millions of dollars, have been laid from it to
Pittsburg and to other points, and whils
there are signs of decrease in tbe pressure
there are no signs of exhaustion. TheGrape
ville' field, compared to the Mnrrysville
field, is a new one, and the drain upon the
territory is yet light, though several large
lines are, however? in use one to'tbe great
Carnegie Steel Mills, one to the Cambria
Iron Company at Johnstown, and a large
line is now being built to McKeesport
When millions are being spent in this field
to transport the gas to distant points we
have the best assurance of the confidence of
knowing ones in the value and permanency
oi the field.
WATEE.
Tbe comfort of a town depends much on
its drainage and its water supply. The
location of the town on hill and valley meets
the requirement of the situation as to drain
age coupled with the fact that two consider
able brooks flow rapidly through the town
site, in deep cuts in the earth's face, washing
all impurities swiftly away.
Just beneath tbe town exists a large arte
sian supply of the best soft water, now
furnished the town free from 12 wells, con
veniently located.
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31889.
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In addition, the Delaware "Water Com
pany will have extended pipe lines' a dis
tance of 15 miles irom Chestnut Bidge to
this point, delivering to the town from the
mountains a million gallons dally of purs
spring water.
The great glass works are accurately de
scribed by J. M. Kellv, of the Qlast Worker
and Commoner, as follows: t
The window glass plant in itself will con
sist of 17 buildings, or four completed
window glass factories, so arranged that each
can be operated independently of the other,
and tbe materials used in manufacture can
be received at the east side and loaded upon
the cars in boxes on the west side by a con
tinuous method. A description of one of
the factories is a description of all of them,
for they are identical as to size, construction
and method of .work. The factories are
numbered 1, 2, 3 and 4, No. 1, abutting on
the P. B. B. and 4 on the creek, 2,000 feet
away. To the east of the plant are the re
ceiving tracks connected with the P. B. B.,
and to the west tbe shipping tracks. No. 2
factory was begun first, and is now fast ap
proaching completion, No. 3 following close
behind. When the material used in the
manufacture is received it is unloaded from
the cars on the receiving track into tbe
stockhouse. This is a structure 150x80 feet,
divided into bins for keeping sand, soda,
lime, etc. In this structure, which is of
stone, with iron roof, and one-storv high, is
also the mixing floor. The material, when
ready for the furnace, is taken on trucks
into the melting and blowing department
also a separate stone building with ironl
roof. This strncture is shaped like the re
versed upper end of a cross, the spur con
taining the continuous tank. This spur is
170x60 feet in size, aud the other end of the
structure is 180x90 feet in size. The furnace
itself is filled from tbe rear with the mate
rials from the stockroom. The front end
has 24 openings for the gatherers, 6 on tbe
extreme end aud 9 on each side. The tank
will hold about GOO tons of melted glass,
and as it is proposed to work three shifts
of men eight hours each, each tank
will give employment to 72 gatherers
and 72 blowers. Multiply that by four and
we have 576 blowers and gatherers who will
find employment there. As each tank will
hold about 600 tons of glass, it is estimated,
taking the product at one-third double
strength and two-thirds single strength, that
STKEET SCENE.
each factory will produce when in operation
6,200 &0-foot boxes df glass each week, or
over 1,000 boxes a day. Mnltinly this by
four, the number of tbe furnaces, and the
entire product of the plant will be 24,800
50-foot boxes a week. An ordinary ten-pot
furnace will produce about 900 boxes single
thick or 800 boxes, in tbe usual percentage
of single and double thick, per week. Put
that alongside of nearly 25,000 boxes per
week, or, working 44 weeks a year, the
product of the Chambers & McKee plant of
1,100,000 50-foot boxes annually. This
comparison gives an idea of how much
superior the new plant will be. Tbe con
tinuous process requires no stop for filling
bibd's-ete view op jeasnette.
pots and waiting on the melt,
and the builders say the tank is
beyond the experimental stage, and
that it will be a success beyond a doubt In
fact, they anticipate even more success than
is enjoyed in Europe, as natural gas, perfect
fuel, which can be controlled, will be used
exclusively.
Prom the blowing department the cylin
ders will be transferred on trucks into the
flattening house, the greatest structure of
all. This immense stone building is 460
feet long and 105 feet wide, inside measure
ment, and has attached to the west side of it
a sub-structure 460 feet long and 40 feet
wide. The main building contains eight
flattening ovens of a most improved style,
located in pairs down the center of the
structure. The sub-building will be divided
into three cutting and two packing rooms.
Bach cutting room on the.ends will be 75x40
feet and each packing room next to them
95x40 feet Between the packing
rooms is the third and largest
cutting room, 120x75. According to the
plans the product of the first two flattening
ovens will go into the first cutting room,
and the product of the four central flattening
ovens into the middle cutting room, and of
the last two ovens into the remaining
cutting room. The glass, when cut, from
the two end rooms will go into the packing
Bur the most
the difference in his home if vowusm
SftBOnO' ft
Cleanliness and neatness
comfort, and If he cant find
know that SAPOLIQ makes
in a comfortable home. Do you
rooms on each side, and the glass cut In the
center room will half each go Into the two
packing rooms. There wilLbe stalls for 24
single strength and 8 double strength
cutters in each factory or a total of 94 single
and 32 double strength cutters in the plant
From the packing rooms tbe product is
transferred on tracks into the last structure,
the shipping room. The building, like every
other one in the window plant is of stone,
with iron roof, and measures 350 feet long
by 50 feet wide, and stock will be stored here
and loaded upon the cars, the floors of which
will be on a level with the floor of the ware
house. This completes a description of any
one of the factories, and if the reader will
not fail to remember that there are just four
such factories as described, the great size
and capacity of the plant will not escape
A STREET OF
him. The seventeenth structure of the plant
is the clayhouse, which is made to do dnty
for the tour factories. The structure is
150x75 feet, three stories high, with an ad
dition to it for engines and boilers for the
grinding mills.
The material used in the structures is
sandstone of excellent quality. The roofs
are all of Iron trusses and corrugated iron
and reach from side to side without support
ing pillars. The product of tbe plant will
be window glass exclusively. It is expected
that No. 2 factory will be completed aud be
gin operations by November 1. No. 3 will
be making glass two months later and'Nos.
1 and 4 soou alter. The fuel for tbe plant is
obtained from a well owned by Chambers &
McKee, 4,000 leet from the works, and is
supplied through two six-inch pipes. The
well is 1,300 feet deep and shows a very
great pressure.
M,'KEE BB03.' TLIST yACTOET.
Xike the window glass works, the flint
factory is fireproof throughout, built of
sandstone with iron roofs, and having plate
glass skylights In all departments needing
them. Across the switch from the stock
room of No. 3 window factory is the stock
room of tbe flint factory. This is a struc
ture 225x65 feet, and is divided into mold
shops, moldroom, engine room, mixingfioor,
sandhouse and soda ash house. Much of
the machinery is in place, and there is a
good stock of materials on hand to begin
work as soon as tbe first furnace is com
pleted. The material is carried on trucks'
into the furnace building, a structure 225x80
feet, all iron above the foundations. There
are three great furnaces, each of them for 15
.pots of a large size. Each pot measures 48J
inches front, and will hold two tons of
melted glass. In fact each 15-pot furnace is
equal to the 22 pots in other factories.
The furnace building is a model es
tablishment with fire brick floors, and every
improvement that will facilitate work and
give comfort to the men. Sixteen lean 0
leet long- with 60-inch pans connect the fur
nace building with the lear room. This lear
room is part of four structures, all grouped
together with separate roofs, and so arranged
that if the material in any part of them
should take fire, the flames could not com
municate with the other rooms. The lear
room in rize is 180x40 feet, and immediately
in its rear is tbe open goods house, 180x40
feet The packing room at the lower end of
the structure is 180x30 feet and the cutting
room at the north end is 116x65 feet The
skylights in this structure will be of the
finest plateglass, and will make. the. Interior
as light as day. In the rear of the building
is the shipping warehouse and stock room,
225x100 feet so arranged with a turntable
for cars at one end of the structure that eight
cars can be loaded at one time. Like the
window factory, it will be observed that the
product is moved automatically from the
furnace room into the cars, and there ia no
rehandling.
The Jeannette Planing'Mill Company is
the best of its kind, and gives employment
to 80 hands. The Standard Brick Company,
working double time, produce 30,000 brick
of superior quality daily. The great shovel
works of Hussey, Binns Ss Co. will employ
300 skilled workmen, making the finished
product from the raw material. The pay
roll now, weekly, reaches the sum of more
than $30,000, and will later on. more than be
doubled when all the machinery is in mo
tion. The method of making glass by tanks is a
new one in America, and its introduction
found many bitter and formidable enemies
who scattered broadcast over tbe land the
positive charge of failure aud bad product,
and it was with difficulty that the factory
conld be manned. "Nothing succeeds like
success," and the triumphant production,
both in quantity and Quality of an immense
output, satisfies the owners of the works and
loving husband vvlHsegS
saves - labor tn
about a house are necessary to invars oomfcrt.
it at home, ha wffl seek elsewhere for it Goo
a house clean and keeps it height
want cleanliness, eossfcrt aad.
confounds its enemies.
the glass on the Atlantic coast where,!
product of foreign factorial had always" held
them. M
Now the factories are running day m
night, and there is little use &e-storage-
room, as every outgoing train is loaded wita
one or more cars oi tan, glass oi tne,De
kind, more than $200,000 in sales having
been reported in the la t eight weeks.!
The policy pursued 'jy the Land Company
nas suppressed excessive speculation anal
given a conservative Tone to the business
the town in marked contrast with the booiPa
ing methods used in paper towns, that sal
often bring grief and disappointment ' to thai
honest investor. To effect .this object tbil
.Land iwmpany mace fair schedule pneest
ror ineir lots ana strictly- aanere to isest
BEICK HOUSES-
The man of small mqans is given the op-j
portunity to buy as. cheaply and npon sjj
isvoraoie terms as tne man witn bis rhou-g
sands. Good business lots, on good sir "isi
range in price from S10O to S500. am) mnS1
dwellinghouse-lofs fronut200'to?500. Thewi
is now in course of erection a freight and!
passenger depot that wiH cost abont $13,009,1
that has been found necjessarT-toacconusoj
date the growing business of tha town. Thai
population of the town; ia the; short space ofj
xo montns dps grown n-om two onthree fan
ilies ta about 4.000 inhabitants.
The natural consequ' enee is that bona fids
settlers noia nearly an; the property sold bj
the. company, and thei e is a building boosa:.
in the best class of dwelling houses that U1
unpreceaentea. xne landj company is grad-f
ually qpening, as ocajilon, demands it'1
properties, and bas in) the market a large J
number of desirable. business and reridenc
lots held at reasonable prices and npon eftsrj
terms. Careful and thinking investors are-l
buying and improviriir steadily. aniT. tblift
growth of the town, is both-rapid and rebSi
sfnntlitl i Tm1 iOOO 'aL . t m 5?H
qmwjwm. iu u ujj, aooo, toere were two olaa
farm houses -on ihe town. site. "We append!
a list of the improremen is as ther stand iSx
day:
A STATZJIEST TJIOH wmoAX, Bxpoirr.'J
xxhb or BTJttDlirO.
k?
Bank...:..
Barber shops ..,
Boarding houses... ,..,...,
Brick store, two-story, plate glass.,
Bridges ....TTI..
Cn arches
Clothing, stores
Dwellings ,,,
Doctors
Depots, 1 passenger, 1 freight ,
Druggists.. ....... ................,
Express offices... ,
Eating nooses. ........, ...........
Furniture stores....... ,
Brick kilns
General stores
Groceries.. ....... ...... ............
Hard ware.. .......... .......
Hotels
Insurance agents....... ..,
lawyers , 4i
Livery stables ,
Meat markets
Ji ini nery....... .............. ........
Newspaper printing ofilce... .......
x-uoioBrapu gauerics..... .........4..,.,
.riauiii); uuu.
Postoffice j,
Bailroad station; .L
Shoe, .store... ......
Shoemakers ,
Stove and tinware ....,'
DCHOOlB KOIItfHdttllHftlCtSKBd
AWIVlHV HUIIVlHIMttltltiamM
warenouses ...fAT
Undertakers. . ............. .............
Land company.
Totals
The Chambers & McKee glass factory
UUUlUgS ......
McKee Bros.' buildings.
AOUUatiaaiiti aaaM.AAAAi
The increase in buildings at JeaaiUitWiil
abont 14 months is 531 building. TkSitA
crease in the value of lots hm kept m)m1
steady advances with the growth. of.,tkJ
town. Business lots that cost f400 now..sMl
mr ?i.zw to 51,000. Dwelling lots cesti
5300 to S350 are selling from KBO ta MM.1
There are manyinstances ol' pireW5
0U1B1J. 1UC4119 JIBTlUg lUYeStCU Sfiti MS
over their money freauentlv. aadV-l
reaped handsome little lortuaM finat M
to 20,000 by their foresight.
The history of the success of tbe tmiTSfJ
Jeannette Is the history of 'every sustilsM
scheme like managed, and money weKjI4
vestea in mem nas always. yielde
pronts.
IN LmSESILNQ OLD FAMK.J
A Halne Lawyer MUtafeeftKioMH Shw5(J
t-.i- eg
H AHtnra r 1
Kennebec JoornaLI
A Hnulton lawyer ran acrois as fafifiiij
ins old farmer on a train not Iosffje
They went to discussing railroad-s 6 wa
tbe lawyer is well informed, and the
ventured ta correct what ha deeswel MRM-
roneous statement In regard to the i
of a New York road, made by the oU.t
mer. But the farmer knew "better, fcrjiwi
had been a director of the road tot 3 y .
Then they went to talking about eleviill
roads: and tbe farmer acknowledged tint fcsj
had "some shares" in the New Xork llsai?lsjl
surprise the lawyer asked: "Who are v?
"My name." replied the old fstnHrJu;
Sage ittusell Bage."
The lawyer very soon changed his i
Trot Acquainted la TittakmrttJ
x4Mt-a iwwM ory
Secretary Windom thinks tt VM-jwtf
money is equal to all demands. It Ml rj
to see mat tne oecxeury s circle ei MMiitM
ance is umiiea.
f SOTU SHTSPM
housworta
Happinerjs ahrsja
hoppjaem? Try
V

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