Newspaper Page Text
THE PITTSBURG DISPATCH.
" PAGES 9 TO 16.
A Correspondent Fresh From the
Scenes of the Indian War
They Stayed the Hand of Miles, When
a Blow Would Have Settled
It All ForeTer.
THE EED MEK KEEDED A LESSOH,
And the Failure to Administer It Is Likely
to Kesult in Merciless Massacre
in the Future,
SEAL CAUSE OP THE EECE5T UPBISIKG.
Tit Agist IThe Eu Bees CstcUag It End
Irey Eidt Eu Bully Hot Beta
to filial it AH
BRUTAL EECEEATIOS FXBKITTZD THE BRAVES
Another chapter on the Indian question is
famished by Mr. Charlei H. Cressey, whose
dispatches from Fine Bidge agency during
the Indian trouble were published in this
paper. Out of the fulness of his experi
ence he writes to The Dispatch, as
"Whose fault was it what caused this
trouble among the Indians?
The primal and principal cause as I as
certained it from personal and widely ex
tended investigation in the capacity of a
newspaper correspondent among the Indians
good, bad and indifferent was the long
continued failure on the part of Congress to
do its full duty, particularly in the matter
of surrounding its appropriations in a man
ner insuring a certainty of the Indian De
partment, so called, making the issue of
supplies with the promptness necessary.
Indians went hungry, they became ex
asperated by hunger, while Congress dis
cussed tariff reform.
Then too, there was and is the red tape
curse. Indians are mere children in one
striking particular they know no friend
ship or entertain no confidence when the
other party promises and then fails to
promptly fulfill that promise. The Indians
know nothing of legislation or departmental
Imagines Promises Broken.
The Great Father promised, he says, in
return for his land to give him all the pro
Tisisns and clothes he wanted, or at least a
reasonable amount. To the Indian mind,
when those provisions fail to come regularly,
the Great Father has broken his promise
then the Indian sees strong and sufficient
grounds for mutiny. Not only have
his provisions frequently been delayed,
but he has been put upon land that is ut
terly barren, utterly untillable Poor, al
most the very poorest of clothing has been
sent to him, and it wears out and drops
completely from his body long before the
time for a new supply arrives, then he re
sorts to his blanket, leggins, etc., which are
made by his own people, and which last an
honest length of time.
I am not a particle surprised that nine
tenths of the more than 250,000 Indians on
the Government reservations in this country
to-day still cling to their blankets, leggins
and moccasins. As between the alleged
civilized garments miserable in materia ,
and fraudulent in make with which the
Indians are furnished, and the strong,
warm, well-made, picturesque costumes of
their own handiwork, they show, in my
estimation, excellent good judgment in
choosing the latter.
Jeans Are Good Enough.
I would not suggest to the Government
furnishing the Indians with English melton,
broadcloth or fine cheviot, but I do insist
that if the Government would furnish them
so very expensive a class of suiting as plain,
every-day jeans, that Mr. Indian would
have a much better opinion of Sir. Great
Father, and be more inclined to believe in
him than is the case at present. I am no
lover of the Indian, nor am I a hater of the
Indian. My one object is simply to state
a few plain facts as I found the m at the Pine
By nature and by instinct the Indian is
pastoral, not commercial. Congress has
seemed to appreciate this fact to the extent
of putting him on barren land, giving him
a lot of fifth rate implements and telling
him to earn his bread likehe white man.
Ton might as well plow for grain on a ball
room floor as to plow for it on Pine Eidge
"The Government has provided big, good
schools on the reservation. "When the In
dian students finish the course of study
there they can go to the great Indian school
at Carlisle, Pa., and graduate."
Yes, and then what? What becomes of
nine and three-quarters tenths or them after
they get back from Carlisle? You don't
know? Well, I'll tell you; they go back to
Pine Ridze, back to the horribly filthy, the
vermin-ridden tepees of their ancestor-, and
in a month tbey are just as much uncivil
ised, to all intents and purposes, as they
were before they took that long course of
schooling at home and abroad.
The Eed Man's Recreation.
Scores of times, while bnsv at Pine
Eidge, the query came to my mind what
in heaven's name are these people living
for? No wonder they want to go to war if
for nothing more than to relieve the craz
ing monotony of their existence. Think of
it not a thing ou earth to do, day in and
day outl I'm wrong, they do have just three
slight recreations, divertisemenU or what
ever you may class them two for the bncks
and one for the squaws and mark what
they arel Every two weeks or so the agent
turns loose about 100 steers on a sweep of
prairie east of the agencv, and the bucks,
astride of ponies, and armed with gun or
bow and arrow, let loose in a grand chase
They shoot to kill bv slow stages of tor
ture, and the way in which they enjoy the
barbarous practice is simplv revolting.
When the members of a lodge down a steer
they gather around it with their knives,
and if any life remains in the poor creature
they jab its eyes out, cut ofl its tail and ears
and so on. After getting the greatest
amount of stort possible out of this seance
of torture, they proceed to skin, quarter and
take it-home. You Should see them ride
through the agency with great pieces of the
fresh beef tied to their saddles and dripping
with blood, and with their faces and hands
all smeared with blood. Buch is one of the
recreations indulged in by the bucks.
The Other Dlvcrtlsement.
Their other is to strip to the skin, paint
up, stick war bonnets upon their heads, get
out their tomahawks, take up a position on
the agency square and hold a wild and
weird dance, tell stories of battle and massa
cre and then go home and feast on roast
dog. As for the squaws, their one divertise
ment is the squaw dance. They form a
circle, jump up and down till they can't
jump any longer, and go home and eat
I speak of these divertisemenU 'in this
connection4ecause I discovered to my com
plete satisfaction that the two indulged in
by the bucks play a certain distinct part in
keeping alive the love for the barbarous and
the war associations. If the Government
really means to do something to civilize and
better these Indians, and thus to lessen the
probabilities or Custer massacres and
Wounded Knee battles, why, in the name
of the commonest of common sense, does it
not do away with the barbarous beef-killing
disgrace, and have the beef issued in a
civilized manner; and why doesn't it pass a
little rule requiring the bucks to dance
clothed instead of naked? There will be
time enough for them to dance naked after
they become civilized and attend a lew swell
Teaching; Them Trades.
If the Government is really in earnest
about wanting to better the Indians' condi
tion, why don't it erect an extensive indus
trial jor trade school at every agency? In
dians will work if they are shown bow, if
they arc shown that they can make money
by working. My close observation at Pine
Bide thoroughly convinced me that there is
no more disposition to laziness among In
dians than among whits pedple, the chances
for employment being equal. Indians
crowded the office of their agent every day I
was there, their errand being literally to beg
that they be given some one of the few little
odd jobs of manual labor that the agent is
compelled to hire done.
Teach these Indians to make boots, shoes.
clothing, furniture, etc, and to run ma
chinery. They will be found as bright and
industrious a set of apprentices as there is
in the land. The Government wheelwright,
harness and blacksmith shops, the sawmill,
etc, which do simply the very limited
amount of work necessary to run the agency,
all contain Indian journeymen and ap
prentices, whose work and habits fully cor
roborate what I sav. Yes, put on every In
dian reservation a big concern like a peni
tentiary, in point of trade-learning oppor
tunities, and you will find it packed to its
utmost capacity with Indian apprentices,
uoiu young ana oia.
Scatter Among the Whites.
As soon as one learns his trade, find him
a place among the whites the Indian good
doing society, or whatever it is, could help
at this and so keep pushing or drawing
them away from the reservation and their
barbarous Indian life associations and scat
tering them among the whites. Whenthetime
comes that tbey have completed their trade
in such a trades school, let the Government
arrange perhaps to give each one his 'share
in cash of tho Indian reservation land, as a
starter in the world.
Snch a plan would not only help them to
forget barbarism, break up dangerous tribal
relationships and factions; would not only
give them a practical, everyday useful
knowledge and equipment lor getting along
in the world as civilized people do give
them something to live for but American
citizenship will have received a fresh strain
of valuable and tireless vigor which and
mark it well will not prove half so treach
erous, half so devilish as much of that
which now enters the arteries of our national
life, and which has not a thousandth part
the claim upon American sufferance and
citizenship that the Indian has.
Idleness and Ghost Dancing.
Yes, it was idleness, idleness, idleness;
the long accumulated effect of idleness, made
possible and I will say enforced by the
government under which they live, that
formed a certain part of the cause of the
As to the part played by the ghost dance
in producing this great show of hostilities,
my thorough investigation convinces me
that it was important. The ghost dance in
the midst of Indians was productive of more
mischief than the wild, shouting camp
meeting amid whites simply because of the
doctrine promulgated by a portion of the
participants, namely, that after a time the
Indian Messiah would come, cause the earth
to open and swallow up all the whites, and
bring back the buffalo, deer and other game
that the Indians love so well. After getting
hold of this doctrine a few of the more
fanatical began advocating the idea of help
ing along an early fulfillment by seeking to
assist in the extermination or the whites,
and particularly the soldiers. Not, however,
until the worst element on the reservation
began preaching this idea of assisting
prophecy, was the ghost dance a particle
more dangerous among the Indians than is
the dance now permitted on the agency.
Unfortunately the feeling among the
Indians generally, that they had been
deeply wronged by the Government, made
it possible for thi3 idea to become very
popular. To my personal knowledge much
plotting was done at the gbostdance that
it finally became a veritable war dance
The Agent Didn't Canse It.
As to the relation of the Indian agent to
the uprising, I believe it 'to be as nil.
Viewed in the broadest sense I am con
vinced that the fact as to whether he was a
superior or an inferior man for the plnce
had no particular weight The Indian
agent of to-day does not possess the possi
bility of effecting peace or war nor of steal
ing that did the agent of yesterday. The
Indian call him dull, ignorant, supersti
tions and all that sort of thing, if you will
has, I discovered by personal contact, very
little down right respect, disgust, or even
care whatsoever for these under servants
whom the Government sends to dole ont his
Hour and shoddy. The agent is constantly
on the defensive, and in just as unobtrusive
a manner as possible.
It is true that in name he is the sole arbi
ter of affairs, both personal and general, on
the agency. Notwithstanding this, he
soon sees that his personal safety will
be enhanced if he patronizes rather -than
commands. Men who to-day become Indian
agents without firstunderstanding that they
come into the position simply as a political
incident and not by reason of their qualifi
cations, are ignorant indeed. But such men
aie few. Your bright agentof to-day spends
very little time experimenting in philan
thropic or even rulership schemes. His
main idea is to get through each quarter,
draw his salary and begin a new quarter,
with just as little to do with the Indians
under his charge as possible
May Protest In Tain.
Oh, I know that my assertions in
this connection may call out many "cards,"
but all the same I know just what I say is
truth. The task providing even that his
mental balance is reasonably perfect of
dealing with 0,000 Indians entirely through
the lips of a second party, an interpreter, is
in itself sufficient to stagger even the most
self-sacrificing recipientof an Indian agency
No, the Indian agent is not responsible
for enough of the present trouble to call
him "in at" at all.
As to the Government's treatment of the
Immediately on my arrival at Pine Eidge
agency the middle if November I secured
the best scouts possible, and daily had them
make secret trips into the camp of the
Indians who were regarded as unfriendly.
I myself obtained an interpreter and daily
went up and down through the camp of the
friendlies. In this way I secured my information-first-handed
and kent ud with
every move of any importance that was J
oontemplated. Before the end of the first
week I was thoroughly satisfied that the
Government was doing eminently the best
thing possible in sending troops to the
scene of agitation. Through channels of
private information exclusively my own
and that could be worked .only with the
greatest difficulty and by taking serious
risks, I found the Indians fully resolved
upon war. Their elan at that time was to
have a great fight in the very near future
Bravado or the Sioux.
There has been an element of the admir
able about the Indians' course in this
trouble all along, and I say it, with all em-
pnasis possioie, notwithstanding he Kept me
dodging bullets for two hours at the battle of
Wonnded Knee To him it was a coolly
calculated dael to the death for wrongs
which he keenly felt had been inflicted upon
him by the power whom the soldiers repre
sented. He did not mince matters a particle.
He was a Sioux, and the Sioux never have
been conquered. To show his contempt for
the demonstration of military power that had
been massed abont him, he went on pillag
ing and burning the homes of the settlers,
stealing and butchering scores of big private
herds of cattle He committed a thousand
crimes, for any one or which a white man
wonld have been run down and most severe
The spectacle presented by several thou
sand of these devils plundering the homes of
frontiersmen, stealing Government stock by
the thousand of head, most of the time
within less than a day's march from the
camp of the United States army, and not a
finger being raised by the latter to stop the
high-handed wholesale work of crime, was a
spectacle that drew forth derision and taunts
from not only the press of America, but of
all Europe. But no one expressed more
wonderment at this spectacle than did the
red-skinned depredators themselves.
It Was a Bad Lesson.
During the three weeks that sDectacle
lasted the now hostile Indians gained more
self-reliance, more of utter fearlessness of
the militarypower of the Government than
they ever gained before in any ten years of
their history. I have the word of many
thoroughly civilized Indians who talked
with these hostiles daily, that this was so.
I have more proof; I have the word of many
of those hostiles themselves, spoken to me
direct, that the permitting of such a thing
by the Government has put a feeling of
power into the Indians that will result in a
mighty tragedy most fearful to contemplate.
However much good the Indian loving
philanthropists of the East may claim to
have done in the past in the way of secur
ing justice toward these creatures, they have
certainly made what a little more time will
show to have been one of the most serious,
most stupendous of blunders in bringing to
bear upon the administration the avalanche
or influence that they did and which
succeeded in hampering and finally block
ing the wheels of the War Department
Those wealthy, influential devotees of false,
ignorant theories relative to handline In
dians who are on the warpath may certainly
now throw themselves back in their tilting
chairs, and caress their well-fed forms with
a deal of satisfaction over having been the
power behind the Presidental chair, that has
made this regular army of America the
laughing stock of the world, and has averted
for the time being any more Indian blood
shed. They Will Rise Acaln.
But, when these Indian lovers in the East
take up their morning papers and read that
the Indians, to save whose blood from being
spilled they pulled their influential string
with so signal success, have again suddenly
aroused in greater might than ever, have
caught the whole Western country off its
guard the soldiers departed to their re
spective forts the thousands of settlers on
the Northwestern frontier defenceless prey
to their insatiable thirst for blood; let those
Indian fad affectors know where the whole
blame will rest.
The influence used so secretly and so
effectively by these Eastern so-called be
frienders of the Indian is a feature of this
whole campaign which in point of potency
has probably never before been surpassed in
history. From 3,000 to 5,000 armed
Indians are plundering and burn
ing the homes of settlers and steal
ing and slaughtering thousands of
Government cattle The military is called,
arrives upon the scene, is possessed of ample
power to check the diabolical work. But
what happens? The soldiers are strung out
around the great territory where the devil
ish work is going on. Instead of the War
and Indian Departments harmoniousiv and
with an everlasting firmness demanding ol
the Indians that they stop their hellish
work, and if they refuse force them; giving
them a certain time a week or ten days in
which they must surrender their arms as
prisoners of war, or have them taken from
their dead bodies; instead of this what do
we see? A long series of peace-begging
conferences humbly solicited by shame!
snamei snamei me army.
Tho Power Behind It AH.
It gave me a feeling of simply nauseating
disgust for the general in command. The
faces of his own officers were pictures of
supreme disgust This continued for a
month or more when finally one day I'saw
never will it be Known by what chance a
package of official dispatches. Instantly
my disgust was withdrawn from the officer
in command and centered upon the Indian
fad affectors in the East It became clear
as day to me that the hands of the War De
partment had been rendered almost useless
by the ironclad influence wielded by those
Eastern Indian lovers. In the light of other
secret information which I obtained, I am
warranted in stating that the course pur
sued by those in command of the troops was
almost if not wholly opposite to the diotates
of their own judgment
And, mark it, the soldiers of Pine Eidge
agency wanted, begged to be allowed to
fight the main body of the hostiles. Many
ot these old soldiers grew mad as furies as
they discussed the attitude in which they
were being placed before the country.
The Indians still mean to fight!
If they mean peace it tbey are done with
war why do they not give up their arms? I
can produoe 60 yes 100 persons whose
statements will go unchallenged before any
court in the country, who will take their
solemn oath to theeffect that they have seen
as many as 2,000 guns, principally Win
chesters, together with great quantities of
small arms, ammunition, etc, in the posses
sion of Indians concerned in this uprising,
and now in the near vicinity of Pine Eidge
A LAEQE DIAMOND EOBBEET.
The Thieves Secure Their Booty Without
Disturbing the Watchman.
Sah Frahcisco, Jan. 31. A statement
is published that the diamond , house of
Colonel A. A. Andrews was entered some
nights agoand over 65 diamond lockets and
about 50 diamond scarf pins of a total value
of 57,500 was taken by burglars from the
showcase without disturbing the watchman
who was sleeping in the store
Detectives kept the matter quiet, but have
not succeeded in obtaining any clew to the
Given a Home Once More.
Thomas Knibain, a Polish newsboy, who
has been sleeping in wagons for several
days, was sent to the TanuehiH Street Or
phan Asylum yesterday by Agent O'Brien.
He is snpposed to be the little Southsid
beggar. He now has a story about both his
parents being dead.
Chambeelain's Cotjoh Remedy has
cured many cases of croup in this vicinity,
one In my own family, and it is exactly
what it is recommended to be I have sold
it lor two and a half years, and know it to
be reliable As long as I have Chamber
lain's Cough Eemedylcan sell no other.
J. P. Mellstrup, merchant, Ephriam City,
FuBlflTUBE upholstered and renaired.
Hatoh & Keehait, 3S-S4 Water 'street. J
Divorce Suit a Nail in
langer's Political Coffin.
A THR0HE FOR PRINCE LUITP0LD.
The World's Had Monarehs and the Due
AS AMERICAN DUCHESS TO THE.FK0KT
tWBITTXX rOB THE DISPATCH.!
On the 2d of April, 1889,Parli correspond
ents of American newspapers cabled as
follows : "General
Boulanger is the most
in the Bepublio to
day, and a democratic
not do without him."
They were the words
of United States Min
ister McLane. Since
that time things have
Boulanger. changed 'wonderfully
for the General. The intrigues and many
little scandals with which his name has
been connected, have caused him to be al
most entirely obliterated from the list of
notables. " So complete has been this move
ment, that he has found it necessary to in
form his friends that "although extinct, he
is not yet buried," to rise the phraseology of
Editor Stead. Nevertheless, his following
is decidedly meager, and what there is of it
so very much, mixed in idea and design,
that the varions individuals are shooting
not only hot words, but bullets at each other
to emphasize their several opinions.
The fact of the matter is, Franca is tired
of its idol of two years ago and "can" do
without him. To cap the climax, even his
wife wants to "do without him," and has,
during the past week, applied for a divorce.
It seems that at one time enthusiastio writers
set it forth that the General was an especial
favorite of the ladies. To use the exact
words of one: "He is the especial hero of
feminine France, and he reciprocates to the
fullest extent the admiration of the ladies."
Now right there Madam Boulanger drew
the line. She was content to have him the
hero of France; the idol of the military and
the admiration of the ladies; but, for him to
reciprocate oh, not In this respect
Madam B. was decidedly against
"reciprocity;" hence the divorce suit
It is almost safe to say that Boulanger,
with a divorce affair in his skeleton closet;
a money scandal on his hands and his lew
friends "forninst" each other, is almost as
dead to the world of the present and future
Where England Is Having Trouble.
The traveler in the Gulf of Aden at the
present time, who happens to pass a point
on the coast situated abont 10 north lati
tude and 45 east longitude, will see a
bustling town of perhaps 20,000 inhabitants,
all engaged in business of some kind or an
other. The principal articles of trade are
coffee, grains of different kinds, ghee, gold
dust, ivory, gums, cattle, ostrich feathers
and slaves, representing the interior prod
ucts, brought here to be bartered for cotton,
rice, iron, etc Let the same traveler visit
the spot three months hence and he will see
huge piles of garbage and little more. Not
a single human being' or building will greet-
his eye This is the place or town which on
'the maps bears the name of Berbers of
Somali Land. It presents the rather curious
phenomena of a big thriving town lor six
months oi the year and a barren waste the
balance. Berbers, in fact, is nothing more
nor less than a big fair ground, where the
natives of the interior gather once a year to
trade the products of the season for the ar
It is hardly necessary to inquire how the
native produce is accumulated, if we inform
ourselves as to the character of the people.
They are notorious for cheating, lying and
thieving. At the present time the English
Government, which controls that territory, is
having a great deal trouble with them, and
have been compelled to organize a camel
corps of Indian soldiers, which will be
posted along the coast to follow these depre
dators whenever they make their appearance
In the neighborhood of the settlements.
Bavaria's Mad King.
It seems as if Bavaria was determined to
be rid of insane monarchs,-when it is an
nounced that Prince Luitpold, the present
regent, will next month
be summoned to the
throne in place of poor
imbecile Otto. It is said
the present determina
tion is the result of the
exhibitiou of able state
manship which Lulf
pold has displayed since
the reins of Government
wereplaced inhis hands,
and yet it does not seem
any time since the Bavarians openly de-
l, V "c"01 lnat Jbuitpold was re
sponsible for Otto's insanity, and also that
of his brother and predecessor, Ludwig.
What reason they had for this opinion is
not known, but certain it is that many of
the people of that countrv believed that
Luitpold killed Ludwig, and is now slowly
killing Otto. How they manage to attribute
Otto s madness to the regent is somewhat
beyond the ordinary Individual's compre
hension, but that Otto is mad there is not
the slightest doubt. The poor fellow is an
inmate of the lonely castle of Nymphen
berg, with no interest above shooting at
peasants lrom his window, peeling potatoes,
and flopping his arms in imitation of the
eagle he imagines himself to be.
The World's Mad Monarch.
it would surprise most people if they
knew how many of the monarchs of history
have been equally
as mad as either
Otto or bis brother,
back in the earliest
ages we have re
cords of mad kings
and queens, and
the record con
tinues, and grows
even more and
as we advance into
later periods. Scripture has its Nebuchad
nezzar, who for seven, years-was as crazy as
he, well could be; also Saul, whose par
oxysms of passion that could only be sub
dued by the tuneful tones of David's harp,
can be attributed to nothing else than a
speoies oi madness. Five of the Ctesars were
more or less insane. A Eoman author de
scribes Caligula as being "crazy in mind
and body." Nero was either mad or the
most atrocious monster in historv, and Donii
tian, by his desire for blood and other eccen
tricities,, must be considered "off." Diocle
tian. Commodus and Hcliogabalus were also
far from sane.
France has had its mad Kings in Charles
VI., Charles VII. and the unfortunate
dauphin, Louis XVIL England has had
its Lear and George III., and there are some
who declare that Victoria is not altogether
well balanced in mind. Isabella. Queen to
John of Castile, ended her days in insanity,
FEBRUARY 1,. 189L
and her granddaughter, Joanna, wife of
J-'iinip ot Flanders, who inherited the taint,
s one oi the saaaest hgures in nistory.
Among the Czars. Ivan the Terrible was
not only a lunatic, but a dangerous one.
Ivan, brother of Peter the Great, was as bad,
and so was the son of Peter IIL. Czar Paul.
who began by exhuming bis father's corpse
from the grave, crowning it and otherwise
showing his madness. This was the monarch
who, in the year 1800, challenged all of the
potentates of Europe to single combat,
bidding them bring "with them as seconds
and squires the most enlightened Ministers
ana most able Generals, such as Messrs,
Turgot, Pitt and Berenstoff." He also
issued ukases against the use of shoestrings
and round hats, and painted all the sentry
boxes, gates and bridges of the empire in
such jrlowimr colors that a color blind Fiji
would have went wild with joy at seeing
The Duo d'Orleans.
The cause of the prevalence of insanity
amosg the scions ot royalty is a question
often asked. Probably the intermarriage of
close relatives lor
the purpose of main
taining the kingly
strain is the best the
ory offered. It is ou
this hypothesis, no
doubt, that the Due
d'Orleans bases his
objection to wedding
the Princess Mar
guerite. It seems
that the heir of the
house of Orleans,
having been inform
ed nf tnn Avil roanlrs
of such marriages by Duo Orleans.
a learned doctor, lost no time in bringing
the matter to the attention of his father and
finally refused absolutely to marry his
cousin. A broken engagement was the re
sult, but the relations of the father and son
suffered a severe strain in the operation.
This fact does not seem to concern the young
man much from all appearances, and he will
be likely to gain his point, having quite a
will of his own, as was evident from the
boldness with which he went to France last
year against the express interdiction of that
Government, and insisting on being ac
cepted as a soldier was thrown into prison
for his pains. His term did not last long,
however, but he certainly gave the authori
ties a taste of his pluck.
Napoleon's Kctreat From Moscow.
The extremely severe weather from which
Europe has been afflicted lately is abating.
In the meantime there is hardly any doubt
that the one or two survivors of Napoleon's
terrible Eussian campaign of 1812-13 have
had ample opportunity to compare notes.
The winter in question was hardly as severe
as a dozen that could be mentioned in the
last century, but it is particularly notable
on account of the tremendous loss of life in
the retreat of the French army from Eussia.
Under the circumstances a short resume of
the part the weather had to do with the
disaster ought to be interesting here.
Winter set in early that season. The
French army began its retreat on the 18th
of November; Napoleon leaving the
Muscovite empire on the day following.
On the 23d the evacuation of Moscow was
complete, and the entire army was marching
toward Smolensk: with the snow Jailing
heavily and steadily for a number of days
past The Frenchman, Larry, tells us that
when the army started, a thermometer which
he carried registered 15 Fahrenheit That
part commanded by Ney, escaped from the
Eussian troops, by whom it was surrounded,
bt crossing the Dneiper, which froze over
the night before they started. The day be
fore, Eussian troops with cannon had crossed
me Jjwina upon the Ice. The cold then
diminished and on the 24th it thawed, bnt
immediately grew cold again, and from the
26th to 29th during the terrible passage 'of
"tue -Berezina, the water contained numerous
blocks of ice,out none of them sufficient to
suggest-the possibility of the troops crossing
ucr upon mem. j.ne thermometer gradu-
ly fell until the 30th, when it registered
Fahrenheit; on the 3rd of December it
stood at 22 and on the 6th 35, which was the
day after Napoleon issued the famous
"Bulletin No 29," announcing the awful
disaster which had overtaken his forces.
The Duchess of Manchester.
When Consnela Yznaga's mother invited
the Viscount Mandeville to her home in
Orange, N. J in the year 1876, and the
with all his claims to
the rights and titles of
the dukedom of Man
chester proceeded to
fall ill while there, the
event was not accepted
as a commentary on the
quality of the bread on
the Yznaga board, but
Duchcsi of Manchet-zi rather a fortunate
ter. circumstance for Con
snela, who, while acting as nurse for the
nobleman, managed to conveniently fall in
love with him, and it being returned, the
result was a marriage Everybody'in this
country rejoiced at the idea of a future
American Duchess of Mauchester, although
the Yznaga family were really Cubans born
and raised. Public attention is again at
tracted to the family through a proposed
alliance of the dowager duchess with the
family of the Duke of Devonshire by mar
riage to the Marquis of Hartington. The
interesting complications of such a match
were referred to in The Dispatch's cable
grams yesterday. Wilkie,
Burns' Natal Day.
Immortal shade of Robert Corns,
On this thy natal day. .,
Tho heart of Scotland to thee turns
Her homage fond to pay.
She clings to thee, thro' woe and weal
Thy name her prondest boast.
Her loyal heart, tried stanch and leal
Holds thee her best lov'd toast
Her straths and hills, her glens and lakes
Re-echo to thy fame.
Her cnrllng streams, her tarns and brakes
Are hallow'd by thy name
Her daisy prlnk'd begowan'd lea.
Her blue-bells wat wi' dew.
Drive new charms lov'd Bard from thee
To warm Scotch hearts anew.
The exil'd Freen an' brither Scot,
The laddie far t rae name.
Where chance or choice may cast his lot,
Claims kinship with tby fame
And ever as the day returns,
That gave to thee thr birth,
'He greets thv name, OI Robert Barns,
Wi' soncs o' praiso au' mirth.
Dwell where ho may, the hardy Scot
This night will laurels twine
Unmindful of his rank or lot,
To lay upon thy shrine.
From lands afar his heart returns
This night to classic Ayr;
He roams this night with thee and Burns,
'Mang scences thy muse makes fair.
By bosky dell and purling stream
Whaur fays an' kelpies lurk,
He wanders on with ihee to dream,
O' Alloa's haunted kirk.
The banks an' braes o' Bonnie Doon
Thy saint'd Mary's shrine,
Are his to love a' things aboon.
For Robbie, they were thine
Frae Bnchanneys tae John o' Groats,
At ilka lngleside,
Thon honorM art, the wale o' Scots, "
Aula Bcotla's joy and pride
O Burns, the heart of Scotland thrills
At mention of thy name.
Her meads, her streams, her vales, her hills,
Thy heritage of fame
The faults, the follies of her son
She will not closely scan;
She proudly claims her gifted ono.
Her Plowboy-Poet Man.
McDonald, Pa. Joseph Haizk.
Shtxoh's Cube will immediately relieve
croup, whooping coueh and bronchitis. Sold by
Jos. Fleming & Son, 412 Market tu
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CAMERON BEEKS SECI.TJSIOK' AT TOBTBESS MONEOE.
OYER A CENTURY OLD.
James Stephenson Macready,
Lives in tho West End,
ONE OF THE HEROES OP WATERLOO.
He Also Battled With General Jackson at
SOME OF HIS Y1TID EEMI5I8CENCES
"Ah, sir, many a time that day I licked
the French blood from my Bword to cool my
tongue; and, I tell you, we mowed them
town like a mower mows down the grass
wi' his scythe."
These are 'the words of a man still living
in this city, used in his thrilling description
of the battle of Waterloo, in which he was a
soldier under Wellington. This old hero
will be 102 years of age the 12th of next
July, according to the record in the old
family-Bible in Ireland.
It was on the 21th of last December that
The Dispatch published something
about the veteran. It had been reported to
the Board of Health that he was sick and in
destitute circumstances. These reports were
found upon investigation to be untrue, for
he had not only enough to live upon, but
was negotiating for the disposal of some
property in Philadelphia, which would
give him a fair compensation.
In the Home of the Veteran.
The venerable veteran, a soldier of two
famous wars, James Stephenson Macready,
lives in an abode, as interesting as the man
himself.in an alley in the West End. The
other day a visit was made to him in com
pany with Captain S. L. Fullwood and
Colonel William A. Herron, both old citi
zens and military men. When the door
opened Mr. Macready's first words, passed
over. the body" of , a vicious dog lying ou
the steD, were:
"Is that you, William Herron?" JubI as
prompt was the reply of the Colonel, "Why,
Mac, is this where you live? I thought yon
were dead 40 years ago."
Mr. Macready was born in Scotland, and
was taken to Ireland, to the County Antrim,
where he grew up, and, curious enough, in
the neighborhood of some of the ancestry of
Colonel Herron. He crossed the ocean in a
sailing vessel in 1809, landing at Philadel
phia. He at once got a job of work at SO
cents a day, but as he had to pay $1 25 a
week for his board, he exercised the preroga
tive of the individual workman of those
days, and quit.
From Philadelphia he came to Pittsburg
in 1810, walking the entire distance, and
passing his first night within the present
limits of the city in a log cabin still stand
ing near the Methodist Church in East
Liberty, on Penu avenue, now covered with
weather-boarding. He got employment
here at 60 cents a day, still paying fl 25 a
week for his board.
His Military Career.
He enlisted in the Duquesne Blues with
many well-known Pittsburg boys, whose
names fall glibly from his tongue, for service
in the war of 1812. After a short campaign
on the shores of Lake Erie he went with his
company to re-enforce Jackson at New
Orleans, going down the river on flat boats.
"Wo got there," the old man says, "just
in time to get behind the cotton bales and
see the closing ud of the war." He located
his soldier's warrant for land on the site of
the town of Sharpsburg, and sold it some
years after for 80.
Immediately upon his return from New
Orleans Mr. Macready sailed for Ireland on
a visit to his friends. He at once enlisted
in "Scot's Grays," a famous cavalry regi
ment, for service in the campaign against
Naooleon. Telling this the old man says:
"You see I fought in America against
the British and then went home and fought
for tbem against the French." It is in the
description of this great battle that the elo
quence of the old man rises to its height
Could be tell his story on the platform in
Old City Hall as he does from his chair in
his humble abode he would never again
"Ah," he says, "it is so long ago, and I
grow so weary a talking, nevertheless he
makes historically acenrate and thrillingly
eloquent re'erences to "Old Bony," as he
calls him, to Wellington, to Hongamont, to
Blucher, to Grouchy, and to the movement
of the troops. Warming up to the excite
ment of the time, the old herp takev up his
broomstick, goes through the English
manual of arms, shows how tho British in
fantry formed their hollow squares
against the French, how they fired from
the hip, fell to the knees to load their
muskets and the heavy cavalry dis
mounted with the long saber bayonet ou the
end of the carbine.
His Vividness of Description.
"The French didn't care to try us more
than once," says the old soldier. "Ah, sir,
many a time that day I licked the French
blood from my sword to cool my tongue,
and, I tell you, we mowed them down like a
mower mows down the grass wi' his scythe,"
and, he adds proudly, "I come off withont a
One can almost hear the clash of the
saber, the rattle of the musketry, the shrill
notes of the fife, the roll of the drum and the
music of the bagpipe as the old inau goes ou
with bis description of the battle. "The
drums," he says, "were covered with asses'
skin and could be heard from Temperance
vllie to the hills of East Liberty." He tells
of the Scotchwoman who heard the pibroch
in the distance, and cape down dancing
amqng the troops, singing out merrily,
"cheer up, my laddies, the Campbells are
For all his service in both thcsie wars the
old man is without a pension, and this fur
the reason that he has never applied. "I
have always been able to ciru an honest liv
ing," be Bays, "and if I get disabled I think
the State of Pennsylvania or Allegheny
will keep me the rest of my life" A couple
of weeks aeo the old man was iniured br a
sewer pipe rolling Pon him when he was atj
work on the streets of the city. He says he
has the promise of a job In Wightman's
glass works as soon as he shall be able to get
out. He also counts on an early visit to
Ireland. "And," he says, "if I get home to
Ireland I will apply for a pension."
He indignantly rejects any overture to
take up bis abode in a soldiers' home. The
room in which he lives is indescribable
All sorts or packages dangle from low
strings stretched across the ceiling; the
walls are covered with bric-a-brac of every
kind: pans, skillets and cooking utensils.
The old man does his own cooking and
washing. His only companions are a dog,
two chickens and three cats. He has scant
clothing for his bed; "But," he says, "ou
the cold nights I sit up all night in my
rocking chair in front of my fire and keep
meself warm." But if every visitor will
treat the old man as Colonel Fullwood and
Colonel Herron he will have no need of a
His Campaign Nearly Ended.
His campaign of life is nearly over. He
says he "always hung onto the Whig party
until the breakin' up time" When Buch
anan was nominated he voted the Demo
cratic ticket, "Bnt, he adds, "if I bad vom
ited as often as I have regretted it, I would
be a dead mou." He launches out in a vig
orous tirade on Buchanan for "trying to
turn over the Government to the rebels, the
old rascal, and I never voted the Democratic
ticket again, and I never will."
"If I could have caught Jeff Davis, he
says, "I would have put him ou a pole and
shot him." The old man was raised a
United Presbyterian, in Ireland, under Bev.
Samuel Alexander, of Antrim, and about 0
years ago took up his church membership in
this city, under Bev. Bichard Lea, who is
still living in New Alexandria, Pa., in the
80th year of his age
MILLIONAIRE IN RAGS.
THE STEAHQE EIPEEIEHCB UJ
OF A MAS OF WEALTH.
Beaten Almost to Death and BobDed and
Imprisoned as a Tramp He Returns to
New Xorlc h Woful looking Object of
New Yobk, Jan. 31. Alexander Vonein,
a Napa, Cal., millionaire, landed at the
Barge Office ragged and greatly emaciated,
in company with 485 Italians, from the
steamship Burgundia, from Naples. Mr.
Vonein told of a European trip, taken for
pleasure and health, which almost resulted
in his death, after he had first been robbed
and sent to prison as a vagrant He was
registered, and then went to the Custom
House and presented a letter of in traduction,
which he carried from the United States
Consul at Marseilles, to Collector Erhardt,
telling the story of his trials and tribula
tions. The consul asked that he be assisted
to his home, which the collector agreed
Vonein's story is that about five months
ago he left his palatial residence and friends
in Napa, Cal., and went to Italy for the
good of his health. With him he took
55.000 in gold currency, and over a dozen
letters of Intro J notion from California and
New York business men. After wandering
about for some time and making a pro
longed stay in Genoa, he listened to a voice
which described in glowing colors the
beauties of Monte Carlo. He decided to
visit the place, and one night packed his
gripsack. This done, he went out for a stroll,
and was waylaid, beaten and robbed of bis
money, jewelry, fetters of introduction, and
even his coat, hat and waistcoat He was
found insensible in the street by one of the
police Efforts were made by the police to
catch the robbers, but nothing was recov
ered. Vonein finally started to beg his way to
Nice, eating the food that he received from
the peasants. Ou arrival at the seaport city
he thought that at last he was in the hands
of Iriends. Again he was mistaken, for
when the police caught sight of the dirty,
ragged and enfeebled man, he was arrested
as a tramp and sentenced to 30 days in
prison. .Vonein served his 30 days ih prison,
and then tramped to Marseilles, where ap
plication to the American Consul met with
a hearty response, and he was shipped to
Almost Two Million Dollars Pnt In New
Structures last Tear.
The report of the Allegheny City asses
sors, given out yesterday, shows the total
valuation of the city to be 52,000,000. The
total number of new buildings erected in the
city last year was 968, and their valuation
was 1,852,850, an increase of 5215,350 over
The total number of brick dwellings in
the city is 8,093, and frame, 9,408, making a
total of 17,501. In the new buildings the
Second ward led the list, 177 having been
erected in that ward at a cost of $415,150.
THE CANADIAN TJISSOLuTIOB.
The Official Gazette Contains No Mention of
the Proposed Action.
Ottawa, Out., -Jan. 31. The Official
Gazette, issued to-day, does not contain any
notice about the dissolution of Parliament.
It is believed that the Government will
take rro action until Sir Charles Tnpper ar
rives. Confinement and Hard Work'
Indoors, particularly m the sitting posture, are
far more prejudicial to health than excessive
mucular exertion In the open air. Hard
sedentary workers are far too weary after office
hours to take much needful exercise in the
open air. Tbey olten need a tonle Where
can they seek Invigoratlon more certainly and
agreeably than lrom Hosteller's Stomach Blt
turs, a renovaut particularly adapted to recruit
the exhausted fores of nature? Use also Tor
dyspepsia, kidney, lirer and rheumatic ail
ments. Mb. J. A. Carteb. of Wells, Ore, says:
"Chamberlain's Cough Bemedy is good and
gives entire satisfaction to my customers."
Some Suggestions Growing Out
of the Experience of the
Postmaster General; .
RELIEF FROM THE ROUTINE
Through a Secretary Who Should
Be Paid $10,000 a Tear.
POSTAL TELEGRAPH AHD SAYIHGS.
Supervision by Districts and s Find
Tennre of Office.
FEEB COINAGE A5D F0ETD5E MASIHS
rCOERISPOSDISCB or TUE D1SFATCH.1
WA8HiKOTOjr, Jan. 31. The best busi
ness man in President Harrison's Cabinet ii
Postmaster General Wanamaker. His de
partment at Washington is the biggest busi
ness department under the Government, not
excepting the Treasury, and Mr. Wana
maker manages it, as far as possible, on bus
iness principles. The views of such a man
on business matters cannot but be of great
interest, and I called at the postoffice build
ing at 430 o'clock this atlernoon to have, if
possible, a chat with the Postmaster General
ou the financial situation.
Half past 4 o'clock p. ir. is a good time to
catch the Postmaster General. He gets to
the Department at about 8 o'clock in the
morning or an hour before his clerks begin
to arrive, and at 430 tie great building is
deserted, the Postmaster General has gotten
through with his most important business
and he is finishing up his work, which ends
between 5 and 6 p. at, every day.. I found
him dictating a letter and after he had fin
ished asked him to tell me his opinion of the
causes of the present financial stringency.
Opposed to Pree Coinage.
"As to the financial situation, I think the
trouble has tided over for a time We were
in danger ot a panic, but we have escaped it
and matters will move smoothly from now
ou. The tightness of the times is largely
due to the lack in the amount of our circu
lating medium. We need a more elastio
currency, but we need one that is based on
a different principle than that of 80 cents
worth of silver to the dollar.
"I would be in favor of the free coinage
of silver ii it were based on the market
value of silver, but the putting of 80 cents .
into a coin and marking it 100 cents is just
as bad as though you should put three pecks
of wheat into a bushel and by marking ths ,
measure "full" should try to make tha
people or the world believe that it would,
pass for a bushel, and that they should pay
the same price for it as when tbey received
four pecks instead of three The free coin
age bill may become a law, but I don't be'
lieve it will last a year longer than the Con
gress that enacts it. The results of it will
be such that the next Congress will have to
About Postal Savings Banks,
"How about your postal savings banks '
scheme, Mr. Postmaster General," I asked
"Would not such institutions increase tha
hoarding of the money by the people and
add to financial stringencies like tha
"Not at all," replied Mr. Wanamaker,
"The best thing for the country to-day
would be these postal savings banks. They
would bring into active circulation
100,000,000 which are now hoarded
away in stockings, tucked beneath the raft
ers or sandwiched under the carpets or bun
ied beneath the hearthstones. Whenever a
bank fails this hoarding increases. The peo
pie feel that tbey have their principal safa
u they lose the interest. They consider
their biding places better than the banks,
but tbey have such a confidence In the Gov-"
ernment that they would deposit their
money at once if postal savings banks were
organized. My plan provides that the
money shall be loaned under proper security
to the banks in the States from which tha
savings come, and this would at once put
the money into circulation. I want to sea
these savings banks within an hour's walls
of the home of every working man. The in
fluence of depositors upon their fellows
would be marked, and thousands of dollars
would be saved by people who now sava
The Experience of Others.
"Last year the total amount of the de
posits of the savings banks in Great Britain
was just about 5100,000,000, and the poor
among the French deposit about $50,000,000
every year in the Postal Saviors Binks.
The deposits are increasing in all the coun
tries of Enrope which have adopted tha
Postal Savings Bank system, and a largo
proportion of the savings are deposited by
minors, showing that tbey are great educa
tors in the school of economy and accumula
tion. It would be a good thing for tha boys
oi the countiy and would aid them to maka
a start in life"
As Mr. Wanamaker said these words X
thought of bis start in life, and my mind
rapidly ran over his career as I have heard
it reported. I could see him a little fair
faced boy, living in the country and walk
ing four miles every day into Philadelphia
to clerk in a bookstore at Si 25 a week. X
could, see -him as a little older he received
51 50 a week in a clothing store, and then,
year by year and dollar by dollar as ha
grew and saved till he got his start and
rounded the big store which now employs
thousands of clerks and which gives him an
income of perhaps a thousand times as
much every week as ha made when ha
Wanamalcer's Great Wealth
Mr. Wanamaker is said to be worth mill
ions. He has? investments of many kinds,
and it is said that the Philadelphia store
makes a number of times the President's!
salary every year. Its business runs into
millions, and during one year, by its co
operative principle, it paid, I am told, to
the clerks alone 5100,000 in excess of their
salaries. And still the man who has cre
ated this business is as yet in his prime Ha
is 53, but he does not look to be more than
40, and as he talked I wondered how much
oi his success was due to luck and clrcum
stances, and I asked:
"Do you think, Mr. Wanamaker, thai
the chances of business success are as great
to-day as they have been in your past? Sup
pose you were a boy again as you were 40
years ago; do you think you would have as
fair a chance to make a fortune and to do
good work as you have done?"
"Yes," reDlied Mr. Wanamaker. "I
think I could succeed as well now as in tha
past. It seems to me that the conditions of
to-day are even more favorable to success
than when I was a bov. There are better
facilities for doing Business and thera il
mere business to be done Information in
the shape of books and newspapers is now la
the reachof all, and the young man has two
opportunities where he lormerly had one."
The Combines and Trusts.
"But do not the monopolies and trusts'that
now prevail compete with and clog individ
ual enterprise to an extent that they hava
never done before?"
"I think," replied Mr. Wanamaker, "thit
we are much more afraid of combinations of
capital than we have any reason for being.
Competition regulates everything of that
kind. No organization can make immense
jirofits for any length of tlmg without its