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ar;lSffj: 10 up most of them until the present political storm blows of er. A Model Educational System. The latest census gives Chile a total popu lation of 2,250,317, of which number only 47,000 are allowed to vote. According to the previous census there were in Chile only 415,893 persons, male and iemale, who could read and write, all of these, of course, be longing to the upper classes. But there is no country in the world where greater efforts are being made to bring education within reach of the poorest. Every year Congress appropriates most liberally for the purpose, and in every town there are free schools expressly for the poor, besides many excellent colleges, seminaries and public libraries. The common school system is as nearly perfect as can be made, combining the best educational ideas of all lands. Some years ago the Government sent an envoy to the United States and every country of Europe, on purpose to study schools and methods of imparting instruc tion. That gentleman, Secor Abalardo Nunoz, has since been made the General Commissioner of Education in Chile, and has combined, with best results, the wisdom and experience of all the lands he visited. He suys that Switzerland has toe model schools ot the world, the United States next, Russia next, then Germany, France, En gland and Italy, in the order named. The most beautiful schoolhouses have been bnilt in everv town and city, regardless of cost, and combining every modern convenience and appliance. The time is coming when ignorance will be the exception and edu cation as universal here as in our older Republics. Treat tbo Immigrants Well. For some years past the Chilean Govern ment has been expending large sums of money in encouraging'Enropean laborers to colonise its frontier and become citizens. By way ot inducement, each head of a family is given 200 acres of land, lumber enough to build i house, a yoke of cattle, a cart, a plow, a quantity of seed, and $15 a month during the first year while the crops are growing the latter being a loan for eight years without interest Moreover, when the emigrant first arrives in tne country, they keep him one xnonth. free of charge, if he so ces.res, in one o: the teverai inns which the Government has crtcted lor that express purpose; and he will be. transported on the railways, gratis, wherever he wants to go, in order that he may look the field over thoroughly beiore deciding where to locate. Indeed, they don't do things of this sort "by halves" in Chile, and the unknown emigrant, withont a dollar in his pocket or an ancestor at his back, is infinitely better off than many an impecunious anstocratl A larse number of energetic and industri ous Germau peasants have taken advantage ol this unexampled liberality; and in time their presence in the country may consider ably alter its statistics. In thoe sections where they settle, the mental and moral characteristics of the coming generation wih undergo as great a change as tbeircom plexion. In couise of a few decades even thntt and industry may become honorable. A Cniiean not born of the lower classes would etarve to death before he would de grade himself by manual labor; and nobody works if he can possibly avoid it. There is a demand for skilled artisans of every sort, and masons, carpenters, etc, find employ ment at good wages, soon as arrived, rolitlcs l Pure There. As a rule, the typical Chilean politician Is a man ot dignity and wealth never a rascally wire-puller nor corner-grocery gus aler. He enacts only such laws as he be lieves will be for the welfare of bis beloved country, and expects to see them obeyed. Those swind ers who daily perpetrate frauds upon the Uuited Jstates Government would here be branded as traitors and driven from the country, il they were not sent to the "Hill oi IXath," or piace of public execu tions. For many years the Chilean Gov ernment has been officered by the oest and purest men in the nation, and so proud are they cf the rapid advancement, and so jealous of the national integrity, that all matters of jurisprudence and civil service are watched with faithful and sacred in terest. There have been great changes in Chile within the last decade or two. The passage of the famous cemetery bill, which occurred a few years ago, is one of the manv signifi cant examples. Previous to that "time the Bomish clergy had held control of all the public cemeteries, and collected a death tax of J8 upon every corpse, but utterly refused to permit any Protestant dead to be buried in consecrated ground. After a bill, which compelled the authorities to inter the dead of any religious faith in the public cem eter les, has passed both houses of Congress and was awaiting the executive signature to be come a law, the President was visited by a delegation SOO strong, of the wealthiest and most influential ladies of the country, who implored him to veto the bill. They were the wives and daughters of Senators and churchmen of highest standing, and it is said the jewels they wore on that occasion were worth more than ?1,000,000. The Pres ident received them with the greatest cour tesy and listened to all they had to say J but the obnoxious bill was duly signed and be came a law. Shocked a. Big Man to Death. So much importance was attached to this political interlerence with church affairs, that for a time nothing else was talked of; and the good Bishop of Concepcion, the most influential Jesuit in South America and a man oi powerful physique, fell dead from the shock when he was told that the new law had gone into effect. Then the wealthy Catholics commenced a wholesale removal of their dead from the desecrated cemeteries to the churches, and even to the courts of their houses, but were stopped short by the prompt enactment of another law which made it a crime to disturb those already buried. The condition of darkness that existed prior to the country's emancipation from Spanish rule almost surpasses belief- There was no trace of the commerce, culture, free thought and education that prevail to-day, but the population, which numbered le'ss than three-quarters of a million, was as denselv lgno-ant and superstitious as even a Spanish monarch could desire. The same spirit of intolerance that had char acterized Spain since the days of Carlos V. the spirit that sent an army of butchers to hang, drown, burn and flay alive half a million people whose only crime was a de sire to worship the gods of their fathers prevailed in her American colonies. All the ports were closed against vessels of every description except the Spanish war boats, and any attempt to communicate or traffic with foreigners met with severest punish ment. Fjlkkie B. TVaed. MISTAKEN FOB A COBPSE. How a BoIIerae Hospital Patient Came Jfear Getting Into a Coffin. A charity patient died not long ago since in Bellevue Hospital, Sew Tort. The corpse was temporarily removed to what is known as the "Death Chamber," or sur gical ward, to make way for a new patient. The Coroner received the remains and, as is customary, gave the necessary permit for burial. In this same surgical ward was a man under the influence of ether about to be operated upon. The operating surgeons were momentarily forced to leave the sub ject to attend a dying patient in an adjoin ing ward. Meantime the city under taker's assistants arrived and hurriedly carted off what they thought was the 3ead charity patient. They got hold of the patient under the influence of ether by mistake, and the error was not discovered until the, patient had been taken down two flights of stairs. The nurse says she was in another part of the ward, and the dociors say their absence was unavoidable. Eeform In Sunday School Books. The good little boy who always died in the last chapter no longer figures in the Kundav school books. There has been a complete change in the hereof the story. Nowadavs be is a manly boy a real boy, but one ot whom the reader will sav: "He's quite a fellow; 1 believe I'd likft to be just such a boy myself." MADE BY NORSEMEN. New Theory as to Carvings of the Indian. God on the Allegheny, LIKE THE FAMOUS DIGHTON ROCK. An Opportunity for Those Learned In the Kunic Inscriptions. EVIDENCE OF DE CELOEOX'S PLATES iwartTEX roa tbi pibpatch. j In May, 1S89, I turned a Kodak on an immense bowlder on the right bank of the Allegheny river, 16 miles below Oil Citv, Pa., known in that section, and to all river men, as "The Indian God." The rock stands close to the water's edge, in a wild and isolated section, and is 24 feet wide and 14 feet high. As it is approached it has the appearance of an elephant standing with its feet in the river. One side of this rock is earved with rude carving, which, according to the traditions of Pennsylvania, was the work of the In dians. There is now Borne reason to believe that it may have been done by the Norse men as early as the eleventh century, hun dreds of years before Columbus discovered America. The photograph of "The Indian UfSCBIPTIONS OK God," and the carving on the side of it, re mained in my portfolio until I read in the St Louis Globe JDemocrat of Sunday, March 27 last, of the Dighton rock and the inscrip tions found upon it The similarity of the Dighton rock inscriptions and those of "The Indian God" is so striking that they are presented herewith for comparison. The Inscription on Dighton Kock. Antiquarians attribute the Dighton Bock inscriptions to Norsemen, and, comparing them with the pbotographio representation ot those on "the Indian God," they seem to be very much of the same character; so much,, indeed, that the same hand might have made both. Fred B. Stevenson, in his account of the Dighton Bock, says that Prof. Bafu, who interpreted the inscriptions on it, and also Prof. Anderson, of the Uni versity of "Wisconsin, believe that the Bunlc lettering was the work of early Norsemen. Prof. Anderson, as late as 1891, says that if Prof. Bafu's plates and inter pretations can be relied upon, all doubts concerning the presence of Thorfinu Krfrlsefne, who came to America in 1007, at Taunton river, are removed.' The Dighton Bock is situated on the right bank of the Taunton river, in Bristol county, near the village of Taunton, Mass., in the very region where the Norsemen fre quented. The inscriptions on it were copied by Dr. Danforth in 1680, by Cotton Mather in 1712, by Dr. Greenwood in 1730. by Stephen, Sewell in 1768, by James "Win tbrop in 1778, and by at least four others in the last century. Quoting from the same description of the rock we have thisi Translating the Inscription. Near the center of the inscription, in Boman characters, maybe seen: "cxxxi.," which iB 151 the Icelanders reckoning 12 decades, or 120 to the hundred, calling it great hundred the exact number of Thor finn's party. Then comes an N, a boat, and the Bnnic character" for M, which some an tiquarians interpret "N(orse) seafaring M(en)." Then there is the word NAM, which means "took possession," and all of Thorfinn's name except the first letter. The following combination is thus made) OBTIN-, CXXXI., N (Picture of boat M NAM. Tins Prof. Eafn interprets: "Thorfinn with 151 Norse seataring men took posses sion of this land (landnam)." There is figure of a woman and a child in the lower leit-hand corner, with a letter 8 near the latter, which, it is suggested, re- A -.-O! W 7f ' If VI-yr VfVrt.A dl THE DIGHTON minds one of Gndrin and her son Snorre, the first European babv born in America. This carries the history of the Dighton Bock in scriptions back to the early part of the eleventh century. Antiquarians will probably have to con cede that there is a very great similarity be tween these rude carvings, one found on the r,ight bank of the Taunton river, in Massa chusetts, the other on the right bank of the Allegheny, in Pennsylvania. If the Norse men are responsible for one they must also be for the other. If the Norsemen, then they must have been The Discoverers of Petroleum. In the explorations for oil on Oil Creek, are found rude pits which are thought to ante-date the Indians in this section, and which are supposed to have been constructed to collect the oil that exuded from the ground or floated down on the surfaoe of the water. If the Norsemen were around here in the eleventh century they may have been the builders of these pits, and the first producers of petroleum. The earliost mention of "the Indian God" and its inscription, of which there is record, was in 1749. In this year De Celoron, sent by Louis XV. of France, explored the region between Lake Erie and the Ohio river. During this exploration he buried several leaden plates, one of which was found near Lake Chautauqua. The purpose of theseplates seemed to be to establish the claim of the French to the territory adjacent The first publio mention of, these plates was in a letter addressed by Governor George Clinton to the Board of Trades in London, dated New York, December 19, 1760. In this letter he staffs that in two or three weeks he "would ser,d them a plate of lead, full of writing, which some of the upper nation of Indians Stole trom JeanCoear(Joncaire), the French interpreter at Niagara, on his way to the river Ohio, which river, and all the lands thereabouts, the French claim, as will ap pear by said writiug." Governor Clinton further says that the lead plate gave the In dians so much nnesslness that they imme diately dispatched some of the chiefs to him with it, saying that their only reliance was 3iTF.w.Rtf 1 THE in him, and earnestly begged that he would communicate the contents thereof to them, which he had done, much to their relief and the interests of the English. The Indians who brought the plate to Governor Clinton referred to it as "devil's writing." Purport of the "Writlnc. The writing was in French and the sub stance of it was that the plate had been buried July 29, 1749, and it should be known thereby that the French laid claim to the Ohio (Allegheny) river, all the rivers emptying into it, and all the lands and country adjacent thereto, "as enjoyed, or ought to have been enjoyed by the 'Kings ol France preceding, as they have main tained themselves by arms and by treaties, especially those of Byswick, Utrecht and Aix-la-Chapelle. These leaden plates were about 11 inches long by 7 inches wide and inch thick. On the reverse side of all that have been found was the name of Paul de Brosse, the artist or engraver. From a manuscript left by De Celeron, from which the facts of this expedition have been 'obtained, the name of a stream is spelled Kanaaiagu, and on one of the plates it is spelled Chauougon, This is Conewango, that receives the Chautauqua outlet and empties into the Allegheny above "Warren, Pa. Throughout De Celoron's manuscript he refers to the Allegheny as the Ohio or "La Belle Keviere." " A plate was buried on the bank of the Alle gheny, opposite the Conewango, and the royal arms affixed to a tree in the vicinity. A Plato at the Indian God. French creek, that empties into the Alle gheny at Franklin, seveD miles below Oil City, was called by these Frenchmen THE INDIAX GOD. I'Biviere AuxBoeufs," and in De Celoron's journal is this passage : Buried a plate on the south bank of the Ohio (Allegheny) river, four leagues below the Riviere Aux Boeufs, opposite a bald monntain and near a large stone, on which are many fig ures rudely engraved. This plainly identifies the location as "The Indian God" rock, and numerous ex peditions from Oil City, Franklin and neighboring towns have visited the place witn a view to finding the plate. Diligent search has been made, but without success. The locality at which it was buried is pretty accurately described in the manuscript, but the high water and ice gorges have no doubt carried it away. The whole "Indian Goa" is submerged during the floods in the river, and the current here is very swift The In dians are known to have held this rock in superstitious reverence, which they would not, perhaps, have attached to it had the carving upon it been the work of Indians. Thp Last Searching Party. The last expedition to search for the plate was composed of Franklin people, as fol lows: The late Judge JohnTrunkey. the late Dr. Eaton, B. L. Cochran, Esq., J. H. Newton, Charles Heydrick and Jacob Shirk, formerly a well-known oil producer. Several laborers were engaged and anjentire day spent in removing earth and stones near the rock, but no plate was found. The sur roundings of the rock indicate that the earth may have been washed considerably during the period of time that has elapsed since the plate was deposited, and it may have been carried down the river beyond re covery. Prior to the discussion concerning the Dighton Bock the inscriptions on the "Indian God" have been regarded solely as curious specimens of Indian art, but thns closely identifying it with the early Norse men gives it a new interest During the early days of the oil business, when steam boats ran on the Allegheny, it was a rule to always slacken the speed of passenger boats at this point and announce "the Indian God," to give the people on boardan oppor tunity to see the great curiosity. B. "W. ClilSWEil ENVY AMEBICAN GIRLS. Some ol the Things the Women Have to Pat Up "With In Japan. During my recent visit to Japan, says Henry T. Finck, several girls told me how glad they would be if they had the opportunity and means to go to Ameri ca. They had probably heard of the United States as being the paradise of women, and felt that Japan was not exactly an earthly Eden for them. Americans call '"- -" 3- BOCK CASTINGS. urettv eirls nnp-els and adore themasgod- fdesses. The Japanese, on the contrary, compare men with heaven ana women wun earth. Probably no "foreigner" knows the Japanese as thoroughly as Mr. Basil Hall Chamberlain, who has been Professor of Philology at the University of Toklo. "Most Japanese men," he says, "even in this very year of grace 1890, make no secret of their disdain for the female sex. The way in which they are treated bv the men has hitherto been such as might cause a pang to any generous European heart" This contempt for women is shown in the minutest details of life, as for example in mourning etiquette, which prescribes that animal food should be abstained trom and mourning garments worn for 160 days in case of a paternal grandfather hut only 90 in oase of a maternal grandfather, 90 days for a paternal uncle, but only 30 days for one on the maternal side, etc. According to the "Greater Learning for "Women" there are five feminine vices which four women of every five possess disobedience.malice.slan der, jealousy and stupidity whence arises their inferiority to man. Even woman's four possible virtuis are such as chiefly benefit man gentle obedience, chastity, mercy and quietness. A Japanese Buddhist text says that "A woman's exterior is that of a saint, bnt her heart is that of a demon." Every tonrist who has visited Japan will agree as to the malicious falseness of these ungallant remarks on the gentle, conrteous, Bweet and graceful little women of the isl and empire. It is not easy to observe these women in their homes, because it is not the custom among the Japanese toinvite friends, least of all foreigners, to their honses to dinner, teahouses being always chosen for such a pnrpose; but in these same teahouses tourists have opportunity abnndant to dis cover and resent the untruthfulness of the charge that "these low and aggravating girls have had no proper education; they (re stupid, obstinate and vulgar in their speech," which is brought against the.poor handmaidens, whom he, on the contrary, always finds ready to serve him, ever smil ing, and even willing to fan him on a sultry summer afternoon. Imagine an American waiter girl doing such a thing I HM v HTTSBTJ.RG DISPATCH, THE BELOW STAIRS. Something Abont the Bank and Eights of British Servants. EACH INSISTS ON HIS PLACE. The Distinctions Drawn In the Great Halls, Seats and Castles. WAGES PAID AND DUTIES EEQDIEED I8PT.CL4X COBBXgPOlTDZNCE Or THE DISPATCH. 1 London, England, April 2. There is in Great Britain a line of nobility not set down in "Burke's Peerage," as rigorous in distinctions, as unyielding in established rights and traditions, as impregnable against innovation, and as haughty in the enjoyment of its caste and privileges as that authenticated nobility and aristocracy which its different ranks as often rule as serve. These are the lords and ladies of that vast and ordinarily mysterious realm known as the "Below Stairs" of British life. They are one and the same in England, Scotland and Ireland. While British pol itics may boil in Ireland, stew in "Wales and Scotland and simmer in England, the real United Kingdom, imperturbable to politics, calm and impassive in the face of commercial disaster or social change, is held together as with ribs of steel, rivets ot copper and cappings of brass, by the ada mantine solidarity of this invinoible nobil ity the British dames of the duster, ladies of lapdog and luggage, lords of the ladle, barons ot bells and boots and peers- of the pantries and pots. The Place Must Be It eoognlzed. As a result ot several years' observation, I should say that the chief characteristic of the British servant, whom -we may fairly call the English servant, is a never failing consciousness, and insistance upon the cognizance by all others, of his, or her, exact place, whatever that place may be. Because of this, much else may be condoned. There is only one other class of servants in the world that gains so much through the same characteristic in a certain degree of dignity. This is the African. However much yon may "ele vate" and educate the latter, place them in any form of service and the old conscious ness of propriety in distinctions instantly returns, and with it the fine, though often pathetic, dignity of themselves asserting the distinction. The true man or woman of service pos sesses a real, if sometimes somber, pride in serving a real gentle man or real gentle lady; and while vou may not find the African's amiability, in an apparent unconsoions defining of relations, in your English servant, it is the one un varying rule of feeling, thought and action of his, or her, whole life, to truly serve the truly noble and considerate, and to truly rule', by endless insistance of rights, per quisites and traditional dignities, the ig noble and the parvenu. Servants H lghest in Bank. The number, wages and ways of the? serv ants employed in and about the great halls, seats and castles of Britain almost tell the story of their masters. First and foremost is the steward, who is responsible to milord and lady for the entire establishment, the servants, hiring of servants, and the pur chase of all ordinary necessities snch as food, except meats, which is invariably the perquisite of the cook. The steward re ceives 80, and an unlimited amount of noble blackgnarding, per year. Next in importance, if not indeed the first, is the housekeeper. She is usually a maiden lady of severe age, or a widow culled from poor relations. She must be a person of infinite expediency, common sense, experience, and with a soul and physique of iron. She usually has entire eharge of the details of all domestio matters; holds the keys to every private apartment and secret compartment; with her assistants makes, lays and repairs all carpets; cleans and re-hangs all tapestries; frequently or iginally embroiders the finest of draperies; packs, unpacks, re-hangs and drapes all paintings; prepares and marks with the family crest all linen and laces; cares for the statuary, and attends to the interminable cleaning and waxing of floors. She receives from 20 to 26 per year, having under her from one to two assistant housekeepers,. whose yearly wages are irom an to 18. In a general way, all -the female servants of the plaoe are amenable to the head house keeper, who is at no time of the year away from her post. Accomplishments of the Governess. The next of these in grade is perhaps the governess. This necessary though unfortu nate person is expected to educate and form the manners and morals, to the age of 12, of the children. Bhe must read, write, speak and teach Frenoh and German, and be able to instruct in the rudiments oi Latin, the sciences and philosophy. She must sing and teach vocal music, and play and in struct upon the piano and harp. In fact, she must be the superior, com panion and servant of her charges. Her compensation is 40 to 60 per annum, and many opportunities for in trigue. In the greatest houses she is al lowed two, and sometimes three, nnrsery maids at from 10 to 16 each. There is an upper housemaid at 16, an under house maid at 12, and from two to four assistant housemaids at 10, all really nnder the con trol of the housekeeper. But the ladies' maids, who are responsi ble only to their mistresses, hold what are regarded as the most desirable positions, in somuch as, while the most exacting duties are required, they receive from 30 to 50 per year, while their opportunities for travel and sight-seeing are unlimited. The ladies' maid is usually a young woman of excellent education and genuine accomplishments, and of extraordinary patience and finesse. To follow her in one day's duties would as sure anyone ot all that. Her breakfast must be 'taken while milady is still sleep ing, for when she wakens her enp of cocoa must be ready, after which the bath is given and milady's hair and toilet "done." "While the latter is at breakfast her cham ber must be righted and aired and the morning dresses arranged. A Duty for Every Moment. If her ladyship goes for a drive or ride,she must be again dressed for the same; and while she is absent the maid, who in most cases is a thorough modiste, must busy her fingers at sewing. It is not customary to give ber new cloths to cnt, bnt she must be competent in all repairing, and even in cleaning and remaking a soiled costume. She lunohes at the same hour with her mistress, but hurriedly, for, if in the city, she must during this time attend to neces sary shopping. Af(er lunch hour her lady ship is dressed for going out or for receiving at home. Then again comes the round of sewing or mending, getting out her lady ship's dinner gown, etc., and assorting and polishing her jewels for possible evening wear. Then her mistress mnst be dressed for dinner; and after her own dinner is eaten, the evening costume complete must be laid out, some finery removed and bits of fresh lace added here and there; when she is prepared to fold, seal and post such letters as her ladyship may have written just after dinner; by which hour the ordeal of placing her titled ward in fall evening costume is at hand. This passed, the maid may busy herself getting costumes tor tne morrow in order; perhaps steal out for a half honr, with the ladies-maids' coterie; but woe be to her if she is not smilingly in waiting, on her ladyship's return, with the letter's cham ber in perfect order for retiring, at which she assists; and then lies down like the faithful animal she is, In a room "next her mistress, within call of bell, which is liable to summon her at any hour of the night, or rather, the morning. All lower female ser vants bold the lady's-maid in deadly hatred; the while longing for her place as one al most possessing the honors of royalty itself. The female servants also comprise a Bead V laundress at 30, and two or three i as SUNDAY, APRIL 18, sistants t 12 each per year; as assistant cook, who must be equal in ability to the .chef, and who receives 20; two additional assistant cooks, or kitcbenmaids,at 14; and two scullery-maids at 12. Stands Around and Looks Awful. The head bntler "is a sort of generalissimo of the male servants of the household. A majestic bearing is a fortune to this fellow. He is the general-stand-around-and-look-awfal of the house; but must have an eye to the welfare of guests and the character and behavior of his inferiors. He is also the head waiter. He attends to the table and its proper setting and service at all times;, presiding at the carving and other mysteries of the sideboard; for all of which he recieves 76 per year. The under butler, at 35, has entire charge of the silver. It practically never leaves his hands or sight; as he not only delivers to, and receives from, the hands of the butler all pieces used, but washes, polishes, and sleeps alongside their receptacle cases in the pantry. During seasons of unusual entertainment, he also assists the head butler at meals. There are generally also a first, second and third foot man. These receive about the same wages as the under butler. They clean milord's clothing, which a valet scorns to do save when his master travels, assist at meals as waiters, wash glass and silverware, are re garded as general help under the butlers; and are, properly speaking, only footmen when on duty, as such with the carriages. Among the other male servants is milord's valet, "with well-known duties. A bright one receives 70 per year and will easily manage to secure as much more. Then there are the head cooks, to none of whom are paid one-fourth the price given by the American nouveau-riches to their recently imported chefs, who receive from 125 to 160, with perquisites of about 50 from the sale of drippings and fats. There is also a head coaenman, at 60 to 80, nnder whom are a second coachman at 25, a stud groom at 20, and grooms, stablemen and helpers at from 10 to 20 each; and one or two "odd men" who attend the servants' hail, carry baggage, clean boots and are a sort of everybodys' men to all below stairs. The Upper and Lower House. The whole number of servants at one of these princely houses is therefore very large. I have only enumerated those directly serv ing the household itself, whose members may not nnmber a half dozen, and in sea sons of entertainment will not average more than two dozen souls. Among all these house servants there are what might be called an upper and a lower house. Precedence is as severe a master and sconrge here as with the nobility them selves. The honrs for servants' meals are: Breakfast, 8; lunch, 11; dinner, 1; tea, 6, and supper from 9 to 10. The upper house includes the steward, butler, housekeeper, the head cook, the valets and the ladies' maids. These usually take all their meals by themselves, in either the steward's or the housekeeper's room, where they occasionally lounge an do their necessary correspond ing. The lower house comprises all other serv ants, of whom the under butler, or assistant cook, takes precedence. In some houses all the servants dine together; the upper servants assembling in the housekeeper's room, from which they solemnly march to the servants' diningball, the lower serv ants remaining standing nntil their bet ters arc seated, the butler at the head of the table. No conversation whatever is per mitted while the joint is being partaken of. The lugubrious silence and austerity of this gathering are inconceivably ludicrous. When the meat course is finished, the upper servants rise. The lower servants follow with military alacrity. The former, in their proper order of precedence, like automatic; puppets then march back into the steward's room, where, in the gaeatestpunotillio, pud ding and dessert are served. Meanwhile the lower servants, relieved of the presence of these their severest masters, fall to small talk, cheese and small beer to their heart's content. Hank of the Guest's Servants. Other grotesque forms among these folk are noticeable. Guest's servants invariably take the rank of their visiting mas'er or- - mistress, xne valet ot a lord is seated next the butler, and is often housed and "enter tained" by the steward. The maid ot a countess, or duchess, is "handed in to din ner" below stairs with all the ceremony which her titled mistress may receive one story higher. But an ordinary servant or footman must accept rigorous "pot-lack" with members of the lower house. Again, the upper servants must always be ad dressed by the lower as "Mr.," "Mrs." or "Miss." Bnt among footmen and house maids in general, dignity often gives way to alacrity, which, in turn, imposes the high est honors. For instance, above the clamor of morning bells will be heard sueh startling oxolamations as: "Dunraven, there's yer man's belli" "Marlborough, be lively nowl" "Manchester, yer ol' boy's moving I" or, "Tweedmouth, yer vally wants ter groom yel" Besides the O to 40 servants employed about the honsehold and stables, the larger establishments require an eqnal nnmber out of doors In various capacities about the demesnes. In England, servants are precisely what ten centuries of masters have wished them to be. English servants, in America, are miserable beings, giving the worst of ser vice. They are outside of England; they have lost the pose and poise of their rock rooted home regime; while they are be wildered by the eccentricities of many of our amateur nobility who import them, who will require some little time to accustom themselves to the attentions of any manner of servants. Ed oak L. "Wakbuav. HE FEEDS HIS 7L0WEB& The Keaion Why Florists' Plants Are More Luxuriant Than Other People's. "Why do florists' plants and flowers look so much more luxuriant than other people's? queries a writer in the Boston Traveller. I have always thought it was because they had light and heat and care. Bnt a clever old florist told me yesterday that it isn't many people who give flowers anything to eat. "I treat mine," said he, "like hnman beings. The young ones I feed like babies, and the big ones have their good beefsteak meals." Of conrse he referred to the arti ficial dressings, which he said few people knew how to use. MAK3MG WATEKjBUff UP TTTT.T., A Little Txlok That Anyone Can Perform in Bis Parlor. Buffalo Express. Take a strip of paper pretty strong in tex ture, a trifle wider than two columns of this paper and as long as yon can get. Sev eral pieces of paper pasted end to end will do. Pass the paper over the smoking flame of a lamp, or, to do away with all odor, cover one Bide of the paper with plumbago. Place on end on the table, as in the illustration, several books oi grsanauy decreasing size. Spread over their backs the strip of paper, having a care to make the undulations more and more accentuated as you go from the large hook toward the small ones. At the end of the little book let the strip of paper fall into a plate. At the other end, where the large book stands, pour the water, drop by drop, on the paper. These drops will roll on the inclined plane which they meet, then, in consequence of momentum acquired, will mount over the baek of the second book, and thus following one another they will reach the plate. The speotacle of these drops of water rising and falling by turns, and seeming to compete in liveliness with eoa other, is most curious, Sovr the Thing Is Done, 1891. WOMEN AND, CHURCH. Bessie Bramble Takes Dr. Talmage to Task as'lo Bis Facts. NEW YORK C0NFEEENCE DEBATE. Freedom of Pagan Days Compared With the Prejudice of To-Day. WHAT TEE FDTUE HAS IN BT0EE IWBITTE3 VOB TUE DISPATCH.! In his sermon last Snnday Dr. Talmage asks with emphasis: "Oh, woman, where are yonr chains to-day?" If he reads the papers and takes in the fact that last week the women of Massachusetts sustained their twenty-filth defeat in their demand for free dom at the hands of the Legislature, he will, perhaps, become aware that some of the most intelligent women are not satisfied with bracelets of gold and necklaces of sil ver. If he can put himself in their place, he will perhaps have some idea of what galls them. The women of this country want the very same thing that the men resolved to fight for in 1776 political freedom. "What is it that the gentlemen wish?" said Patrick Henry. "What would they have? Is life so dear or peace so sweet as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery?" "When the women of the United States go np to the halls of legislation year after year and petition for representation in the Govern ment under which they live; when tbey protest against taxation withont their con sent, they have precisely the same wrongs to be righted, the same chains and slavery to endure of which Patrick Henry, and John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson, and George Washington so energetically com plained. The King Georges ol To-day. George IIL thonght the men of America had all the rights that were good for them, jnst as Talmage and the other brethren think to-day that women have no wrongs to complain of. It freedom is good for men, it is no less good for women. Home is the place for women, but a city is made up of homes aud it concerns women greatly that there should be good clean streets; that con ditions should not exist that are detrimental to healthjor morals; that law should be re spected and good order maintained. They pay millions of money in taxes to this end, and they are denied any voice or vote as to how these taxes should be expended. Dr. Talmage may not consider this a hardship, bnt perhaps if he himself were denied such right or privilege he might feel there was something wrong abont it. The stern opposition women meet in the churches, if they presume to think they would like to ao something beyond raising money for their support by fairs and tea parties, working for missions and collecting contributions for sending the par&ons to Europe, cooking and setting up dinners for presbyteries, conferences and conventions, is well known. In the debate in the New York Methodist Confer ence last week Bev. Delos Lnll asserted that "it wonld be a violation of God's and nature's constitution to admit women as delegates to the General Conference." This is a dogmatic utterance, not an argument, bnt he evidently thinks he knows all abont it. IT Susannah Wesley "Were Alive. If Snsannah "Wesley, the founder of Methodism, was alive to-day she wonld not he admitted into the Conference; she wonld not be permitted to become a regularly or dained preacher in its pulpits; she would have it borne in npon her that her business in the chnrch was to raise money for the heathen, to do snch unpaid-for work that men did not care to do, to keep her head shut, and when the Conference was in ses sion to see to it that the clergy were set up with good dinners. As we read her story, Susannah "Wesley was better fitted to be a preacher of right onsness than her reverend husband, who forbade her to read prayers and sermons to her children and neighbors, Because it seemed to be in the nature of a pnblio function. These meetings were continued for some time, and Dr. Clarke writes "that God had done more in a few months by her Irregular ministry than he had done by that of the rector and his curates for 18 years be fore." The Women in the Galleries. It must have been a rather bitter piece of humble pie for the good Methodist sisters in the gallery to hear the speeches of the boys they had raised, and of the men they sup ported in the pulpits in opposition to their admittance to the conncils of the chnrch, on the score of their being women, and to be shnt ont by a vote of 183 to 60 not for lack of intelligence, or piety, bnt simply becanse of their belonging to the persuasion that wears petticoats. However, that 60 voted in favor of the admission of the sisters is a great gain. It shows that prejudice is giving way, even in New York, where Brother Buckley who voices the Metho dists in the New York Christian Advocate shows himself to be "dead sot agin" Frances Willard and the foremost women of the denomination. Bnt notwithstanding the efforts of the reverend brethren to keep the sisters in sub jection in the churoh, the world moves. On all sides are to be seen the evidences of the coming change for women that will make the danghters of the peo ple American citizens. It should make the good men of this country blush to think that the rights freely accorded to the most depraved criminals, the most besotted boors are denied to their own mothers, wives and daughters, in all except one State of the Union. Baok to Pagan Days. Dr. Talmage is plainly not posted in the early history of the churoh, and still less, it would appear, as to the condition of women under paganism. Does he forget that when masculine power was strongest in the church, women by the decree of Council in 678 were forbidden to receive the sacrament into their bare hands on acconnt of their im purity? Does he fail to remember that they were forbidden to sing in the churches on account a of their sinfulness; that boy choirs are a survival of this ecclesiastical idea? In his statement that "in lands where there is no Bible woman is hitched like a beast of burden to the plows, she carries the hod, she submits to indescribable indignities" does he forget that it is in the land of Luther Germany in Christian Europe, that women are hitched to plows and carts, and carry the hod, and even in Pennsylvania, where there is no lack of Bibles certainly, that they break stones on the road becanse it pays better than housework at nothing a day. It is not lack oi Bibles or Christianity that forces European women into such em ployments, bnt rather the lack of men cansed by their being drafted into the stand ing armies which are maintained in conn tries where the gospel of love and peace is industriously tanght in theory, but where the rules of foroe, of hatred and self interest are in common practice. Will Not Accept Untruths. In order not to detract from the valne of his sermons and sayings Brother Talmage should temper his dogmatic, assertions by truth. The days of ignorance and credulity have almost gone by. As women become intelligent, the history of the church has for them an amazing interest and fascination. Instead of accepting in fall faith the theo logical statements of men, they are exercis ing the right of private judgment and their own light of reason. Mr. Moody, it is said, has declared that he now finds women more unimpressible and muoh less receptive of his teachings than men. ' A minister now to maintain the respeet and interest of his hearers mnst be broad and liberal and truthful. He need no longer expect that dead dogmas and dry husks will be accepted by the pews as Gospel truth. A new class ol clergy, which has the power and courage to break away from the false traditions and stupid superstitions of the Dark Ages, is imperatively demande'Jby the pirit ot the times. Principal Donaldson, LL D., set forth a year or two ago in the Cotemporary Re view, that he, too, "once believed that woman owes her high position to Christian!' ty and the influence of the Teutonic mind," but that as a result of his investigations into the subject, he plainly admits that he is now not able to see that Christianity has had any favorable effect upon the position of women, bnt, on the contrary, that it has "tended to lower their chnracter and con tract the range of their activity." When Christianity Was Born. "At the dawn of Christianity as all know who have studied Boman civilization women had attained great free dom, power and influence. Women had been liberated from the enslaving fet ters of the old legal forms, and they en joyed freedom of intercourse in society; they walked and drove in pnblie with veils that did not conceal their faces; they dined in the company of men, they studied litera ture and philosophy; tbey took part in political movements; they defended their own law cases if they chose, and tbey helped their hnsbands in" the government of provinces, and the writing of books." Not bad, it may be said, for pagan civilization. Bnt not long after Christianity cot a strong hold this condition of liberty was changed, and "women in the early ages of the chnrch were seen only in two capaci tiesthat of martyrs and deaconesses." At first sober-minded, elderly widows were made deaconesses, but in course of time as the apostolic teachings in favor of celibacy came into prominence, widows got below par in the spiritual market, and spinsters were quoted higher. Both, how ever, were prohibited from preaching, or exercising any spiritual function. Tertnl lian, and those other saintly fathers, thought it would be horrible for a woman to learn, to teach, or to baptize. The survival of these ideas of the church on the score of women taking part in the service is shown in the convents to-day, where no matter how saintly, how devoted, how well fitted some of the Sisters may be, they cannot say mass in place of the priest, because only a man isjpare enough for such sacred office. The Fault of Mother Eve. Tertullian was strongly opposed to mar riage, and with others of the foremost ex pounders of Christianity was especially hard and bitter aeainst women. He held her responsible for all the evils in the world. She impelled men to all sin and wickedness. 'Nor was Clement of Alexandria any less severe in his attacks upon the sisters. So dangerous were these terrible women that it was necessary for men to shnt them up to make them stay at home and force them into silence and subjection, while the best thing for men to do lor the benefit of their souls and eternal welfare was to keep away from them. Tertullian insisted that when women went to church they should huddle themselves up in shawls and veils and never allow them selves to be adorned with jewels or silks nor shonld they give any attention to arranging their hair becomingly, for such work was truly abominable, while to look into mirrors was characteristic of women who were lost to shame. The evi dences which Talmage presents as symbols of the freedom of women bracelets and necklaces were then significant of the wick edness for which they wonld merit eternal fire in the future. Bestrlcilons Put on the Sex. What a hard time the cood sisters had in the early centuries under church rule is shown by the restrictions upon their liberty of action, some of which are urged upon women now by ministers, who would fain enforce them upon the women of the nine teenth century. As laid down by the laws of the church fathers among the early Christians, women were necessary evils only to be endured. Marriage was discouraged as a state of inferiority, and celibacy exalted as a virtue. As Principal Donaldson, LL. D., puts it: "What the early Christians did was to strike male ont of the definition of man, and human be ing oat of the definition of woman. Man was a human being made for the highest and noblest purposes; woman was a female made to serve only one." Now, what some men not only in the General Conference of the Methodist Church, but other religious bodies as well are fightiug against, is that "men and women are hnman beings both gifted with conscience and reason, both re sponsible for their actions, both entitled to the freedom essential to, this responsibility and both capable of the noblest thoughts and deeds." Bestowing bracelets and rings and neck laces upon women while denying them eqnal freedom gives very weak testimony to the justice and nobility of men as com pared with their putting In practice the rule of "Do unto others as yon wonld have them do unto you." Advice for Brother Talmage. I may venture upon a little piece of ad vice for Brother Talmage and that is to be a little more sure that what be presents so glibly is really true. He weakens his power when he asserts what cannot be sustained by the testimony of facts. It is little wonder that in these days the people in the pews gaze at each other with a little quiet grin when the pulpit proclaims its owu narrow ness, bigotry and ignorance. It is in vain to tell women to be keepers at home in these days; it avails nothing to lay down for them the law of silence, or to "launch thunder bolts at them," to frighten or restrain them from teaching and preaching, or engaging in any good work for which their gifts fit them. The force of the Chnrch has been against freedom for women for over 18 centuries, as the testimony of history shows, and its canons and teachings need nothing so much as revision and repealing on this point. The General Conference may keep its doors barred and bolted against the good Metho dist sisters, but its members .will all yield eventually. The great question for" the clergy of the present to consider ia whether they intend to be in the front, or tag along in the rear of progress. Bessie Beajiblz. A HOME-MADE VOLCANO. One of Nature's Most Interesting; Phenom ena Iteprodnced In Miniature. St. Lonls Post-Dispatch, j One oan study volcanoes In his home. A tolerably good-sized glass vessel is needed and a little monnd of plaster of paris, hut this monnd must' be left open in the rear. (See sectional cut.) Into this hollow space is placed a small bottle of 'claret, and a fine yertical hole is bored through the center of the cork. The vessel is then filled two-thirds with water. It will not be long before a red stream shoots on high from the top of the mountain. By stirring the water a little before admitting the spectators to view the dimmntive explo sion, the stream of red will also move abont, thns increasing the illusion of a volcanic eruption. Why does the claret ascend unaided from the bottle? Because water is heavier than wine and forces its way through the tiny hole, driving ont the claret, which gathers at the top of the water and forms the red sky cansed by the reflection of a volcanic eruption. A Volcano in Miniature. THE STEAM CABBIAGE Serpollet's Machine Seems to Fulfill Every requirement. A DESCRIPTION IN DETAIL; The Phonograph As Sovr Utilized as a Teacher of langnajes. SATING MEN WHO BLOW 0DT THE GAS fFEirAEID VOB THI DISPATCH. A brief description of the Serpollet steam carriage, which was given in this colnmn a fevr weeks ago, has been the subject of so many inquiries that it has been deemed ad visable to illustrate and give farther details of this remarkable invention. The carriage takes the form of a large, roomy and com' fortahle phaeton, capable of seating seven passengers three upon each seat and one upon a bracket opposite. In case of rain a hood in front can be put up, as in other phaetons. The generator is concealed from view, being placed in the rear, between the two coal boxes, with which it is connected by two passage ways, through which the faelisfei automatically. The chimney Is inverted, and a second chimney, used only for firing up, is carried in a box. The water tank is placed nnder tbo seat to the left. The supply of water permits of making a trip of 30 kilometers, and the supply of f ael permits of a run of 60 kilometers. In cities the fuel to ba preferred is coke, on account of the absence of smoke. The total weight of the carri.e, charged with water and fuel, is 1,250 kilograms. It carries then 70 kilozramsof fuel and UJ of water. The mean vaporization of the generator is 0 klloerams per honr. The consumption per horse and per hour does not exceed U kilo grams. The engine has two cylinder;), and the crank! aro keyed at right angles, the admission of steam being made at 65 per cent. The power, which is that of four horses, may momentarily attain that of six. The arrangement of the transmission is such that two speeds may he employed, one for gradients and the other for rnnning on a level. With the latter a speed of 25 kilometers per hour is obtained and main tained practically on a cood road. The pre fectore of police has. however, limited the speed df the carriage In the streets of Paris to 16 kilometers per honr. The capabilities of the carriage are shown by the fact that with its load of passengers it has ascended gradients of eight centimeters per meter over heavy roada charged with pebbles. Firing np is effected as in ordinary stoves, and in 20 minutes every thing is ready for the trip. The starting ia effected by means of a hand pump. The water Introduced into the generator instantly vapor izes and the carriage begins to move. The feeding continues automatically. The steering handle serves also to regulate the speed. N" inspection apparatus is neces sary.'and it is therefore possible to travel dur' leg the darkest night-with a single lamp for lighting the roadway. The generators are tested to 100 atmospheres and are registered as 94. They are tested to 300 at the manufactory before the test of the administration of mines. Another interesting point in connection with this carriage is that when it 13 running on a level or np or down bill the pressure, without one's having to occupy himself with the appar atus, remains stationary or descends or rises of itself, according as the motor meets with greater or less resistance. A single supple mentary injection with the hand pump sumcea to obtain this effect. The pressure rises, the qnality of steam produced increases, and the new stress is exerted as if by a horse. ThU capability of reaching high pressures instan taneously and withont danger is a very strong recommendation for the Serpollet carriage. Every Day Science. A HAXST combination lock, now used upon tricycles, boats, chests and Boxes, is fitted with a numbered dial, very much like those used fox safes and vaults. Paper racing boats have been in successful use for many years, but ship's boats of this material have never been used. The Navy Department has decided to place a paper whaleboat gig on the next vessel fitted out with, boats from the New ICorlc navy yard. A German chemist claims to have discovered! a preparation, which, applied to the soles of boots and shoes. Increases their wearing quali ties from COO to 1.000 per cent. Tns soles are supposed to become more flexible by the pro cess, and poorly tanned leather after being sub jected to it is said to become as good, as the best leather made. The sole treated with this pre paration becomes waterproof Ahew style of Illustrating machinery has been attempted with considerable 'success, b which, on a single picture, two sides of the machine are clearly shown. This effect is ob tained by placing a mirror in snch a position that when the picture of the machine and mirror is taken, that portion of the machine reflected in the mirror Is also shown in the picture, and from this photograph an engrav ing is made. Feee lectures are now being delivered In various parts of the country to those who wish to take advantage of the facility with whlott languages can now be studied by means oi phonograph cylinders. Sets of cylinders are also provided which contain the conversational coarse of a well-known system in French. Ger man. Spanish or Italian, and with each set of cylinders a 'set of books is furnished, so that the eye and ear can be educated at the same time. A sew bicycle treadle increases the leverage on tbo crank arms on the downward stroke. The operator is also, by this arrangement, enabled to press downward with greater force upon the forward outer foot rest, the leverage being increased by the distance from the crnt spindle to the outer foot-rest bar. By this im provement, the rider can more easily overcome a dead center, and, should the pedal be acci dentally dropped, its increased length facili tates its recovery. It is very satisfactory to know that notwlth-t, standing the progress of the electric light, the? consumption of gas is increasing, and the older llluminant Is likely to play in heating a mora important part than it ha3 ever occupied la lighting. The lowering of the price of gas la Brussels has afforded a striking illustration ofi this. There has been a marked Increase ia that city of the nse of gas for heating purposes of all kinds, and the ca3 authorities have de- termined to charge a certain price for the rent ot stoves, and for- other special appUca-. tions. The principle of expansion and contraction of a metallic loop made of Uerman silver and steel, when exposed to varying temperatures, has been utilized for automatically shutting off gas when It has been blown out; instead of be ing turned oil in the usual way. One end ot the loop, which is adjusted close to the gas flame, is free, while the other is seenred to the tixtnre. A valve controlling the gas is attached to the free end, and when the gas is burning the valvo h open and the gas freely escapes. If. however, the gas is blown out, the loop wilt qnlcklvcool and contract, and the valve will shut off the gas. AN ingenious method of utilizing gravity Iny descending grades has been worked out by ao Italian engineer. The engine m running down a grade compresses air. which Is utilized ia propelling the train up part of the next suc ceeding ascending grade. The accnmnlators, are constructed for a pressure of 130 pounds and the mechanism designed for the altemata compression and utilization of tho alrcnm prises threo cylinders, two of which are ot equal diameter and the third of smaller size. These three cylinders are connected to on9 of; the two coupled axles carrying the load by means of the usual cross-heads and connecting rods. When ascending- a grade these cylinders work as a compound motor, and during that descent the action is reversed and they com press the air into the accumulators according to a regulated pressure. TEE HEW8PAPEB HUSTLEB3. An Old Writer Gives Some Facta About tha Cash They Earn. The man who begins work as a reported in New Tork at 515 a week will, if he ex hibits an aptitnde for the business, quickly seenre increases of salary on some papers or. on others, the right to work "on space,' says Julian Balph in the New Tork Sun. He will then be able to earn between $3d and $50 a week. It is this fact that has; thrown a fascinating halo aronnd the busi ness. In no other occupation can a be- ginner, a mere youth, earn anything like sa much as he can at reporting if he possesses a genius for the work. " Bnt this picture has its, reverse side. At the end ot ten years he may not (indeed ha is most likely not to) earn more than the same $40 or $50 which- the utmost energy and a high order of ability got for him when he first went "on space." In the same tea vears the bor who want into a drygood - store as a porter, or into a law "".M clerk, or who emerged from the jnedlcai school ai a graduate may diitaae Hi 4. oroisaritr. .