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Kgrjuury of bones
Centuries of Dead Piled Tip in tlie Grayeyard of GEanaliuato, Hex. PIGEON-HOLED SKEJJETONS. Acres of Human Dust That Is Spaded Over for Each New Corpse. EEHAMABLE MUMMIES OF AZTECS. Air Preserves the Bodies and Even the Ex pressions of the Faces. EXPENSES OP FUXERALS AKD BUBIALS COaRBSPOXDEKCE OF KUt DtSrXICH.3 GUAKAHTJATO, June 3. (' ground of the world is jl I here at Guanahuato. I have visited the moat curious graveyards on record, but I have never seen anything that compares with the horrors I saw to-day. I have stood in the lonely garden of the "Wat Bah Kate in Bangkok in Siam and have watched the hungry dogs fight over the bleeding flesh of the dead humans who. were thrown the for J2-S burial. I have seen the vultures by the hundreds swoop down upon the naked dead babies of the Parsecs as they were laid upon the Towers of Silence at Bombay, and I have wandered among the tombs of the thousand generations of Chinamen which fill the sides of the "White. Cloud Mountains near the big city of Canton. I have admired the sculptured marbles representing living wives bending over their dead husbands in the wonderful Campo Santo in Genoa, have seen the dead piled naked on top of one an other in the cemetery at Naples and have wandered among the bone receptacles of the Cataoombs at Borne. I have seen the mum my tombs of Egypt, the burning ghats of the Ganges, the cremations and quick-lime burials of the Japanese, but the sights of this Mexican cemetery are stranger than aU. Great Files of Skeletons. I do not find them down in any of the books on Mexico and I would hardly have believed that they existed had I not seen them with my own eyes. Imagine if you can the bones of a hundred thousand human beings torn to pieces and piled' one on the topof another like so many corn in a granary. Put all ages and sexes together. Tear them limb from limb and mix the mass of skulls, legs, firms and ribs together so that -thtf ' bony fingers of one run into the hollow eyes of its neighbor, and the parts of the different skeletons lose themselves in the vast pile of this vaulted granary of bones This gives but a faint idea of what I saw to-day. The cemetery of this city of Guana huato is situated on tie top of a high hill overlooking the town. I rode up to it on a little donkey and was admitted to it by an Indian who had a hat fully a foot high on his swarthy head, a revolver a foot long tied to his leather belt and a pair of buckskin pantaloons which fitted "Ji. -i JL Modem Mexican Beauty, Es lean legs like a glove. This town is a mile and a half above the sea. The air here is as dry as the bones of these skeletons the year round, and nature wears a perpetual smile of blue skies, bright flowers and bracing air. The cemetery gives a view of hundreds of low mountain peaks, every one of which oovers incalculable Riches of Silver and Gold, and the precious metals undoubtedly lie under the very bones of these tens of thou sands of the dead. I entered by its wide gate end found myself surrounded by great walls in a court which contained perhaps five acres of ground. The walls of this court were about eight feet thick, and aB I examined them I found that they were in fact made up of pigeon-holes about three feet square and six feet deep, some of which were open, and others of which were closed with marble slabs on which were printed the names and virtues of the dead who were shelved away within. There were thousands of these pigeon holes, and my guide Ehowed me a card giving the rates. Prom it I see that these holes are rented out to the bodies of the dead, and the guide tells me that the most of them are taken for about five years, after which the bones of the deceased are taken out, the pigeon-hole is cleaned and it is ready for the next occupant. It costs 23 for the use of one of these pigeon-holes for five years, and this seems to be the shortest term for which they are leased. A man who wants one perpetually can have it by paying $100, and ii' he cares to crowd hi? whole fam ily into the same hole he can have it for the lump sum of 500. How Poor People Are Burled. The ordinary dead are, however, burled in the ground. The city of Guanahnato is rich, but its great wealth is in the hands of few. The majority are too poor to buy a vault for any number of years, and the masses ore buried. The rates are also on the rental basis. It costs a dead man (1 to lie two years in these burial grounds, and after that his bones are taken up and another body fills the hole. The five acres which make up the court of the cemetery are literally com posed of bone dust. Each removal has left some pieces of his skeleton behind, and the ground is made up of the dust of past humanity. In going over it you see little pieces of bones sticking up everywhere, and at one point, t here a number of graves were being dug, I noted pieces of skulls and other bits of skeletons among the mixture of dirt and bones thrown up. I wa3 interested in watching the digging of the graves, and in the curious manner in which the bodies were laid in them. One digging here suffices for a number of burials. The hole is made about 2 feet wide, 7 feet long andfroin C to 8 feet deep. The first corpse that comes gots the bottom berth. Be is taken out of his rented coffin and laid with his head on a bunch of leaves, and over him is put, perhaps, six inches of dirt. The grave is then ready for the next arrival, iwho is buried in like manner, and So f The Bodies Aro Sandwiched one on top of the other until the grave is filled. Guanahuato is a very unhealthy J v city and the death rate is very large. During the past month there were four burials a day in this cemetery, and I taw six deep graves already dug when I visited it Three of these were only half filled, and the others had nothing whateverln them. Leaving the court I was next conducted down into the great storehouse for the bones of the dead after their leases have ex pired and they have been ousted by their landlords from their tenements above. Go ing down a winding stair so narrow that my sides grazed the walla as I passed, I en tered a loner vauuea passace waueawun stones and paved with cement. This passage was well lighted by openings from above, and it was dry and free from smells. It runs clear around and under the edge of this five acres of cemetery and is in fact a walled tunnel about 12 feet high, 6 feet wide and more than 1,000 feet long. For ages this tunnel has been the receptacle of the bones of the dead of this city, and it is now al most filled. Only about 200 feet of it remain vacant and the mouth to it is in the middle of this. I stood at this point, and looking either way I could see the Great Flics of Stalls and other nieces of skeletons jumbled to gether in all sorts of shapes and mixed up into one heterogeneous mass of bones, rising in a slanting way from the floor of the tun nel at an angle of 45 to the roof. Every thing was jumbled together in the great democracy of death.. The bones of young and old were piled on one another. Xhe feet of men rested in the skulls of women, and I saw a great toe in the grinning teeth of what may once have been a beautiful girL About another skull the bones of an A Mexican Scant. arm are thrown almost caressingly, and legs and arms, ribs and thighs, whole and in bits, were piled up, one on top of another, like so many stones, and the whole, ghastly as it was, looked more like piled up Indian corn in a crib than anything else. The most ghastly things, however, in this great vault were the mummies, Kwno stood leaning against the wall guarding, as it were, the remains of the thousands of broken skeleton beyond them. There were at least 100 of these mummies, each of which was more horrible than anything you will see in the Museum of Boulak, near Cairo, in Egypt, or any of the horrid examples of South American and Alaskan mummies, which you will find in our National Mu seum in "Washington. The air here is so dry that it sucks the juices out of the dead, and these mummies have been made not by spices and bv linen bands, but by the at mosphere. They are more horrible and lifelike than the artificially preserved arti cle, and they retain the features and The Expressions of the Dead, shrivelled, it is true, but ell the mors horri ble in their thousands of wrinkles. Here against th wall lspropped the mummy of a bearded man. His face is perfect and the whiskers, fedcoUnto ableashtddnst color of hundreds of years, eover the whole of the lower part or his face. His clothes have long since rotted off of him. and his bare chest, slightly sunken, looks like the parchment of an old drum. I tap it with my pencil to test his lungs, ana it gives forth a hollow drum-like sound of remon- -StrSLce. fiirihrivelled arms are crossed and his withered -brewnJejiv-tT&xStjjUgBt.' As my eye travels down them, I see that a part of an old boot still clings to one of his feet, and that the other, like all the rest of his clothing, has rotted off lone, long ago. Next .to this ghastly object stands a mummy more ghastly etilL It is that of jr woman whose white teeth are as weU pre served in death as in life, and whose black tongue sticks through these in a sort of a leer. She has a wealth of long black hair reaching to her waist, and even in death she shows signs of grace and beauty. Next her stands another man whose features seem to be contorted with agony, and a little further on is the mummy of a boy of 12, whose mouth is wide open, and whose sunken frame mokes you think of a skeleton of Smike, the persecuted student of Sguirei at Dotheboys HalL A Coffin for a Tripod, I had my camera with me in this vault, and I wished to take a photograph of it. There was, however, no place on whieh to rest the camera, and I suggested to the guard of the cemetery that he go and get' me a board. He at once picked up a coffin from a little pile which contained the mummies of babies, and taking the mummy out, held it under his arm, while he propped the coffin on end and made it stand level by putting a thigh bone from the great heap under one corner. Upon this I rested my camera and succeeded in taking a very fair picture. Before I left, I took a picture of this man with the mummy in his arms, and another of him and his brother ghoul holding up the municipal coffin in which all the dead of this town have to be brought to the grave yard. There ore no hearses in this mountain city, and the town has fixed rates for the rent of its coffins. These coffins ore so big that another coffin can be set inside of them, and they are carried on the shoulders of the bearers up the steep hill. As soon as they enter the cemetery, the coffins are placed on a ledge or stone table and are opened, for the purpose, it is said, of seeing that not more than one corpse is buried in one coffin, and that the cemetery gets its full fees for every corpse. The Styles In Coffins. The roadway up to the cemetery has many casket shops, but the caskets, though ex pensive, are very rudely made and many of those for babits are painted a light blue or grained in oak, I saw at Zacatecas a boy The Municipal Coffln. carrying one of these blue coffins on his head, but whether he was on his way to the cemetery or to the house of mourning I could not tell. The general customs of mourning in Mexico are somewhat different from ours. Mourning is much more general and black is put on for intimate friends and for distant relatives. It is, however, wom. a shorter time, but the occasions for mourn ing dresses are so frequent that every lady has her mourning suit in her wardrobe, if, for instance, a young lady dies, her friends wear black for her for 30 days, and if it is the young girl's mother who is dead, the friends willput on black for half that time. Ladies do not attend funerals in Mexico, but they pay visits of condolence soon after the death, and such visits are made in mourning clothes. Cards and letters of re gret are always sent to the family at the time of a death by such friends who cannot call, and the announcements of funerals are. of the most touching and extravagant nature. Funerals are celebrated as a rule almost immediately after death, and in Mexico City as soon as possible after the 24 hours which the law prescribes that the dead should.be kept before interment. The coffin is procured immediately, the cards are sent out and the ceremonies take place Street Cars Serve as Hearses. Mexico City is perhaps the only plaoe in the world where the street cars are the hearses. There are no qjher kind tsed and the cars lines make a good thing out pf their funeral business. There are -150 deaths, a day in Mexico City, and you see these cars draped in black and driven by drivers in PANlEOHrtUmUPttgQ mourning, spinning along the road towards the cemetery every hour or so during the day. The -funeral car has a raised place in its center for the coffin. It is open at the sides, but has a black canopy at the top and its decorations are more or less" elaborate, according to the charge for the service. Behind it comes a second bar, containing the mourners, and the cars go very fast, as they have to go on the same tracks as the other cars, and here the dead have to run to get out of the way of the living. This car service costs all the way from 53 to $120 per funeral, and some of the higher priced cars are covered with silk, and in the case of the dead being infants or young peo- Sle, are often trimmed in white satin, fexico City is, in fact, a yery expensive place in which to die. A funeral costs $500 at the least, if it is at all respectable, and Bcene in th Catacombi, in the case of foreigners the expenses run up into the thousands. This Ib especially so when it is desired.to take the bodies out of the country. Illaclanaillng the Dead. If the friends of the dead are not posted, all sorts of extravagant charges are imposed upon them, and the estate of a Kansas mil lionaire named Smith, who died here lately, paid 82,000 for expenses here. Among the .charges was one of $600 for embalming, and I heard of a case yesterday in which a Mexi can embalmer or doctor charged $5,000 for Sreparing the body of a "(frenchman who ied here for shipment The work was not roperly done and the deceased could not e sent away, whereupon one of the Amerf can newspapers published an article as to the outrageous charge. The doctor then brought suit against the paper, saying itwas true he had brought in the bill for embalm ing as stated, but as the body had decom posed before he began, he was not able to preserve it and had withdrawn the bill. Had the newspaper not published the fact, the bill would hardly have been withdrawn. Everything, however, is expensive in Mexico, and the undertakers have to make high charges. All of the materials for oof fins are imported from abroad, though they are put together .here, and the prices are proportionately large. Mexico as a Healthful Capital. The death rate of Mexico City is very high. It is said that it averages about 37 in the 1,000, and the only wonder is that it is not higher. "Were it not for the perpetu ally bright sun and the high altitude the city would be a morgue, a vast charnal house, a Golgotha, a place of the skulls. Think of a city which cas had a population of hundreds of thousands for many genera tions built upon and over a swamp, with no drainage whatever, and let this city go on with its accumulated mass of filth increas ing year by year and sinking down into the sou, and you have some idea of sanitary Mexico City. A constant miasma rises here at night and the water is only three feet under the citv. Is it anv wonder that there is no place in the world where typhus and typhoid Borne Aztec Mummies. fever is Bo prevalint as here, and Is it not surprising that the Mexican capital is for many a favorable health resort? American Cemetery In .Mexico. The climate is so equable, the thin, dry air and the hot sun suck; up the juices of de composition, and such people as are careful and sleep above the ground floor are in little danger. Outside ot the city there is no danger whatever, and if it had been built on high ground it would be the finest health resort of the world. As it is, foreigners have to be very careful of their health here, and the foreign cemeteries contain many occupants. The American cemetery con tains about 1,200, and it is so full that the colony is about to purchase a new one. Still I have met several Americans who told me that their lives have been saved by coming to Mexico, and this country is said to be the best resort in the world for con sumptives. The great dea,h rate comes'iom the lower classes, who sleep right on the sewer-like ground, and the Mexican agent of the Mutual Life Insurance Company tells me that during his first 28 months here he did not have a single death to pay for out of the great number insured. Fbamx G. Oabpekteb. DUELS 07 GEEMAN STUDENTS. Neither the Kaiser Nor the Pope Are Bad leal In Their Views. The Pope has joined hands with the Em peror in the attempt to make dueling less popular among German students, says a Berlin letter. The Berlin organ of the Vat ican announces that all students professing the Catholis faith accepting or sending a cartel will be liable to the penalty! what is called in the church "the small proscrip tion," and on a repetition of the offense to excommunication. It is understood, how ever, that in cases of deliberate insult and dishonorexplanations will be considered. Apropos of dueling the Emperor is much incensed that his recent speech at a supper given to His Majesty by the Bonn students should be so misinterpreted by the foreign press. His Majesty sternly forbids what he terms dueling as a pastime; but he is of opinion that no man ra worthy to call him self a German, and as such a soldier, who is not willing to defend with his life, if neces sary, a deliberate aspersion on (his honor. To that extent he would preserve the prac tice of dueling in the universities. The "Language We Use. Harper's Bazar. I if She took his arm and walked away. BOTH SIDES BESTING. Balmaceda Waiting for Ships and the Insurgents for Arms. FOBCE IS THE" CHILEAN MOTTO. The President Is Misrepresented In Dis patches Sent Abroad. OUfi INTERESTS IN -SQUTE AMERICA f COBKISPOKDXKOS OT THE DISrATCB.) Santiago de Chtlb, May 6,-JIhero is almost no news to communicate re garding the war in this unhappy country, because during some weeks past nothing of account has been accomplished by either side. The President is awaiting the comple tion of some warships, which are being built in France, to carry on the conflict by sea, meantime remaining merely on the dafen sive;while the rebels, resting upon the ques tionable laurels already won, are striving, "by hook or by crook," to seoure more arms and ammunition, for want of which they are greatly hampered in their work of destruc tion. Happily as all lovers of law and order will agree the Federal Government has yet very much the best of the situation. The greater portion of the country, including all the territory between the desert of Atacama' and the Strait of Magellan, remains loyal to Balmaceda; while the revolters have possession only of those Northern provinces that were recently wrested from Peru; hold ing them por razo'n de fuerza, ("by right of force," the characteristic motto that is stamped on the silver dollars of Chile), from having bombarded into subjection the cities of that section and massacred all the opposing inhabitants. Mot tax Honorable Motive. There is nothlng'herolo about this unholy conflict on the part of the rebels, since no questions of principle or national honor are at stake, the motive being merely personal aggrandizement and the v)dous determina tion of a political faction to rule or ruin. The disturbers of the country's peace, who do not deserve to be dignified by the name of revolutionists, called it "war" when they wantonly devested pros perous cities, murdered unoffending men, women and children by thousands, out the throats of wounded soldiers, and butchered every officer of the Government forces who fell into their hands but impartial history will oommemorate their deeds by a less name. The insurgents began the shooting of captured officers; and latterly the Gov ernment has retaliated by serving in the same manner the few rebel commanders that have been taken prisoners. There is some show of justice in the latter proceed ing, especially in the case of those who. while in the pay of the Government, turned traitor andimisused their position as the means of working greater harm. A doleful cry has been raised by the in surgents and their sympathizers 'over the hanging of one Captain Yeksoo an officer in whom Balmaceda reposed entire confi dence, and who. while in command at At acama, betrayed that important post into the hands of the enemy. The Bone and Sinew AU Bight. Balmaceda's army numbers about 49,000 men, including the militia; and although many of the so-called aristocrats are in league with the belligents, the "bone and sinew" of the coubtry the middle and laboring classes which comprise the most useful part of the population remain faith ful to the Constitutional Government, As Tt-faife-- JJhileaa - arlsTocracVris arrogant, hot-blooded and unstable a set of people as can easily be found, possessing more vanity and pride than good grounds for the same, and whose rlohes were In herited, as welj as the tendency to treachery and "rebellion which seems to belong to a preponderance of Spanish blood. The rebel troops do not number more than 6,000 and their leaders have not arms and ammunition enough to equip bo many, though means both fair and foul are being energetically employed to gain fresh sup plies. It is stated on good authority that emissaries have been dispatched to various countries with instructions to buy, beg, bor row or steal if need be, munitions where with to oontinue this hopeless struggle; but to carry out their instructions will doubtless prove a difficult matter, considering the un written code of honor that exists between civilized lands in addition to the neutrality laws. The Chilean insurgents have set up what is practically a new government in the Northern provinces, in opposition to that of Balmaceda. and have taken for their capital what remains of conquered Iquique. Locomotives bs Battering Hams. By the way, who ever heard of utilizing locomotives and trains as battering rams and engines of war? At this point, when the ammunition of the rebels ran low, they adopted the shrewd scheme of making up a long line of cars, crowding on full head of steam, and then leaping off in time to save their own precious heads letting the loco motive "run away," and go crashing into the Government train on the track ahead, with which they had been fighting. Bather expensive warfare, both as regards life and property, but for the moment effective. The railroad was an important factor in the bat tles of this section. Both armies used it whenever they could, making a new sort of men-of-war on land by mounting field and catling guns on flat cars, and fighting as long as possible from the train. Having secured control of all the ports from which nitrate of soda is shipped, the rebels do not lack for funds, as the export duties on that valuable commodity are not less than 510,000,000 per annum. Of course the public treasury is sadly crippled by the loss of this sum; but there is still a con siderable revenue from the custom houses at "Valparaiso and Talcahuano, and Balma ceda has met the present emergency by is- DU1U LKift:. wwv; .v .v --.wuUV w vVUv-i 000, Which is received by the people and used to pay the array. The regular cur rency of Chile consists of notes issued and guaranteed by the Government. When the war began these notes were worth only about 60 cents on the dollar, and have now dropped to 28 cents. The Stories of Banishment, A recent dispatch-which, it is needless to say, was of rebel origin has gone abroad to the world stating that "many leading families have been forced to leave Santiago and go into the Argentine Republic and other countries, to escape persecution from the dictator, Balmaceda." Does any reas onable person, suppose that the harrasscd and hard-pushed President is going out of his way in these trying times, when friends are none too numerous to "persecute" re spectable citizens? The truth is that Bal maceda discovered among his closest asso ciates in the heart of the capital, a number of families called "leading" because "of official positions which he himself had be stowed upon them who were secretly abet ting the rebellion while publicly enjoying the pay "and emoluments of the Federal Government What course would any ruler in similar case have taken with such double died traitors? The "persecution", has con sisted in their being allowed to leave the country unharmed, instead of being im prisoned as they deserve, that they may dis seminate evil reports about the too lenient Balmaceda. The most absurd statement I have seen in print is to the effect that this extremely un civil" war was incubated and is being fos tered by two rival foreign mercantile firms in Chile the Graces from New York and Flints from England. I can assure xaj readers that, though foreign merchants with plenty of pluck and capital may prosper here under favorable conditions, they are by no means so popular with these naturally jealous Chileans as tojbe able to brew such serious trouble among them not to men tion the facthat nothing could be more detrimental to the financial interests of the merchants themselves than the present un settled state of affairs. All foreigners en gaged in business here desire peace and its attendant prosperity aboro everything aJj, for long-continued strife means utter ruin. Interested la Peace. The Grace people are liable, to suffer par tlcularly by this war, having enormous in terests in various parts of South America, all of which are more or less jeopardized. Besides their banking and commission houses in Lima, Callao, Valparaiso and Santiago, and agencies in every other im portant oity on the oontinent, the celebrated "Grace-Donouirhmore railroad contract of Peru is a gigantic scheme, involving many- millions oi dollars; and when vnue vuuw now the most prosperous of South Amer ican countries) Is ia. trouble, Peru suffers in Conseanenn.i TiAmntn Tie? nnmmerOO de I pends largely upon her southern neighbor, although the two Republics, so lately at no hjiu ouo anoiner, are not i. most affectionate friends. ' ... To understand more clearly why Chile's: financial status so nearly concerns Peru, it mus be remembered that, under the treaty of Ancon, which followed the war between the two countries (ended In 1883) a large extent of Peruvian territory was ceded to Chile until the year 1893, when it is to be determined by popular vote whether the debatable land shall revert to Peru or re main permanently In Chile's possession, the latter country being pledged to pay to Pern in the meantime CO per cent of the profit derived from the stolen guano beds. It may be hinted, en passant, that jf Chile fears a minority on her side when it comes to the test two years hence, she will doubt less import votes enough to control an elec tion of such vital importance to her ex chequer. She will have the advantage of the Government 'machine" already estab lished on the spot, and can afford to spend millions of pesos rather than lose the prov ince that yields nearly all the saltpeter and sodine used in the world, Poor Peru has no surplus cash to squander. The Grace-Dononglimoro Contract. Although a digression from the toplo in hand, perhaps a few words concerning that famous Grace-Donoughmore contract may not be amiss, since it is by all odds the greatest Anglo-American enterprise ever undertaken on this continent. The princi- Sals are the well-known New York banker. Ir. W. B. Grace, and Lord Donoughmore, of London, backed by a powerful syndicate, and thrmich their means Peru Is afforded an opportunity to emerge from the period of aeaaiy depression mat ioiiowea ner iour years' conflict with Chile, and her subse quent civil war. She rids herself of the .huge .national debt which those wars oc casioned, amounting to some 5260,000,000, by oeding all her Government railways to the holders of tHe bonds, together with all the guano deposits that were originally pledged as seourity for the loan, but had been seized by Chile. The terms of the contract are briefly as follows: The holders of the country's bonds surrender them for cancellation (they were worth barely 5 cents on the 1), pay down 50,000, and 40,000 afterward, in pay ments of 10,000 per month; and in con sideration thereof the bondholders receive all the Government railroads of Peru on a- lease of C6 years. What Chile Agreed to Do. Chile has an important part in it also. She agreed to liquidate her share of the ac count by yielding to said bondholders all the guano on four islands; and for eight years that of Tarapoca also, reserving only what is needed for her own agriculture, but none for export; and at the end of eight years Tarapoca to revert to Chile, She also promised to pay 8 per cent of the net profit on all the guano she had exported during the eight years since she seized it, up to the date of the contract; and to pay SO per cent of al future sales until the account is squared. Chile estimates this at 42,250,000 and how far the present revolution will interfere with this arrangement remains to be seen. The Grace-Don oughaore people are given the right to build new railroads, bat lore bcj2aa4s-8&nl5te " " inei an are remised liberal cBBSSBsToni for eveflP-SrK.? of accomnlished work, besidesbeintr allowed to brine in all their materials free of duty. This gives them"almost absolute control of Peru's eommerce. and much of Bolivia's, their only competitors in the line of carriers being the backs of a few Indians, mules and llamas. The United States is directly inter ested in all this, because she will doubtless continue to furnish a considerable portion of Peru's railway and mining appliances, which have been estimated to amount to not less than $30,000,000 per annum. What Comos From the United States. The late Henry.Meiggs, from California, had contracts with the Peruvian Govern, ment for building seven railways, which amounted to 8133,000,000; and he lived to see five of them completed. The rolling stock in them all came from the United States. The cars (worth 55,500 each when delivered), were furnished by Messrs. Gil bert. Bush Si Co, , of Troy. N. Y. ; the loco motives (mostly RogersV, came from Pat terson. N, J., and cost, when arrived, from $25,000 to $30,000 each. The ties cams from Oregon; the rails from England; the diamond drills from Chicago, worked by Band & Warring's compressor; and the stationary machinery, from Leeds. The la borers were Cholos, Chilians and Chinese, The shovels they used were Ames, and even their food and fuel had to ba mostly ImporteTL The shops and station houses generally are constructed of English gal vanized iron, and the iron water tanks are "Pills' patent" Peruvians seem to have a mania for railroad-building, for that impoverished coun try has alreadyinvested in railways a trifle over $140,000,000 a very large sum for only 3,000,000 of people: about $47 for every man, woman and baby in the Bep'ublio, reckoning her population according to the last census, which counted only the males with referenoe to a poll-tax and guessed at the rest. On this western coast of South America the business interests of the New York Graoes are mainly looked after by three noted brothers who are nephews of Mr. William B. Grace. The elder of the trio, Mr. Edward Eyre who is now in the United States has oharge of the splendid house in Limn. Mr. Jack Eyre superin tends the branch at Callaoj while Mr. will-' iam Eyre attends affairs in Valparaiso and Santiago. Pakkie B. Wabd, DANCING SOAP BUBBLES. A Ti-Ick That Is Explained by the Welsht . of Carbonic Acid Gas. SI. Louis Pot-Dlpatch. Several schooners and a siphon with soda water are necessary to accomplish this interesting feat. The soda water is needed for filling one of the glasses with carbonic acid, which is done by pouring the same with soda water into it and withdrawing the water by means of a straw or tube. The carbonic acid remains in the glass, because it is twice as heavy as the air. To keep it from evaporating the glass is covered with a lid. The soap-suds has already been pre pared, and in order to make it effective for our purpose a little glycerine is added, the mixture well shaken and set aside for a min ute or two, when the membrane that has formed on the surface is removed. A soaD bubble is then formed in the usual way and dropned into the glass that con tains the carbonio acid. The bubble jumps immediately from the glass. When care fully handled one can see the bubble swell until it extends to the sides of the glass, when it bursts, theendosmose (transmission of gaseous matters through membranes of porous sabstanccs) permitting the carbonic acid to enter vthc bubble and increasing i original volume. OUR FffiST B0T4MST. Visit to Bartram's Gardens on the Banks of the Schuylkill. A PEEP AT THE ANCIENT HOUSE. Cypress He Brought Prom Florida and Boi woods From Turkey. GREENHOUSES IS THE BIG TTETOOWS rwrtrrriK ob the dispatch. Tet there'stlll stand the noble trees, As (rracefal In the grateful breeze, As when one hundred years ago, Tnolr shadows swaying two and fro, . Deltgh ted youthful groups below. . When John Bartram, the first American botanist, stopped his plow to examine the flower that grew at hfs feet, he opened a fresh page of delight in this new world. The little flower, like Burns daisy, touched the poetry in his soul, but his poetio dispo sition flowed, not in verse, but in the lines of botanic investigation, and from that hour the science of Botany "became his pleasure and his work. At that time the study of botany had not been made easy as it is at present. Works on the subject were all written in Latin and in order to master the science he must first acquire this language, which without teacher and with little help he .succeeded in doing, and the unknown fanner on the banks of the Manayunk became known and honored in every country where learning- is referenced, the friend and correspondent of scientists, a fellow of several foieign socie ties and American botanist to George 1XL His bit of land in the narrow wedge between the Schuylkill and the Delaware, a little below Philadelphia, grew into a botanio garden, that was the pride of the whole country and the resort of the most illustri ous men of the time. Here Washington came to find rest and refreshment in the quiet.ofthe beautiful garden, and compan ionship in the intelligent Christian Quaker. In this garden the first botanio garden in America grew not only the native plants of the country from far and near, but also many foreign flowers and shrubs which were sent him from abroad. He traveled through regions of- North America at a time when they were covered with forests and was the first to describe their natural production! In J.765 heex pldred the region of the St. John's river in Florida and there collected many beautiful plants and trees, some of which he sent to enrich the gardens of Europe, and .sent specimen plants to Linnaeus and other foreign botanists who in return sent him books and apparatus. Often Followed Boqnet to Pittsburg. . A gentleman of that time gives an account of his visit to Bartram In a letter to a friend. He sajs: 'IProm his study we went into the garden which contained a great variety of curious plants -and shrubs: some grew in a greenhouse, over the door of which were written these lines: Slave to no sect, who takes so private road. But looks through nature up to nature's God. "He informed me that he often followed General Boquet to Pittsburg, with the view of herborizing, that he had made use ful collections in Virginia, and that he had been employed by the King of England to visit the two Eloridas." Bartram's son, William, inherited his father's tastes, traveled with him to Florida, and also to North and South Carolina and .c I Georgia, said made Known ana illustrated d rtnJviT-ail.the curious and beautiful plants of it I -vA mtmtx mwhluharl ho fnllT If or. of blrdSprevtous t3-ilso.n whomhe great i. ,,;( - rh. thinning of his labors. His portrait bangs in one -iiS-feSES-St the Philadelphia .Historical Bociety on Spruce street. TTTinwincrthiil tha pardens are onen to th public, through the kindness of the present owner, a few weeks ago on a lovely day in Mtfy, along with two other lovers of the "antique," I set out to visit them. After los ing our way once or twice, and running the gauntlet between a cross dog and a horned animal that to our affrighted vision seemed as formidable an object as any fire-breath-ipg dragon of the times of St. George we, at last, came in sight of the "gardens," which, with their fruit trees and japonlcas in full bloom, made a beautiful setting for "that ancient house," which has been For six-score years, She chronicler of smiles and tears. An Blstorlo Cypress Tree. Although the garden has been allowed for years to follow the bent of its own sweet will, and is now "owned by birds and Dees, mere ore itm m it many interesting relios of Bartram's time. The cypress tree that he brought from Florida in one of his saddle-bags, is still standing. It was then a small twig, but is now one of the largest in the country, and looks as though it might live for many more centuries. The -Bev. Abel Thomas addresses it in these lines: AU bail, memorial cypress tree, Bow many eyes have gazed on the Wltbln the solemn century past: Bow many yet shall upward oast Their wondering gaze? In front of the house are two immense box-wood trees that were sent from Turkey to Mr. Bartram 140 years ago. The old arbor, "where far from noise and smoke of town," "Bartram and his honored guests, Washington and Franklin used ' to sit, shaded lrom the heat of day; is still in good repair. The house, which is of stone and built by Bartram himself, faces the Schuyl kill, of which there is a'fine view. One end is almost entirely covered with English ivy, through whioh peep the small-paned win dows, and near by Is the Christ-thorn, so much valued by Bartram. The Interior and Exterior. The porch is upheld by three deftly fash ioned stone pillars, and througha crack in the wall above can be seen the honey-combs where the bees lived for years, until killed by last winter's cold. Under the window of what we supposed was his study were carved these words: Tib God alone, Almighty Lord, The Holy One, by me adored. John Bartram, 1770. Inside the house were a number of queer, old.fashioned-shaped rooms, each having one or more cupboards and "cubby-holes." in which he kept his seeds and specimens. The windows had broad stone sills, delightfully suggestive of novel-reading, and each one was furnished with inside glass shutters, and had evidently been used as pocket green-houses for his winter plants. A broad path, with stone steps, cut by Bartram, led down to the bank of the river, from where we had a fine view of the Schuylkill or the "Manayunk," as the Indians called it to where it joined the Delaware. Altogether, it was a most delightful place to while away a summer afternoon, and a lover of trees and flowers could spend many days there and not exhaust the study it af fords. Lilue N. Housiov. A Clear Complexion. Pe-ru-na will produce a clear complexion and smooth skin. It does so by correcting digestion, the great source of blood contam ination. Many young people from 14 to 20 years of age are greatly annoyed by pimples so common at that tune of life. Pe-ru-na removes them by removing the cause, viz., blood impurities. Of course. It requires some perseverance to take any medicine with regularity day after day, but it amply rewards any man or woman to do so if by that means they are able to rid themselves of a pimply face and secure a clear, bright face instead. Jhis is precisely what Pe-ru-na will do. Each bottle is accompanied by full directions for use, and can be obtained of your druggist. A valuable book of 32 pages on the cure of skin and blood diseases, and other diseases of spring' and early sum mer, will be sent free by the Peruna Mtdi cine Company. Columbus, O. CHAPEBLT. TEtCDTXQ THE SECRET T7AXTW. As soon as he had assured himself that Mr. Carter was asleep, the young man rose from his chair, stepped softly across the room, and approached Marion's side. Standing where the light fell strongly upon him, some paces from her, he whispered: "Don't stop playing, Miss Carter; your father will wake. I have a secret to tell you and much will depend, within the next few minutes, upon your presence of mind. But do not be alarmed," he hastened to add. "Play as you are playing now, and listen." Marian was a true musician; and at the moment that John Westcott came and stood there she was carried away by the enchant ing effect of some melody. His unexpected appearance startled her; it was like being suddenly roused out of a dream. She could not hide her agitation; even the flood of harmony threatened to fall into discord. A false note was struck; and then, in a troubled voioe, she murmured, as she half lifted her eyes from the keys: "A secret to tell me?" Westcott sat down, though without ap proaching nearer; for his first-thought was to reassure the girL "Do not be distressed Miss Carter; place confidence in me. Can you not for your father's sake? He needs a friend." . The girl fixed her eyes earnestly on West cott's face. It was a handsome and sympa thetic face. Why was his manner so mys terious and perplexing? But his appear ance pleased her and there was a genuine ring in his voice. She quickly decided. She put away all suspicion, and answered him: "I am listening. Pray, do not hesi tate to speak." The young man gave Marian a grateful glance. "I have come to England," said he, after a moment's pause, "on an aflajr which deenlv concerns your father an affair of the utmost importance. I have come to do what is in my power to save the old house of Girdlestone & Co. from rnin. Much that Mr. Carter told me had already reached my ears through what medium, ana now strange a one, juu wm hardly guess." .,.' The weird stories that Marian had heard about this old house in Fisher's Folly and of the quaint figure of Mr. Girdlestone, who had lived here so many years were still fresh in her memory; even while a child, her mind had been busy puzzling out the meaning of these mysteries. But Bhe was more puzzled now; and as these thoughts came rushing upon her thoughts which Westcott's words had recalled something of her strange mood seemed to enter into her expression while she played, Westcott presently resumed. "Ton re member that Indian servant of Mr. Girdle stone's?" he said. "Well I have seen him; and he has told me every secret he knew about my uncle." This was, indeed, startling news for Marion. She looked up at Westcott with eager eyes and half-parted lips. She even ceased, in her excitement, to move her fingers over the keys; and for a mo ment there was a dead silence. But she quickly recovered herself, and fell into playing soft and dreamy music while listen ing to all that now followed from West cott. "The secrets which this man has told me, as I hope, will enable me to restore credit to the house. But nothing is sure; and for this reason I hesitate to tell your father. Can the house be saved? Before Mr. Car- elr cott in earnest tone. "During the many years that this Indian lived here, Miss Car ter, he kept his eyes wide open. But he was shrewd enough not to betray any signs of curiosity. He was discreet and honest. Indeed, my uncle, I am inclined to think, could scarcely have chosen a better servant. But he developed, owing to the circumstances which surrounded him, intoapanic-stricken man. All that he had found out about his master's affairs, and the strange incident that followed, struck terror to his heart. He confided all this to me on his death-bed. It was quite pitiable." Marian, with a wondering look in her eyes, whispered; "What strange incident?" "One which was the cause of this sudden flight. This is what he told me. Years ago, when he' first became my unele's servant, he discovered that his master was a hoarder of gold. With that lantern in his hand, which you call the Golden Lamp, Mr. Girdlejtone would walk about the house long after mid night. He naturally supposed that his servant was asleep in his garret Bntthe man was following him 'like a shadow from floor to floor. It became a fascination a sort of mania. It was like following some uneasy spirits about these old rooms and staircases. And so near ' did he creep along behind him, with naked feet and sometimes on his hands, that he could at any moment have touched his master; and although Mr. Girdlestone sometimes flashed the lantern round him with sus picion, the native was too agile in his move ments to be detected A particular panel became known to him -one that led to a secret strong.room. That panel is in this room: it is within a few feet, Miss Carter, of whfere you are seated." The startled look came back into Marian's fare. What stranee storv was this? She had heard nothintc so weird about Fisher's J . -- ""-w "sfircroEiri.T Tngoo? ixew orET. Ur,U3 ' Polly before. She followed the young man t glance toward the oaken wall, and again the muslo was almost inaudible. "Therel"said Weseott pointing across the room. "That panel can be moved. It is a door that leads down narrow steps, as the Indian assured mc, into a huge, cellar. Here are te be found bags of money; thou, sands of pounds. Miss Carter, m hard coslu. Marian's cheeks were flushed with excite ment; and the melody sounded as if follow ing her thoughts into a shower of gold. "Why," said she, "did Mr. Girdlestone'a servant hide this from us?" "Ahl I am now coming to that,' said Westcott, "On the night that Mr. Girdle stone died a rainy, gusty night the Indian could not sleep. The los3 of his old master distressed him deeply; but the secret whicfl he had stolen distressed him still more. He could never restore it now; and it seemed as much a crime in his eyes as if he had stolen the gold. He took the lantern from its place and wandered about as he had seen his master doing. Neither the patter ing of the rain against the windows, norths moaning of the wind In the draughty rooms and corridors, gave him any concern. Ha had never experienced the least fear; it had all been wonder and breathless interest at his master's ways. Terror suddenly seized upon him for the first time. How the feel ing came he could notexplain; but without looking round or even listening, an over- whelming convictioi took possession of the man; his master was following himl But it was not a living master, but a dead one the noiseless ghost of Mr. Girdlestone." "Marian could not help shuddering; and Tier tremulous notes showed how deeply all that John Westcott had been relating affected her. The young man noticed this, and waited while she tried to overcome her emotion. Ho then rose from his chair, and taking from his pocket the document which he had an hour ago discovered in Mr. Girdlestone's desk, approached Marion and pointed out the words written at the foot: "For the key to the secret strong-room, wherein will be found 50 bags of hard cash, look behind the golden lamp." "And now, saia ne, - J. win steai quieiiy into the dining room and get the lantern. Marian looked up with an expression al most of awe. "Have you the hardihood all alone to make this search?" Westcott smiled. "I'm not afraid when I've a good light. And was not thelamplit by you" Marian droppedher eyes "lit for this very expedition? It .was my uncle's wish. Beiide," he went on, "is not the key which has been hanging there all these years the key to the secret strong room?" Westcott steps into the dining hall and glances at Mr. Carter, who is sleeping soundly. Marian looks over her shoulder, but never ceases playing. She sees West cott detach the lanternj and as he comes quickly back with the soitest tread, he stops and touches a panel near the fireplace. His lips convey these words to the girl, for his voice does not reach her: "This is the way." Marian whispers back distressfully: "If he wakes ' "Stop playing; it will warn me. But tell him nothing." The girl glances toward the clock on the mantel-shelf. "I shall count the minutes. Shall you soon be back?" Westtott looks at his watch: "In 10 min utes." "So quickly as that! But it will be like 10 hours to me." He approaches the wall and presses upon the panel, which yields to his hand. He glances back at Marian, and their eyes meet. His heart is beating fast, but her encourag ing looks makes it beat the faster. West cotf stoops down and steps into an open space in the wall. A cold, damp draught rushes into the room. The music trembles, as if an ioy wind had caught the keys. For a moment the lantern glimmers; and Marian sees the liht moving away. John West cott and the Golden Lamp have disappeared. Holding up the lantern and peering down ward, John Westcott found himself at the head of a flight of brick steps. These steps were incommodiously narrow, being built up between the outer and inner walls of the old mansion. It was impossible, with such broad shoulders as Westcott's. to descend otherwise than obliquely. The sensation was not agreeable: less so, even, than being lowered into a well, for a rope ia something; here the connecting link with the outer world was, as it were, completely cut off; even the sound of Marian's piano having gradually died out. Or had she stopped playing? thought Westcott. Had Mr. Car ter awoke? Although the chilling draught of air was lessened when the panel was closed, the cold, damp atmosphere, and that peculiar raustiness which clings to vaults and such like underground places, became more per ceptible at every step; and these steps seemed endless. Yet he had proposed to return In ten minutes. Was it possible to complete this expedition in search of his old uncle's gold in so short a time? It scarcely seemed probable. And yet Westcott did not despair. The encouraging look which Marian had given him inspired confidence in his purpose. If he had acted impulsively, the motive had been a good one. His prompt decision was stimulated by a keen desire to save his uncle's firm from ruin; in truth, he had been seized with an undefined sense of apprehension when first encountering the Indian servant in his travels. The man had told him, in a rambling way, that Mr. Girdlestone's-death might prove a serious blow to the business; and he had implored his "young master." as he had called Westcott for ne had known him when a boy to i rf."fc i,-..