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fm&j9"W WW-1- tVXP THE. PITTSBURG DISPATCH, SUNDAY. MAT 29. 1892. 17 JOINING JWO SEAS. Warner Miller Talks About the Big Ditch From At lantic to Pacific. IT WILL BE A BONANZA If the Profits Come Anywhere Near the figures He Is Making. LARGEST LOCKS IN THE WORLD. A Steamship Can Cross in Twenty-Eight Hours if All Goes WelL THE CAXALS KOW BUILDING IN EUROPE rcOEKXErOSDESCS OT THE DISPATCH. Washington, May 28. HEEE will be held J at St. Louis, June 2, a. national conven tion to discuss the Nicaragua Canal, the enterprise rapidly onward to completion. This convention will have delegates from all the States of the TTnion, and the subject of the canal and its possibilities trill be thoroughly dis cussed, I met here at "Washington the other night ex-Senator Warner SI. Miller, the President of the Nicaragua Canal Company, and had a lone talk with him about the present condi tion of the work in Nicaragua. Mr. Miller has recently visited Nicaragua and he has gone over the whole route of the canal on foot, on mnleback and in boats, and he tells me there is no doubt whatever of its prac ticability. I asked him what they were do ing at the present time. He replied: "We are getting along very well and we have now 500 men at work. "We began at the canal only about four years ago and we have alreadr spent something like $5,000, 090 upon it. "We have excavated about a mile of the canal, we have built more than 12 miles of railroad and we have surveyed the whole route and we know just what we can do. The Snrvpy Cost Hair a Million. "To show you that we are doing things thoroughly, it cost us about $500,000 to make this surrey and you can have little idea of the difficulty of the undertaking. Our engineers had to make their way through a tropical forest where the vegeta tion was often so dense that they could not tee 50 leet in front ot them. Part of the way was through marshes and swamps where the men had to flounder along up to the waist in the mud and tbey had to cut their way through with axes a great part of the route. They had to test the depths ot the streams loot by -foot through the rivers, and to go over the great Lake of Nicaragua and sound it. We have now hon ever an exact map of the whole territory and we will pnsh the canal from now on." "Give me some idea of the country through which the canal goes and of Lake Nicaragua, Senator," I asked. "The canal," replied Senator Miller, "crosses Central America in the lower part of Nicaragua. Nicaragua li the largest of the Central American States, and the ooun try all told is not quite as large as the State of New York and it has not as many people as the city of St. Louis. An Enterprising Little Republic "It is a republio and the people are like those of the Spanish American republics. They have a very good country and they have many fine plantations of coffee, sugar and indigo. Their forests are rich in" rubber trees ana they have many fine furniture woods, such as mahogany." They have a railroad or so and telegraph lines connect all the cities of the country. There are not many large towns, and the biggest city la """ """ I tl'T, VV ' " The Breakwater at Greytown. Leon, which numbers 25,000 people. The people are very enterprising and they are anxious to see "the canal completed. "The canal will cross the country from the Atlantic to the Pacific, covering a dis tance, all told, of nearly 170 miles. The most of this distance, however, has a water way constructed by nature and we have less than 30 miles of cutting to do. We start in at the harbor of Greytown, and it is here that our men are working now, and after we have cut this distance we reach the great San Juan river and sail through it right into Lake Nicaragua. The ships then go across Lake Nicaragua and with very little cutting out at the other end, right into the Pacific through a short canal there." "But how about these rivers and the lake? How do you get into them and are they big enough for the canal?" Lake Nicaragua Is a Sea. "Lake Nicaragua," replied Senator Miller, "is an inland sea. It covers twice as much space as Rhode Island and more, and is 100 feet above the sea. We have to Working in the Big Ditch. dredge a channel out through the soft mud about 14 miles from the mouth of the San Juan river, and from that time on till we reach the other side we hare a channel 30 feet deep and vou could float the navies of the world on this lake. The lake itself is 110 miles long and 40 miles wide, and some of our soundings reached a depth of 240 feet. The San Juan river is 121 miles long and at some places it is 400 yards wide. A great part of it is navigable, but some portions will have to be dredged. It flows from the lake to the Atlantic and it will form a part of our canal. We have a steamer now on the lake and we have a transportation com pany which does all the business ot the Re public which goes to the East. We have boats on the San Juan river, and we have a large number of steam tags, lighter, scows and dredges. Our railroad, which ii 12 miles long and w hich runs along the line ot the canal, is used in the work, and we can bring our stuff from the hills right down Into the harbor of Greytown." "What kind of a harbor have you there?" The Harbors Require Much Work. "It was bad' enough," was the reply, "when wo began our work. There was'a great bar of sand that extended out in front of it and this sand was three feet above water. We hare constructed an immense breakwater and we have now fifteen feet of water on this "bar and we are making it deeper by extending the breakwater further out into the sea. We will have it so that all ships can come into the harbor and we will have about 350 acres for them to float abont in. We have also a-very fair harbor at Brito, on the Pacific coast, where our canal comes out. It will take some dredg ing to fit it for use, but when we are through, our two harbors will be the finest in Cen tral America." "How big will the canal be and how can you make your vessels rise- to the level of Lake Nicaragua, which is 100 above the sea?" "We do it by means of locks," replied Senator Miller. This De Lessens said was not practical, and he proposed a level canal at the Isthmus of Panama, and he sunk several hundred millions in attempting to make one, but his scheme was an utter fail ure, and the canal stock is now worth about 2 cents on the dollar, and that only for speculative purposes. De Lesseps said that iocks would mate travel tbrouch the canal too slow to make it pay and that the ships wonld be tied up and clogged half the time. The Locks the largest In the World. "We have figured up the time and we know just what we can do. We are going to have the biggest locks that have ever been made. There will be only six of them, and a ship can go through a lock and be raised from one level to another in 45 minutes. And supposing only one ship went through at a time we could put 32 ships through in a day and more than 11,000 in a year. If the ships that go through this canal should be of the same size as those which pass through the Suez Caual.more than 20,000,000 tons will pass through in a year. The Suez Canal gets $2 50 a ton on every ship that passes through the canal, and this tonnage, should we ever reach it, would pay the canal $50,000,000 a year. "We expect the canal to cost, all told, just about $100,000,000, and we think that it will pay a big interest on this investment The Suez Canal stock is now in the neighbor hood of $500 per share. It cost about the same as ours will cost, and it has for years been paying a net revenue of more than $12,000,000. It is not big enough to accom modate the trade and thev are now widening its locks. They are talking also of building another canal alongside the old one, and the shipping increases right along." Over a Day in Crossing. "How long will it take a ship to pass through your canal?" "It will take only four hours more than it does for a ship to pass through the Suez Canal," said Senator Miller. "A boat can go through bur canal from the Atlantio to the Pacific, a distance of 170 miles, in 28 hours, and it takes one 21 hours to go through the Suez Canal. About 100,000 passengers go through the Suez Canal in a year and the canal gets a big revenue from these. Of course my figures as to the ton nage which might pus through our canal represent an amount much greater than we will have for years, but supposing we only had 5,000,000 tons at the start, this would pay big dividends, and we will eventually, no doubt, have ten, fifteen and more mil lion tons per year. "As to the locks, that at the Sault Ste. Marie- takes through a greater tonnage every year than that at the Suez Canal, and these locks are perfectly practicable things. Our ships will go into the harbor at Grey town and they will sail nine miles along the canal to the first look, which will lift them up 31 feet and along this level they sail a mile and a quarter, where they are raised 30 feet more and sail now on a level of 61 feet above the spa. Bulling Hnndred Fret Above the Sea. "After a few more miles there Is a third look which raises them 45 feet higher, and they are now 106 feet above the harbor of Greytown and are now'on the same level of the San Juan river and the big lake of Nicaraugua. They can now sail right along up this river into the lake and across it, a distance of over 130 miles, to the western side of the lake, and they are now only 17 miles from the Pacific Ocean. They here go into our canal and, by similar locks to those on the east, drop down to the sea level. There are three locks of the west side, and, of course, we can raise ships from the Pacific to the level of the lake in the same way as we do those to the level of the lake from the Atlantic The whole affair is very simple to anyone who understands the method by which boats go through a canal bymeans of locks. "Our canal," Senator Miller went on, "will have a bed wider than that of the Suez Canal, and.its bottom will be 80 feet wide at its narrowest points. Its top will vary from 80 feet to 288 feet, and the bed of the Suez Canal is only 72 feet. As I have told you, we only have 27 miles of solid ex cavation to make, and there are only 70 miles along the whole route where we have to change the channel from what it now is. We have fully 100 miles ot free navigation upon which we will not have to do a stroke ot work, and we can widen the canal to 100 feet without very great cost," The Benefit to America. "How soon do you expect to have the canal done. Senator Miller?" I asked. "It ought to be finished in about six years," was the reply. "And if we make A Nicaragua Village. the right financial arrangements we may be done before that." "Please give me some idea of the effect it will have upon our shipping?" "It will make America one of the greatest commercial nations of the world, and we will at once jump to the front as to our merchant marine. It is almost Impossible to give you an idea of the changes it will make. It will save our ships 10,000 miles in going from New York to San Francisco, and it will bring us 8,000 miles nearer the Sandwich Islands. When that canal is completed New York will be nearly 7,000 miles qearer Callao, and we will be able to put our cotton into the ports ot China and Japan by shipping it direct from New Orleans instead of having it go-way round by Suez. The canal will then be one of the great routes to Australia and China, and we will deal direct with these countries, instead of through England, as we now do. A Boost for the Cotton Trade. "The Japanese are now using a great'deal of our cotton and they are Increasing their consumption of the American article every year. The Koreans dress almost altogether in cottons and they like a good article. The Americans make better cotton than they can get from India or elsewhere, and there is no reason why wo should not be supply ing the material for the clothes of the hun dreds of millions of the Far East. The Japanese are using a great deal of raw cot ton, and-if this canal were built now there would be no trouble in the South about' a market for its cotton. "The building of the canal," Senator Miller went on, "will be death to the bail ing ships of the world. The greatest part of our commerce will then be carried by steam. We will have a coaling station at Nicaragua, and all the ships ot the world going from tile East to the West will pass through this highway. It will make an im mense difference in California and the Pa oifio Slope, and it will quadruple the population of that part of our country ten years after it is completed. If we get the canal completed by 1897 we ought to have more than 8,000,000 tons going through the canal the next year. The canal will also be of ah immense advantage to us in a military way, and it will enforce the Monroe doc trine better than our navv. By the Suez Canal Great Britain got 3,600 miles nearer her Indian possessions, and by this canal we will be more than 9,000 miles nearer our naval stations on the Pacific. In the case of a war like that which seemed imminent with Chile not long ago the importance of a thine of this kind cannot be overestimated. and the Government will profit greatly by the work." Not Asking Anything of Uncle Sam. "What do you ask from the Government, Senator Miller?" "Nothing:" was the reply. "The canal is being built as a private enterprise, and so far the capital which has gone into it has been that of private parties." "You were abroad a short time ago, Sen ator, looking into the ship canals of Eu rope. Can you not tell me something about some of them?" "Yes, I can," was the reply. "This is the age of ship canals and they are being cut all over the world. There is a big one in Holland, which takes you into Amster dam to save your going about the Zuyder Zee. I had a permit from the Butch King to-visit this and I found it an immense un dertaking. The land is low and the canal had to be built up instead of being cut down, and when you sail along this canal in the big -open snips you can look over the roofs of the houses on the land below you. The canal is built on a soft mud flat and its stability is secured by the sinking of thou sands of piles. It has benefited Amster dam greatly. I visited also the great ship canal which the Germans are making across Schleswig-Holstein from Kiel to the mouth of the Elbe. This canal is being made by the Government as a military enterprise, but it will also be used as a ship caual for other purposes. This canal will be 13 miles long and there are 10,000 men at work upon it. It will save only 700 miles, and it takes just half as much cutting as ours, which will save many thousands of miles. A Bint for Enterprising Pittsbnrceii. "A big canal is being built from the English city of Manchester down to the Bea. Manchester is only 35 miles from Liverpool and that city, as you know, has the greatest docks of the world, and Man chester could have its goods sent there and shipped; but it wanted a canal so that ships could come right into it and it is building one which will cost $65,000,000. This canal will have locks and it will have more cut ting than ours. It is built by the city and by private parties in a stock company and is now half done. "Then there is another big canal being cut by the Greeks," Senator Miller went on. "It is now nearly completed and it cuts the Isthmus of Corinth. This canal is a hundred feet wide and three miles and a half long, and it will bring the port of Athens about twice as near Italy as it is now. By it the ships will be able to sail from Italy to Constantinople in two days less than thejr now do, and it will make Athens a great city, and if a railroad is built from it north through Europe, as is contemplated, it may make it the landing place of the big ships from the far East, in stead of Brindisi. How England TJses the Suez Canal. "The Suez Canal is of course the most pros perous of all the ship canals now in exist ence. In ten years its tonnage has nearly trebled. Four-fifths of the snips which go , through it are said to be Englih hip and It saves England three weeks between Lon don and Bombay." "How about American ship cannN Sen ator?" -I asked. "Will we not have more of them as the country grows?" "There is no doubt of it," replied Sen ator Miller. "There will be a big ship canal some day which will enable ocean steamers of the largest tonnage to go right up through the great lakes to Dnluth and w jr n - m i VS" The BaiXway Along the Canal. so will load our grain at the head of Lake Superior and unload it in the great shipping ports on the other side of the world. The Hennepin Canal may at some time connect Lake Michigan with the Mississippi and an ocean steamer might come in through an enlarged Welland Canal and sail around to Chicago and on through this canal down the Mississippi and go out of the Gult of Mex ico, tapping the greater part of the United States by water. The possibilities in the way of ship canals can hardly be estimated and our canals will revolutionize the world. " Frank G. Carpenter DAHCES OF THE INDIAHS, Some Other Styles of Terpslchorean Fes tivity ot the Early Aces. The Indians of North America were great dancers, and used every opportunity to indulge, but it must be said that there was nothing beautiful about it. Even to day they have their ghost dances, a relig ious ceremony, which the United States Government endeavors to prohibit. The minuet is said to have been first danced by Louis XIV in 1653, while the quadrille, which is also of French origin, was first brought into favor in England in 1813. The waltz, which is the national German dance, was introduced about the same time. The morice dance belongs to parts of England, and is qnite old, and the saraband is a slow and stately Spanish dance. The polka is Bohemian,' and invented about 60 years ago, obtaining its name in Prague; and the'Virginla reel is the American name of the Sir Boger de Coverley. The schot tische and galop are merely variations ot the polka. ONE WAT 10 TEEAT CHEESE. An Enchanting Dish Made by a Combina tion With Carolina Bice. Bice cheeses are a true luncheon dainty and will be appreciated where hot dishes are liked; appetizing and savory, in pref erence to "sweets." Having your muffin irons in order, well heated and buttered, put a layer of cold rice we trust it is a a light mass of snowy, well-cooked kernels of Carolina head rice in the bottom of each ring. Over this sprinkle salt, white Telli chery pepper and tiny bits of butter. Next, put a layer of grated cheese; afterward a secondlayer of rice, salt, pepper and butter, and finally a second layer of the grated cheese. Place the muffin iron in a hot oven, with a hot tin cover over the rings until the cheese is thoroughly .melted into the rice. Take off the tin cover and brown daintily on top. Serve hot. These cheeses can be made in the family "gem-pan." Bur your diamonds, watches and Jewelry where you can get the best selection and lowest prices. Call and he convinced at 1L 6. Cohen's, SS Fifth avenue. WRITTEN TOE THE DISPATCH BY DORA RUSSELL, Author of "Footprints in the Snow," "The Broken Seal," 'The Track of the Storm," "A Fatal Past," Etc. CHAPTEE L A STRANGE RECOGNITION. A gray sky and a gray-green sea, for the great waters were reflecting tha somber coloring of the clouds; and some of their gloom seemed also to have fallen on the face of a young girl who was standing on the shore, whose lover was pleading to her to fix the wedding day. "Oh! Sir James; that is fartoosoon,"she said, as the young man paused. "How can yon say so, Miriam?" he an swered. "We have been engaged a month already now, and surely another month added to that is long enough to wait?" "Most of people are engaged six months," replied the girl with downcast eyes; "some people six years." "Six years! What nonsense! Why I shall be an old'man in six years." "And I shall be getting on to be an old woman," said Miriam, smiling. "Now don't tease so; there's a darling. Without joking, Miriam, do let us fix the time? Mrs. Clyde quite agrees with me that there's no good in waiting any longer." "Mother is always in such a hurry about things." "But it's not being in a hurry to be en gaged two months; and besides I want to take you abroad before the winter comes in earnest, and it's really quite chilly to-day." "Yes, it is," and the girl gave a little shiver and looked up at the gloomy clouds. She was tall, slim and dark-eyed, with a mobile expressive face, and a white swan like throat. People as a rule called Miriam Clyde handsome, but she scarcely looked handsome as she stood there by her lover, beneath the darksome sky, embarrassed, and unwilling to accede to the request. She was the daughter of Colonel Clyde, of the Artillery, who at this time commanded the garrison of Newbrough-on-the-Sea, and she was a girl who was always greatly admired. There was a charm about her, men said, which many women, actually more beauti ful, did not possess; a charm in her manner, her grace, and in her bright and winning tongue. And she had so charmed the tall young Scotchman, Sir James MacKennon, who was now standing by her side, that af ter a very short acquaintance he had offered himself and all his worldly possessions for her acceptance. He was a baronet, well off, and of ancient familv, and fairly good-looking, and both f Colonel and Mrs. Clyde were delighted when he proposed to their aaugnter, ana never doubted that Miriam would be de lighted also. At all events she accepted him, after a little delay which Mrs. Clyde a clever woman accounted tor by be lieving that her daughter made this hesita tion from the innate coquetry of her heart. There were various young ladies who were by no means indifferent to the attentions of the wealthy young Scotchman, and Mrs. Clyde felt Inwardly assured that Miriam only wished to appear more indifferent than she actually was. Mrs. Clyde was anxious, too, that Miriam should marry well and early, for she knew something, though not all, of a sad and secret tragedy, which had already darkened her young daughter's life. "You have done charmingly for youself," she said to Miriam, with a proud and happy smile, when Sir James MacKennon cams down one afternoon to Newbrough-on-the-Sea. and asked to have an interview with Colonel Clvde, and informed him he had the great happiness to be his daughter's ac cepted suitor. Everyone indeed smiled on this engage ment except perhaps the young ladies who had smiled on Sir James. Some of these wondered what he saw in Miss Clyde, but others were more good natured. "She's a handsome, clever girl, in a good position, that's what he sees in her, and then her mother is no doubt an advantage to Miriam," said one of these. To be the daughter of Mrs. Clyde was certainly an advantage to any girl. This lady, who was remarkably handsome, tall; and personable, was not only an acute woman of the world, a brilliant conversa tionalist, but also a writer of culture and talent. She had two daughters, one already the wife of a man high up in the service, and Miriam. Therefore, when Miriam be came engaged to Sir James MacKennon, Mrs. Clyde reflected with satisfaction that both her children had done well. Her eldest daughter was married to a general, and her youngest about to be, married to a Baronet, and so Mrs. Clyde felt that her maternal duties were almost over. She In truth thought of many other things besides her children, and did not live only in their lives. She was sympathetic, bnt not ab solutely tender to them, and she was sym pathetic id manner at least to almost every one. So she made Sir James MacKennon very welcome at the Commandant's house at Newbrough-on-Sea, and charmed him by her genial witty words. Sir James, who was in a cavalry reeiment, was stationed at Halstone, a town "abont ten miles distant from Newl-rongh-on-Sea, and it was at a hall at Halstone that he had first seen Miriam, HANDSOME FURNITURE FOR THE PARLOR. COMPLETE LINE m m ?.$ y w Doy 4 We handle more goods than any other' house in the city in our line. Probably as many as the two largest besides ourselves put together. This enables us to buy for less and thus to sell for less than any other house in the city. The people buy here because it pays them siFOR CASH OR FOR CREDIT -om- -2s& Lawn and Porch Furniture LAWN RECLINING CHAIR, Iron frame, canvas seat and back, adjusted to any position of the body, affording solid comfort, at small cost $5.50. CAMP CHAIR, Iron frame, canvas seat and back, $1.50. LAWN SETTEE, Either light color or painted red, $1.75. SOLID E3BCOMFORT For old married people, young married people and people about to be married, at Refrigerators We have the line of the town of every size and style. A really good Refriger ator costs but little more .than a poor one and saves its extra cost a hundred times in a season. Nothing but standard makes that we can recommend with confidence. ICE CHESTS ..and.. REFRIGERATORS, $6 TO $50 -:o: Sunshine for the Baby. It is bound to come ere long. When the clouds roll by you will be ready to roll baby out into the sunshine. We are making ready for-you by putting within 'your reach a nobby, serviceable Baby Buggy at a very small cost OUR CURTAIN STOCK -aOUR LINE OF PARLOR- FURNITURE Has no equal either In sire or -variety In Western Pennsylvania. Our styles are all new and attractive, and we have everything from the cheapest to the finest. THE ABOVE IL,r,TJSTKATIO; represents a Farlor Suite In Solid Oak or Imitation ma hogany frame, upholstered In Tapestry, trimmed with silt plush and solid steel springs. TEN PEE CENT LESS FOB CASH $3&00 TEN PER CENT LESS FOB CASH Contains a large and choice selection of the .newest things in Curtains and Dra peries. Lace Curtains of every make. ' Notting ham, Swiss, Irish Point and Brussels. SPECIAL THIS WEEK. A line of elegant Nottingham Lace, 48 inches wide and 35 yards long, entirely new design, our own importation. A special bargain at -:o: CHINA MATTINGS. The largest and choicest assortment of patterns in the city. Some specially at- tractive patterns this season. The finest selected grass has been used in the manu facture and real art in the design of the patterns. 2y2c TO 45c PER YARD. 923, 325, 927 PE1 HEINE. 923, 92S, 927 a-Jilfe It Ell 70B TH3T&UT V (z4aS&L&B& YJ ' SERVICEABLE FURNITURE FOR THE LIBRARY. SPRING IS HERE The almanac says so if the weather doesn't; and it means that you need . New Carpets Draperies No house in this city can suit you as well in them as we can. Our assortment is twice as large and our prices lower than any to be found in any establishment in town. OUR CARPET STOCKS IS SIMPLY IMMENSE. Embracing all the new and choice spring styles at remarkably low prices. Floor covering suitable ior every room in the house. 4E PRICES Hi OUR TERMS- Put the name of Keech on a thousand tongues. We find that small profits mul tiplied bring larger returns than an ISOLATED BIG PROFIT. J -y PEI AVENUE. Wi K. alai frJHJr Bjfa"?hiflpi!ifrfifcilpBjw8MQfc fl IBIBHlKsgBHHHIk ASBBBBBHSBRssaHiBSBBHsHIB? 4jL IBljaHHSHBsalaBsrBHsaaBBlsaBsB'" "- r .at ifi-sfcsfassfe?!!.....!. ' -L 1 , -jliS. .