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Miss Passt I dread to think of my thirtieth birthday. Miss Btjdd "Why, what happened? Puck. "THE j&. Ont in the cold world, ont in the street, Tammany, Crisp and his little speech. Ken TorkPrm. A DINNER IN PARIS. "What One Must Pay in a Moderate, Respectable Restaurant 1 MEAL A LA CAETE AT 80 CENTS, Beefsteak Comes to the Ordinary Consumer at 40 Cents a round. DUTIES COLLECTED 05 EATABLES rcoRBESPOxnixcx or the dispatch i Paris, Dec S. Eestaurant food In Paris Is at the same time cheaD and not cheap. Whatever cheapness there is in Parisian living over that in America consists rather In a higher qnality obtained for the same money than in any actual lowness of price. This higher quality should be pnt down to the minute habits of an old established mode of life, not to be expected in a new and rich country like America. Something like this has recently been said by M. Paul Descbenels, who came back from his late mission in America with favorable impressions of nearly all that we have and do in the United States, He reiterates that the cost of living in the United States is not dearer than in France: You will far that livins is dearer in America. Tes and no. It depends on the nature of the expenses. TheAmerican ex pends more for his rent and for his clothing; but he spends less for his food. For his rent the American pays about 1C per cent or his entire revenue, the Enalishman 11 per cent, the Frenchman S per cent, the Belgian 10 per cent, and the Gorman G per cent. On the contrary, lor hU fool the American pays only 42 por cent, whereas the E'.slishuian pays 47 per cent, the Frenchman 49 per cent, the Belgian 43 per cent, and the German 51 per cent. For alcoholic drinks and tobacco the American spends only 6 per cent, while the Englishman spends 7 ner cent, and the Frenchman 13 percent. These are only ap- Si loximate nnres, snoject to conuoveray, ut the general conclusion is exact. Taxed for Parisian Revenue. Food is cheaper in America than in Prance. This is all the truer of our great American cities which have the first pick of the market, when comparison is mnde with Paris and its enormous population subjected to extra octroi duties on every pound of chicken and every box of straw berries that pass the harriers. This munici pal tax on eatables and combustibles amounts every year to something like $30, 000,000. Twelve millions of dollars are from wine and liquors, while 56,000,000 are collected on eatables and ?3,O00,O00 more on fuel, kerosene and oil. On horse food and provender alone more than $1,000,000 are annually collected. Thus, not an article of food passes the fortifications but is taxed for the city's revenue. As a result beefsteak comes to the ordi nary consumer at 40 cents a pound, a good chicken costs $1 and one good .mutton chop 12 cents. In what, then, consist! the seem ing cheapness ol Paris restaurant food? The answer will be found by studying a typical Parisian restaurant A Hint for Pittsburg Restaurateurs. The Duval restaurants, which are the property of a single company, are scattered all over Paris, and they do an enormous business. Their theory is that people of moderate means will patronize places where something like the skill, taste aud care of expensive restaurants is exercised on cheaper food, served in very small por tions. The Davai restaurants are tempting because they are clean and dainty, and be cause the price of each dish is small. The first charce of 1 cent is for the nap kin and cloth. This secures fresh ones for each guest: The second charge is for bread, 2 cents. There is little difference between the breakfast and dinner card; and what ever variety there may be outside of great lines irom month to month will be due to the fluctations of the provision market Soups are usually clear, thin and cheat) excepting now and then a savory pottage Into which peas and patatoes enter .freely. Onion sout is G cents, with grated cheese 7 cents. This soup is a favorite, especially at nights, and in other higher restaurants; it is thought to fit one for sleep, to make the stomach clean and the breath sweet the next xnorninsr, while taken with a little grated cheese it is an excellent digestive. Con EVENTS OF THE DAY AS THE COMIC ; . . , . -r 5 -o somme, bouillon and bread soup are each 5 cents. There is nothing remarkable about them except that they are hot and filling, and enable a man to eat a quantity of bread. Portions of Sleat and IJsh. At the Duval establishment the fish is very often good, therefore it is only natu ral that the portions should be small. Among the meats plain boiled beef, with out gravy or a vegetable, costs 6 cents gar nished with a vegetable it is 8 cents. Here there is a enrious manipulation of prices. The "garniture" of meats by vegetables is charged but little extra for; but the quan tity of vecetable given is half that of a reg ular order. Thus, pears are 12 cents a plate; but plain boiled beef "garnished" with half as many peas costs only 2 cents more than plain boiled beef 'alone. To eat cheaply, therefore, it is only necessary to take meat dishes garnished, and to leave separate vegetables alone. The European use of vegetables is a prime matter of complaint with Americans abroad. Sweet corn is unknown outside of Huneary and the lower Danube. Here they call it maize, and feed the voting stalks to cattle. Tomatoes are not cheap and are most often too delicate, without flavor and with too much seed matter. There are no sweet po tatoes, no Bermuda onions, no Lima beans; while white potatoes are used just as any other vegetable and no more. Neverthe less there is a good list of vegetables on the Duval card. Customers Slake Their Own Salad. Of salads there are chickory, cultivated and wild, romain, lettuce, cucumber and to mato running in price from the chickorvat 8 cents to the cucumber at 15 cents. The name tomato salad is misleading. It means one tomato served in a salad bowl. So also with the rest, each customer mixes his own salad dressing, using the contents of the cruet stand at discretion. Americans and Englishmen occasionally ask for sugar to add. The waiter girls, although they have brought sugar to Americans and En glishmen hundreds of times, cannot resist a lifting of the eyebrows at every fresh de mand. I have seen one wild with vexation wnen a Pittsburg dude asked for ice to cool a fresh tomato before he should cut it up in sugar and vinegar. These waiter girls at the Duval establishments are generally cheerful and good, but they are custom bound, like all their people. French restaurants have few puddings and no pie. If pie is desired one must con sult the columns of the Paris edition of the Berald. The proper addresses will be found under the scare head of "corned beef hash, pie, codfish balls and other American deli cacies." For puddings it is only necessary to take board at a moderate priced pension, preferably English. The Fruits and Creams. The Duval restaurants have a variety ot sweet dry cakes, which are dear at 6 cents an order; and there is pineapple in kirsch tor 8 cents, and fruit in season at varying prices. For instance, in September a small plate of raspberries, or green figs costs 12 cents; cherries and green almonds were 10 cents, and peaches were 12 cents apiece. But these traits are very fine, especially peaches and pears; they are grown along the sunny sides ot walls, the trees being trained like grapevines and constantly pruned. They have also creams, always slightly "turned," and which partake of the nature of cheese. The ordinary Normandy cream is 10 cents a portion, and creme d'Isigny, in little brown pots, very delicate, is 12 cents. Among the desserts are sweet omelettes and rum omelettes. The sweet omelette is made by rolling the half cooked egg batter around jelly just as it is ready to take from the pan. The rum omelette is a good dish for cold days, but it does not digest welL Plain jellies, currant, cherry and plum are 6 cents a portion; mirabel, strawberry and raspberry are 8 cents a portion. The last foods are the cheeses and they form an important element in a cheap meal. . Tips Average Five Per Cent. After this glance at each division of the Dpval card it will be noticed how minutely the prices are arranged and how the profits must be made up irom small reckonings. The Duval secret is to have no waste. The service costs nothing, as the girls are paid by tips alone. Tips, thongh small, add up handsome sums daily. The average Paris tip is five per cent on. the total ot the bill. Everyone tips. The management gives he girls their meals, Including wine, and they choose about what food they please. Back of the foods and always a source of considerable profit is Jhe wine. Everyone drinks wine ox beer, and the beer is nearly Tnrm ABTS AT THE FAIR SCraPTTTEE. Sett York Evening World. - Tv m f t M 9) vnr xAl iwi,w4 W . uzii ill ' WW ymzw Ji V if V r mmmmmm WAITING. Philadelphia Inquirer. as expensive as the cheaper wine. The cheapest wine is the ordinaire, which may be had in a carafon a small decanter for 4 cents. It is scarcely more than a gobletful. A bottle of the ordinaire costs 20 cents. It is not good. "What they call Meddc is 24 cents a bottle; it is scarcely not bad. The St. Estepbe which they sell you at 28 cents might really be called not bad; while an extra franc makes a grand leap toward good wine. What the Better "Wines Cost. The most expensive Bordeaux on the Duval list is 6 francs a bottle; the most ex pensive red Burgundy is 5 francs; the most expensive Sauterne is 3 francs, and the most expensive white Burgundy is 2 francs. The Duvals revel in chf.-vp champacne. It may be interesting to read the names and prices of certain brands. They are the regular champagne bottles. Tisane, Si. The Cosmos champagne (A. G. Leniaitre) carte vert, 51; carte bleu, $1 20; carte doree, $1 00. G. K Mumni's Ay mosseux is fl 20. These, of course, are restaurant prices. The extra charge for half bottles is 5 cents. To conclude, there are two species ot profit in the Duval restaurants, the profit of the proprietors and the profit of the cus tomer. For the management there is a sure profit on each article with a compara tively large profit on some notable wine, vegetables and desserts. Two other profits have not been mentioned, thehors d'oenvre and the liqueurs and coffee. The Parisian begins his dinner with a few olives or a small bit of fancv sausage at 8 cents, and ends with a Benedictine or other digestive at about 9 cents. A Very Satisfactory Meal. To the customer the only profit consists in a meal of variety and good taste ap proaching elegance, at a price little zreater than that of a common teed. Let us imagine a dinner: Comsomme, fi cents; caviare, 12 cent; salmon, with green sauce, 20 cents; roast capon with cress,' 25 cents; trcsh cream cheese, 12 cents; coffee with cognac, 10 cents; and the wine, say, 40 cents. The total is $1 27. If an extra soup be 'taken, with a half bottle more wine and another coffee, this dinner will be enongh for two and cost 80 cents apiece. Neither of these prices is cheap for a meal, but see what you get. And this is the best one can do In Paris a la carte. One dish, two dishes may be left out or cheaper dishes taken, but the meal will always come up to 40 cents apiece, even when two dine together. There are many restaurants where a com plete dinner is given at the fixed price ot 23 cents or 30 cents, but the food is not to be depended on. A man had as well go to a boarding house. Sterling Hetxio. STONES THAT WILL BEHD. Certain Brazilian Specimens Are Flexible Without Going to Pieces. Brandon Bucksaw. Of most stones rigidity is one of the most marked characteristics and it is hard for uninformed people to believe that there are any stones that can be bent. Th'ere are some, however, that are moie flexible than .wood, and bend readily under slight pressure without breaking. The most abundant of these is itacolumitc, or flex ible sandstone, which is found in large de posits in Brazil. This stone is composed of separate grains ot sand cemented together with a mineral closely resembling mica or sericite. The minerals, being quite flexible in themselves, confer the same property upon the sandstone as a whole. The way in which the cementing material was intro duced into the itacolumite is not easy of explanation. Mica and sericite are not soluble and could not have been deposited by water, like calcite or eilica. It is most probable that they were origi nally introduced in the form of clay or some similar material, and afterward met amorphosed by heat, pressure and super heated steam into micaceous mineral. In stances of a similar change of one "mineral species Into another are very common. Electric Bells In Churches. Playgoers are familiar with the electrio bells which ring in all parts of the house just before the curtain goes up. This use ful device has been adopted at Spurgeon's Tabernacle in London. Strangers are kept in the aisles until live minutes before the service. By this time the regular seat holders are supposed to have taken their places, and the electrio bell signal is made, followed immediately by a general rush for the best seats that remain vacant. THE PITTSBTJKG- DIBPATOH, SUNDAY, DECEMBER - 18. REPUPUCAN PASTURE i iy,' .$" ywiu NOTES AND QUERIES. Queen "Victoria Would Have a Big Time if She Tried the Veto. BALLOT l0P THE SLAVE-HOLDEB. The Observation of Christmas Pay and Other Like Holidays ' SALARIES PAID TO OUR G0TEEX0KS The change of administrations and the like lihood of a difference of opinion between a majority of Congress and President-elect Cleveland on the silVcr question has been the occasion -of a number of questions as to the veto power. That prerogative in the United States is pretty generally under stood, but questions as to the power in England are often asked The Dispatch. Queen Victoria has never vetoed a bill since she became Queen. She could not have vetoed one without causing a revolu tion. The Sovereign of Great Britain docs not rule; she reign. That is, the whole management of the kingdom, is in the hands of a committee of the House of Commons and House of Lords called a Cabinet; they arc the Government and responsible to Par liament and the people. Tbey remain in power so long as they can keep a majority in the House of Commons behind them. Now if the Quern should veto a bill which the Government wished to have signed, the members of the Government would resign, and the Queen would have to ask some other members to form a Govern ment. But they would not obtain a major ity in the House of Commons, and so could not do anything; and the Queen would have to ask the Ministers whose bill she had vetoed to return to power. They would refuse to return unless she signed the bill Meantime Parliament would be at odds and euds; everyone would be indignant at the Queen's venturing to refuse to do some thing which the people's representatives wished her to do; and, unless she turned about very promptly, she would find herself minus a throne. The Queen might dissolve Parliament, but there would be no one in office to issue writs for a new Parliament, so things would still be at loose ends. The sovereign has the right of veto still, but the right has not been exercised since 1707, and is practically out of date in Great Britain. A correspondent of New Brighton, Pa., who signs himself G. L. E., writes as fol lows: Under "Notes and Queries" in The Dis patch of December 4, in giving the names of the officers of General Lee's old regi ment in the regular army it was stated that Captain Theodore O'Hara wrote his fa mous poem, "The Bivouac of the Dead," lor the return of a regiment of Missouri volunteers from the Mexican war. This is a very serious error, and thero is nothing in the poem to indicate, in the remotest degree, that it was written for the return of living men. It is threnodial in every line every stanza an apostrophe to the dead. The true origin and history of the illus trious threnody is as follows: The Legislature of Kentucky passed a law providing for the expense ot having the remains of all the soldiers of that State who fell in the battle'of Buena Vista, fa the Mexican war, bronght to Frankfort, there reinterred and a handsome monument erected over their ashes. Captain Theodore O'Hara was chosen as orator for the occa sion of the dedication of the monument, and it was there that, for the first time, the grand elegy was made known and read o the public. The poem comprises 12 stanzas, of eight line- each, but is seldom all seen in, print. The four lines most frequently auoted are in the first stanza, which I he're repro duce: The muffled drum's sad roll has beat f The soldier's last tattoo; No more on llie's parade shall meet The brave and fallen few. On fame's eternal camping ground Their silent tents are spread, , THE PESTS OP OUE TACTFIO AND AH.AXTIC COASTS. Uncle Sam There shall be no discrimination. X will shut.you both out. Judge. FROM THOMAS ITAST IN And glory guards with solemn round The blvouao ot the dead. What is or was "the Fronde" to which we find allusions in French history? Stud but. The war of the Fronde, or the Sling, was the name given to a civil war which broke out in France in 1648. The Paris boys used to have mimic fights, with slings as their weapons, in the city ditches; and the civil war which had about as much value as one the boys' fights, was "nicknamed "The "War of the Sling" by the Cardinal de Betz. Early in the autumn of 1648 Cardinal Maz arin, Prime Minister to theKiDgot France, determined to punish the Parliament of Paris for having assumed nn undue inde pendence, and arrested four of its members. All Paris rose, and the King's mother and Mazarin fled from the city in terror of a revolution. They came bick in October, but departed again in 1649. Then the nobles many of whom were discontented at Mazarin's changes iu the way of govern ing, joined with the Parisians, and for a time seemed as if tbev would bear down Mazarin. But the Prince of Conde be sieged Paris; the people ot the city found they had to pay the piper while th5 nobles danced, and early iu 1619 a peace was made. This peace was the end of the old Fronde. The nobles, not contented with the peace, kept up the new Fronde; Conde and Maza rin made various moves on the chess-board ot French politics: the Parisians came in i w. ..... --J ....11.- : -IK-:'? -- BUU neuh uut, auu uuauj, u xvikj, cibij- i one being tired of the war, the King was invited back to Pans, Conde went to Spain, Cardinal de Betz was imprisoned. Mazarin was recalled to the side of the King, and the Parliament of Paris was compelled to cease its meetings. The war has been called by Michelet, the great French his torian, "a burlesque," "comic in its origin, its events, its principle'," "a game of live ly schoolboys in the interval between the lessons of those two stern and severe teachers," Cardinal Richelieu and Louis XIV. Was thero ever a time whon a slaveholder could cast a ballot for each nnd every slavo whom ho oivnedt Daily Header. No; that is, no slaveholder could vote for himself and for each of his slaves, too. But under section 2, clause 3, of Article L of the Constitution, representatives were and are apportioned according to the numbers of the population of the various States, which were to be found by adding to the entire number of free persons three-fifths of all other persons. This gave the slave holder an advantage, for it made his vote count for more than that' of the non slaveholder, or ot the voter in the "free States." In 1813 the ratio between the representatives and population was 1 to 70,680; say 1 to 70,000. In the "free States" 14,000 votes elected one representative; iu the slave States there were more than half as many slaves as there were whites, and of them two-thirds were count jd in making up the groups of 70,000 persons entited to one representative; so that of each 70,000 about 25,000 were negroes, leaving, 45,000 as the number of whites, of whom 9,000 were voters. So each voter in a slave State call him a slave holder, if yon prc ler had as much power at the ballot uox as one and five-ninths voters had in a non slave State. But this does not say that a slave holder had one vote for himself and one for each slave. At the suae time that slave holders had so mncb extra power at the ballot box they were liable to a propor tionate increase in the direct taxes; only the United States levied no direct taxes on them. How lor-g Is it since Christmas was kept for the flrsc timet Uexediot. Since sometime in the fifth century; say about 1,150 years. "Christmas is observed in December, less because this is supposed to be the actual month in which Christ was born than because some day was desired on .which services commemorative of Christ's birth could be held. December, in Pales, tine, is the height of the rainy season, when neither shepherds nor flocks could have been at night in the fields of Bethlehem. The Romans, tiie masters of the world, ob served their festival ot the Saturnalia dar ing the month of December: and it has been suggested, with a great deal ot probability, that Christmas Day was instituted to sup plant the heathen festivals. We know that many other Christian festivals at first paralleled heathen festivals, and finally 1892, ARTISTS SEE THEM. HAHPEE'S WEEKLY OP 1881. supplanted them; for example, St. Valen tine's Day took the place of the Roman Lupercalia; Easter took the name and place of the spring festival among the Sax ons; and other instances might be given. Before the 25th of the month had been chosen, the feast was observed on January G. the feast of the Epiphany, or Twelfth Night. The older Christmas customs par tace of the nature of the customs preva lent during the Saturnalia: the customs are observed during the entire Christmas sea son, which ends with Twelfth Night, so that on the whole the suggestion made above as tor the reason for the choice of the day seems to be good. Is not the death of two Archbishops of York in a single year, 1S91, a uniqno occur rence! V. F. O. Dr. Thomson and Dr. Magee, to whose deaths you allude, did not die in the same year, but within a twelvemonth; Dr. Thomson died on Christmas Day, 1890, and Dr. Magee on May 4, 189L But their deaths are not a unique occurrence; in 1G28, to go no further back. Archbishop Tobias Matthew died on March 29, and Archbishop George Mountaigne died on October 24. But the death of two such high ecclesias tics within a twelvemonth is unusual, if not unique; even in the list of the Popes such an event has happened only 14 times in the last 830 years. In 1276-77 there were four Popes, Gregory X, who died January 11, 1276; Innocent V., died Jnne 22, 1276; Adrian V, died August 17, 1776; and John XXI., died May 16. 1267; and in 1590-91, Sixtus V., Urban VIL. Gregory XIV., and Innocent IX., died. Since 1G05, however, no two Popes have died in a single year. What is the origin or the quotation mark? It seems to have no reason lor its shape. 1'oixs. The mark was originally q-o, an abbrevi ation for the Latin questio, a question. The "o" was placed nnder the "q," and in time the present strange sign was adopted. So, too, with what the printers call a "scare mark" I It was first the Latin word "Io," an exclamation of joy or triumph; it easily became our exclamation point. The para graph mark 1T is the Greek letter corre sponding in force, though not in form, to our letter "p." The Greek letter was com posed ot two upright lines, joined at the ton by an horizontal line; it was the initial of the word paragraph, and so was nsed to indicate where a paragraph began: the heavy black spot, making the sign look like a "p" backward, and believed at that, was made to distinguish between the letter nsed to indicate a paragraph and the letter used to begin a paragraph. What is meant by the words "duouv" nnd "duket" W. H. K. Originally a duehy was a district gov erned by a duke, and a duke was a general; the word comes from the Latin dux, a leader, i This idea holds in Germany, thongh of late the French and British idea of a dukedom has come into force there. In Germany we find the Duchy of Anhalt, the Grand Duchy of Baden, etc.; and we likewise find one or two modern dukedoms, whose dukes do not rule over any country. For instance, Bismarck declined to be cre ated Duke of Lanenberg. In France add Great Britain for hundreds of years past there have been only two dnchie3,though many dukedoms, the distinction being that a dnchy is a territory ruled by a duke, while a dukedom is the rank held by a dnke. These two duchies are, in England, the Duchy of Lancaster, whereof the Queen is duke; and the Duchy of Corn nail, whereof the Prince of Wales is duke What States pay the largest salaries to their Governors? C. P. N. New York pays her Governor ?10,00J a year, and gives him a -house and allowances for keeping it in order; New Jersey and Pennsylvania pay their Governors ?10,000 a year, but do not give them houses. Ohio pavs him $8,000, and California and Illinoix pay $6,000 a year each. Ten States pay S5.090 a vcar" each, and Orezon and Ver- 1 mont pay 51,500 a year each to their Gov ernors. Vas General Babcook, President Grant's Private secretary, implicated in tno whl-tky fraud;,? C. BYaoif. He was accused of being mixed up with the frauds, and resigned at Secretary Feb ruary 24, 1876. He was indicted and tried and acquitted of all participation in the JrABXWZZiTj XO THE DUDE THE ATHLETIC TOTJKO- MAS IS HOW THE ffAD. St. Paul Globe. ff ScmM fVi"j j ' C" r " C'"'. ' CANNOT 'WAIT TILL THE POEKIDGE COOLS. Sea York Advertiser. frauds. He went South after his trial, and was drowned in Florida in 1834. THE CEUiL BUICHES BIBD. It Is Very Strong and Often Displays a Great Deal of Sagacity. Pomona (Cal.) Progress. . The butcher bird, that is familiar to all ranchers in this region, is considered by some of the foremost ornithologists as the most sagacious bird in America. Thomas Oldham, of Kordsburg, tells us that he be lieves it as cruel as sagacious. "I have paid lots of attention to a pair of common bntcher birds at my place for six months," said he to Us the other day, "and I have learned many new things about the habits'of the peculiar batcher bird. A pair of them have followed me while at plowing for three or four days at a time, watching and waiting for me to overturn a nest of field-mice. When I overturn a nest they will pounce down upon the little mice, and claw and peck them to death. Then the mouse carcasses are carried away to some neighboring orange or lemon tree, and spiked upon the thorn'. The birds seldom eat the mice, but just kill them Irom sheer love of the excitement. When they cah spike a live-mouse, or even a rat, on a thorn, they flutter about and chatter with themselves as if they had great fun in see ing the rodents squirm and twist in the throes of death. "But J am most surprised to see how strong butcher birds are and what they can life And fly away with. I have often seen toads that had been impaled upon the thorns of a century plant on my place, and left to die. Because these birds are destructive to gophers and rats, they are considered the Iriends of the orange grower." - BuTTEKFLIE3 IN 1HS MOU.ITAHTS, They Appear In Sierra Nevada Above the lino of Perpetual Snow. Pearson's WeekiyJ A correspondent, writing from California, gives interesting observations npon the oc currence of butterflies at elevations much above any noted in Europe. It is remark able, says he, that these creatures of a sum mer day can fly so far, and can bear such a degree of cold as they do in crossing our mountain ranges. Last summer, while on a peak of the Sierra Nevada mountains, at an altitude of 13,000 feet, I saw butterflies sail ing leisurely about in the air above me with no more ado than if it had been a low land garden. That was above the line of Eerpetual snow. In climbing that peak I ad passed over snow ten feet deep. At another time, in the summer of 1890, I saw butterflies at an altitude ot 11,000 feet on a mountain of British Columbia, near the southeastern frontier of Alaska. There was a pass, although a high oue, on the mountain, and the butterflies were going through it toward the east and seemed to be migrating. Although these were not so high as those seen On the Sierra Nevada, yet in a latitude so far north it was surpris ing to see them practically almost nnder the Arctic circle. The butterflies, were several thaosand feet above the line of perpetual snow. As I said, they seemed to be crossinr, all going in the same direction. Those on the Sierra Nevada, on the other hand, appeared to be flying about for their own pleasure, not go ing anywhere in particular. DUE TO VEHETIAH MUD. Adoption of lU;h-lIerled Shoes Orten Halt a Yard in Height. The National Eevlew.J The streets of the City of Venice were often extremely thick in mud, in spite of the great severs which dated from the tenth ceutrry. It is easily conceivable. Even now, with but 69,030 or 70,000 Inhabitants, the thorougnfares between the Piazza and the Bialto are sometimes sufficiently bail. We are writing of the time when the popu lation was nearly five times what it now is, and when Venetian trade was at its zenith. Well, to combat this mnd the ladies took to high-heeled shoes. As the mud grew worse the heels became taller and taller, until at length they ere half a yard high, and as difficult to control as a pair ot stilts without handles. The consequence was that a lady in full drsss, obliged Io walk but a few yards,, had to be supported on both sides. This was a task for the black pages, or the lovers, who bad now become a very conventional part of Venetian society. 18 MANX SUPERSTITIOUS. The People of the Isle of Man mis judged as to Their Beliefs. CLING TO THE PLEASANT FORMS. The Cnlv Gloomy Spook Takes on the Form of a Great Spaniel. FAIEI GUARDIANS OF LITTLE FOLKS rconnisrosnzscE op rna dispatch. Douglas, Isle of Mas, Dec. a Few writers ever trouble themselves at all abont the Manx people. Those have invariably set them down as "extraordinarily super stitious." Then they have galloped away, leaving the Manxmen in mist and their readers in mystery. But I have gradually come to know that, however grim-visaged the face of the one confiding the weird as sertion of uncanny belief, secretly the masses of the people scout and flout them all, save those of a tender and winsome character. Briefly, Minx folk to-day reject the essential slaverv of superstitious prac tices, but universally insist on retaining the pleasure of subscribing to the superstitions themselves. One traditional spook .which represents the evil genius of dull despair, of dumb inevitability and of rank fatalism glowers through Manx tradition as black and dread ful as the gloom of the halls of Eblis. This is the "Moody Dhoo." Tangibly and as crvstalizcd in tradition it took on the form of'a huge, voiceless black spaniel which haunted ancient Peel Castle, the daring of whose satanic power by a drunken soldier terminated in the tragic death of the latter, as made famous in fiction and song. Generalized,the ''Moody Dhoo" is the sable spirit of lonsliness, of impending-danger, of irrevocable despair. To a people barren of book lore, impressionable with a thousand misty shadows from the past, whose mental activities are chiefly in contemplation of the saddening sea and the keening-voices of mountain winds, some form of a mental "Moody Dhoo" is a logical and inevitable presence. There is throughout the island an actual dread regarding the publicity of weddings. Thongh all the neighbors mar be aware of little details leading up to the ceremony, households directly interested oflect the greatest secrecy. Cooking for the feast, dressing and the like is 'often done with closely curtained windows at night, and when all is ready the wedding- party will mount an open car and gallop to the near est church in the gray of rooming as though all the witches were after them. But the arrival of the Manx baby brings a host of traditional superstitions, safe guards and ominous portents into immed iate activity. No one must step over it or walk entirely around it, lest it becomes dwarfed and weazened. Until baptism all babes are quite at the mercy of the fairies. The baby will remain luckv through life if it first handles a spoon with its left hand, but it will come to perfect estate if it shall have repeated tumbles out of its mother's arms, its cradle or bed before it has attained its first birthday. One ot the most winsome of half super stitious customs in Manxland is for the family on stormjt, nights to retire to restat a very early hour, so that the good fairies may unobserved enter to find shelter and repose. A very ancient tradition that a fairy in the guise of a beautiful woman ones bewitched a host of the best men of the island and then led them all over a cliff to their.death in the sea, prevails so unyield incly to this day, that a jranx wife or sweetheart will on" no occasion precede her husband, lest her character lor correct womanly attributes be impugned. The same fairy which established this custom ii the one which, in its efforts to escape Manx ' vengeance, was transformed into a wren, and has ever since, on St. Stephen's day, been hunted, stripped of its leathers aul beaten to death in countless nnmbers. - Edgar L. Watckvatt. An Aluminum Xlcroicope. A microscope now made ot aluminum weighs only 2 pounds 10J onnees aa against 7 pounds 13 onnees when made in ; brass. The screws are of brass, the Camp-, bell-fine adjustment of steel, and the bom piece pf Uermaniiver. .