OCR Interpretation


Zajedničar = Fraternalist. [volume] (Allegheny, Pa.) 1894-current, May 21, 1958, Image 10

Image and text provided by Ohio History Connection, Columbus, OH

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84024547/1958-05-21/ed-1/seq-10/

What is OCR?


Thumbnail for

Page 10
3.4
mus
an(
3.4
1
u
John
s
an(
cases
"ZAJEDNIČAR"
May 21, 1958

Thursday Afternoon, March 27th, 1958. 8th Meeting
The Supreme President called the 8th Meeting of the
Supreme Board to order Thursday afternoon, March 27,
95S. with greetings and made note of the fact that in at
tendance were all members of the Board and other CFU
officials.
Bro. Mandich Before we go into a broad discussion
of this plan and the recommendations contained therein. I
think it is in proper order that we first hear from Supreme
Vice President bro. Bazdaric, who has done considerable
work these past several months to bring about the near
future staging of a weekend Training School for Greater
Chicago Lodge Secretaries. Nest Managers, and interested
others on the Lodge level. This school fits in with the Ex
ecutive Board's conception of a^Field Department at the
Home Office and should be explained here for the edifi
cation of all of us.
Bro. Bazdaric Together with others interested in
this project. I have worked for months to interest our Lodge
Secretaries and Nest Managers in a Training School de-
have already said that they would be very happy to attend
such a Training School and that arrangements are under
way to hold the gathering Saturday and Sunday. May 3-4.
1958. We would require in advance of the School sessions
prepared tents dealing with the operational methods of the
various Departments at the Home Office and someone from
here to conduct the May 3-4 meetings. We foresee nothing
but good from this project and urge the Supreme Board to
approve the undertaking for the welfare of the Croatian
Fraternal Union. Finally, we in Chicago feel that this will
mark a historic step forward in the annals of the Society, 1
Bro. Grasha This is most gratifying news, for it is
rife with benefits and promises of future progress. Even
more pleasing, it marks the first concrete step taken in the
direction since the delegates to the 1955 Convention urged
that a Lodge Secretaires and Nest Managers Training Pro
gram be put into effect if feasible. In this Chicago School
we now have the basis for a real program and I urge its
acceptance by the members of this Board.
Bro. Mandich You will note in the Executive Board's
plan just such a proposal to conduct Schools along the lines
Bro. Krasich I wholeheartedly endorse the proposal
Bro. Skrtic I want to congratulate bro. Bazdaric on
this step, for he and all others behind the idea deserve much
Board 6 months ago instructed the Executive Board to pre
pare a Field Department Program for this session of the
Supreme Board. Be that as it may. I doubt that in the short
time between now and the May 3-4 Training School in Chi
cago the texts asked can be prepared by the Home Office.
However, if same can be prepared. I too will endorse the
undertaking under discussion.
After bro. Bazdarich explained to bro. Skrtic why this
Training School move was made in Chicago, bro. Skrtic
asked the Chair to read the proposals made in the Executive
Board's Field Department Program.
operation of the Society
b) To mimeograph or print the gathered material in
book form.
c) To divide the material into four parts for use at four
well-organized lectures.
d) That all members of the Executive Board and Offi-
nies. Special emphasis on the benefits offered by the Soci-
insurance.
C. Third lecture. Explanation of the different kinds of
certificates available to adult members.
from membership in the Croatian Fraternal Union
Bro. Skrtic then moved and bro. Hinich seconded that
the Executive Board's Field Department Program be a
dopted as tendered. Unanimously agreed.
Bro. Skrtic next asked if any thought fi&d been given
by the members of the Executive Board to a person or per
sons capable of heading the Croatian Fraternal Union's new
Field Department. When informed that no names had as yet
been mentioned in connection with this work, bro. Skrtic
proposed a former member of the administration for the
post and asked the Executive Board to give him due con
sideration. Agreed.
Bro. Mandich We should bear in mind that the party
who comes to handle the new Field Department must do
so on a permanent basis. His duties will be many and varied,
for he will have to further a promotional and new mem
bership program the likes of which we have never under
taken. In short, the person selected for the post rciiust be
thoroughly qualified to carry out the assignments to 'be
agreed on.
Bro. Krasich No question about it. The person to
be named to the post will have to be thoroughly qualified.
Bro. Mandich advised the. Board that the time had come doing big business and foreseeing a great year. The success
o
a discussion on the Executive Board's prepared plan for
the installation of a Field Department as a part of the oper
ational makeup of the Croatian Fraternal Union's Nat'l
Home Office at Pittsburgh.
voted to an open form discussion of the many complex fa- edif^nng1 and I believe we are all in agreement that the May
ccts of the Croatian Fraternal Union and ways and means
of solving the many problems which beset our Lodge and) Board's Field Department Program, mark the first steps we
Nest officials. I am pleased to inform you that 57 people
and the beginning of a new and greater era in its manyl gro Grasha explained that the inclusion of a Training
years of service to our people in the United States and, School Program in the Field Department proposal" finally
nada
suggested by our Chicago members. The results which come future to promote Training Schools and other phases of
out of this particular undertaking will serve all of us in
good stead when we plan future schools in other centers
of the Society.
before us. for nothing but good can come out of it as we i sentativc could move to that area immediately after his stay
continue to look after the best interests of the Society and in Chicago and thus cut down on expenses. Bro. Mandich
its membership. Of course we need such schools in American asked bro. Hinich to explore the possibilities of such a Mil
and Canadian centers of the Croatian Fraternal Union and1 waukee-West Allis School after his return home and advise
the sooner we propagate their undertaking the better for
the Society. I am positive that the Home Office will extend
every possible aid in order to help assure the success of the
May 3-4 Training School meetings in Chicago.
credit. However, I cannot understand why bro. Bazdaric Field Dep't Program was then put to a vote. Unanimously
came up with this now when he knew that the Supreme
Bro. Mandich then read the following proposals in thei question be mailed to every member of the Children's Home
Field Department Program, which the Executive Board Board, with a request for a reply as to their findings, and
agreed on without dissent immediate action by the Executive Board of the Croatian
So as to ease the work of the lodge officers and present Fraternal Union if necessary. Unanimously agreed.
builders, and in order to properly explain to our members! Bro. Bella next read a telegram from Delegate bro
all of the benefits offered by the Society, we recommend
to the Supreme Board the following plan: requested information regarding the Society's operations
1. That a capable person be employed in the Supreme in his state. His wire was acknowledged and filed
Office in the near future, with the following duties: A letter was read from McKeesport. Pa., Lodge 44
a) To gather various material concerning the work and
cials in the Supreme Office assist in the gathering of ne- fornja Central Committee of CFU Lodges and their outlook
cessary material, each with respect to his own department.
in such drives promote just such schools as the one to be
undertaken in Chicago surround the Croatian Fraternal
Union with the best in public relations and so forth. Now,
should we proceed with a Field Department in the face of
the present national economic situation? If you read your
daily papers, the answer is "yes." In spite of unemployment
and everything else, insurance companies in Amcrica are
of our own Membership Campaign, which is exceeding our
fondest expectations is proof of this boom in the insurance
industry in general. Now that we have adopted a Field
Department, now that we have taken the first step to carry
a mandate of the 1955 Conventibn, now that our fii'st Train
ing School is about to be held in Chicago, let us proceed
with confidence in the future. Finally, I would agree with
bro. Skrtic's choice of a person to handle the new Field De
partment. But I feel we should seek the identity of still
others who may possess the qualifications needed for this
vital post.
Bro. Majetic asked bro. Krasich what he had learned
during his recent interview with a person connected with a,
fraternal employing paid Field Men. The Supreme Treasu
rer obliged and said in his remarks that our Field Depart
ment Program will prove in time to be far superior to any
thing now promoted by organizations like ours.
on the lack of promot
2. The lectures or classes could be divided in the fol-j0f the West.
lowing manner: I Bro. Krasich moved and sister Niksic seconded that
A. The first lecture to include a general outline or the bro. Kirin's suggestions, recommendations, and the like, be
Society's history, the history of the fraternal movement turned over to the Executive Board for thorough study
America in comparison with commercial insurance compa-
ety in addition to insurance coverage. member of Uniontown. Pa., Lodge 72, in which he wished
B. Second lecture. Insurance as a sound investment, 1 the Board well in its deliberations and urged action in the
and methods for selling larger amounts of insurance evep.,
if the prospective member believes he already has sufficient acknowledged with thanks and filed.
Following came a lengthy letter of suggestions, recom
mendations, and certain criticisms, penned by bro. Josip
D. Fourth lecture. Explanation of juvenile insurance gate to the 1955 Convention. Acknowledged and filed,
certificates, and the benefits and advantages to be derived a letter from Bourlamaque, Quebec, Delegate bro. Mile
He will have to safeguard old business with the same zest Lodge 1 with reference to better social security and assis
that he goes after new members and business. Cash sur- tance to elderly citizens, medical care, and that our Society
renders, lapsations. and other similar problems will have urge the adoption of such laws for assistance to the aged
o
be solved by him. He will have to promote Membership and feeble.
Can^aigi£ fireats widegprayi eeotijgept for participation Brother Kxiflfeh This resolution £omes from jnjr
Bro. Mandich Everything said so far has been most
Chicago Training School, together with the Executive
take along the road of experience. This is a wonderful
beginning, one we may well bo proud of.
Bro. Borich congratulated the Executive Board on its
Field Department Program and urged the Board to organ
ic as many Training Schools as soon as possible, with em
phasis on a school in the national headquarters city of the
Croatian Fraternal Union the City of Pittsburgh.
Sister Niksic likewise congratulated the Executive
Board and urged the members thereof to keep in mind the
Purdue University fraternal life insurance course, the best
in America, when the Field Department begins operations
training is needed.
convinced him of the soundness of the idea as a whole. Un
til then, said bro. Grasha, he was still of the opinion that
paid Field Men could never do for the Croatian Fraternal
Union what its Membership Campaign workers have been
doing for years building it from the fraternal standpoint.
Bro. Vranes revealed that he too had talked with Field
Men on the payroll of other insurance organizations and
came to the conclusion that their system was by far more
commercial than fraternal, something we here want to a
void at all costs. In congratulating the Executive Board, he
urged that nothing be left done now and in the immediate
the new program.
Bro. Hinich asked if it were possible to conduct a Train
ing School in the Milwaukee-West Allis Area after the May
School in Chicago in order that the Home Office repre-
the Home Office of his findings.
Bro. Majetic promptly proposed such a school in Great
er Detroit and sister Niksic urged that one be undertaken
in the so-called Calumet Region of Indiana. Both Board
members were promised action along the line.
Bro. Skrtic's motion to adopt the Executive Board's
agreed
Finally, details pertaining to the May 3-4 staging of the
Greater Chicago Training School were left to the Chicago
Committee and the Executive Board.
The next Order of Business was the reading of Com
munications and Resolutions.
A letter was read from former CFU Children's Home
employee sister Maria Javor in which she called attention
to certain conditions said to exist in the Home.
After a long discussion of the matter, bro. Hinich
moved and bro. Mikan seconded that copies of the letter in
Baldasar, New York, N. Y., Lodge 129. wherein he
igned by Secretary Margaret Rupcic Miller thanking the
Supreme Board for its September, 1957, Scholarship Award
to bro. Joseph Sucevich. The Board was pleased to hear
the sentiments of the Lodge members and the parents of
the award winner.
A long letter was read from bro. Milan Kirin, Van Nuys,
Calif., in which he detailed the work of the Southern Cali-
action. Agreed.
Next came a
Minutes of The March, 1958, CFU Supreme Board Meetings-Part 3
ion in youth activities in that part
ietter from bro. Peter Crnkovic, long-time
of the Society's older membership. The letter was
Frankovic of McKeesport, Pa., Lodge 25, who was a Dele-
Butkovic was read and then turned over to Junior Order
Director bro. Grasha for further study.
Acknowledged next was a letter from bro. George Kar
lovic of Zeigler, 111., Lodge 452.
Also acknowledged and filed was a letter from HamUr
ton, Ont., Lodge 644 Delegate bro. Joseph Stanovich.
With this the Chair adjourned the meeting and or
dered the next one convened Friday morning, March 28,
1958.
Stephen F. Brkich, Recording Secretary
Ninth Meeting, Friday Morning, March 28, 1958
The Supreme President, Brother V. I. Mandich, opened
the meeting with his greetings. All supreme officers and
officials were present. The President asked for the reading
of the minutes. Brother Vukelich read the minutes of the
sixth session, which were approved, on motion of Brother
Mikan seconded by Brother Kovacevich.
Next in the order of business was discussion on cor
respondence and resolutions.
Brother Bella, Supreme Secretary, read a resolution of
Lodge 1, and was adopted after receipt of complaints from
a number of old members who are not entitled to sick ben
efits from our Society, and whose old age pensions are limi
ted. with the result that they are in dire circumstances. The
resolution was adopted with good intentions, and the mem
bers of Lodge 1 are desirous of our Supreme Board taking
action to support the growing demands for passage of ade
quate social security and for the adoption of a medical aid
program, such as already in effect in some states. He ex
pounded and explained the subject in considerable detail.
Brother Bazdarich I agree that this is a good thing,
but would ask if there might not be a better way to go a
bout this, namely, if there are not, in Pennsylvania, stronger
and larger organizations than our own Society, and if these
organizations are taking similar action, and if so, then we
should lend our support, which would be of greater effect
than if we were to undertake the action on our own.
Brother Bella In contradiction to Brother Bazdarich,
I think that a start should be made some place for stronger
action in the passage of better social security laws for more
liberal assistance to the aged who really neetl this assis
tance. This can in no way harm our Society, but can only
help it. He cited some action which was attempted along
these lines, but which died out.
Brother Hinich I think we should adopt a resolution
on the basis of this resolution of Lodge No. 1, and that it
be published in the official organ as encouragement to our
lodges to urge their senators and congressmen to lend their
support to these laws.
Sister Niksic This is an important subject, although
it is nothing new, for there has been much talk about social
security and medical aid laws, over the years, and which
will come some day, so it is more than desirable that we
take some action in this direction.
Brother Borich Ours is an organization made up of
99'V of the poor working class, who in their old age receive
a meager pension of $60 a month, or worse. The labor unions
are fighting for social and medical security for the working
class and ordinary people. I am a member of an American
beneficial organization, which is also working for better
social security.
It is our duty to join this struggle by whatever legal
means at our disposal. Yes, I agree that this resolution of
Lodge 1 appear in the Zajedničar for the information of all
our lodges, and that we all take appropriate steps in ac
cordance with the resolution.
Brother Bazdarich I would not like to be misunder
stood. I have said that I agree with this, but I wondered if
there was not a better way to effect our aim.
Brother Majetic I am a member of the CIO union,
which union is demanding and putting the pressure on the
lawmakers and the companies, for adoption of social se
curity laws, such as now under discussion. It is a law which
will eventually be adopted, for the public demands and re
quest it. Majetic made a motion that the resolution of Lodge
1 be printed in the Zajedničar.
Brother Grasha I am in favor of increasing social
security assistance. I was in favor of medical aid until two
weeks ago, whpn the Insurance Department held hearings
for increase of rates for medical and hospitalization insur
ance. The way things are going, the rates will soon be so
high and exorbitant that we will not be able to pay for this
protection, and will have to drop it.
Brother Skrtic Everything said here was well stated.
I have nothing to add in favor of this resolution, which is
a proper one, except that we are not asking our government
for anything for nothing. Anything that can be given under
these laws, we are paying for, and we have a perfect right
to ask for better protection in old age, disability and sick
ness.
Other supreme officers also spoke in favor of the reso
lution under discussion, Brothers Kovacevic, Ovcarich, and
then Mandich, who spoke in some detail on the fraternal
code and how gradual action in that direction can be under
taken however, that pressure should not be exerted upon
him as president of the Pennsylvania Fraternal Congress,'
for him to put the pressure upon Congress, which should be
done only at the proper time and under the proper circum
stances.
Brother Vranes When this resolution is printed, the
attention of our lodges should be called to it, with instruc
tions for the membership to authorize their officers, in case
a bill is pending, to immediately send telegrams to their
senators and congressmen, urging that they vote for such
bill. Passed.
Next to be taken up was a resolution from Lodge 32,
objecting to the rejection of their resolution for printing,
on the subject the sale of the old, and erection of a new
home office building.
Brother Bazdarich obtained the floor and explained
how the adoption of that resolution came about, and why
the members were moved to resentment and displeasure over
the fact that the matter was taken so lightly, wherefore
he believed that the members were entitled to some expla
nation. He put the blame on the Croatian Editor, Brother
Vukelich.
Brother Vukelich In addition to this resolution, there
were a number of similar resolutions received, and the Ex
ecutive Board ruled, while the matter was before the dele
gates for decision by referendum, that nothing be published
in the official organ, either pro or con, so as to allow the
delegates to vote without an attempt to influence them. The
Supreme President, Brother Mandich cautioned me, said
Brother Vukelich, that I should explain that to the lodge
by private letter, but which I overlooked doing, and I admit
that the error was mine. That is how the Croatian Section
brought one small article in favor of the building of a new
home office by one of our older members from Lodge 351
in Detroit. That small article appeared in the Zajedničar by
error, and I admit that it should not have, but in that same
issue there was a lengthy article, also from a member from
Detroit, Brother Sudetich, against the new building, and
even against Brother Mandich, our Supreme President, in
the English Section. My Lodge No. 32 does not complain
about that article, but only objects to this which was pub
lished in the Croatian Section. Lodge 32 is my lodge, for I
was in that lodge at the time I was elected to this position,
and I have always considered it my lodge.
I am sorry this happened, and I admit my mistakes
here, and ask that my lodge take this into consideration,
which I did not do intentionally, but through error.
Brother Borich Since Brother Vukelich gave such a
truthful explanation and regretted the incident, I think
that Lodge 32 thereby obtained some satisfaction, so I
move that it be so stated in the minutes, and that this mat
ter be considered closed.
Brother Mandich read a letter which he wrote in reply
to the secretary of Lodge 32, for the information of the su
preme officers, and asked Brother Bazdarich to try to as
sure the members of his Lodge that even though a mis
take was made, it was not intentional.
Brother Borich's motion, seconded by Brother Kova
cevich, was passed unanimously.
Brother Bella read a letter from Lodge 374 written by
Brother Plemel, regarding the decision of the Executive
Board upon the request of the lodge that Brother Mandich
be the speaker at the lodge celebration, the Executive Board
having decided unanimously, after Brother Mandich's ex
planation, because of the high traveling expenses, that he
not attend their celebration. At the same meeting, there
was a discussion of the invitation that Brother Sarich at
tefld tbe (jeleb^atioji of Lodge 787, Vancouver Canada,
which was also denied because of the great expense involved.
On February 12th, said Bro. Bella, I notified the lodges dl'
the Executive Board's decision, but Lodge 374 did not be
lieve that a unanimous decision had been made with refer
ence to Brother Mandich's invitation, therefore the protest to
the Supreme Board.
Brother Mandich stated that he is of the opinion that
if he could visit the lodge, and at the same time visit Port
Arthur, Canada, and our Montana lodges, that such a trip
would be worthwhile. In that case, he would be willing to
take the trip, so as to satisfy our Rock Springs, Wyoming,
lodge.
Brother Krasich I exchanged several letters with Sis
ter Glavota on this subject, for clarification. She is a good
secretary and fraternalist, but there is no basis for the pro
test that this lodge also pays administration expense assess
ments, which is not for traveling, but for the Society'®
administration expenses. When this question came before
the Executive Board regarding the invitations to Brother
Mandich and Brother Sarich, Brother Mandich stated that
this is a long trip connected with great expenses, and since
considerable amounts were spent on traveling, he was of the
opinion that we should be careful and tighten our belts, in
order to keep the traveling expenses from being too high.
I was the first to tell Brother Mandich that I agree with
him in that, and the decision was accordingly made that
these trips not be taken by reason of high traveling expen
ses.
Brother Borich At the last session, the Supreme
Board permitted the Executive Board freedom to decide
when it is necessary to send speakers to lodge celebrations.
He said that if it could be arranged for a visit to the lodges
in Rock Springs, Montana and Port Arthur, perhaps it wouM
benefit the Society, so he moved that this be done.
Brother Skrtic We have here the question of Bro
ther Mandich, and also Brother Sarich and his visit to the
Vancouver lodge. Our decision should be impartial. If
speakers are sent to these places, then our California lodges
can also ask for speakers from the Supreme Office at the
expense of the Society, which will bring on great expenses.
He moved for confirmation of the Executive Board's decfr*
sion.
Brother Vranes I do not think either of these mo
tions is in order, for we gave the Executive Board the right
to make decisions regarding traveling, and now we want
to change their decision. He said that was not correct and
made a motion that the Supreme Board redirect the matter
to the Executive Board for final decision at its discretion.
Brother Vranes' motion was seconded by Brother Krasich.
Brothers Kovacevich, Servov and Mandich spoke on
this question.
Brother Vranes' motion was submitted to a vote and
passed without dissent.
This concluded the order of business for this meeting,
whereupon the Supreme President, Brother Mandich, closed
the meeting, which was to resume in the afternoon.
Remaining Correspondence and Resolutions were the
next item on the agenda.
A letter was read from bro. Simon Skalabrin, member
of Seattle, Wash., Lodge 439. Bro. Skalabrin's recommenda
tions and suggestions were acknowledged with thanks and
filed.
A letter from bro. Philip Paulin, Milwaukee, Wise.,
Lodge 261 member, requested from this Board a clarifica
tion of his status in connection with the Children's Home
Board.
This letter elicited a brief round table discussion, fol
lowing which bro. Mikan moved and bro. Kovacevich second
ed that the Supreme Secretary be directed to reply to same
in behalf of the Supreme Board. Unanimously agreed.
Next came a letter from bro. Ciril Ga jak, a member
of Youngstown, Ohio, Lodge 109, in which he outlined cer
tain recommendations pertaining to recognition of thoai|
affiliated with the Society for 50 or more years. The Board
acknowledged tfie letter with thanks.
This completed the reading of Correspondence and Res
olutions.
The Supreme President then turned to discussions per
taining to the Good of The Order.
Bro. Mandich began the discussions by asking the Su
preme Board in the name of the Executive Board for
a clear cut interpretation of what services come under the
monthly salary of the Legal Counsellor of the Croatian Fra
ternal Union and what legal services are to be considered
subject to additional compensation.
This brought on a lively discussion, one which saw ev
ery member of the Board speaking out on the matter ai||
an explanation of the extra services rendered by the Leg«
Counsellor himself, bro. Edward B. Servov.
It was finally agreed by the Supreme Board that the
action in this matter by the Executive Board be approved.
Next came the Society's Christmas Card Program, whicdl
was inaugurated in 1957 for the purpose of augmenting it
Scholarship Fund.
The Board was briefed Thursday, March 27, 1958, on
the outcome of the 1957 card undertaking by the head of
the Philadelphia company which distributed the cards to
members of the Croatian Fraternal Union.
After a brief resume of the matter by bro. Mandich
sister Niksic moved and bro. Mikan seconded that the Soci
ety's present contract with the Lipschutz Co. be terminated!
Unanimously agreed.-
Bro. Mandich then asked the Board to decide what to
do about continuing the Christmas Card Program in 1958
along the lines of the suggestions and recommendations
made by Mr. Lipschutz himself on March 27.
Bro. Grasha then moved, bro. Borich seconding, that,
the Croatian Fraternal Union enter into a new contract witlt
the Lipschutz Co. for the distribution of 1958 Christmas
Cards.
After explaining his reasons for apposing a contin
uation of this program, bro. Hinich moved that the idea 0it.
1958 Christmas Cards be dropped. Bro. Ovcarich seconded
the motion.
Speaking on his motion, bro. Borich stated that a con
tinuation in 1958 of the Christmas Card Program seemed
the proper thing to do in light of Mr. Lipshutz' explanations
of the previous day and pledge to correct the many mistakes
which cropped out during the first such undertaking in 1957.
ICqRtifiusd On Page 10
Philip Vukelich, Recording Secretary
Tenth Meeting, Friday Afternoon, March 28, 1958
Supreme President bro. V. I. Mandich called the Tenth
Meeting of the Supreme Board to order Friday afternoon,
March 28, 1958, with best wishes and a plea for completion
of this semi-annual session by early evening if possible.
Present were all Board members and other officials
of the Society.
The first order of business entertained by the Chair
called for the reading of the Minutes of the 7th and 8th
Meetings, both recorded by English Editor of the Zajednicaar
bro. Stephen F. Brkich.
Sister Sylvia Niksic moved and bro. Math Kovacevich
seconded that the Minutes of the 7th Meeting be approved
as read. Unanimously agreed.
Bro. Milan Vranes moved and bro. John R. Mikan sec
onded that the Minutes of the 8th Meeting be adopted as
read. With bro. Milan Skrtic dissenting, these Minutes were
approved by majority vote.

xml | txt