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Lynchburg Virginian. [volume] (Lynchburg [Va.]) 1829-185?, December 11, 1848, Image 2

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84024649/1848-12-11/ed-1/seq-2/

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/V '-C:t'ref's of ;’ie Vetx ,/e
.antuflk l/in tf Reprett itatfrex.
r J - nignant Prytidenceof Alniig t
.. . ■ .tires ■ f the Matt ■ arid ot the pc- p!<mr
r i "tit together t) delibcr.ve t’>r th" Vie
fh? gratitude ol the nation lo l he ,'s/te.v.ga
t" all huuiati events sbnul 1 It* c mire, .urate
L.io .■ or Hess I-', 'si igs which \i* 01; y.
■ ilouty. nhd •ootentuieat rcigu throughout onr
■ ,‘.c..d >«? beloved toon try, presents a sublime
- j-.etae’e to the world.
'.led and unsettle ! condition of some of the
, . European power? ba« bad cnece»«sry lon
ehe o': and embarrass trade, and to depress
r Mg'. ft all commercial nations : but nut
s' : h--.tn.lingthese causes, the United States, with
t o. .a., in lact products, have felt their ejects less
severely than any uther country, and all our great in
terests are still prosperous and successful.
In reviewing the great events of the past year, and
contrasting the agitation and disturbed state of other
countries with our own tranquil and happy condition,
w • may eougrni.ul.ite ourselves that wc or ■ the most
1 ivorcd p ;ople on the earth. While the people of other
c .u a tries art struggling to establish free institutions,
t.n ier which man may govern himself, wc are in the
j i! enjoyment ol them—a rich inheritance from otir
f: rs. While enlightened nations of Europe are
.. also 1 it'll distracted by civil war or int dine
- w: sit tie all oar pjhti al controversies by the
Mi uen the ball t
i. . . t r ( i... c in i... er.' - • sod’ ■ ■ .y co_iav
t ! a too ir psop: . that the will of the ma
•' . : iy isp.-*' j J> sh.tli prevail, is our
... ■ . .. . : force . . I v! •;n ;t. Itirasnb
. : ■■ .'.d , u. .t .or i . i. rv. 1 eh.tract r a a
tvon e ntinue r tj i lly t j ndv.ai e int o c dt iirinn
li ts to i attributed, that w t i
i ... i 'v.ii ie.it* th-.ir people. wo have
. .. ,, :; ,,; ;:i p.j c.i 1st ol an unin
■. . .i .i ..a injrea-u:g individual
. i i tu .. v a ... • our .liaiionswith ail
i ..is re in . iv tnd p teiiie. xVdvautageous trea
* . . . lOu t
* • • - LWO
ii i m, ii i . ■ (ililoit >u»" and Aiuu‘ki«. uiiur^
v riu. V.I . .1.' •-.nr c.c imid k. tk'** rcatiu uvu- .>y.->
t si « * /• • tt iil'i Emit' prillC j .ll itfl'Oiji'U OUStOiliCi*,
• •
,, .s ],r.»a:, jijjnji 1 i by oil! :* enii^litcned tuitions, ;uui
• r inh'V stari-i ; irjjhiT in the rer-’.iejt of tao w riid
;. -i anv fn-m r pen-el. Lo continue to occupy this
j- i 1 ]« ••'’ti m ii is only necessary to preserve peace
m 1 faithfully adhere to th; groat iui«l fundamental
principle of «mr for aga p of noil interiorencc in
the «1*st• • »a-*ri*:;s i other nations. \> u rccoguizi
in all nati >ns the rights which we enjoy ourselves, to
chan :o and reform their political institutions.acC‘*rding
t<* their own will and pleasure, lienee we do not look
behind cxistin •* . runem-s. capable of maintaining
tli“ir own r ritv. We n -ni/e ail such actual
g ‘V’oruni ■nfs, intonlv IV >m th** dictate.* ot true p uic\, ,
1’at fr an . r ir 11 r th ;iudej endenfco of na*
ti ev.
\ 1 » • foil
• that w • o,i . . . * *; r- s t.:e j . •
•f •'« of lil) T : • • lie U- • - M a - -
|dc nf the United Stall
light the establishment .if die i r m r. public, as we
now hail rhe orf >rts ia prn s : unite th -States ot
it rinuay in a mfod m*:i i n similar la many respects
t > our own Federal Fniou.
If the--?tt ml «alligator-1 <i •; n in States, occupying. i
•• ihy do n co’itrl and coinr.mi ting position ii» Europe. •
• . H s’ieC M-1 in establishing *ucfi a e .miV Ier.it < l g v. in.
mt. securing ht.tlic .same lim to i
.Ui.local governments :««i**l to the peculiar cn 1 itit r ;
« . each, with uure^'.ric; I trade un i intercom-e with each
Si. r. it will bo an important ora in the history of hum n '
. vents. Whilst ir will coa.sdM '■••ml struiw’ ni the j
i >ver of (J Timin'. it inn<: •• vntially promote the cause
. pc ice. O' - mi -roe. ••iviiizatiuii and constitutional liberty
thr* urhout the world
With all the governments on this continent our roll- j
ti ms \t i> belie v • \. ;.rc now on a wire friendly an l satis- ;
ft ... , tooting than tkyy have ever been at any former j
t i'icc the exchange of ratifications ef the treaty of ,
p with Moxif*, our intercourse with the gowrnnieut
,.f that rei uhlii has b»-*n ot th" nr*st friendly chui\w*<*«.
•Th " ■ E;«r.i rdi i ry in ' M 1 I’icutpotentiary
,, . f . { s v* !•..-. boon riv.-ivcd and ar-j
an i a li.dotm:i.: r r * •utativ** t. aM- >ic*»»i
. . r-ink h *.« been rec< ive-i ail I :* iv-ii:*. i g«»v- j
• a *r. l lie a;aicable rcl 11i«ms V*t •mi t:. oouu-!
vv hi ill lirt 1 i»‘mi »usj mi b d. h MC been *p- ily res- !
; !..i:i l til* • ! Allied.I tru t t*» be V. r* pr- ; rved. The !
v. n-j.-ib-i-s. b-'ili sit-iMtc 1 It th> .-eu-bicnt. mid with j
• • ini jus : rrltori* b \\ . ;** motive of sympathy
■ i f inr rt'Ki to l*r.! iLi.i ‘.her in perjictnal .amity, j
T..:- 2cr:.t i • ••*n lit ion of our foreign relations rent- j
i 'i* it turi-*1' ;ry for ui° to recall vo ir attention more |
-cir.caily to llicm.
i*, v..< :,bn rv constant aim mi l desire-to cultivate
j • .<’> | •; f •'rcc with all nations. Tnnnpiility ut
fioioe rail peaceful velati. ii-- abroad. constitute the true
pc mi'll! cut i-1 icy of oar century. War. tin* scourge of
D'ti4»us. jiouj'ii m *-bt'coi.i. r? iuevital'b'. but i> al w.t, - to be
avoided when item be d.ue coii.-iateutly with the rights
mid honor of the nation.
One uf the most important results &f the war into which
we wore recently fore-1 with a neighboring nation, is the
d^raoa^tration it ha- atfonled of the military strength of
our country. Before tin* late w irwith Mexico. Kuropeuu j
and other for ign p -wers entertained imperfect and erro- ■
jirmis views of our } hysic.il strength as a nation. and ut j
our ability to pr »se.:tilc war. au l especially a war waged ;
rut of our own country. Tae\ saw that our standing ar- !
,av di I not exceed ion thousuiid men.
Avuistome l themsi lves to maintain in peace large
:.*n ling jinnies t-r th • proto -tion « t thr uies against j
icir . • . veil ns against { neraios.
\ ,*y bad n t conceived that ii was pos-ihlc tor a dh
ti,'U without such an army, vj,l ui.jr .1 and oi long
,. • . v, in low
- . ;• up fi g th cm
• ; ,.:i i " ' : t 1 • 1 i 1 t 1 :p a rC
i in va —
■ ,i • -.rs'ot the wa? v.b.h Me vie » have not only
■i ; ■ • v- 1 them. ,r i: tv removed erroneous impres
lto s . ’
v. n c -ntrv. d mV war 1 »s demonstrated,
- . ^ a the breaking out- u a -ah ties not anticipa
* had
»l » * , * ■ •/i ".t :e:i so: ad s. ...aial to vci
. ut : r.... ■ • • . i-. . r.tv emergency,
• >r* ir' i sir': ■ p i" ' i . e i into the held.
1 . ‘.kj wa.tr \v ... i pave . - rre I in any tlier coun
ter xv' were un u* no i.ee ;sity oi rot or ting to
.w:z'v:s or eonserb. *; ns • -n the contrary, such, uus
t.ij n.i a' -jr g v •! i ■ c :rs v. a * patnjt’.cal:;.’ toiv^eica
: ut . was i; m
. 1c '.is wli.i sli-ial 4 1 * V ir.t land compel!'i
t rcuirun at 1 ■ 0 ir .on- Svl Hers arc nnliie
• - drawn fraai lie papulatlou of an; ther
. irr era oo,i.p J*ui mdiscriaiinatcly of all pr io ,
and pureaks; of farmers, lawyer*, phys.o.ans, user
jants. mamiia- rarer*, me '.lanio-s and lal: >rcrs ; ami
tl.is n t «i:lv am nzthe tiffi.-er*. !»nt tlie prirate sol
diers i.i the r-u.'t. (* ir o!;i/. -n-s fl her*.are unliKC those
of aay other count. ‘n other i per.*. They arc arm
ed, and Have Heea rnst.eaod f.’ m their youth up to
handle an 1 use fire-arm*, and a large prop rti m of i
them, espeoiaih. in the western and more newly set-1
tied State*, i ■ expert murltsmen. They are men who
hav ■ a repu. u to -.tain at home, ' y their cond :
coodj -t in the he'. 1. Tin v are ta.tellt-ctit and there is
an in lieid. i,..:.-• f ■di-tra-t r w'.r his found in the
rank-of ;i i other army. In ,r le, each private man,;
a* ». il a* . ;y ■ , ■. f f r country
p; :ot • his folk w-citizena
^ hen no =;o.a r ". . *. -• .
i'b* war with .Mexico I not
fhe ability . i - ^
army op in n s:i 1-1 n ealkbu* :d< * pr vMc? it with ull ‘
the m i r. * turns I
c -nvenien:-. a.id c.ise.u:. 1 t .1 - t its c.p/»ratiuns w*tL
: ’ aey T strengi * r
■only l» h*n displayed i i the Viil>»r n 1 >k il ot our tr « j
engaged in active scrv.ec m t1 !.l t ::i tls rguni
zation of th«*-e eiecutive bran h - whi 'h were char- j
gc 1 with the general direction and conduct the war.
While ton rvc it pmise cannot be bostawo 1 np»«n the
au 1 men who fmight ur • ..glcs. w u *
uti] i l to w'thhobi from Mi - • ;ft *rs neco^aru/ --■•
:.r b ’uc.whu u ro' ii i-gc i wi li the '.!u‘y<d tor
• . . , - i
*.<«<«>> - * ; . . . • - .
wr i aa t ,.o i.i. t:o . r ti ! ; . •appl> -on
.'etsary t1 it • iii I f Le ui.li.. i.ottliin to which
the? are entitled.
Tin. ere.lit doe t th hv»s of our titfieors is tl:> .
greiivr. when it is eon-id..! ud that no army in ancient
or I’l idcrii ti ues u" or ettcr appointed or provi
de 1 thaa our omiy in Mexico. OpXnting in an «v
ray's enuntry rern .ved two thousand milf- (rum Ott*
seat oi government, its diUierenc corps .-prtad over a ,
vast ext. at of tc.rit ry. hundreds and even thousands
of miles aj art irom each oth :r, nothing short of the
untiring vigilance and extraordinary energy of these
(Beers c .u!d have cnah,. I them to provide the army
at aH points, and in proper season, with ah that was ,
re. | id red for the most e.ii dent service.
it is out an act of justice to declare, that the •. (Sects
in ciwtrgc of tlm several executive bureaus, all under
the immediate eye and snperr.sion of the Secretary of;
n at.performed tlioir respective duties wii'a ability,en
ergy and efficiency. Turn, have reaped less of the glory '
of the war,not having been exp iscd to the perils in bat
tie. than their compani ms in arms, but without their j
f recast, evi dent aid,and e .-operation,those m the field J
would not have been provided with tbc ample means j
they possessed of achieving for themselves and their,
country the unfading honors which they have won for
both. j
When all these facts arc considered, it may cease to j
be a matt t of so much amazement abroad how it hap
pened that our noble army in .Mexico,regulars mid vul- ,
unteers, were victorious upon every battle tield,UuWeV
er f nrful tlic o Ids against them.
The war with. Mexico has thus fully developed the
capacity of republican governments to prosecute sue- j
.’■'-sfully a just and necessary foreign war with all the j
viper usuu'.iy attributed to more arbitrary forms oi j
govern!.;. It has In n usual for writers on public !
lav,-to impute to republican want oi that unity, con
t,:, ,. - .i 1'. ui pose, a.> J \ig.,r ui ex..cu.. t, v...ic.i
. u ..uUtcd.-to belong to the mouarvliicai
.. . . uiistacnuic f..ri::s : and tills ftaturo of popular '
t vi rtmu !.: lias boon suj post d to disp ay i alf uiorc
purticul irly in the cmdui t of a war landed on in an .
• uemy's territory. The war with i;reat lliliaiu, it.
■' ■ - was t. a great extent confined within oor own ,
(units a;: . bed hut 1,1'lc bubt on tins subject. Cut in
w■ i-‘ i v« •: l;;i» • ■ :U:aD «■» i.'.• 1 by mi non*jy-l j •.,
doubithat a
:jv - : c«jiul t i any eii. r^tuev widen la likely
to ...b'j It. ilit"- ui,*.!.--. or a ikiUoxi.
'! uj war will. M* .dr * L.g developed most Strikingly
t ■ i itions.
Mill' l.-. it'oi Wo liUVf.5 III lliO ’ .0*01.1 vf til* tO'jl- tV
. ' . . V .
ally a stall bn;' army oi’ ivvo udai-ms < i armed citizen
sot i.ers, feucli as foii^ut tbo !,»■'■ riles < i 31cxi**c.
Gut our military ;-i—; not c nsi.: alone in
our ? ry I r extended and ne >;'u! o:vrations on
land. 'Xuu Xaiy is an important arm of the national
deb mjo. It the services of the imry were ue-t so bill
bunt a- those ol ihe army in the into war vvitii Mexico,
it was be<wu: e thay had no enemy to meet on their el
ement. U life tbo army hi; 1 opportunity of j i f via
ing more conspicuous send c, tbo navy largely partici
pated ia the conduct of the* war. iloth branches of
the service performed their whole duty to the country.
1'ortl.o able and gnllaiTt services ol tiic officers and
men of the navy—acting indepen dcutly as well as in
-••per n i th our troops—in the conquest of the
• V, r : ■ to; ore t Vera t’r-iz. and the seizure
me! i. : . a'm of other important positions on the ,
laucc, en rgy, toil kill r lered tl 1
in excluJ 1 miti :. >f war and of In r sup
id - : • :n cnoiay, wi de they -•■•ure.l a safe en-,
tram;for abundant supplic forvar own army. Our i
■•Vi lc.1 c-oiMie roc was 1..where in.tcVir.jiLed : and I r '
ibis mmiun.ty from tlm evils of war, the country is in
dil led t) the navy.
High praise is due to the officers of the several exec- 1
iitiv I ur au - n u y var I', and . is connected with 1
the service, all under the immediate direction of the;
Secretary of the Xavy. for the industry, foresight, and
■y with which everything was directed aud fur
ni'-ite.l to give efficiency to that branch of the service. 1
'1 he same vigilance existed in deeding the operations
of the navy, ns of the army. There was concert ofae- i
tion and oi purpose between the heads of the two arms '
of the set vivo. Uy the orders which were from time!
to time issued, our vessels of war bn the Paeilie and !
Gulf of Mexico wore stationed in pr.apor time and in t
proper positions to cu-opi rate cfluiently with the army,
fly this means ilit in c.unbilled power was brought to j
bear successfully on the enemy.
The great results which have been developed and
brought to light by this war, will be of immeasurable ,
importance in the future progress ofour country.—
11; will tend p oweifiiliy to preserve us from to reign .
colli.-ions, ami to enable us tn pursue uninterruptedly |
our cherished policy of -‘peace with all nations, entail I
gling alliances with none.'1
Occupying, as wc do, a more commanding position
among nations than at any former period, our duties '
and our responsibilities tj ourselves and to posterity;
are eorresp mdingly increased. This w ill he the more
obvious when tve emtsidor the vast additions which
have been recently made to our to: ritoria! possessions,
and their great importance and value.
IV itli n less than four years the annexation of Texas (
to the Ciuon lias been consummated : all conflicting ti- !
tie f • the Greg >n Territory south of the forty-ninth dc- ;
greo of north latitude, being ail that was insisted on
by any of my predecessors, has been adjusted, and j
New Mexico and Upper California have been acquired
by treaty. The area of these several Territories, ac- J
cording to a report carefully prepared by the Coiiimis- [
siouur of the General Laud Uuiee from the most au- .
tlientic information in his possession, and which is j
herewith transmitted .contains one million, one liun- ■
IreJ and ninety-three thousand and sixty-one square
miles, or seven hundred and sixty-three millions live
hundred an 1 fifty-nine thousand and forty acres: while
the area of the remaining twenty-nine States, and the
territory not yet organized into States east of the
line ,y Mountains, e iitr,i..s two.millions fifty-nine
th mound live hundred and thirteen square miles, or
thirteen hundred ii'n l eighteen million one hundred
and twenty-six thousand-aud fifty-cup lit acres.
These estimates shew- that the territories recently
acquired, and over which our exclusive jurisdiction and
douuni in have been extern! 1. •'.ev-tiiute a country
more tii-.ur bah a-- large as all that w hich was held by
the L ni ted States before their an piisuion. If Greg a
be exclude 1 from the csiiu.ate. thoro will still remain
within ti o limits oi Texas, Xev. Mexico, and Galifornia,
eig ht hundred and fifty-one ill iisand live hundred and*
ninety eixht square miles, or live hundred and forty
live midion twelve thousand seven hundred aud twen
ty acres : being an addition e null to more than oiie
t'hir-i of ail the territory owned by the United States
' tore their uequi iti-u : ami, including Oregon, nearly
as great an extent of territory as the whole of Du rope,
Russia otil.v excepted. The Mississippi, so lately the
frontier uf our cuuu-ry. is now only its centre.
With tiir r.dditioi s ■ ; tiie late- acquisitions, the Uni
ted fit ate ; arc r. .w estimated t:> he nearly as largo as ,
the whole • f I! irtpo. It is estimated by lire superiu
: ndcat of the c- a-'S survey, in the ivceompauying rc-,
g ,t. that tiro extent oi the aei itofT ■ :i the.
Gulf of Mexie'. is upwards of four hundred miles; of
the Coast ol Upper Call! rnia, on the Pacific, of nine
hundred and seventy miles ; and of Greg n. including 1
the Straits i f Fuca, of six hundred and fifty miles:
m iking the whole extent -f seacoaat "ii the Pacific one
thousand six handled and twenty miles, and the whole
extent on both the Pacific and the Gulf of Mexico two
thoasnu i and twenty in. les. T ho length of the coast;
on the'Atlantic fro n the n rthern limits of the Unitud t
fitates. around tiie < apes of Florida to the Fabinc, on
the eastern boundary ol Texas, is estimated to be
three ti inar.fi one hundred miles : so that the addi-,
r: n of sc-: *. ii. lu Ik g Greg n, is very nearly two
third? as great as: all we possessed before : and exclu
ding t hvgc.n. is an addition uf one thousand anu three i
hundn 1 and seventy miles; being nearly equal to one
half of the event uf coast which we possessed before
these acquisitions.
We Lav- r. w three great maritime fronts—on the
Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Pacific—making
nt w! !? ■■ xtent if s iw st xe iding five thou
sand miles. This is the extent of the sea-coast of the I
United totes, i t including, bsvs. sounds, and small
ulnriti - fth main shore, and of the sea islands.
It th -el e in-la i-b the length of :he shore ii.io ol
.-a:-- hunted by tli* sup rii teodent e . :
-u-v-y. in In - r-j•".■?, a ou.fi fie thirty three thousand
.. - ..! V- ' . • V- t: I, .
it would U ‘i.dicuit to calcinate the value uf these '
iaiiue’ ;• us ti ur tecritoi ... pueaassu n; —
Vc sm* »ti*8 w- -tern b- indar; of Lo.tiv
!*:•“» n.'Mi. ; g v ’,.in if ih- itsM p ,t : die naviga
ble tvd utary waters of the Mississippi, and an ex;>;n
«*‘C sea coa t.i nUiuot long have remained in tlie
lands cl a l rugn power without endangering the
pea e of our -ootlm estern frontier.
lb r iiKdileta in tho vicinity of the tributaries of the
Mississippi inns* have sang!it a nuuket through these
stream*,running, i;,W and trough our ttrrjt.rj; and
the danger of irritation ana collision of interest be-1
tweeu rexas as a threign State and ourselves would
have been imutiut 1 r, while tlie embarrassments in tlie
commercial intercourse between them must have
bceuconstant and unavoidable. Had Texas fallen into
the hands,or under tlie iuilucuee and eutitrol of a strong
maritime or military foreign power, as she might have,
hone, the-c danger, would have been still greater.—
They have been avoided by her voluntary and peace
ful annexuti ,n to tlie United .States. Texas, from her
position, was a natural and almost indispensable part
<■; our territories. 1'urtunateTy, she has been restored
to our country, and now constitutes one of the .States
ot our conf.- if racy, “upon an equal footing with the
original States. ’ The salubrity of elimate, the fertili
ty ot soil, peculiarly adapted to the production of some
oi our most valuable staple commodities, and her com
mercial advantages, must Soon make her one of the
most populous States.
-New Mexico, though situated in tho interior, mid
without a sea-coast , is known to contain much fertile
laud, to abound in rich mines of the precious metals,
ard to be capable of sustaining a large population.—
I ron) its position, it is the intermediate and councc
t.ng territory between our settlements and < or pos
ecs.,ii,ns in 'Texas, and those on the Pacific coast.
LpT U-hi jrnij, irrespective of the vast mineral
wealth rce’r.tly developed there, holds at this day, in
1 out of \ nice :.n 1 imp rti'.nee to the rest of the Union
met i ll Louisi m i did, w h n that line
tcrr.t .rv v. ..: .equired from Eranee, forty five years
ago. Extending nearly ten degrees of latitude along
tho Pacii:and embracing the only safe and eomnio
e.i■ in b :rl rs on t! coast for many hundred miles,
eoil . ivo inf .lor of
i t i “ j ibl • esti ite
. b it shall bo brought under tho government
its res
Prom :position, it must command tlie rich com
merce . 1 ' : it. of A da, of the islands of the Pacific, of
\\ cct rn Mexico, ot Central America, the South Amer
ican State.i, and ol tho Ilussiau possessions bordering
on that ocean. A great o.np irimii will d u! dest npco
dily ai i e on the California coast, which may be des
tine.lt. rival in.imp nance New Otleeas itself, The
depot oi tho vast commerce which must exist on tho
Pacific wih probably be at some point on the bay of
'■in 1 ranciocu: and will occupy tiic same relation to
the whole ww-itvu Coast ol that ocean, as Mew Orleans
i.'ocd to the \:iL< y of the jnssUbiinti anil the Gulfoi
Mexico. To this depot uur numerous, whale ships
will resort v.ith their cargoes to trade, refit, and ob
tain supplies. Thls_ of itself will largely contribute
to build up a city, which would soon become the eeu
tre ot a great and rapidly increasing eoniiucrce. .Situ
ated on a sale harbor surhcieutly capacious for all the
navies as vvcil r.s the marine of the world, and conve
nient to excellent timber for ship building, owned by
the United States, it must become out great western
naval d;pot.
It was known that mines ol'the precious metals ex
i.'ted to u considerable extent in California at the time
of it>ac.ju’- itioii. Decent discoveries render it pro
1, d ie that these mines aro more extensive and valu
able then w, - anticipated. The accounts ot the abun
dance oi gold ;u that territory arc of such an extraor
dinary character as would scarcely command belief
were they nut corroborated by the authentic reports
of offic r.- in the public service, who have visited the
mil oral di.-triet, and derived the facts which they de
tail from lcrsona] observation. Delucfant to credit
the rep >rts in general circulation as to the quantity of
gold, the officer com < an ding our forces in California
visited the mineral district in July last, fur the pur
pose of obtaining accurate information on the subject,
llis report to the \\ ar Department of the result of his
examination, and the facts obtained on the spot, is
herewith laid before Congress. When ho visited the
country, there were about four thousand persons cn
g'lgcd in collecting gold. 'There is every reason to be
lieve that the number of persons employed lias since
been augmented. The explorations already made
warrant the belief that the supply is very largo, and
that gold is found at various places in nu extensive dis
trict oi country.
Information received from officers ot the navy and
other sources, though not so full and minute, confirm
the accounts of the commander of our military force in
California. It appears, also, from these reports, that
mines of quicksilver are found in the vicinity of the
gold region. One of them is now being worked, and
is believed to be among the most productive iu the
The i Sects produced by the discovery of these rich
mineral deposites. and the success which has attended
the labors of those who have resorted to them, have
produced a surprising change in the state of affairs in
i '.liifurnia. Labor commands a most exorbitant price,
and all other pursuits but that of searching lor the
precious metals arc abandoned. Nearly the whole of
the nude population of the country have gone to the
gold district. Ships arriving on the coast are deser
ted by their crows, and their voyages suspended for the
want of sailors. Our commanding officer there enter
tains apprehensions that soldiers cannot be kept in
the public service without a largo increase of pay.—
Desertions in Ids command have become frequent, and
he recommends that those who shall withstand the
strong temptation, and remain faithful, should ho re
This abundance of gold, and the nll-engrorsing pur
suit of it, have already caused in (la itbrnia an unpre
cedented rise in the price of the necessaries of life.
That we may the more speedily and fully avail our
selves of the undeveloped wealth of these mines, it is
deemed of vast importance that a branch of the mint
ut the l nitefl Mates bo authorized to be established,
at your prevent session, in California. Among other ■
signal advantages which would result from such an !
csialdi hmiuit would be that of raising flic gold to its 1
par value in that territory. A branch mint of the l - :
uited States at the great commercial depot on the west
coast, v. mild convert into our own coin not only the |
gold derived from our own rich mint's, but also the bul- '
lion and si. ecie which our commerce may bring from
the whole west coast of Central and S<mth America.—
11 tool t of America and the adjacent interior
embrace the richest and best mines of Mexico, New
Urenada, Central America .Chili and Peru.
The bullion and specie drawn from these countries,:
and especially from those of Western Mexico and I’o- i
ru, to an am unt i i v due f many millions of dollars, j
ire now annually diverted and carried by the ships of
• reat Britain to lier own ports to bo recoined or used j
to sustain lier National Bank, and thus contribute to
increase her ability to command so much of the com-1
mcrco of the world. If a branch mint be established :
it the great commercial point upon that coast, a vast
nun,unt of bullion and specie would flow thither to he i
recoined, and pass thence to New Oiloans, New York, ■
and other Atlantic cities. - The amount of our constitu- \
lional currency at home would be greatly increased,
while its circulation abroad would be promoted. It is j
we 1 known to our meiehants trading in China,and the !
west coast of America that great inconvenience and
css arc experienced from the fact that our coins are !
not current at their par value in those countries.
The powers of Europe, far removed from the west
Mast of America by the Atlantic ocean which inter
venes, and by a tedious and dangerous navigation a
•ound the southern cape of the continent of America,
;an never successfully compote with the United Mates
■i the rich and extensive commerce which is opened to
rs at so much less cost by the acquisition of Califor
The vast importance and commercial advantages cf
California have heretofore remained uudeveh ped by
:ha government of the country of which it constitu
t'd apart. Now that this fine pnrinco is a part of
ur country, all the States of the Union, some more ,
immediately and directly than others, are deeply inter- '
:>ted in the speedy develupement of its resources.—
No section of our country is more interested, or will
i more bene fitted than the commercial, navigating,
vi.d manufacturing interests of the Eastern States.—
>ur planting and farming in every part cf ti.e Union
■v ,ii 1 greatly benefitted by it. As our commerce and ,
tvigation are enlarged and extend*; 1, our exports of j
agricultural products and of manufactures will be in
creased : and in the new markets thus opened they
ii.iu.rr.CTRf IJBIH 11
cannot fiulto c luuiand lvu.u.ii.ganl j rofita' le
pr!c*s- i, !
i1,e acquisition of C..::forn.n fl : 1 New ’xico, tl.o i
settioir.tinr of tl.o Oregon boundary. i d the umicxn-1
tit.n of Texas, ex* inding to the PdoGrunde, are results
vrt.ieh, combined, are of greater consequence, and will 1
add more to the strength and wealth of the nation.than
any which have preceded them since the adoption of!
the constitution,
Bat to effect these great results, not on.lv Calif irnia '
but New Mexico must be brought turner the control ot
regularly organized governments. The existing can
dition of California, and that part of New Mexico ly
ing \\ est of the Bio Grande, and vvltiiuiit the limits . i.
Texas, imperiously demand that Congress should, at its '
present session, organize territorial gov ernments over
I pon the exchange of the ratifications of the treaty
of peace with New Mexico on the thirtieth of May
Last, the temporary governments which had been es
tablished over New Mexico and California hy our mili
tary and naval commanders hy virtue f tile rights i t
war, ceased to derive any obligatory free troiu that
source of authority ; and having been ceded to tbs L
nited States, all government and control over tliem un
der the authority ot Mexico had ceased to exist. Im
pressed with the necessity of establishing territorial
governments over them. 1 recommended the suhiect to '
the favorable consideration of Congress in my message 1
euximunieating the ratified treaty of peace on the sixth
->t July last, and invoked their action at that session.
Congress adjourned without making any provision for
their government. The iuhal itauts, by the transfer of
their country, had become entitled to tho benefits of
our laws and constitution, and yet were left without a
ny regularly organised government.
binee that time, the very limited power possessed by
the Executive has been exercised to preserve and pro
tect them from die inevitable consequences of a state
of anarchy. Tho only government which remained
was that established by the miiitarv art oritv during
the war. Regarding this to be a doi'aeto govermeut
that by presume l eon sent ..
be ■-ontinned tempos ily, t advised to
eontorm and submit to it for a di. rt'ivri ,d beforeCon
gress would again assemble and legi ate
jaet. The views entertained bv the Executive on this
point arc contained u a mi im ■■ n of the Secre
tary of Suite dated the seventh of October hist, which
was to warded for publication to California and New
Mexico, a copy of which is herewith transmitted. 1
lihe small military force of Ih regular armv, vvl fob
v.iw serving within the limit-. f the acquired' territ
rKis Ms the dose of the w iv, was r< tain d v, itl in t
and additional forces lmvc been rdered there ti r the
protection ot the inhabit::’,t- , an 1 to i reserve r.nd re
care the rights anil nn. rests oi tho l aim! hr .
;No revenue lias been or could lo e filccted at the
ports of California, because Congress failed to author
ire the establishment oi custmn house;, or the appuint
ment of officers for that purpose.
1 The Secretary of the Treasury, by a circular ad Ires
id to collectors of the customs, on the seventh day ol
October lost, a copy of which is herewith tran :rittv 1,
exercised all the power with which lie is invested hv
In pursuance of the act of the fourteenth of August
last, extending the benefit of our post office laws to
the people of California, the Postmaster General ha;
appointed two agents, who have proceeded, the one to
California, and the other to Oregon, with authority to
make the necessary arrangements for carrying us pro
visions into effect. '
: u monthly line of moil steamers from Panama to As
'ona ha i.ren required to “stop and deliver and take
‘nails at . m Diego, Monterey, and Man Francisco.! —
Those mail steamers.connected by the isthmus of Pan
ama with the line of mail steamers on the Atlantic
between New York and Cb.m res. will estaiish a regu
lar mail communication with Calif mia.
_ It is t ur sol mn duty t - pr vide, with the mast prac
ticable delay for New Mexico and Calif ••ri.i, regular
ly organized territorial governments. The 'causes of
the failure to do this at the last session of Congress ]
are well known, and deeply to bo regretted. With the j
opening prospects of increased prosperity and nation
al greatness which the acquisition of these rich and
extensive territorial possessions,affords, how irrational
it would he to forego, or to reject these advantages, !
by the agitation ot a domestic question which is coeval,
with the existence of our government itself, and to eu
dangut uy internal strifes, geographical divisions, and
b ■ d contests for j liti .-at [ ou r, ir ti r any other j
cause, the harmony ot the glorious Union ot our con
federated mates, that Union which bind; as together
as one people, and which ‘or sixty years ha eeu our >
shield and protection agairst every danger
In the eyes of the world ar. l of posterity how tri
vial; and insignificant will be all our internal divisions '
and struggles compared with the preservation of ibis 1
l nion of the Mattes in all its vigor and with all its !
countless blcssi 'gs ! No patriot would foment and
excite geographical and sectional divisions. No lover
of Ills country would deliberately calculate the value of j
the Union. Future generations would look in at
ment on tho folly of such a course. Other nations at i
the presant day would look upon it with ast
and such of teem as desire to maintain anu perpetuate
thrones and monarchical or aristocratical principles, j
will view it with exultation and delight, because in i;
they will sec tho elements ol faction, which they hope
must ultimately overturn our system.
Ours is tho great example ot a prosperous mid fret
self governed republic, commanding the admiration
and the imitation of all the lover of freedom through
put the world, llovv solemn,therefore, is the duty,how
impressive the call upon us and upon all parts of our
country, to cultivate a patriotic spirit of harmony ot j
good fellowship,of compromise and mutual concession,
in the administration of the incomparable system ot |
government formed by our fathers in tho midst of al- '
most insuperable .difficulties, and transmitted to us, I
with the injunction that vve should enjoy its blessings 1
and hand it down unimpaired to those who may come
after us !
In view of the high and responsible duties which
we owe to ourselves and to mankind, 1 trust you may !
be able, at your present session, to approach the ad
justment of the only domestic question which seriously
threatens, or probably ever can threaten, to disturb ,
the harmony and successful operation of cur sys
1 no i amenscly valuabto possessions of New Mexi
co and California are already inhabited by a conside
rable po- ulation. Attracted by their great fertility,
their mineral wealth,their common i .1 ndvanta ;es and
thci aluhrity ol the climate, emigrants from the older
States, in great nutnl ers, are already preparin ' to seek
new homes in there inviting regions.
Shall the dissimilarity of llie domestic institutions in
the different i-ratcs pr rent us lioia providing ibr them
suitable governments ? These institutions existed at
the adoption ot the constitution, hut the obstacles
which they interposed were overcome by that spirit of
compromise which is now invoked. In a conflict of
opinions or of interests, real nr imaginary, between
different sections of our country, neither can justly de
mand all which it might desire to obtain. Each in tha
true spirit of our iustitutiuus, should concede some-1
tiring to the other.
Our gallant forces in the Mexican war, by whose
patriotism and unparalleled deeds of arms we obtained
these possessions ns an indemnity for cur just de
mands agains Mexico, were composed of cit zuns who ,
belonged to one State or section of our Union. They
were mon from slavcholding and non-slaveholding
States, from the North and the South, from the East
and the West. They were all companiohs-in aims
and fellow-citizens of the same common country, en
gaged in the same common cause. When prosecuting
that war, they were brethren and friends, and shared
alike with each other, common toils, dangers, and suff
Now, when their work is ended, when peace is res-,
tored, and they return again to tb.-ir homes, put off
the habiliments of war, take their places in soeietv,'
end resume their pursuits in civil life, surely n state of
harmony and concession, and of equal regard Ec the
rights of all and of all sections of the Union, ought to
prevail in providing governments lor the acquired ter
ritories—the fruits of their common service. The
whole people of the United States and cf every "tuto
contributed to defray the expenses of that war • audit
would not beju t for any one section to exdu le aaoth- j
er from all participation in the acquired territory._
This would not he in consonance with tiro just system !
ol' government which the framers cf the constitution
T he question is believed to be rather al.-r ,.<?t tht u
practical, whether .- Uv- *y ever can or wo ,, i calc:
----- - /-. .
..;•> poixx n of tt.eu»’«j irv v, own it* .t were
!••:: to 4L • • piiii 'H.cf the b ti.o’.iinp them
seb ‘8. From th0 Suture'of t!io cJmr t; nnd ^»r-.»cliir*
tit ns, in mr:h the lava r portion <#t it. it i-? c r uin- >
could never exf?-t : .r. d i.i tlir lemainder, the pi hid'd
ities arr. it would it t. Hut h we vet* tbip may be, the
quesfcidn involving, as it docs, a principle of equality
of righto of ;he <; 1 sever.d wtat.cs, as equal
ci irtnxrs in rderiuy should not bo tlisre

■ ■ ■ . . .
' ■ x' ! '
srru ent V. hrt!. j t' a; re :h ,!1 legh h. c < l*r r, the
pc r le vCth? *• "h I ’ievii'**v. v. h-1» rscmV!**t in
* i..... . coi iom will S309S t
.**’c ■ 1 > -.drr*3 I:?tr *v t* 'Vermin•* fer ther’selv.
whet! ■ t *d ay -1;.*11 or bh b n t exist within ihciv'’in
i'. 1. shall ahitain fr >in interfiring with h
e'- n. too people of these territories will be left live
n a b • t it: s they may thin h proper when they apply i; r
a !:ii' - n as States into the Unien.
No e:i .cut of Congress could restrain the peoj Y i r
any of the sovereign Stales of the Union. <11 or n w.
north • nili. slaytjholding or non-slaveholding from de
torminin ; the character of their own domestic institu
tions as they nny deem wise and proper. Any and all tin
•Yates p -sess this right, and Congress cannot dej rlvt*
them of i . The pooplcof Georgia might, if thev c h« <
s ' ahcr their confutation i to abolish slavery wiidiiu its
limits . an 1 the pcoj lc (l V< rm might so al
constitution as to admit slavery within its l’mi .;. 11 .h
: ’ hough, as a . i
not probable that either would exert ii.
U is fortunate lor the ] cace and h irniom* of the Uni
on th it this <|iiesii • •• ! • in i. -; na. ure teuin.irary. and can
• ; *iei’ peri 1 whi h will* in; ■ rv< no
H into the Un'mn. K; >m I he h Y of v, mil.•lien now
■ ' ’ will soon

? ovci-.il Smtes :i** equals, and entitle l to cigia! ri_ht> n*i
<lcr the constitution, if ihis were ar. b Yi.-.l '. a. it

fe:vucc is the true do,-a-‘me, and that Co* .re. could i: r,
in the absence ol' any express gixuxs ub p-jwc.x inter! c;\*
with their : lative righi .
Upon a great *uei .::*v I wvov x nnd un-Yv- irw.-In*
anger? to the Unio; Miss
l iver}) w is adopted The s:u
tcii-1 fiirthur viix in < Y- hi a ' Tc AC. •

co.:11 roniise recognized .;ti l .h.i he 1 b . the: * ax ;
to SlYOl.l tlU) UUilgLT LO l V • c 1 ' i -1 V...WU i.ilj . a . <\\ j; it
were new* di-reg irJ Y. L lnive beret olk.-e exji. 1 tb *
Inion tl ’ i i e shotil l bo e t< . •. .
:: the i-.irtib 1 ».•!' t!i::-t;*• ' de--;re«‘s thirty minute* lVorn
the worn-;) boundary ut* Yc - : where i: new term?nates,
to the IV.YfiC*.
upon v.1 ie!
t!.;o ii- m* . . ii ! s i l : ■) hir.y meet, av (lev
have he ret* ft in uu t. n . d , 'iffa c mfitl nil y
;;elieved a htr *e nu-juriiv at the people of every section of
; ie f*oi’i;Jry. iiowevrir widely their alis’nct opiri tns mi
t • . • v v . rfu f Iv ar*
•ii;:, * m it, and i caoe and liju.k ny would a in iii 1
tiur t.orders.
The h . triction nrrth of the line was only yid h-d to.
hi tin- ease ut .Mi s.o.i and 1 ox is, *«p.m a piinci. . 1
'■ . : -S'iV ! >r tin* s *fc© of pn ■ f
the harmony. a1 d : «jssi ;ly toe existence of the Union.
It was up<n ;:iese eonsidera lions tint at tho <■; • </’
last y
tdie M.'s.si ini e j *ij.r'inis.: line, !»y a • iro’Mug and -
t!;e ■ h to «.•* ■ .. h Turrit. r\a 1 g ivennuenud ! -v.
1 to pi tit .....
Union 8
1 . t :
o:r g* question. But it Ur.ogress shah now rev
Hie decision, by which the MJfsu :.i ceinpr raise w ; , t
i«e*cd.a ii . p - se toc.Mi :m ri-striotioti overt in
wdl its ii: of the jarallol ol
tliir.y six deg:, ss thirty minutes, it will cease to be a
corn promise, au.i must lw regarded as a:i original ques
tion .
ii Congress, tiis'rnd ot observing the course of non in
tei torent’o leaving t!ie adoption of their own domestic
instt utio.-y to :he people who may inhabit these lerritu
lies; or it, instead of extending the Missouri compromise
hue totijy Pacific, shall prefer to sub mit the legal and
cauj.tiiutio.nal qut sdons which may arise to the decision
<d the judicial tribunals, us was pr pust i in a biil which
pass d t:i■ * benaia at vo;r last sessio:’, an adjustment
may i»o ci:'etud in this nude, ii the whole subject b-1
roierreu : * the judiciary, r’l parts of the Union should ,
ciuierlt.lly acquit see in ; >e f ml d* vision of the tribunal, i
'Tested by the constitution hr tire settlement of all umm
lions which may arise under the cues.iint.o.n, tiv:.::cs,
and laws of the Uuili a S.al s.
( ongress is earnestly invoked f»r the sake of the U
nion, its iiarmony :t:n! our c iir.inued pr spe-rity, as a .a-’
Hon, to adjust ut iis pn s. : session this, ! :t: >: !y danoe
rou ; question w iti *h ii. s in our path—ik riot h some one
of the modes suggest-d, in some other which may bo 1
m :.ni: :pa.; n r f ’’.or * iislirncnt of ..:’argovtT:i
men:s • %fr the anpi: . o i rnmries, a j lot c emission
■ t I ■ i . . ■ . order<d (a pro*
'■or.: to i;u nst < t ia ami Ortg :.. f..r the pur ‘
l>oso nf making ret oimoisanees anda teporlastn lluipri.ji r
■itts iur the erection oi iorliiicatiuns or !t:licr delf-nsivt' j
tvurliu on lauii. arid of sniiaHosiiuatious f.r naval sla-1
'' The inforrhatlna vviiieh may lie expected from a
scientific aodsUiful exaniiriali m of llii- tvlioh face of the
eoast will bo eminently usefjl to Congress, when tin y j
.;onie to c ms.di r the propriety of making appropriations
for these great national subjects.
I’loper m..(Wires on land will ha neeessary for the se- j
ciidty and pro tec. ion of onr pass soims ; and the estab-|
i.sliment of navy-yards, and a dock for the repairing and
t>uristniction of vessels, wiil b;j important alike to onr na- !
vyand commercial marine. Witlmut such establish*!
,llents,every vessel, whether of the navy^r of the met-1
chant service, ri‘(|iiiiiiig repair, must, at great expense,)
come roiin I Cape 11 irn t i one of oer Ailantio yards for!
that purpose. With sncli retablishments, vessels, it is j
believed, may be built or repaired as cheaply in Califor
nia as u[koi the Atlantic coast. They would give em-I
playment to many of our . oterprisiug ship builders and
mechanics, and greatly facilitate and enlarge our cum
in tree in the Pacific.
As it is ascertained that mines of gold, silver, copper j
md ipticltsilver cxi*l in Nmv Mexico and Calif.mia,
in.l tlrut marly all tiic lands where 'hey are found, he
ong to the Unitetl States, it is deemed important to'
tlie public interest that provision be made f.r a gcoiog- i
icnl and mineralogical exaiuinatiou of tin’s0 rrojons.— ’
I It
' peci Ily such as c ain the pr< clous tin tals,
for the use of die Toil d S; lies : or if brought into mar
kct, *o separate them from the f a ming lands, and dis
l>ose of them in such manner as to secure a large return
of money to the tur’Sury, and at the same time lead to
t *e devel, pmuedts of i.h.ar vvcailh by individual pr pric
tors and purchasers, io d > this, it will i»e necessary to
provide for an immediate survey and location of the lots.
If Congress should deetn it proper to dispose of the min
cral land-, they should be sold in small quantities and at
a fixed ri inimuin price.
I recommend that surveyor general** offices lie an?bor
ized to be establishnd in New MexicuanJ California,
ti.d provision made tor survevlngand bringing the public
lands into market at the curliest practicable pf-riod. In
di pn.-’ing of these land-, I r eo.i.mmi 1 that the right
ofprt < in] lion be sect red, and I;: ral grants made to
• he early emigrants who have settled, or may settle upon
it will he imp rf.vit to extend our revenue laws over
those Territories, and csp.> .daily over Calif irnia, atari
early period, Th reisnlnadya considerable commerce
with California, and until ports of entry shall bo estab
lished and collectors appointed, no revenue can he re
If these and other necessary and prnper measures be
adopted for the development < f the weahli and resources
of New Mexico ami California; ami regular Territorial
governments hr. established over them, such will proba
bly be the rapid enlargement of • ur cummer c and navi
gation, and such the addition to the national wcal.h, that
the present gem ration may live to witness the Control
ling commercial and monetary power of the \v .rid trans
lirrt.i fi *m I.«•*:. i n and other European e:;.p riums »•_
the ci!y of N't w York. I
The nppr liensiuiis which wore entertains 1 by some!
of ••ur .-tauhiueii. in the earlhr periods of the govern- !
u»'i:t. th;.. .or .-y-sit rn w as incapable el* «•; • rating, with1
iufficiecit energy . . .. J u r
rwoiiai iii.x.t*, uni that if tin’s av. nq*.*d. n w. uhj 1
l-o to piec. 6 by i.s o.mj vvt a km ss, have .r- a dissipated !
r,.V eur e\ru ii. me. J.i the tlii.i ; power beiwo t i,
tUe iriutes -no it.d* r .1 g-.vtmii.enf,^nrts ihut.d ■ »,
-* ST-'.-- - t*
'I' ri’i with as ii
■ ii . ft i
Si i i- u hieii : r . n:
th .1 S at .1 w || .1 'f nil.
»• «!, it n.ay w.;;
!>•'; t•.1 !■ i. Iliiii b.. < . it.,
’ i£i a! tliitns ii Si.iif*'-, the
and ■■ • s lulali. i wnr'i! cot
•it'd npm tin ,. eitiul r ; , .
S'ttfs'.nr! I -bus t . v ■ ira !•• !. f .1, r:iT *
•.tinny pi'll I 1.1 .Ii.e |.rar;:,\il!y, i'r .111 wli.il n iL'.^ *
11 ...... led l by ils liaonrs. s
iiina a in . . ... i ■ •< ,■ ' r
> l!.n I son. I ,.;rr If Ir v-y. I !»• I; ,.fjs ... , J- ■ ' 1
c iterubm d llinteueh new Jya , gives slm: oil, :iI ,| ... ■
' p ■■ f.rthe i'ns rtatmn id l
I the jiili tfnncs . ftltfi provisions of the thirteenth a„;
III.; treaty pence, friendship, limits, and 'J.7'
: v. ilh i! ■ republic of Movie... anti of tin- aet , |,
> i.ie d9. IMS, claims of utir citizens noninst the ■
can republic, •.unu'iiuier, will, ihe interest ii„ r,
I1'i|h'"i twenty-three llnmsaiid eight hundred nnd'tliiriv"
'"/• dollars and liny-one c ms. luve been li.i.ii !:| ,.,i ... .
p.id. Th to remain m lie pud of ili,.-e claims.
I ur ilu.u .and imo hundrtd and ninety-two dollars ■ i
iw. i.ty six touts.
C’oiiun ;s al ns last session having made no prnv,>i,m
'.or ex, eiiting the iitieentli article of tho ir< atv i,»
ul.H-l. the l III'ed Suites assume to make salisf.,e|jJn |!r
L'i:’ . ttnrpialtlied claims” .f our citisseng a.. .
.’.ix.p ', to “mi amount nut txcccding three ami a'.ua,
lermillti.nsofd.dars, the subject is again recflumLd
*d t«» )t.t-r i.ivnruliiO ciinsidmtiun.
J lif rxohniijre « t r .ltificniiuns «t* t hr* treaty w * * It M, v
teptook place »n the ;:;itl, May. l,>iS. \V,'thin one t. r
I l.er that lime, the emiumsfn,rrer and survey, r wH- ,
ll.® ; “» 1 ' 1 1 *'J app iut, are rum I red t.,
;«"hejx.rtot Nani),ego. ami prone si to nm and
uia.p the said boundary m its whole tarn me to the moull.
" T.R* Rrav°'*,‘l Norte.” it will be seen from this
pmpi- m, ti n; the period within which n commi-i ner
' ' ' the respi c'ivn < . j,, „.ei;
I ! " a Dnoo, will expire uu th. ......i May. 1.' id.
. ( close of its Iasi session
: ‘ n I'-r **ilu» v\ |» listsofnmiiiirr an.! i.;.i , ,r (
, . ii the-two e it ntrii -i
ihn a:« util f al; ry w hich Ii uid he paid to the i
. ’/• V . ,|p ; ! 'llrv 1,1 ■1 :i ."‘Pit. d I. the p.iit , f tin,
' * [< t . -sirn;-!,> llrti l!if nuiirnnl u| „
t' . - w y shall receive *|i tnltl
• ‘3 «a\\ aud nut loll, as at prcsi'iit, lu Kxecuiive discrn
11- n.
..I. u-,.res wore r.-.:i pie-.', at l!:r earliest ; rani,
ri .«i I, mgauizo i!> ■ ”'i\ rritmial gnvi-m.iie.il ,,fl
as antli .r,/ ,! by lire a.-l i.t'llie fieirtceiilli of.Vneiisl
i li ■ gov.-ni ,r ami marshal of lin- l'erril. rv.'acc mutnni. I
•yt-.11 rniliiary cso„r., left the Slan-of MiZri n
hcptemb' r last niul i ink the ami hern mute, |,v il„- „-,v
' ■ ;■ m;.i. to c , ui
tentinn ol pr.-eccdiiig tin tire in t.nc i,| (,er Vessels o| u ,r
to lli' ir d s:iiiatioii. j I,,- governor was tally a.lvisi-,1 ,,i
the great imparlance ol'liis early arrival in tin,
and il is conli ii-ully In lieveil lie may r-ael, Oregon j„ t|,j
lailer part ol the present m mtli, or early in the next.—
I in- oilier ollieers lor tlio Tcriitoryv liavc proceeded by
J i tiie m inli el May last 1 cnmmunicaled inf rmatton
l" < ""dress that an Indian war had broken uut ii < .
gun, and rec-mnnendeil lliai authority be given t, m- ...
■ number f voln iteers t. pn ceed without
lay “Sir teilo iv ---ii;/. USUI that term...
»>'. I Jiuatiflimiiy lo raist* sue}! ; f ure r,, t Ji:ivinir
r" by Cmign ss, as s on as tlicir services could
:-'i • ' vvtth in Mexico, irders were issued t,, ti,. T„ .
I:a'.:'t ul !:. . "tec' riflemen to proceed to ietfer*.,: Il f,.
• 1 Ul " :-o- -i:- •' jo- pare to march to iir.■■
as SO n as tin; nee, ssary pn.visi.rn eouh! be made.
Niurilv before it was ready to march, it was arresn.'
. ’ act passed by Congo's n the .
- •"* '■I'! ••‘'•':ton, which directed ti, it all ii, .
ihii-c .iitiois-ioiietl officers, nm-ichns, and ptivan-s ,i
flmry gum nt, who b..b 1. in service in M, sit .v ..
" - ’their application, lieentitled u. be disc harmed Tne
e|] cl ol this provision was to disband the rank and fib
■ I the regiment; and bef ire their places could be filled
by recruits, the season had so far advanced that it was
impracticable for it to proceed until the opening 0f the
next spring. 3
In the month of October last, the accompanying com
munication was red ived from the governor of the u-imio
ry government of Oregon, giving i-ifnrmation of ilia
tnutHHiaiitl -It toiicrlfss condition of iim ii.habiianis. Or
dors were immediately transmilted to the command, r, f
onr squadron in ilie Pacific, to despatch to their 1-._"
aui-u a part id the naval tore,- s on that station, to furnish
iw.-a with aims and ammniiition.nini
tnem sncli aid am! protection as the navy could alibi'd,
until the army could reach the country.
It is the policy of humanity, and one which has al
ways been pursued by tbe I Inin d States, to cultivate the
S"° 1 will of the a In riginal tribes of this continent, and to
restrain them from making u.:r, and indulging in exers
es, by mild means, rather than by force. 'iWliiis c. uld '
lav, !•• an d me with Hie tribes in Oregon, b id that ter
ritory been brought under the government of unr laws
a. an earlier pt riod, and had suitable measures Isen adop
ted by Congress, such as now exist in our intercourse
wilh the other .Indian tribes within our limits, cannot bo
dotil t d. Indeed, the immediate and only cause of the
uxUling In siriiiy ot lire Indians of Oregon is represent
ed In have been tbe lung delay of tire United States in
making to them some trilling compensation in such arti
cles as they wanted, for the country now occupied by our
I migrants, which the Indians claimed, and over which
they formerly roamed.
This compensation had been promised to thery by the
teinpirary government established in Oregon, Inn its ful
filment had been puslpined from time to time, fir nearly
two years, whilst those who made it had been anxiously
awaiting for Congress to establish a territorial govern
ment over the country. The Indians became at length
distrustful of their good faith,and sought redress by plun
der ami massacre, which finally led tu the present d Hi
cnl'ics. A few thousand dollars in suitable presents, as
n compensation lor the country which had been taken pos
session of by our citizens, would have satisfied the In
dians anil have prevented the war. A small amount pro
I" rly distributed, it is confidently believed, would soon
restore ipiiet.
I this Indian war cur fellow-citizens of Orerron l.nvo
hien compelled to lake the field in their own di fence,
have performed valuable military serviers. and been
subjected to expenses which have fallen heavily upon
llietn. Justice demands that provision should be made
by Congress to compensate them for their services, and
to refund to them the necessary ex tenses w hieh they have
1 repeat the rer.nnmcndaii.m heretofore made to Cen
>, that provisio ben ado for tiro a; p intro nt f i
number ot Indian agents to r. solo among the
‘r 1 “ ' t On gun. Mol that a small sum ho aj proprian • I
to enabl the3ejagents to culvate friendly relations with
d ! a li tiii. he done, the pre-ence ot a small military
lorcfi will be all this is necessary tu keep them in check
; and preserve peace.
, I recommend that several provisions he made as re
tmrds he tribes inhabiting northern T. sas.JS'nv Mexico
California, and the ex!, nsive r. gion lying between our
settlements in Misuari and these p.ssessiuns, as the
most effective means of preserving peace nj on oar borders
and within the ncenlly a' .jiiir.-il L rrin.rrs.
I lie Secretary of the Treasury will present in hia
annual report a highly satisfactory' statement of the con
tiitiun of the Financ- s.
The imports for the fiscal year endingon the 30th of
June last, were of the value of one hundred and fnfiy
tonr million nine hundred and evenly seven thousand
eight hundred and seventy six dollars ; of which ihe a
mount exported was twenty nne million one hundred and
twenty-eight thousand Sc ten dollars.leaving one hundred
*■ thirty throe million eight hundred and f.”jv nine thou
sand right hundred and sixty-six dollars in the country '
fur domestic u>r*
The value ..f the exp r's for the same period w as one
hum.r. d and fitly f.ur million thirly-iwo thousand .
hundred ar. i thirty one dollars, consisting of dum.vtiu
productions amounting to nne hundred and thinv-t\v
million nine liuiidrrd and four thousand one hundred an.
twenty one dollars, and twenty.one million one hundred
mu twenty ,Si.: usar.dand leu dollirsof jbrci'n ar- .
The receipts into the treasury f)r the same prrial,
exclusive of loans, amounted n. thir'v-five million four
hundred and thirty six ll.otnvn.l sev. n hundred and fifty
debars am! fifty-i.mc cents, of which tin rc was deliver!
mint customs thirty one million sev,.n hundred and fify
sc\ . i ■■ 111fsi'id and seventy mils and uinely xix cents;
tri m sales id public hr three million three hundred
a:.d tw.n.ty eLlii lii ,..sa hundred and fi rty two

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