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] ft was intended.by Southern m-*n an 1 Hy the u!»ra ahditionis’s. to make this cps** a Test question as to whether negro** are or are n**t to be recognized by tile general gov rnmer-t as property. Mr. C "Hamer was fr qceutly in’errnpted hy, and re PT-ed tn. noo<ti. ns pn.poimded hy Messrs Bor', Meade. C*id.lings, Toombs, Holmes, Morphy and others. Hav ing spoken his hour, lie was followed by Mr. Meade, who made a very sound, able, legal and [ constitutional argument on the Southern side of the ques- j ti*»n. At thv conclusion of his hour— Mr. Hall*of New \ ork obtained the fl or. and opposed tie* bill, replying to the remarks of several gentlemen who had mMressed the House in favor of the bill. Mr Toombs next obtained the fl or but gave way to Mr. Schenek. who n»*ived an adj urnment;up>m which a divisi in t<*.k place, and the motion prevailed. Ad j timed. Lynchburg and Tennessee Rail Road. W ashington, Citt, Dec. 20th, 1848. Dear Sir, F Have read with great pleasure the letter 1 •of M*\ F. B. Deane, Jr. addressed to yourself upon the J subject of the Lynchburg and Tenr.essee railroad, and which von were kind enough to hand me a few days since. I h ive witnessed with no ordinary sa isfaclion the growing interest which you state is manifesting in tins important work. Indeed the stales ..f \ irgiriia and Ten l essee have too long been slum heritor over the.r bound le« and inexhaustible sources of wealth, and also too indifferent a d unconcerned as to the meins by w hich thev may be developed and turned to profitable account j \\ bile \ ugirii? and I ennessee have been dreainimr and * . spei-'il jting av*om the frure, other s'ates, under less ta | vorable circumstances,have availed themselves <f ad van tages wnic i in »r* properly belonged to us. Georgia, with her far reaching sagacity, perceiving *he importance ot securing to terse If the trade and commerce of'Tennessee, has extended one arm of her great railways almost to our J A*-rv do>rsj hv which we are fumi-oied with a direct arid 8j*eedy communication with tlie Atlantic seaboard. The fit tier policy is now being daily developed. |i has given a new direction t • tt*e commerce of Ka>l Ten (lessee, port i ms ot \> esrern Virginia and North Alaba ma. Five years ago your commission houses in Win chester. Kiciimond and Lynchhutg, were crowded with merehan iizc tor \\ ♦'Stern Virginia and East Tennessee ; votir mads were filled with wagons, as the only means ot tran-p irtatim ; your stage coaches were loaded down with passengers going north and returning south. These have almost entirely disappear'd. Suutli Carolina and Georgia have quite monopolized that commerce w Inch you at one time so profitably employed. I he question now is, can you regain That which you have lost, as all will now admit, by a policy unwise and sdi »rt sighted. Every one at all familiar with the geog raphy ot ihe country, would not only answer this qttes ti >n in the affiirm.ittve, but would observe, at a glance, that the road in contemplation, if completed, at no dis tant day would become the great thoroughfare from the north to the south. Look at the map and you will oh ser e that a straight line drawn from New York to New Orleans passes immediately over the country through which this road i* proposed to t»e u a le. 'These two great commercial cities will at no very remote day, we may rationally conclude, be connected by railroad com iniinifatiou. Should the Lynchburg and Tennessee mao fbr.u one link in this great chain of railway, the delight'll climate of Western Virginia and East Ten nessee, with their towering blue mountains and roman tic scenery, Would invite and*secure fur it a greater a inount of travel than any other road in the Union; while it would arouse and direct the enegy and industry ♦ four peu| le in new fields of wealth hitherto hut little ex j dored. Knoxville the centre of East Tennessee, Richmond and Charleston form almost an equilateral triangle.— From Knoxville to Richmond is 475 miles; from Knox vilie to Charleston is 520; from Richmond to Charleston 450. 'Thus you will prereive that it is nearer from Richmond to Knoxville by 45 miles, than it is frmu Charhgion to Knoxville. Vet almost the entire travel | from tlie North to East Tennessee passes through Rich- , iuood and Charleston. The merchandize for the coun i lies 50 and 60 miles east of Knoxville, and in some m stances for some of the counties in Western Virginia, tal es the same* direction. J have shown you ih«* importance of the road to the; tarvelling public, hut there is another light in which it should be c nsideied. Your own county of Washington contains within tier bosom more gypsum or plaster, than would be necessary to reclaim all uf the “old worn-out Tunis” in \ irgmiaand ’Tennessee. The diffi rence be tween their present and increased value.by means of impro per application and use,w. nid build the ro.'d.The table ac companying the letter of Col. Rogers, formerly of Ten nessee, who isfatnihar with the country through which lite road would pass, and which is herewith enclosed, will give you some idea of the productions of those coun ties more immediately interested in the work. Th°se statistics showing the population, agriculture, manufac lures ami other resources of the country, .were taken from the census of 1S40. The census of 1850 will ex hibit a very large increase of the articles therein enu merated. As an evidence of the abundance uf minerals embeded in our mountains, I would infirm you that Dr. ’1 most, geolog st for the state, who has made an accur ate examination of the country, has declared that Carter county alone contains enough iron ore to supply the world f*r one thousand years. Several of the counties through which the road would pass, contain inexhaustible beds of marble, of a very superior quality and of the richest varieties. Let me refer yon to a specimen of our mar ble, dejMtsited iii tlie the Talent Office in this city, by Orville Rice, Esq. of 1 law kins county. And it ibis con nection, I Would add that we have many quarries in 1 law kins and Claiborne counties.out of which mill-stones are manufactured equal m every respect, if nut superior, to the French huhr. Every Tennessean, 1 am confident, would rejoice to see the Old Dominion throughly aroused to the impor tance ot this work, and engaging in it with a spirit which I will ensure success. Knoxville cannot be the terminus of the line. The entire road from Knoxville intersecting ■ Kite Georgia and Chattanooga railroad is under contract, and so is a portion of the mad from Chattanooga to Nash ville. I thmk l may safely say that these two roads will be built before Virginia extends hers to the Tennes sea line. The distance from ilie Tennessee line, where \.»ur r-*ad would probably intersect it, to Knoxville, is a btwt one hundred and ten milts, over which 4 am sa;is fied that’1 cm lessee will construct a road so soon as >he finds that Virginia » in earnest. Then let us unfold our anus, and go to work in an enterprize w hich, while it ensures prosperity and wealth t» both.w ill unite us as brulheis, and make ours a common destiny. \\ itii sentiinen's of high esteem, 1 am, very respectfully. Your obedient serv’t, WAJ. M. COCKE. lion. Thomas 5. Bocock. Washington, January 6tb, 1549. Pear Sir : Agreeably to the request contained in y»ur letter addressed to me a few daysagoj have con ferred with several members of the Tenuessee delega tion in Congress on the subject of the prospects of your proposed Lynchburg and Tennessee railroad. Though all with whom 1 conferred were requested to give uie their views in writing, only one has yet done me the favour to comply. The enclosed letter of the lion. M illiam M. Cocke, who represents one of the districts in Eastern Tennessee, not verv distant from the proposed line of improvement, will be found a very interesting and important one. It is, with his consent, placed at your disposal, together with the let ter of his friend Mr. Rogers, which he has been kind enough to procure and submit. From Mr. Cocke’s letter, and from communications made to me in conversation by other gentlemen from that State,! am well convinced ihat Tennessee is look ing with much interest to your undertaking ; and if you shall be able to complete your line to her borders she will instantly take it up and continue it, nut onlv to Nashville, hut in good time to Memphis or some .other point on the Mississippi. In that case, I do not hesitate to sav, that in use . fulness and in brilliant success, it would he one of the first lines of improvement in the I'nion. It would confer immense local benefit by opening up a business and commercial highway for those interest ing regions. Southwestern 4 irginia and Eastern Ten nessee—regions whose resources, though heretofore, undeveloped,are beginning to make themselves known, and whose vast mineral wealth and agricultural capa bilities are only equalled by the neglect with which they have heretofore been treated. What portion of our mighty I'nion, belonging to any one cf the thirty States, is now so poorly provided with facilities for reaching the great Commercial marts as is Southwest e. a » 4i'Hurt, ii part of the i4Auciei!t Dominion’' itself ? Ikn.wufnone. Justice to those regions will be at •endei w ith corresponding advantages to oor eastern town? and cities. These I shall not undertake to reit erate ; but besides these local benefits your line would posses? a far more enlarged and general importance. It would'afi rd the ?peedic?t. safest and best line cf communication between the northern Atlantic cities and the great and growing southwest. It would form the best connection between New York and New Or leans, the one the great importing, and the other the great exp >rting city of the I mon* The travel between these two points must therefore be immense. But bv an inspection of the map ol the countrv. with the vari ons lines of improvement now in operation, or in pro gress of construction, marked ofi'. i; must be evident, that not oi.ly from New Orleans, but from all Louisia na, from 1 ex:as. from Mi??issipoi, from Arkansas, Al abama, Tennessee and a good part of Georgia, the travel to Washington, New York and the north would be chiefly or almost entirely along this line. It would be not only the most expeditious route.which is a con sideration of great importance in this :era of progress.' but it would also be the safest. It would escape, on the one hand, the greater part of the ‘‘high pressure1* travel on the Mississippi, with its dangers and delays growing out of its liability to steamboat explosions, running upon snags and banging on sand bars : and oti the other hand it would avoid the storms of the Gulf of Mexico and all the perils of our southern Atlantic coast. There is another point of view in which this road may be of great importance. The regular line of com munication with our Pacific territories, pregnant as they seeiu to be with incalculable wealth, and winning away our active population from every city, hamlet and valley of the cast, it appears will be established by steamboat to < hagres. thence acru?s the isthmus of Panama, by railroad to the city of the same name, and thence again by steamboat to our Pacific ports. If this shall he done, a regular line of steam packets will run from New Orleans, to Chagres, and the speediest and best route for the teeming adventurers of the north who go out to seek their fortunes, will be from N ew \ urk to New Orleans by this line, and thence to Cha gres. And not only the outgoing travel will thus be gained, but when those inviting shores and valleys a-, long the Pacific shall become settled with a bustling population, ns they speedily w ill, and the great com mercial circulation between the Atlantic and Pacific re gions shall commence, then every pulsation will pour a stream ol travel along this great line of communica tion. I have taken it for granted in all this, that the road when completed from Lynchburg westward, will then be extended eastward, so as to connect with the north ern line of railroad. I am satisfied, I repeat, that it only requires Tor you to complete your work from Lynchburg to the Tennessee line ; the rest will follow :is a matter of course. 1 have confidence that you will succeed. You have strung hands and able beads at work with an enthusiasm that in a good cause must triumph. 1 am sorry to hear that your scheme is looked upon with a spirit of jealousy by the friends of other schemes. There is enough in the great work of developing the neglected resources of Virginia for all to do, and I am convinced that interests, in many ca ses deemed opposed, will in the end be found to be al lied and conducive to each other. I must, in conclu sion, beg to apologize for the brief find general views which I have herein presented, and to regret that op portunities do not al iw any thing more, specific and pointed from me. I am. dear Sir. Yours, with regard, T1IUS.S. BOCOCK. F. B. Deane Jr., Esq. E URO P E A N I NT E L LIG EN C E. B Y Til E S T E A M E R A M E R I C X . Plie steamship United States arrived at Havre on the 20th ot December. The cholera still prevails in Great Britain. In Scot land thisea^e prevailed to a very alarming extent. —The cases in Scotland have been no fewer than 2922. where of 1358 have perished. Glasgow, Dumfries, .Maxwell town. and Edinburgh and its vicimity, seem to be the chiefsfeats of the disease. In London, the last weekly return gavcoi fatal case^. against 20 the previous week, whilst two weeks preceding tiie deaths were 65. The returns from the English provinces are daily about 1<) or 12. Two new cases have occurred in Liverpool. *?n Belfast several cases have occurred,but, upon the whole, Ireland has as vet happily escaped this scourge. It is staled that the proclaiming ul Louis Napoleon as President, was hurried on a dry in advance,—G n. Changarnier having obtained full information respecting a plot which was formed seize Prince Louis on his pas sage I rom the Assembly to the Palais Ely>ee Bourbon, and to conduct him to the Tuilleries, to the cry of“ViveP Empereur !” The Prince of Montfort, Jerome Buona parte, hn* been appointed Governor of the Invalids?.'— Jerome Buonaparte met the new l resident i n his re turn front the National Assembly. On meeting they cordially embraced. The Prince de Montfort was great ly moved, and sited tears. 41 was on the same spot he had parted with the Emperor Napoleon f r the ia<l time, when he quilted Paris after the Battle of Waterloo. BAKIN Gai’ CIRCULER—Per Steameb America. London, Fridav, 29th Dec. The Corn market has continued extremely he ivy for all articles; the top price of American red Wheat is 46s. a-T7s.. duty paid: whi'e 43s.a50s U. S. Flour, is slow 1 sa4e in bond at 25s, jht bbl. to day. There is some in ' quiry fir bonded Wheat in anticipation of the low dutv. - The present duly on Wheat is 8-. p-r quarter. Good i (hits, weighing 38 to 39 lbs. per bubble, are sellirig at | 19 s. p*r quarter. A small parcel of American white In (iian Corn hss been sold at 32s. p* r 480 lbs. Iron—Considerable business has been done in \Y elsh | bars at £\ 15s. and .£5, which is the present value in Wales, free on board. Scotch Pigs, free on board, at Glasgow, have advanced 13s. an I 44s. A MEM 1C AN STOC KS.— The business h.is been limited during the past f« r»niglii: the price of 93 percent. I ex. div.. has !**en repeatedly paid for U. S. 6 per ct. 1 sto-k ex. div.; but since the nrrfval of the steamer’s let-1 ters to day, ludJers refuse to se'l at that rate. All State Stock, and the market is scantily supplied, are firmly held at advanced prices, and it is not easy to qu >te rates at which purchases to any extent could oe made. The accounts from Californ ia rather increase than di minish tit exciting details. A correspondent at New York says: • "Letters have been received by one of our most respec table houses, stating that their agent in California had, shipped $269,000 in gold to England, and that there was upwards of two milliors of dollars ready to be shipped lor this cty ( New York ) as s«»on as vess* Is could be found to bring it. This amount is independent of the stock held and consigned to other places.” A letter dated San Francisco. Oct. 15 h, says : — "I cannot get men, at 15dollars per day. t • put up the; buildings I w an ; at thi< rate they will not wo k over six or seven hours. This is not so surprising, when I asure| you thal several persons of my acquaintance w ho have returned, averaged one lit usand dollars per diem in the g.ild diggius. G"Id i* now so much more abundant than money that it is only worth ei+ht dollars per ounce, paya ble in Coin.”—Phil. Inquirer. CALIFORNIA NEWS. The New York Nun of Thursday, contaiins the fol lowing ; Several merchants in this city have received letters from California, via Chagres and British West In dies, probably hy the same conveyance which brought the recent despatches for government. The tenor of these advices, is, that large deposites of gold were discovered in the hills, ami that people from Oregon, Nanta Fe and Mexico, were pouring into the country hy thousands. Such was the scarcity of coin tint gold dust had fallen at the mines to six dollars aa ounce, being less than one third its real value at the United Ntates Mint. The whole amount gathered was about three millions. Capt. William U. Marcy. a son of«lie U. N. Secreta ry of War. was disposing of every thing in the shape of supplies at his camp, in exchange for gold dust. He had collected fifteen barrels of gold ore, and having no means of protecting the treasure, he had buried it, until a vessel of war should arrive on the cua^t, which was daily expty ed. I’rovi-i ns and f md of everv hind were vptv scarce, and daily grow ing dearer. p«rk was $->fJO per barrel, flour $100 per barrel. bread six-y cents per pound, t>-ans $18 per bushel, brandy $-30 per gallon, and other things in pnijt"yii«m. There was much suffering at the mines, and even ap prehensi< n of famine, hi consequence of the multitudes arrtviog from all qnurt< rs. The Indians, being able to endure more fatigue and poorer fare than the whiles, , wre ffulherm* .... si. f it.« g..U- Some paru.-s had com | tnnnc-d k llinj h >r<es and mi.P s f,r fiKHj. I he pe« pie were in hopes • foetiimr r\ speedy snpnlv ■ ,r‘ ,Tl \ -SR^ls hi San Francisco, which no been aband«m« dor ne«dec?pd. were once more in re quest to proceed nlonj »!,^ cast far food. ih* Purer hav mir become n. re valuable than Hold. Whale ships were sedipg • ll their notfi < a! Monterey, at enormous profits. DIRECTORS OF THE BANK OF VIRGINIA—1849. RICHMOND. BY THE STOCKHOLDERS. ' EV THE EXEC! TIVE. •Tames Caskie, Ro. A. Mayo, ; Ihos. K. Price, Archd. Thomas, John Mumble, Garrett F. " atson, inhn J. London, AVm. Gray. John L. Bacon. NORFOLK. Aaron Milhado. John G. Colley, "in. S. Mallory, John B. Whitehead, " m 11 Hunter, John Janies Walter II. Taylor. PETERSBURG. Joseph Bragg, Wm. Pannill, David May, II. B. Gaines, John II. Patterson, Thomas White, John Rowlett, FREDERICKSBURG. Hugh Mercer, Wm. P. Conway, D. ll. Gordon, Robert Dickey, Thomas F. Knox, ’ John M. Whittemore. Hugh Scott. LYNCHBURG. Chi'well Dabney, Wm. T. Y'anccy, Ambrose B. Ilucker, Wm. A. Uicheson, Elijah Fletcher, Wm. T. Young. James M. Cobbs. DANVILLE. Thomas P. Atkinson, Nathaniel Wilson, t ieorjge " ilson. George Price. Wm. G. Craghead, Allen Y. Stokes. A. AY. C. Terrv. BUCHANAN. Charles 1'. Beale, Wm. J'. Staples, " illktm \\ . Boyd, John M. Robinson Tbos. Cartmill, William M. lladibrd, John S. Wilson. CHARLESTON. James C. McFarland, Matt. Dunbar, Joel Shrewsbury, sr., Levi Welch, Spicer Patrick, W. Chamberlain. Isaac Read. PORTSMOUTH. Samuel M. Wilson,, John Cocke, Richard W. Baugh Thomas Breeks,jr., Jethro A. Jenkins, John Aeciuilly. John G. Hatton. DIRECTORS OF THE FARMERS’ BANK OF VIRGINIA AND BRANCHES—1849. AT RICHMOND. Py Stnckh'Jders. fly Executive. \\ II .Mio larland \V C Allen J ami s Dunlop .1 R Henderson Win 11 I Iaxall Sublett McGruder James Bo.her Bernard Peyton* James C Crane* AT NORFOLK. N C W hitehead Jos T Allyn James Cornick W illiam Ward Charles R .1* John E Doyle* Jusiah W ills* AT PETERSBURG. Wm R bertson R R Collier Jos D While _ Siilnti v Jones n-’vid Dunlop Charles Corling* John Kevau* AT FREDERICKSBURG. John Tl W allace Sam Gordon, jr* Join Hart John Cuakley* G"o B Seott John M tferndon* Stephen J Blaydes* AT LYNCHBURG. AVm Radford John G Meem John M Warwick James t„ Claytor Sani'l MeC. rkle* David RoJr/ liicliard Tyree AT WINCHESTER. R bert L Baker Frederick Schultz Philip Williams ' H H M’Guire Tims B Campbell ' R„ T Baldwin* Henry B Sin il* AT DANVILLE. Natli’l T Green John Noble John Ross I, vi Holbrook Wm T Law AY H AVoodino Thos D Stokes* AT FARMVILLE. AVm C Flournoy P H Jackson* J a 1 J Seott- Jos B Anderson* <■ R Barksdale* Howell E Warren* James Blanton* A P CHARLOTTESVILLE. John R J nes Thos J Randolph W in J R .bertson Allen l> Magntder Andrew M Kee* Jas W Saunders* Andrew Leitch* AT WYTHEVILLE. Stephen MeGavock Robert Gibhony Win II Sptller • E MeGavock Robert Raper-* J p Matthews* in liibborn* AT ALEXANDRIA. Phirieas J innny Geo II Smoot Hugh Smith J hn II Brent* Robert 11 Miller John T Dyer* AVm 11 Fovvle* * New Directors. New York. January 15—0 P M J OSS OF THE STEAMER EMPIRE STATE. The Splendid Steamer Empire State caught fire at her landing in I all River on Saturday night, and continued ’ to burn until I I o’eluck on Sunday morning, when the ' tlames wree i xiinguished by scuttling her.The fireorhn i nated in the f.rvvard | art of the boat, having caught froth a stove. The bull is nearly destroyed but the ennjne stands ereet and it is thought has sustained but little dam age. The hull is to be lowed to New York for the pur pose of being re-!>mlt. She was insured in the diff. r eut New A oik and Philadelphia offices to the amount ol one hundred thousand dollars, which it is believed will nearly cover the entire loss. Her original cost was one hundred and fifty thousand dollars. All the silver and much of the other valuable property on board was saved. While the boat was burning Captain Comstock and ano ther person broke through the ice and were badiy injdred, narrowly escaping with their lives, SAUUliCRY: Ki VBDLLKV/ '4 V riAHE SUBSCRIBER respectfully Informs liis friend* and * the public generally, that he is now receiving his # Fall assortment of Gooeis, in his line, which, together with his own manufacture, makes his stock complete. Ilis stock consists in part of Saddles of every description Saddle and Medical B.gs Carriage and Barouche Harness Carryall and Boat do Cart and Wagon do Bridles. Martingales and Collars Hiding and Driving Whips Stirrup* and Bridle Bits, * Carpet Bag-, Buffaloe Robes, Spurs, kc. kc kc . .I/50--J large assortment of TrnnAg . both of his own and Northern manufacture, at very reduce prices. He flatters himself that, in PRICE and QlfJlUTY his work is not to be surpassed anywhere, ka\ing the very best workmen and materials. n i: s* \ i r i a r; done with neatness and desnatch. Orders thankfully recciv ed and promptly attended to. Nov 2—ifW GEORGE B THURMAN. r^ASII.'IKRES <fe MOLES LI NS—Scotch Plaids, Cash V./ meres, M'>u-dins, Gala Plaids and Dress Silks. Great bargain- may be had in these goods, by caliiogon Jan lo—ts PETERS kSTIGLKR. BLANK BONDS FOR SALE AT THIS OFFICE. | THE LYNCHBURG VIRGINIAN BLACKFORD, TOW NLKY & I ILLARD PROPRIETORS. LVATlIBl Rfi JAAl ARY 19, IN 19. CONGRESSIONAL PfUN flML \W referred, in nur last, to the very s!*»venly and dis graceful st>le in which the printing uf Congress was dune hy the contractors under the new Mstem, Messrs. Wendell arid Van Benthuysen. We did not dwell, as we migl t have done, on the tardiness w loch lias niatk ed its execution—a tardiness amt untino to a frustra tion of all the objects of pr.niir gat all. Last Session the Report of the Secretary of the 'Treasury did not appear for three nr four months—and this Session, though the document is one of moderate size, it has only just been printed. We did not know, when we penned our hasty article, that these contractors were before Congress with a petition to be secured from loss by a ontract, which their own folly or ignorance induced them to enter into. W hen they were declared the successful bidders, the proprietors of the Intelligencer, I’nion and Congressional Globe, all declared that money would be lust upon the printing of both houses, at such inadequate rates. M> ney has been lost—and the loss would have been still greater, had the printers complied, so far as despatch* quality of paper and style of execution were concerned, with the requirements of the contract. These contrac tors come before Congress and allege .that their hills < for the printing for the 1st Session of 30th Congress* amount to $101,G32G3 They allege llieir expenses to have been 1U8.G8G. k" Showing a loss to the contractors of $7,053.85 They go on to say that the same work, if executed by Hitchie & lltks, would have cost . $307,975.20 If executed by Gales and Seaton, $411,921.23 This la'ler assertion has drawn forth from Messrs. Gales & Seaton an indignant denial. They pronounce the assertion false and deceptions, and proceed to sh w that the attempt to single them from other printers t« Congress, who have received precisely the same prices far many hundred thousand dollars of work, is a gross in jury to them and a miserable attempt to imp ae upon Congress and the people. They proceed to "show that from 18l9.(when the contract system was abolish d and a printer elected) ntilil 1829, they were continuous ly printers to both Houses. 1 he highest amount receiv ed, in any one year (1827) was $07,875, which included the reprinting of the old journals. The lowest amount in any one year (1821) was $22,510—the aggregate lor the ten years was $3G3,/05—or an average of $30, 370 per annum. So mu lt for their bills, before Mr. \ an Burenks efforts to improve the Press led to their pro scription. As to what their profits have been since, we give an extract trom their exceedingly interesting article. ‘*\\ hen, at the end of the first ten years tinder 'he old system, another succeeded G. St S. in the post of Prin ter to the two Houses of Congress, and at successive subsequent Congresses, the amount'as well as the profits olthe printing came to be increased: the amount by the now and yet growing practice nfordering large extra numbers nf voluminous documents tn be printed, and the profits hy the intioduction of labor-saving maclitnerv (power-pt eases) and the great reduction of the cost of pa per. \\ lien, therefore, Gales «S’ Seaton again berate I rioters to Congress,the bills of their work became hire than they w ere in the first ten years. Phe average amount, however, per session, tor each of the twenty-one sessions during which Gales tic Seaton executed the printing for Congress (including 'he above ten) was but $19,315 per session,being little less Ilian mu half of the aeknowledg ed amount of hit’s nf the. contractors, for the single ses sion. not including ilia hills, if any, which had riot been rendered when the above statement was made out. \\ e do not mean, of course, by ibis demonstration, to intimate an opinion that the prices established by the Resolution of 1819. graduated, as they were, to the then prices of priming—that is to say, of the manual labor and materials of printing—and adopted to the usages of printing only a limited number of documents of volumin ous size, would not he too high at this day. They would be. in some particulars, though not in all. The c ,st o' composition (setting the types,) fur example, has increas ed instead of diminishing, the weekly wages for such work, from manns'-ript copy, which were then $11), being now $11. The c-st ul paper and presswork lias, however, been greatly reduced, as we shall have occa sion to show. Congress, aware of this change, had by law reduced the prices of 1819 thirty-seven and a half percent* before resortiog to the contract system. The price lor [taper and press-work might be reduced yet low er, say to fifty p r cent, below that of 1S19, iftlte com position of plain work were left ti stand, as it ought to do,at the price fixed by the Resolution of 1819. At such reduced prices work may now he done without loss, which could not formerly be done lur the same price with out great loss. A comparision of the cost of two ingredients, of “paper and press-w rk,” (that is to sav, of tlie whole operation of printing the extra numbers, which constitute at least two-thirds of the amount of the present contractors1 [tills.) will show how impossible it would have been in past yea is to work at prices which would now yield a profit. For the paper on which for many years Gales 5s Sea ton executed the public work they paid five dollars and fifty cents |>er ream, for single royal paper; whilst tZo» hle royal paper, such as the contractors have employed in their work, can now be'bought at about three dollars i per ream ; that is to say, the contractors get for three dol-1 lats the same quantity of paper that we paid (outside quires deducted) tieelce dollars for. Press-work, bv hand-presses, (the only ones then in use, on this single; royal paper, eight pages to the form, we never paid fin al a less rate than thirty three amt a third cents per to ken. 1 he same work, now done on steam jxtwer mes ses, does not cost the contractors (all expenses included) more than./iee cents (if as much) for the same quanti ty.” They go on to show that it is only' when a very large number of a document isordered to be printed,that much profit occurs, and that Congress, in their day, was nut in the habit of ordering such masses of printing as it now orders. Tims, last year 130,000 copies of the Patent Office Report—a large volume—was ordered to be prin ted. The atrt iunt which the Albany contractors will receive for this job alone, even at their inadequate prices, will he about 430,000. Not one-fourth of these 130,000 copies have been sent off by I he mails, and, as the new Report from the Commissioner of Patents is already in, the copies on hand of the oiii are worth about as much as so many almanacks, ol use to no one but to tiie grocers, to whom they wili ultimately be consigned—sharing the fate, as Gale3 & .Sfaton allege, “of cart loads of the ex tra copies published of the annual Message and D cu mentsof last year, w hich were sold by weight, as waste paper, to the shop-keepers of this city before one half of tiie whole edition of them had gone through the Press.” Factsof this description are notorious to everv member of Congress,and yet we constancy see some one movino for the printing uften.fifteen.or twenty thousand extra conies of some d cument, of which the staled number ordered to be furnished is not, in nine cases out of ten, ever circula- ! ted. This motion is sometimes made for tiie pu p .se of; benefitling the printer — l nt ofiener to mark tiie member’s sense of the importance of the document, r to flatter the functionary from whom it proceeds. The absurdity of printing such immense editions of documents, with a view to their dissemination, will be apparent u;»m a moment’s reflection. If each member was furnished w ith Ids distributive ‘hire of all tiie documents ordered to be printed, and felt disposed to send them,every one,aim ng ids constituents, the mere direction ami flanking of th. ui would occupy the whole ot 'he lours of the day m which I the House is in session—whilst the n ails would tv ry where break down with the en runus mass of printed paper. The contract system has not worked well. I' was tried from 1815 to lSlOand abandon, d. Fr*m th at p> riod to the end of 'lie last Congross.n prin’«• r was t1- cied hy each house.We think it not impr .bible that C noress may ajain return tithe system of fnvin<r the print n-r done by an officer" f heir own. N > move, howev. r. ha** yet been made, and the bids are to be opened on the 3rd of next month. LEGISLATURE. I iie ll 'USPof ilid liule on MoliJny. The D ebate tm ihe resolutions was runtinu ii, iMr. Fins spoke in favor of ibem with eloquence and ability. Mr. Nmilli, of Alexandria, opposed them and advocated the adoption of Mr. Syme’s amendment. Tuesday—The Bill f.r refurnishing the G .vcrnor’s II use was e> grossed .ayes 09 imesSf. Mr. Cooper mov, ,1 tor a Select Coinmitiee loexamine ail the evidence about the d, fence of Crany Island, lo designate officers and men who distinguished themselves, and to consider what tesiitm nial should be awarded. (This is a verv ah surd movement. Swords have teen already so profuse ly granted as lo take from the honor all its value. Why not at once give a sword to every , ffieer and man who ever heard an enemy’s gun tire?) 'Ihe Debate on the W.lmot Proviso resolutions was resumed, by Mr. Ferguson, who had the ll , ,r, and who j sjaike lor two burs in tavor of the resolutions lie w s succeeded by Mr. Harrison, in upn ,-ition. who.before con cluding bis remarks, gave way to a motion to adjourn. \\ ednesday, the Speaker laid before the House acem tnuuieation tiom the Governor, caclosing the resignation ' ot Gen. A. Brown, of the 3d Brigade. A bill was repor j ted exempting officers, contractors au,l laborers, on the l.anal,trum the operation ot the special road laws of Rock bridge county. The small note hill was taken up, the vote of engrossment re considered, the bill amended and ! ordered to lie on the table. Mr. Harrison concluded Ins i speech in opposition to the resolutions of tin- Committee, and offered a series e, resolutions which were, on his mo" tion, laid on the table and ordereil to be printed. -MICHIGAN. I he Legislature ot Michigan, by a unanimous vote ! it is said, lias elected Gen. Cassa Senator of the United | States, fir six years from the 4th March next. We shut1 now see hinv he will act,so far as the rights of the South are concerned. Ilis free will, however, is destroyed bv resolutions ot instruction, which some months ag > pass ed tiie Legislature, of as malignant a character as any we remember to have seen. He will accept the office with these instructions staring him in the face and, of course with a virtual pledge to act in obedience to them, lie ■ will, whatever he may say in debate,or to Mr. Davis,1 vote for the restriction. No une can doubt this. Free from ail the disturbing influences of ambition—fir we presume Gen. Cass indulges not the faintest hope of be ing again the candidate of bis party for the Presidency— he will make a respectable Senator, as lie has iu'elli gence and experience in public affairs. Ilis votes, how ever, may be expected to be at variance with the Balti more platform—to all the doctrines1 of which he swore fealty. Tnus, it is pretty evid-nt, that a hill for im provement of harbors and rivers will be brought forward at the next session. Does any one doubt that Gen. Cass will support it by bis speeches and bis voles ? And yet tlie Baltimore confession ot faith, to which he subscribed, pronounces appropriations to this object unconstitutional, and Gen. Cass has solemnly declared that tie approved j ot every act of Mr. Polk, among not the least important} of which was his veto ot a bill of this character,for which : , -on. Cass) bail voied. Trie Senator, free from the ■'r ns of the Presidency, guided by bis own conscience and judgment, and consulting the will of his own constit uents, will act very differently from the Candidate, stri ving to reconcile irreconcilable sections of his parly, ma king professions to the South, in somew hat oracular lan guage, and telling the North to rely upon Ins geographi cal position and past course,—whilst be was prepared to deceive and betray either, as occasion might serve._ We do not regret, therefore, the return of Gen.’Cass Ur, the Senate. Me shall now have an opportunity of see ing how far lie really merits the eul gies bestowed upon him as a Democrat of the Slates rights, strict construe tionist, Soul hern school. M e may also, perhaps, test the devotion lo the interests of the South, ascribed to him by his Southern supp irters. A leading article in the New York Evening Post, written widi art attention to dales which implies that it was prompted by Geo. W'ool himself, boldly claims f,r that officer the credit ot the battle of Buena Yista. The Courier arid Enquirer calls upon Gen. Wool to avow, or disavow, the pretensions thus sat up for him. *So.far he has not done eithtr.and we may expert disclosures which will not tend to add to the fame ot’ liter second in com mand on 'bat day. Gen. Taylor has never manifested a nervous, fidgetty uneasiness lest his countrymen should not do Imn full justice, lie lias, ai all times, been ready to do ample justice to the merits of bis subordinates.— But tie is not the man to sit calmly by when an attempt, originaiing in personal vanity or parly intolerance, is made to bestow upon another laurels which are justly his own. Gen. M oid is a good disciplinarian, and a brave man,doubtless, though of not much intellectual vigor.— M'e regret to see hitn lending himself to sueli a scheme. I he attempt to injure the reputation of Old Rough and Ready will recoil upon its authors. The Wasliingti n correspondent of the North Ameri can says: “M ben the truth of history shall have been recorded, the singular fact may be disclosed, that he for whom in discreet tripods have claimed a distinction of the highest and most commanding prominence, was one of those udin ml vised a n treat, w hen the bloody scene of the 23d of February lino closed and the fate of the field bad been decided. If there is not testimony in existence under Gen. Wool’s own hand, to the effect that no otli r moil than General Taylor could have won that great battle, my information is strangely at fault. But what needs there of witnesses to prove what the monuments of the dead and the lips of living actors have vouched in lan guage that no historian can improve? The audacity of I this pretension is only equalled by its absurdity; but the temerity w ith whicli it lias been ventured, exhibits a purpose w Inch is doubly barbed with malice and ambi tion.” In the case of young K y—a son of Judge Key,of Ma ryland—indicted and tried fur purloining money from the Post Office at Baltimore, the jury was not able to agree, and were dismissed. The jury, before separating,signed a position to the President, asking the interposition of his; official clemency, believing that, under the peculiar cir cumstances of the case, tiie demands uf public justice j have been fully satisfied. So much for having a good name and respectable family connexions! The fact that ! he took about $1000 out of a letter was abundantly in ev idence. The certificates ofdeposite, which he obtained in exchange for the money, were surrendered by him to the Postniaster, and by that officer paid over to the firm in Cincinnati, which made the remittance. MEETING OF SOUTHERN MEMBERS. W e give all the accounts which have r» ached us of the result of the meeting of the S miii-rn members of . Congress, held on Monday night last. • We do not rely in: ; . y on the accuracy -f the details. En modi,how ever. t-s ars t.» rdntw that the unanimity.which was es sential m give any moral weight to the meeting, or its proceedings, was not attained. The report was re com mitted to the C nnmittee, by a majority of two. We f ar no good v\il! r suit from the meeting. We suspend our opinion, huwevt r, until we know more id what was dune. T'V" «ii '•'! &'*'«= at the Hose of the present session ^ Lni' Mr. t\ rsteoll gives place l. Mr. M ,rt,„,Ls 'rS'"~ Georgia S’.rersnies Mr. J hns-n hy C.-l. |) "'"j i mily !'. ■ nsylvania has, f. r the firs, .. U h'£ i" 'he person of Mr ('-..per. „|,.. "‘Mnl * Mr. Cameron. Thir.llv—Mr. Niles..,f give place to M-. Truman Smith, New York will i’ " h''S srttil a Whig, in | lace of Mr. 0iY sl,a!I havi an iuftisi in offive \\ big Senators in i" *® :i' ma } D nn ,-r.its « ho now hold seats in ti,:u " e do n .1 emmt nprn a \\ big successor to Mr ill On.., We fear even a worse calamity than ! J eleeth.ii—viz: the choice of Mr. Giddinge. ^ "ill have two Senators to choose, and the \\'}.r. VPr) confidently of carrying the Legislature „ **' titer. ' Xl su» SIGNOR JOSH DE A I.YEAH. A great many i four culoinpur.iiies, wo oh., rrp pnM:s!iing a Im g a 'verlisomrnt, [uirpurting t,, s, t |- ^ llie merits ol an Iuslrimioiii, aih geil In lur. V rr-frr, Oil hy iho pors n op \vh >so name heads this arti, |JU od the "Gold mu ti r,” hy which one iseuahled in ,| , pr. wulmut difficulty, the locality- nf the preciuus n*J|" 1 ois advertisement was preceded by a circular, v\Rjcu \vc had the hnnur in receive, in the fullowiixr wnrds .wii'Ki: TO NEWSPAPER PUBLISHERS, of' Pubjisliers nf Newspapers,iliruiiijliimt il c Uni' Stales, w ho have already given, nr w ho will „1V|, I dlowing highly iiiteresln g n rr live one iriseni "n.i!n n •he reading mailer nf their paper, and send a copy ,,f o'" -aim : * the timl*rsigned hy mail, shall receive' ac/l \ilvertisemi nt nfa new wnrk upon the suhpeel nf (• .. Disuuverit'S in California, tn ihe amnunl nf ilUmta'i iiiiinoiiiaioly upnn the receipt uf the pajier. Address i'i ' paper as follows : Signor JOSE Ok ALYF.AR Box 2713. New York Cu, P. S. The above notice tn publishers is nut tu be in serted in tin* paper, of course. Ihe a.tiele appended was tlie following : [From the N. Y. Adv.] CALIFORNI \ GOLD-VRKIVAL OFDON JOSp 1> \L\ EAR. THE FIRST DISCOVERER OF lllE GOLD MINES—INTERESTING UK V E LO P E M ENTS. Doll J..SP D’Alvear, the celebrated Spanish GenUist whose furious treatise on the "Age nf the Earth” ,mM' be known In many of mirreaders.has just arri ved ai N, w York, tr.iin lire Gold Regions of California by wav 0f Panama, CIngres and New Orleans, bringing with |,i „ a large amnunl nl Gold ore, estimated In be worth m re Ilian a million of dollars, the result of lus labors, by the ' aid nl a lii'ge body uf Indians, lung before the exist'cee ■ f 'he G ild mini s became known in the residents of Cal "'"■'"•'t -.r:,lb - Signor D’Alyear went out tu Califur ni i nearly two ve irs ago, in eons*1'j uto i ee uf certain m_ fnrinalioii w hich he had received of the gen]nrrjKil char aeie, of that country, w ith the firm belieOhat vast mines ot precious metals would be revealed there, upon careful investigation. He was encouraged to this enterprise, also, by his confidence in ihe powers of a certain Mag’, riuliu iiislruiiiunl which lie had invented, called the “Goldometer,77 by whose aid he expected to be directed at once to the “Gold Placers,’7 it anv such existed. \.»r were his exportations disappointed. Mis scientific calcu !;,li,,ns P»»yed to be founded in tnnh and profound wis dom.ami his new instruim nt,the “Goldometer,77 fulfilled his highest hopes. In less than two months after reaching California, he struck ujK.n one of the richest rr |,| minus in that country, i)|>on an obscure branch of the Sacramen to river, in a gorge of hills extremely rocky and difficult ot access, and sold un visited hy the native Californians. Disguising lii? oi.j-ct under the pretence of purely scien tific research,he i.b’ai ed the aid ot some filteen or twen ty simple and laitlitul iudiaus, and steadily pursued his task. collecting. tien more than $1,000 worth of gold in a single day, which he concealed in a deep ravine, w ith out exciting my suspicion w hatever, until after the dis covery t g- Id at Capt. Sutter7' Mill, when ilie moun tains were ran Narked by gold seekers, and Signor L)7A1 vear’s “gold placer,7 ihe richest in "all California, was bpset with greedy adventurers. It is now found that ihe real mines or sources nf ihe mid, lie in the gorges of the mountains, a <1 not m the beds or sands of the rivers. I) >n Jose I) Alvear was beyond all question, the first rind real disooveier of the^g.dd mines of California ; and in* deserves the more credit t »r this, as his discovery was his d upon profound scientific caleulation, and was not the result ot accident. I he evidence of -these facts, which he possesses, in the shape of well attested docu ments, from persons high in authorityjin California, place ’he matter beyond all doubt. Signor I) Alvear now visits the United States, where lie was for several years a resident, tor the purpose of disposing ot his g*dd and investing it in safe and impro ving property, and also for the purpose of obtaining the necessary apparatns and material f*r constructing lus new instrument, the “Goldometer,77 w hich is now in great demand in (. alifornia, but the means of#constructing them was not to he obtained. Previous to leaving California he sold his own instrument, a very imperfect one, for $‘2.0(H). while they can, in reality, he made for less than $20. —'The person who purchased it confidently expect ed to maKe a handsome fortune, hy simply finding “gold placers,77 and selling out the right of digging to the gold workers. As to the principle upon which, the new “Goldometer,77 or gold finder, is constructed, we have no knowledge. Signor D’Alvear, it is understood, will tor the preseni keep it a secret; as it would he impossi ble to protect a patent, if one were taken out. It is very simple in construction; and is worked somewhat like the old-fashioned w itchhazle rod, formerly used in seek ing for w’ater. Signor D’Alvear is of opinion that vast depO'ites of gold will yetjbe f »und in the United Saes,ofa quality vastly superi r to that recently di-c vered in Virginia ami North Carolmia, and tlr.it the other mineral riches of thiscountrv are inconceivably great. Tne Signor is | ro fmindjy 'killed in the mysteries of Chemistry, Geology, Klectro and \ i al Magnetism, and other curious branches of philosophical study, which, it must be granted, he I as turned to goodaccount in the present insance. We be lieve ii is his intention to publish some account of hisj'in vention ot tlie“G Milometer,77 before returning toCaUjir nia. W.e shall look for this work w ith much interest. There being no paper in New York,called the Adver tiser, except that most respectable journal, the Cumu er-. cial Advertiser, and believing that its editors would not lend themselves to such a miserable humbug, we were persuaded the ex ract w as a fabrication and declined to give it circulation. N«t were we mistaken. The N. V . Commercial says : Signor J)\ llvcur on Gold .Vines.— Quite a number of papers, from various parts of the country, have been received at tins office within the last few weeks, every one marked so as to direct attention to an article announc ing the arrival of ‘Don Jose D’ Alvear’ fe rn tire gold mines, and giving divers wonders as related by him. Thisanicle is credited, sometimes tu the *• New York Advertiser,” and sometimes to the ** New York Coins mercial Advertiser,”—\\ lirlhcr all this is a misconcep tion or a designed mystification we do not know : but in either case it may as well he put a slop to. We have no knowledge of any 1) n J i-e D’Alvear, nor have we ever published any account of his discoveries in the gold regions. In a week or two afterwards, we received another cir cular, covering the long advertisement alluded to. Had the money, instead ut a promise to pav, accompanied it, we might have given it a place as a matter of business in our columns, but we did not choose to run any risk of loss in giving publicity to wlint we believed a gross at tempt to swindle the credulous out of their money.— Jose de Alvear is a good, sonoroos, Castillian name, and there may be sttch a personage in New \ oik. It a Span iard, however, he would know, at least, wa think, that “.Si0nor” is not tjie way to spell his title. We may daily cxp< ct to hear t.f the elect < n t fa Spn_ al»r by the legislature of lliiti ,is. I'lte canvass has been very active and a great deal of aciitn mious filling r"‘ gendered. Idle latest accounts represent that General Shields would probably rt ceive the nnmim>*iun 0* '*lu Democratic caucus. Gen. McQ men has been elected to Congress from South Carolina,in place of Ale St ns, deceased, lie was a fiend t;f Gen. Taylor m the late.canvass.