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Richmond daily Whig. [volume] (Richmond, Va.) 1842-1861, September 21, 1859, Image 2

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THE I'OSSTITI'TIOB—STATE HIUHTS.
R 1C II MON I) W II IG.
«KPil«DAl MORNIKU, SKPT. <1, 18SO.
TO COIHKAPOSDRNTA.
rW I ttttrt Im IMM mntl bt In tt/' JUitor of tht
W M«
Artloltt to-into an both tMet of tht pnpar viU not bt pnbtith
»< Thltita rtltaf lanf ctanttng, might In bt hwwi In .ill,
m..d Hill <•« no MO bt dtpn-itd from, (ihitn.try natioatar. t*l
*S, tifht Untt art .-harfftrifa- at aAr*rHttn,mtt.
tw~ Wt cannot nnAtrtakt In ratum ryjeeterf cammnt ioatu.nt
Kvrrrll'* Oration on Wrlnlrr.
ll Is relrcshing to turn aside occasionally from the
hestrn an l dreary path of party politics, and give onr
iwlvcs tip to tbe enjoyment of a rich and rare repast.
Id., that ww spread before our readers to day, in the ora
tion delivered by F.nwaao Kvvarrr on Dvllii Wrema,
«.a Saturday last—and we make no apology for offering
it to the etclusion of nearly all other matter. We ad
vise that it be read attentively by all, of all tastes ami
. ends, and of both seae*—and especially by our Whig
friends who never tire of eulogies upon those two great
champion* and etpounder* ot the faith, 1\ khstir and
Cl AT.
1 > ANIEIj vv kbst er.
IlitronrM' hv ■'.<!*% urri Kv«*r«*tt on Dan
iel Webster.
li.alie.Tiou ol the Statue of Mr. Webster at Bost.n.
September 17.
At the dedication of the statue of Webster in the State
House Grounds iu Boston on Saturday. Mr. Everett made
the following address :
A/.iy it fitratr Your K'jrcrllft.cy •
On behalf of those by whose contributions this statue
til Mr. Web«ter has twen procured, and of the Commit
tee entrusted with the care ot its erection, it is my pleas
inr <Wtc to return to you, and through rou to the legis
lature of the Commonwealth, our diitiiul aeknowlevlg
liiants, lor llte |>ermission kindly acconled to us, to pin,*'
the Statue in the Public Ground*. We feel. Sir, that, in
allowing this inomimentul work to be erected in front »l
the Capitol of the State, a distinguished honor has been
paid to tbe memory ol Mr. Webster.
To you, Sir, in |iartieular, whose iullucnee was liberal
ly employed to promote this result, and whoso persona!
attendance and participation have added so much to
the interest of the day, we are under the highest obliga
tions.
To yon, our distinguished guests, and to von, Kello*
Citirens, of either sea. who come to unite w ith us iu ren
dering these monumental honors, who adorn the occa
sion with ynnr presence, and cheer us with your counte
nance and favor,wc tender a respectful au.1 grateful wcl
To you, also, Mr. Mayor, anil to the City Council,
we return our cordial thanks for your kind consent to
act on our behalf, iu delivering this cherished memorial
of our honored fellow citizen into the custody of the Com
monwealth, and for your sympathy and assistance in the
duties of the occasion.
It has been the custom, from the remotest antiquity, to
preserve and to hand down to posterity, in bronze and
marble, the counterfeit presentment of illustrious mi n.
Within the last few years, modern research lias brought
to light, on the banks of the Tigris, huge slabs of alabas
ter, buried for ages, which exhibit in relief the faces and
the persons of men who governed the primeval East in
the gray dawn of History. Three thousand years have
elapsed since they lived and reigned, and built palaces,
and fortified cities, and waged war, and gained victories,
of whieii the trophies are carved upon these monumental
tablets—the triumphal procession, the chariots laden wiih
spoils, the drooping captive, the conquered monarch in
chain—but legends inscribed upon the atone arc imper
fectly deci phered, and little beyond the names of the
personages, and the most general tradition of their i i
ploits is preserved. In like manner the obelisks and the
temples of ancient Egypt arc covered with the sculp
lured image* of whole dynasties of Pharaohs—older th.iu
Moses—older than Joseph : whose titles are recorded in
the hieroglyphics, with which the granite is charged,
and which are gradually yielding up their lotig-eoneeal-d
mysteries to the sagacity ol modern criticism. The
pla-tic arts, as they passed into Hellas, and all the other
arts which give grace and dignity to our nature, reached
a perfection unknown to Egypt or Assyria ; and the he
ro- and sages of tirecce and Homo, immortalized by the
sculptor, still p ople the galleries and museums of tin
modern world. In every succeeding age and in ever) coun
try, in which the tine arts have been cultivated, the respect
and affection of survivors have found a pure and rational
gratification, in the historical |K>rtrail and the monumental
statue of the honored and loved in private life,aud especial
ly ot the great and good who have deserved well of tl. ir
country. Public esteem and confidence and private aff.u
lion,the gratitude of the commuuit i aud the fond inetnoi ,e -
of the fireside,have ever sought.in this wa\.toprolongin'
nensihle existence of their loved and respected object.—
What thourh the dear and honored features and person,
on which while liviug we never gazed without tenderne
or veneration, have been taken from ns ;—something of
the loveliness, something of the majesty abides in the
portrait, the bust and the statue. The heart bereft of
th • living originals turns to them, and cold and silent as
they are, they strengthen and animate the cherished re
collections of the loved, the honored, and the lost.
The skill of the painter and sculptor, which thus con -
in aid of the memory and imagination, is, in its highest
degree, on- of the rarest a- it i- one of the most exquisite
accomplishment* within our attainment, and in its per
fection a« seldom witnessed as the p*rfection of spei ch
or of music. The plastic hand must be moved by the
same etherial instinct, as the eloquent lips or the record
ing pen. The number of those who, in the language of
Michaei Angelo, can discern the finished statue iu the
heart of the shapeless block, and bid it rtart into arti- ir
life- who are endowed with the exquisite gift of mould
ing the rigid bronze or the lifeless marble into graceful,
majestic, and expressive forms, is not greater than the
number of those, who are able, with equal majesty, grace
aud expressiveness, to make the spiritual essence_the
finest shades of thought and feeling—sensible to the
tnind, through the eye and the ear, in the mysterious
embodiment of the written nnd spoken word, if Athens
in her palmiest days had but one Pericles, she had also
but one Phidias.
Nor are these beautiful and noble arts, by which the
face and the form of the departed are preserved to in
calling into the highest exercise as they do, all the imi
tative and idealizing powers of the painter and tin-sculp
tor—the least instructive of nnr teachers. The portrait
and the statutes of the honored dead kindle the gerirrou
ambition of the youthful aspirant tofame. Thetnistorle
could not sleep for the trophies in the ('eramicus : ami
when the living Demosthenes to whom you, sir. (Mr. Pel
ton, | have alluded had ceased to speak,'the stony lip re
mained to rebuke and exhort his degenerate countrvmen
More than a hundred years have elapsed since the greai
Newton passed away ; but from age to age his statue In
Roubiliac, in the ante-rimpel of Trinity College, will giii
distinctne--to the conceptions formed of him by hun
11 reds aud thousands of ardent youthful spirits, filled will
reverence for that transcendent intellect which, fron
the phenomena that fall within our limited vision, de-hi
cod the imperial law hr which the Sovereign Mind rule,
the entire universe. We can never look on the per-m
ot Washington ; but hi*_ serene and noble countenance
nemetii-.ted bv the iouicil nn*l i(.. i,
far greater multitudes than ever stood in his living pte*
cure, and will be thus familiar to the latest generation.
What parent, as he conduct* hi* son to Mount Atihurn
or to Hunker Hill, will not, as he pauses before their
monuinent*l sialues,seek to heighten hi* reverence for tir
rue, for patriotism, for *cience, for learning, for devotion
to the public good, *• he bid* hint contemplate the form 1
of that grave and venerable Winthrop, who left hi* plea- i
S*rit home in England to eome and found a new republic
in this untrodden wildernc-*; of lhai ardent and intrepid
<»ii*. who first struck out the *|mrk of American Imh- 1
pcndetiec; of that nohle Adam*, it* most eloquent chain I
pion on the floor of Congress: of the martyr Warren, I
who laid don n hi* life in it* defence; of that *clf-l*u *hi I
Bowdinh, sho, without a guide, threaded tlie Starry
maze* of the Heavens; of that Story, honored at hr.m'e
and abroad as one of the brightest luminaries of the |
law, and by a felicity, of which I I relieve there is no
other example, admirably portrayed in marble by hi* !
son v What citizen of Itooton, a* he accompanies
the stranger around our afreets, guiding him
through our bn*y thoroughfare*, to our wlmrves crowded
■With resets which range every sea and gather the pro
Hu ••• of every climate,—up to the dome of this capitol, j
which command* a* lovely a land*ea|s- a* can delight the I
eve or gladden the heart, will not a* he call* hi* atten
tion at Us* to the *taiues of Kranklin and Webster, ex- I
claim —"Bo«ton take* pride in her natural position, she
rejoices in her beautiful environs, she is grateful for her
material prosperity; hut richer than the merchandise
stirred in palatial warehouses, greener than the slop * of
se i girt islet*, lovelier than this encircling panorama of
hud and *••*, of field and hamlet, of take and stream, of
garden and grova, ia the memory of her non*, native and
adopted; the character, services and fame of tho*e, who
have benefited snd adorned their day and generation_
Our children, and the school* at which thev are trained,
our eitlsen* and the aervice* they have rendered,—these
are onr jewels—these are our abiding treasures.*'
Y«*. your long row* of r|narried granite may crumble
te the liitst; the rrwnfleld* in yonder villages, ripening to
tlie strife, maj, like the plains of stricken fiomhardy a
few week* ago, i*c kneaded into Moody cloda by the mad
dening wheel* of artillery; this populous city, like the
old evtica of Etruria and tlie rampage* Humana, may he
fircidab d by the pestilence which walketh in darknew,
mav decav with the lapse of time, and the busy mart
which now ring* with the joyou* din of trade, become a*
lonely aud "till as Carthage or Tvre, as Halivlon and Nin
eveh, hut the name* of the great and good ahall aurvive
the de olati.ui and the rum, the memory of the wine, the
leave, the patriotic, shall never perish. Yea, Hparta i« a
wheal field, a Bavarian prince hold* court at the foot of
the Aeropnti*. -the traveling virtnoen dig* for marble* in
the Roman I or urn an I beneath the min* of the temple of
Jupiter t apitehnus tint l.ycurgo*, and I.eomdas, and
Miiriadsi anr| Demo* diene* and Cato, and Tolly, "grill
»M m nillnv#., and all Ote (TM* «»4 |oed lUU
live to the heart of age*. while marble and brocx -fr-“
endure; and when marble and brouxe hare perished, they
eh ill "still live" in memory, to long as iueu tdiall rcver
r'"7 !*■». »»<1 honor l*a licit lam, and love liberty!
Krven years, within a few weeks, have (wased since
he, whose statue we inaugurate lo-dav,was taken from us.
The voles ol rcipectfol sad affectionate eulogy, which
wae uttered in this vicinity and city at the time, was
isonptlr rehwil throughout the country. The tribute
|wid to his memory, by friends, neighbors, and fellow-cit
• /■eo* was rvsjtonded to from the remotest corners of the
lepultlic, by those who never gazed on hia noble coun
tenauce, or listenrd to the deep melody of hia voice_
This city, which in early manhood he chose for home ;
hit associates iu the honorable profession of which he
rose to Ire the acknowledged head . the law school of the
neighboring university speaking by the lips of one so well
side to do justice to his legal pre-eminence; the college
st which he was educated, and whose chartered privileges
lie had successfully maintained before the highest trilm
n»l of the country ; with other hodics and other eulogists,
st the bar, in the pulpit, and on the platform, through’
Vout ,h* I'nion, iu numbers greater I believe than have
ever spoken on any other similar occasion, except that
of the death of Washington, joined with the almost unan
imous press of the country, in one chorus of admiration
ol his talents, recognition of his patriotic services, and
respect and affection for his memory.
Nor have these otic ring- been made at his tomb alone
Twice or thrice since his death, once within a few
months—the anui veraary of his birthday has called forth
at the table of patriotic festivity, the voice of fervid cu’
logy and affectionate commemoration In this wav and
on these occasions, his character has liecn delineated by
tho-c he.»t able to do justice to his (lowers and attain
ments, to appreciate his services, to take the measure, if
I may -ay ro, of his colossal mental stature. Without
going beyond this immediate neighborhood, and in no
degree ungrateful for the liberality or insensible to tin
ability with which he has lieen eulogized in other ports
of the country, what need be said, what can be said in
the hearing ot those who hare listened to Hillard, to
Chief Justice Parker, to Cushing, and to our lamented
Choate, whose discourse on Mr. Webster at Dartmouth
College appears to me as magnificent a eulogium as was
ever pronounced *
What can be said that has not been better said before;
what need be said now that seven added years in the po
litical progress of the country, seveu years of re*|«cctful
and affectionate recollection on the part of those who
now occupy the -lage, have continued his title to the
Urge place, which, while he lived, he tilled in the public
mind v While he yet bore a part in the councils of the
I'nion, he shared ihe fate which, in all countnes, and
especially in all free couStrim. await.- commanding talent
and eminent position .—which no great man in our his
tory—not Washington himself— has over uaenped ; w hich
none can escape, hut those WI114 are too feeble to pro
voke opposition, too obscure for jealousy. Hut now that
he ha- rested for years iu his honored grave, w lull gene
i mis nature is not pleased to strew riowers on the soil *_
What honorable opponent, still faithful to principle. Is
not willing that all iu which ho differed from him should
lie referred, without bitterness, to the impartial arbitra
ment of lime ; and that all that lie respected and loved
should Iu* cordially remembered? What public mail,
especially, who, with whatever differences of judgment of I
men or measures has borne on his own shoulders the I
heavy burden of responsibility—who has felt how hard I
it is, iu the larger complication of affairs, at all times to I
meet the expectations of an intelligent and watchful, but j
impulsive and uot always thoroughly instructed public ; j
how difficult sometimes to satisfy his own judgmeut—is I
1 uot willing that the noble ipialities and patriotic serviec
of W dialer should lie honorably recorded in the I took of
li'is country's remembrance, and his statue set up in the
Pantheon of her illustrious sons !
These posthumous honors lovingly paid to departed
worth, arc among the compensations w liich a kind P:o\ i
dencc vouchsafes for the unavoidable coutlicts of judg
I went and stern collisions of («arty which make the politi
cal career always arduous, even when pursued with the
greatest suecea-—generally precarious, sometimes des
tructive of health and even life. It is imnosdhlc under
tree government* to prevent the existence of party ; not
less impossible that patties should be conducted with spi
rit and vigor without more or less injustice done and suf
fered, more or less gross uncharitableness aud bitter de
nunciation. Besides, with the utmost effort at imparti
ality, it is not within the competence of our frail capaci
ties to do full justice at the time to a character of varied
and towering greatness, engaged lit au active and rc
-ponsiblc political career. The truth of his principles,
'he w isdom of his counsels, the value of his services must
»e seen in their fruits, and the richest fruits arc not those
of the most rapid growth. The wisdom of antiquity
pronounced that no one was to be deemed liappT until
after death; not merely because he was then first placed
beyond the vicissitudes of human fortune, but because
then only the rival interest, the discordant judgments,
the hostile passions of contemporaries are, in orditiarv
cases, no longer concerned to question his merits. Hor
ace, with gross adulation, sung to his imperial master,
Augustus, that he alone of the great of the earth ever
received while living the full meed of praise. All the
other great benefactors of mankind, the inventors of
arts, the destroyers of monsters, the civilizers of state-,
found by experience that unpopularity was appeased hv
death alone. +
That solemn event, which terminates the material ex
iHence, becomes by the sober revisions of contempora
ry judgment, aided by offices of respectful and affection
ate commemoration, the commencement of a nobler life
on earth. The wakeful eyes arc closed, the feverish
pulse is still, the tired and trembling limbs arc relieved
from their labors, and the aching head is laid to rest on
the Up of its mother earth, like a play-worn child at the
close of a summer's «U\ ; but all that wc honored aud
loved in the living man oegins to live again in a new and
liigh'-r being of influence and fame. It was given but
to a limited number to listen to the living voice, and the i
can never listen to it again, but the wise teachings, the
grave admonition-, the patriotic exhortations which fell
trom hi- tongue will be gathered together and garnered
up iu the memory of millions. The cares, the toils, the
-urrows; the conflicts with others, the conflicts ot the
fervent spirit wiih itself; the sad accidents of humanity,
the fears of the brave, the follies the wi-e, the error
of the learned; all that da-hed the cup of enjoyment
with bitter drops and -trowed sorrowful aches over the
beauty of expectation and promise; the treacherous
friend, the ungenerous rival, tbe mean and malignant
foe; the uncharitable prejudice which withheld the just
tribute of praise, the human frailty which wove sharp
thorns into the wreath of solid merit,—all the-e in or
dinary cases arc buried in the grave of the illustrious
•'.call; Kflile their brilliant talents, their deeds of heuev
nl. nee and public spirit, their wise aud eloquent « or,1s.
their healing counsels, their gcncrou- affections, the whole ‘
man, in short, whom wc revered and loved and would
fain imitate, especially w hen Ids image i- impressed upon
our recollect ion- by the |ieucil or Uic chisel, goes forth
to the admiration of the latest posterity. Jirtinctun uimj
bitur idsm.
Our city has lately witnessed a most beautiful instance
of this re-animating power of death. A few weeks since
we followed toward the tomb the lifeless remains of our
lamented t’hoate. Well may we consecrate a moment
even of this hour to him who, in that admirable discourse
to which I have already alluded, did such noble justice
to himself and the great subject of his eulogy. A short
time before the decease of our much honored friend, I
i had seen him shattered by disease, Ins all-per-ua-tve
voice faint and languid, his beaming eye quenched ; and,
as he left us in search of health in a foreign clime, a pain
ful image and a sail foreboding, too soon fulfilled, dwelt
upon my mind. But, on the morning of the day when
we wen- to pay the last sad offices to our friend lihe -_
of July) with a sad, let me not say a repining thought,
that so much talent, so much learning, so much elo
quence, ro much wit, so much wisdom, so much force of
intellect, so much kindness of heart, w ere taken from ns,
an engraved likeness of him was brought to me, in whii-li
lie Denied to live again. The shadows of disease aud
suffering bad passed Irotn the brow, the well rein-tuber.
• d countenance wa- clothed with its wonted serenity, a
cheerful smile lighted up the features, genius kindled in
the eye, persuasion hovered over the lips, and I felt a- if
I *»« going not to hi- funeral but hi- triumph. •• Weep
not for me,'' it seemed to say, “but weep for yourselves.'
And never while lie dwelt among us in the feeble tale-r
nacle of the flesh; never while the overtasked spirit
seemed to exhaust the drlirato frame; never s- I had
listened to the melody of his living voice, did he speak to
my imagination and heart with such a touching though
-ill-lit eloquence, a- when we followed his hearse along
the-e street, that bright mid-summer'* noon, up the nn
Ktrrn in front of this c.vnitolslnwlv .. o. .1...—i......
;"•»* "f grand dead-marches, as they swelled from wail
ing clarion and mu tiled drum, while the minute guns from
vnn-ler lawn responded to tin- passing hell from yonder
steeple I then understood the sublime significance of
the words which t’ieero put in the mouth of Cato, that
the mind, elevated to the foresight of posterity, when
departing from this life, legins at length to live ; 'yea, the
-uhlitner worils of a greater than Cicero, " Oh’ death,
where i« tliy sting ; ob, grave, where is thy victory!”—
And then, as we |*assed the abodes of those whom lie
knew, and honored and loved, and who had gone Is-fore
of I,aw retire here on the left, of Prescott yonder on the
right; this home where Hancock lived and Washington
was rtreived; this where l.afayette sojourned ; thisenpi
tol where his own political course began, and on which
so many patriotic memories are concentrated, I lelt, not
as if We were conducting another frail and weary hodv
In the tomb, hut as if we were escorting a noble brother
loth, congenial company of the departed great and good
and I was ready myself to exclaim, •• d prnlnmn, ,Ufm,
rum ml itlml ilivinmn nnimnrmn rtrhri li urn rtrl until III
pm/.rhrnr.rmn./m t, I.nr Inrhn.l. nllumvnr ,l,,r„l„.„r
It will not, I think, be expected of me to undertake
the sitpct(Toons task of narrating in great detail the well
known event* of Mr Webster’s life, or of attempting an
elaborate delineation of tliat character to whirli -nch am
ple justice has already been done by master hands. I
leein it snflieirtit to say in general, that, referred to all
the standards by which public character can be estima
ted, he exhibited in a rare degree the oualittes of a truly
great man.
The period at which Mr Webster came forward in life,
and during which he played so distinguished a iiart, so
not one in which small men, dependent upon their’own
exertions are likely to rise to a high place in public call
mation. The present generation of young men are hardly
aware of the vehemence of the storms that shook the
world at the time that Mr. Webster became old enough
to form the first childish conceptions of the nature of the
I vents in progress at home and abroad. His recollections,
he tells us in an autol.lngraphical sketch, went hack to
the year I7(*b—a year when the political system of eonti
nenlsl fturope was ationt to plunge into a state of
frightful disintegration, while, under the new con
stitntion, the I Intel Mates were commencing an un
exampled career of prosperity , Washington jnst en
tering upon the first Presidency of the new horn re
public , tlie reins of the oldest monarchy in Kurope
| slipping, besmeared with blond, from the hands ol the de
cendant of thirty generation of kings. The fitrful
struggle between Prance and the allied powers succeed
ed, which strained the resources of the p.uropcan govern
ments to their utmost tension Armies and navies were
arrayed against carli other a„rl, aa the drilled world
had never seen before, and wars waged Iwyond all former
experience. The storm fa«*ed over the continent ** a
tornado paaacs through a forrti, when it comaa rolling
••d KVtog fro« iM cloud*, u4 prodry*
Ol ceuiurU* in It* path. England, in virtu* at h*r >Ma
lar position, her nnvnl power, and her free Institutions,
had, more tl.au any other to reign country, weulbervd the
storm; but Kuasia saw the arctic sky lighted with the
Haines of her old Muscovite eapiul; the shadowy K.naera
of tlie House of llapaburg were compelled to'abdicate
tin- crown ol' the Holy Roman Empire aud accept aa a
substitute that of Austria , IVussia, staggering from Jena,
trembled on the verge of |>oiltical annihilation; the other
Herman States, Italy, Switzerland. Holland, and the Span
ish Peninsula were convulsed ; Egypt ovrrrun; Conalan
tinople aud the East threatened , and in maoy of these
States, institutions, laws, ideas and manners were chang
ed ns effectually ns dynasties. With the downfal of Na
poleon a partial reconstruction of the old form* took
place, but the political gemaz of the eontiueut of Europe
was revolutionized.
tin this side of the Atlantic, the Toiled States, though
studying an impartial neutrality, were drawn at Aral to
some extent into the outer circles of the terrific male
strom; but soon escaping, they started upon a career
ol national growth and development, of which th* world
has W itnessed no other example. Meautime, the Span
ish and the Portuguese Viceroy allies south of us, trom
Mexico to Cape Horn, asserted their independence, that
Castilian empire on which the sun never set was dismem
bered, and the golden chain was forever sundered, by
which Columbus had linked half his new-found world to
the throne of Ferdinand and Isabella.
Such was the crowd and the importance of the events,
in which, from his childhood up, the life of Mr. Webster,
and of die generation to which he belonged was passed,
and I can with all sincerity say, that it has never been
•its fortune, in Europe or America, to hold intercourse
with any |s-rsou who seemed to nte to (tenetrate further
than lie had done into the spirit of the age, under its
successive phases of dissolution, chaos, reconstruction,
and progress. Born and bred on the verge of the wil
derness, (his father a veteran of those old French and In
dian wars, in w hich, iu the middle of the eighteenth cen
tury, wild men came out of the wood*, to wage war »ith
the tomahawk and the scalping knile, against the fire
side and the cradle,) with the slenderest opportunities tor
early education, entering life with scarce the usual facili
ties for reading the riddle of foreign statecraft, remote
from the srene of action, relying ii|h>ii sources ol inform
ation equally open to all the'world, he seemed to me urv
ertbele**, by the instinct of a great capacity, to have
comprehended iu all its aspects the num b of events in
Europe and this country. He surveyed the agitations of
the age with calmness, depreciated its excesses, sympa
thized with its progressive tendencies, rejoiced in its tri
umph*. Hi* first words iu Congress, wlieu he came un
announced from his native hill* in 1818, proclaimed hi*
mastery of the perplexed web of Eur>i|ic*ii politics, iu
which the I'nitcd Mates were then too deeply cutangled:
and from that time till hi* death I think we all felt, those
who differed from him as well as those who agreed with
him, that he was in tio degree below the standard of Ins
time; that if Providence had cast his lot in tlie field
•here the great destinies of Europe were decided, tills
poor New Hampshire youth would have carried his head
as high among the Mctlcniiehs, the Nesselrodes, the
llardcnbcrges, the Talleyrand*, the t'astlercaghs ol the
day, and surely among their successors, who now occu
py tlie stage, as he did among his eoiiteui|H>raries at
home.
I.et me not lie thought, however, in this remark, to in
timate that those contemporaries at home were second
rate men; far otherwise. It ha*sometime--eeiucd tonic
that, owing to the natural reverence in which we hold
the leaders of the revolutionary period—the heroic age
of the count tv—and those of the constitutional age who
brought out of chaos this august sv stem of confedrate
republicanism, we hardly do lull justice to the third pe
riod i» our |K>litieal history, »Inch may be dated front
about the time when Mr. \\ rtu-riK came into political
life, and continued through the first (van of his career.
The heroes and sage* of the revolutionary and constitu
tional period were iudeed gone: Washington. Franklin,
Hrecue, Hamilton, Morris, Jay, slept iu their honored
graves. John Adams, Jefferson. Carroll, though sur
viving, were withdrawn Iront affairs. But Madison, who
contributed so much to the formation and attention of
he Constitution, «u at the helm; Motitoe in the t'abi
ict; Jolin Quincy Adams, Gallatin ami Bayard negoti
iting in Europe ; in the Senate were Kufu* King, Chris
opher Gore, Jeremiah Mason, Giles, Otis; in the House
>f Representatives, Pinckney, Clay, Lowndes, Cheves,
,'alhoun, Gaston, Forsy th, Kaudolph. Oakley,Pitkin, Gro»
n nor; on the bench of the Supreme Court, Marshall,
Livingston, Story ; at the bar, Dexter, Emmet, Pinkney,
iinl Wirt: with many distinguished men not at that time
u the general Government, of whom it is enough to name
Dewitt Clinton and Chancellor Kent. It was' mv privi
ego to see Mr. Webster, associated and mingling with
nearly all those eminent men, and their successors, not
only in later years, but in my own youth; and when be
lirst came forward, unknown as yet to the country at
large, scarcely known to himself, not arrogant nor vet
unconscious of his mighty powcra.ticd to a laborious pro
lossion in a narrow range of practice, but glowiug with
a generous ambition, and uot afraid to grapple with the
strongest and iioldest in the laud. The opiuion pro
nounced of him, at the commencement of his career bv
Mr. l.owndc*, that “the South had not in Congress
his superior, uor the North his equal," savor* in the form
of expression of sevtional partiality. If it had been said,
that neither at the South nor the North had any public
man risen more rapidly to a brilliant reputation, no one,
I think, w ould have denied the justice of the remark.—
He stood from the first, the acknowledged equal of the
most distinguished of his associate*. In later Years, he
acted with the successors of those I have named, with
Benton, Burges, Edward Livingston, llatne, McDuffie,
McLean, Sergeant, Clayton, \\ ihle, Storrs, our own
Bates. Davis, Gorham, Choate, and others who still sur
vive ; but it will readily be admitted that he tiever sank
from the position wnich he assumed at the outset of his
career, or stood second to any man in any part of the
country.
If we now look for a moment at the public questions j
with which he was called to deal iu toe course of his ca
reer, and with w bich he did deal, in the most masterly I
manner, as they successively cvme up, we shall find new I
proofs ol his great abili'v. When he first came forward
iu life, the two great belligerent Powers ol Europe, con- i
tending with each other for the mastery ol the world, i
despising our youthful weakness and impatient ol our ,
gainful tieutralitv, in violation, now admitted, of the hw
o! nations, emulated each other in the war waged upon
our commerce and the insults off. red to our hag. To |
engag-s in a contest with both would have been madness; j
the choice of the antagonist was a question of difficulty,
and well calculated to furnish topic* of rcpioach ami re
crimination. Which ever ride you adopted, your oppo- t
nent regarded you »« being, in a great national struggle, i
the apologist of an unftiendly foreign Power. In 1 the
Pitlted cho-.* France for their enemy; in 1SI2. ;
Great Britain. War was declared against the latter
country on the 18th of June, 1812; the order* in Coun
cil, which were the immediate cause of the war, were re
scinded five day* afterward-. Such arc the narrow tdian
ces on which the fortunes of Stales depend'
Gr. at questions ol domestic and foreign policy follow
ed the cltv-e of the war. Of the former i-laso were the
restoration of a currency, which should truly represent
the values which it nominally circulated, a result mainlv
brought about by a resolution moved by Mr Webster;
the fiscal system of the I nion and the best mode of con
necting the collection, safe-keeping, and disbursement of
•he public funds, w ith the romrneteta! wants, and espeei
*11 v with the exchange- ol the country ; the stability of
the manufactures, which had been « tiled into existence
during the war ; what ran constitutionally be done, and
ought anything as a matter of policy to be done bv Con
gress to protect them from the competition of foreign
skill, and the glut of foreign markets; the internal coin
muni, atoms of the I’ninn, a question of paramount inter
est before the introduction of railroads; can the central
power do anything—what can it do—l>y roatU and ca
nals. to bind the distant darts parts of the continent to
gi liter ; the enlargement ol the judicial system of the
country to meet the w ants of the greatly increased num
ber of the Stale*; the revision of the criminal code of
the I nited States, which was almost exclusively hi* work;
—the administration of the public lands and the best
mode of filling with civilized and Christian home* this
immense domain, the amplest heritage which was ever
subjected to the control of a free government ; connect
ed with the public domain, the relation* of the citilizod
and dominant race to the aboriginal children of the soil;
and lastly, the constitutional questions on the nature of
the government itself, which were raised in that gigantic
controversy on the interpretation of the fundamental law
itself. These were «orne of the most important domes
tic que tion« which occupied the attention of Congress
■ I it... ..nin.lre .bit.. VI- XV..I-1-.... . _
Of question* connected with foreign affair* were ilio-e
growing out of tlie »;lr, which was in progress when he
first became a member of Congress,—then the various
qic-stion* of international law, some of them as novel a*
liiev were important,which bad reference to the entrance
or the attempted entrance of so many new State* into
the family of nations; in Europe,—firecce, it- Iginin,
Hungary; on list* continent, twelve or fourteen new re
public*. great and small, bursting from the ruin* of the
Spanish Colonial Empire,—like a group of asteroid* from
tile wreck of an exploded planet; the invitation of the
infant American Republics to meet them in Congress at
Panama ; our commercial relation* with the Rriti*b Colo
nies in the West Indies ami on this Continent; demands
on several European Stole* for s|K>liations on our com
ine rce during llie wars of (be French Revolution ; onr se
cular controversy with England relative to the boundary
nf llie United Slate* on the Northeastern and Pacific
frontier* ; our relation* with Mexico, previous to the
war; the immunity of the American flag.upon the com
mon jurisdiction of the ocean ; and more important Ilian
all other question*, foreign or domestic, in ila inducte e
upon the general politic* of the country, the great sec
tional controversy,—not then first commenced, but great
Iv increased in warmth and urgency, which cenuerted it
self with the organization of the newly acquired Mexican
territoriea.
Such were the chief qnestion* on which It was Mr Web- I
• ter'* duty to form opinions, a* an influential member of
Congress and a political leader to speak and to vote ; as
a member of the Executive Oovcmtntnt loexercise a pow
erful, and over some of them, a derisive control. He
ddc* these, there was another class of questions, of great
tsiblic Importance, which c*u»e up for adjudication in lit"
I'uurls of llie l/nited States, which he was called profes
ionally to discus*. Many of the questions of each class
now referred to divided and still divide opinion; exeited
i trill still excite the feelings of individuals, of parties, of
•eclions, of the country. There are some of them which
in the course of a long life, under chsnging clrcnmstan
ces, are likely to lie differently viewed at different periods
j by the same Ipdlvidual. I sin not here, to day, to rake
off the warm ashes from the ember* of controversies,
which have spent their fury and are dying sway, or to
fan the fires of those which still burn. Hnt no one, i
think, whether be agreed with Mr. Webster, or differed
from him, a* to any of the** questions, will deny that he
treated them each and all, as they came up, In the Senate,
in the t'ourts, or In negotiation with foreign Powers, in
a broad, slatesmanlike nnd masterly way. There were
I few who would not confe**, when they agreed with him,
that lie had expressed their opinions better than they
i could do it lhem«clve* ; few, when they differed ftom
him, who would not admit that he h*d maintained fu*
own »iew* manfully, powerfully and liberally.
Such waa the period id which Mr. Webster lived, such
were the associate* with whom he acted, the quest Iona
wilt wfeb be bed to deal tt mua«M, JttrU*, the b**4
at M .anW.mtWu of lb* Uor* rout sot. ami a public
wpaaker Let us coiitcuijdate hint fur a moment In either
canekt.
\\ ithout paei«| through the preliminary stage of the
Htaic Legislature, and elected to Congress in *ia years
from (be time of bit admission to the Superior Court of
New Hampshire, be waa on hi* first entrance into the
House or KeprsuantaUres placed l.r Mr Speaker Clay on
the Committee of foreign Affairs, .od took rank forth
with aa oat of tbt leading »uu»*tnrti of the day. HU
first speech had Pefrrvncv to those famous tterliu aad Mi
lan decrees and order* in Council, to which I has* alrea
dy alluded, and the impreseiou produced br it waa such
as to had the venerable Chief Justice Marshall eighteen
years afterwards, In writing to Mr Justice Story, to nay,
“At the time when this speech was >lelivered I did not
know Mr. \V rbeter, but I waa so much struck with it that
I dil not hesitate then to state that lie waa a Terr able
man, and would become oue of the very first atatcsui. ii
in America, perha|i* the very first." His mind at the verv
outset of bis career had by a kind ofmstiuct soared from
the principles which govern the iininicuial relation* of in
dividual*.to those great rules which dictated the law ol
Nalious to independent State*. Hr tell* us, in the frag
ment of a diary kept while he was a law student iu Mr.
Gore * office, that he then rvad Vattrl through for the
third time. Accordingly in after life, there was no sub
ject which he discussed with greater pleasure and I may
add with greater power that! questions of the law of na
tions. The revolution of Greece had from its outbreak
attracted much of the attention of the civilized world.—
A people, whose ancestors ha'd originally taught letters
and art* to mankind, struggling to regain a place in the
great family ol itulependciit Slates; the convulsive effort*
of a Christian people, the foundation of whose churches
by the Apostles in person is recorded in the New Testa
ment, to shake off tint yoke of Mahoiuniedan despotism,
possessed a strange interest for the fnrnda oi Christian
ld»ertv throughout Rurope an.l America. Rreanlcnt Mon
roe had railed the attention of Congress to this most in
teresting struggle in December, IHi.i. and Mr Webster
reluming to Congress after a retirement of right years,
as the representative of Host on. made the Gj-eck rovolu
tion the subject of a motion and a speech. In this speech
he treated what he called “the great question of the day
—the question between absolute and regulated govern
ments." He engaged iu a searching criticism of the doc
trines of the “Holy Alliance,” and maintained the dutv
of the l nited States as a great free |iower to protest a
gainst them. That speech remains in my judgment to
this day the ablest and mo*i effective n-mouat’-auce
•against the priuci|ile.* ot the allied military powers of con
tinental Kunqie. Mr. Jeremiah Masou pronounced it
“ the best sample of parliamentary eloquence and states
manlike reasoning which our country had seen." His
indignant protest against the spirit of absolutism and bis
word* of sympathy with an infant people struggling for
independence were borne on the wings of the wind
throughout Christendom. They were read in every Ian
guage, at every court, in every cabinet, iu every reading
room, on every market plaee.tiy the Republican* of Mex
ico and Sp.mi.sh South America, by the reformers of Ita
ly, the patriot* ol Roland; on the Tagus, oil the Itauulie,
as well as at the head of the little armies ol" revolution
ary Greece. . The practical impression which tltev made
on tlie American mind was seen in the I Kh-tali tv with
which cargoes ol food and clothing, a year or two after
ward-. were dispatched to the rebel of the Greeks. No |
legislative or executive measure was adopted at that time I
iu consequence ol Mr. Webster's motion and speech ;
probably none vva* anticipated by him ; Inti no one who I
considers how much the march of events in such ease.*
Is influenced l»y the moral sentiment*, will doubt that a
great word like this, *pok. n in the American Congress,
must have had uu slight effect in cheering the heart ol
Greece, to persevere in her tiuvqual but tiuallv success
ful struggls.
It was by these masterly parliamentar efforts that Mr. I
Webster left his mark ou the age iu which he lived. His
fidelity to hi* convictions kept him for the greater part
of his life in a minority;—a |«o*itioii which ho regarded
not as a proscription but a.* a |>osl of honor aud duty._
lie Iclt that in free governments and in a normal state of I
ha« its duties not less responsible than those which attach
to office. Itelore the importance of Mr. Webster’s polit
ical services Is disparaged for want of po.-itive results
which can oulv be brought aliout by those who are cloth
ed with [tower, it must be shown that to raise a persua
sive aud convincing voice iu the vindication of truth and
right, to uphold and assert the true principles of the gov
ernment under which we live, aud bring them home to
the hearts of the people—to do this from a sense of |mi
rioiie duty and without hope of the houors and emolu
ments of office, to do it so as to instruct the public con
science aud warm the public heart, is a less meritorious
service to society than to touch with skillful hand the
springs of party politics, and to hold together the often
discordant element* of ill-compactcd majorities.
The greatest parliamentary efforts made hv Mr. Web
ster was iu his second speech on Knot’s resolution , the
question at issue being nothing less than this: Is the
Constitution of the I'nited States a compact without a
common umpire between confederated sovereignties, or
is it a government of the i’eople of the United States, so
vereign within the sphere of its delegated |<o*rers, hut
reserving a great mass of uttdelegated rights to the sepa
rate State Government* and the People ? With those
who embrace the opiuious which Mr. Webster combated
in this speech, this is not the time uor tli- place to en
gage in argument; but those who believe that he main
tained the true principles of the Constitution will probably
agree, that since that iustrimicnt was communicated to
the Continental Congress, seventy-two years ago this
day, by George Washington a* President of the Federal
Convention, no greater service has been rendered them
than iu tiie delivery of this speech. Well do I recollect
the occasion aud the scene, li was truly what Welling
ton called the battle of Waterloo, a conflict of giants. 1
passed an hour and a half with Mr. Webster, at his re
quest, the evening before this great effort ; and
he went over to me, from a very concise brief,
the main topics of the speech, which he had
prepared for the following day. So calm and tinitri
pr-sion* d was the memorandum, so entirely w as he at
ease himself, that I was tempted to think, nb
surJly enough, that he was not sufficiently aw»re of the
magnitude of ihe occanon. Hut I soon perceived that
his calmness was the repose of conscious power. He was
not only at case, hut sportive and full of anecdote ; aud,
a< he told the Senate playfully the next <1 iy, he slept
soundly that It ght on the formidable a-sanlt of his gallant
and accomplished adversary. So the great Contlc slept
on the eve of the battle of Bocroi; so Alexander slept
on tho eve of the battle of Arbela; and t>o tiiey awoke to
deeds of immortal fame. A« i saw him in the evening,
tit i may borrow an illustration from his favorite amuse
ment,) he was as unconcerned and as free of spirit, as
some here have often seen him, while floating in liis fish
ing boat along a hazy shore, gently rocking on the tran
quil tide, dropping his hue here and there, with the vary
ing fortune of the q.ort. The to ,t morning he was like
some mighty Admiral, .lark ami terrible, casting the long
shallow of his frowning tiers tar over the sea, that seem
ed to sink beneath him ; his broid pennant streaming at
the main, the star- and atrip* s at the fore, the mizzen and
the |ieak, and bearing down like a tempe-t upon his an
tagonist, with all his canvas strained to the wind, and all
hi* thunder* roaring from his broadsides,
Mr. Webster’s career was not less brilliant as a jurist
than a* a statesman. In fact he possessed in an eminent
degree a judicial mind. While performing an amount
of Congressional ami official labor sufficient to till the bu
siest ilay, and to task the strongest powers, he yet sus
tained with a giant’s strength the herculean toils of Li*
profession. At the very commencement of his legal stu
dies, resisting the fascination of a more liberal course of
| resiling, lie laid his foundations deep in the common law;
| grappled as well a* lie might with the wearv subtleties
and obsolete technicalities of Coke Littleton,and abstract
ed and translated volumes of reports from the Xormau,
French and Latin. A few yeais of practice follow iu the
Courts of New Hampshire, interrupted by hi* service in
Congress lor two [siiitieal terms, and we liml him at the
bar of the Supreme Court of the United States at Wa-h
inglon, inaugurating in the Dartmouth College case what
may be called a new school of Constitutional jurispru
dence.
It wunhl be a waste of time to speak of that great ease,
or of Mr. Webster’s connection with it. It is too freshly
remembered in our tribunals. So novel at that time were
the principle* involved in it that a member of the Court,
after a cursory inspection of the record of the ra«e, ex
pressed the opinion that little of importance could he urg
ed in htdialf of the plaintiff iu error; hut so firm i* the Ini
si* on which in that and subsequent eases of u similar
, character those principle: were established, that they
I or in one Ul me rcuicu, a* nicy are one III (lie llln*t
important, portiona of the coiiatitiitinnal luw of tlie
I'll inti.
Sot lea* important, anil, at the time, not b-*a novel,
were tlie principle* involved in the celebrated c.iae of
(iihtioii* and Ogden. Thia caac grew out of a grant by
tlie Ktati- of Sew York U» the aa-Tgoee* of Fulton of the
cidurive right to navigate by eteam the river*, harbor a
nod bay* of the Knipiru Stale. Tweoty hre year* after
ward*. Mr. Jo* (ice War no gave to Mr. Webater the cred
it of haring laid down the broad cnnatitutional ground
on which tin- navigable water* of the (mited State*, "ev
ery creek and river and l ike and hay and harbor in the
country," wra* forever rescued from tlie gra*p of State
monojrfily. So failed the intention of tlie la-gi*lature of
New York to aeenre a rich |iecuuiary reward to the great
Je-rfeclor of Hciuti navigation; «o muat have failed any
attempt to rompenmte by money the ineatimalilc achieve
nien- Monopolies rrnihl not reward it; ailrer and gold
could not weigli down i»a value. Small aervieeuaro piid
with money—large one* with fame. Ftdlon had hi* re
ward when, after twenty ye ir* of nn»nci-ea*fitl enpeii
nienl and hope deferred, be made the pi-aage to Albany
by »teatn; a* Franklin had hia reward when he raw the
him-* of the cord which littd hi* kite Hitf-ming with the
electricity they I id drawn from the thunder cloud; a*
Dalileo had hi* when he pointed hi* little tnlie to the
heaven* and diaeovpied the Medieean atara; aa Colombiia
had hi* when he beheld from the deck of hi* ve**e| a
moving light on the ahore* of the m-w -found world —
That one glowing, unutterable thrill of rouaciou* ancce**,
ia too exquisite to be alloyed with tiaaer metal. The mid
night vigil*. the achicg eve*, the fainting hope* turned
at l«*t into one bewildering ecatany of triumph, cannot
he repaid with gold The great diacoveriea, improve,
tnent* and invention* wliich ben< fit mankind ran only
lie rcwarde-l by oppOeiUrn, oblwpiy, poverty, an-l an un
dying name'
Time wunld fall ine, were | ntherwian equal lo the
ta*k, to dwell on the other great ronatimtiocal cnxea ar
gued Br. Welofrr. thou on Slate ln*olvent law*, the
Hank of the I nited State*, the Sailor’* Snug Harbor, the
fharlealown Hrldge Fran-hiae, or tbo»e other great evaca
on the validity of Mr. litrard* will, in which Mr. Web
Her a argument drew forth an emphatic acknnwledg
metit of the citizen* of Waahington, of all denomina
tion*, for it* great value "in iletnonatraling the vital im
portaure of fhriatlanity to tli*> aueee** of our free inati
Intiona, and that tlie general diffnaion of that argument
among the People of the United State* i* a matter of
deep public intervalor Ihe argument in the Rhode |*|
and ( barter caae in ^*|H, which attracted no little pub
lie notice in Fnrope at that antinu* p rind, aa a maater
ly diaenwnion of tlie Inie principle* of eonatilnlioiial obli
gallon
It would be auperflaoua, I might almort *ay, imperii
nentt* remark that if Mr Webater atood at the head of
tba ronatitutional lawyer* of the country, he wan not la**
N4 <4diMr;
i i
«r th* profession Tho trial of Ooodrl Jgs to HIT, and of
Kuapp In 18**, in' still recollected as apecimen* of the
highest prvfeadoual skill, the latter. In tact, as a case of
historical importance iu the criminal jurisprudence of the
country.
Hut, however distinguished bis tepulaliou iu the other
depart meats of his prof.-union. hia fame as a jurist is main
ly associated with the tribunal* or the United Stale*. The
retaliou of the Federal Oovernnicul Iu the Stales Is
peculiar to thi* country and gives rise to a class of eases
in the Supreme Court of the United Slates, to which there
is nothing analogous in the jurisprudence of England, in
that country nothing, not eren the opres* word* of a
treaty, can be pleaded against an set of Parliament. The
Supreme (four! of the United States entertains question*
which involre the constitutionality of the laws of State
Legislatures, the validity of the decree* of State founts,
nay of the constitutionality of art* of Congress Itself.
Every one feels that this range and elevation of jurisdic
tion must ten,I greatly to the respectability of practice at
that forum, and give a breadth and hlierality to the toue
with which questions are there diacuMcd, uot so much to
be looked for in the ordinary litigatiou of the common
law. No oue needs to be reminded how fully llr. Webster
lelt, and, iu his own relations to it, sustained the dignity
of this tribunal, lie n-garded it a* the great mediating
power i.l the Constitution. He believed that while it com
manded the confidence of the country, no serious derange
uient of any of the other great functions ol the (Sovern
ineut was to Iw apprehended; il it should ever fail lo do
so, he feared the worst. For the memory of Marshall, the
great and honored magistrate, who presided in IhisCourt
tor the third part ol a century, and did so much to raise
its reputation and establish its in line nee, he cherished
feelings of veneration, second only to those which he bore
to the memory of Washington.
In his political career, Mr. Webster owedalnio-t every
thing to popular choice, or the tavnrof the Legislature of
Massachusetts. lie was, however, I wire clothed with ex
ecutive power, as the head of an Administration, and iu
that capscitv achieved a diplomatic smvcwsof the highest
older. Among the victories of peso* uot less renowned
Ihsn those ol war which Milton celebrates, the first |>lace
Is surely due to tlio-s- friendly arrangement* between
great powers, by which war is averted Such an arrange
ment was effected hv Mr. Web«ter in 181*. in referenee
to tuorv than one highly irritating questiou between Ibis
country sud tirest Itrilain. and especially the Northeas
tern Boundary of the Coiled States, l allude to the sub
ject, not for the sake ol re-opening obsolete controver
sies, but for the pur|M>.*e of vindicating his memory from
the charges of disinge a nousness and even fraud, which
were brought against him at the time iu England, and
which have very lately been revived in that eountrv. I
do it the rather as the facts of tlie case had never been
fully stated.
The Northeastern Rouudary ol the United States,which
was described by the treaty of 1788, had uever been sur
veyed and rim. It was still unsettled in 1842, slid had
become the subject of a controversy, which had resisted
the ability of several successive administration*, on both
sides of the water, and bail nearly exhausted the resour
ces of arbitration and diplomacy. Border collisions,
though happily no bloodshed had taken place; seventeen
regiments had been thrown into the British provinces ;
tieu. Scoil had been dispatched to the frontier of Maine;
and our Minister iu London (Mr. Stevenson) had written
to the commander ol' the American squadron in the Medi
terranean, that a collision, in his opinion, was inevitable.
Such was the slate of thing* when Mr. Webster came
iulo the Defiartnietit of Slate iu the spring of ISII. lie
inmiediatelv gave an intimation to the British liovern
ment that be w as desirous of reuewiug the interrupted
negotiation. A change of ministry took place in Eng
land in the course of a few months, and a resolution was
-oon taken by Sir Uobcrt l’eel and Lord Aberdeen to
send a special Envoy to the United Stales to make a last
attempt to settle this dangerous dispute by negotiation,
laird Ashburton was selected for this honorable errand,
and his known friendly relations with Mr. Welister were
among the motives that prompted his appointment, it
may Ik- observed that the intrinsic difliculties of the ne
gotiation were increased by the circumstance, that, as the
uu-|nucu u miurt lay 111 inc .-nua oi name, ami the pro
prietory of the aoil was in Maine ami Massachusetts, it
wa< deemed necessary to obtain the consent of those
States to any arrangement that might In- entered iuto
by the (tcucral (>ovcrnmcitt.
The length of time, for which the question hud been
controverted, hnd, as usually happens in such cases, had
the effect of living both parties more firmly in their oj>
posite views of the subject. It was a pledge at least of
the good faith with which the United States had conduct
ed the discussion, that everything in our archives bear
ing ou the subject had beeu voluntarily spread before
the world. On the other side, no part of the corre-pon
deuce of the ministers who negotiated the treatv had
ever been published, and whenever Americans were |>er
mitted. for literary puri>o.ses, to institute historical inqui
ries in the public otliccs in Isiudon, precautions were ta
ken to preveut anything from being brought to light,
which might I war unfavorably on the llritish iutcrprvita
tion of the treaty.
The American interpretation of the treatv had been
maintained, in its fullest extent, as far as I ant aware, bv
every statesman in the country, of whatever party,' to
whom the question had ever been submitted. It bad been
thus maintained iu good faith by an entire generation of
public uiou, of the highest intelligence and most unques
tioned probity. The llritish floverunieut had, with equal
confidence, maintained their interpretation. The attempt
to settle the controversy by a reference to the King of
the Netherlands had failed. In this state of things, as
the boundary had remained unsettled for fifty-nine years,
and had been controverted for more than twenty ; as
nog itiation and arbitration hadsbowu that neither party
was likely to eonviuec the other; and as in cases of this
kind it is more important that a public controversy
should be nettled than how it should be settled, (of course
within reasonable limits.) Mr Webster had from the first
contemplated a conventional liue. Such a line, and for
the same reasons, was anticipated in Lord Ashburton's
instructions, and was accordingly agreed upon by the
two negotiators—a lioe convenient and advantageous to
both parties.
Such an adjustment, however, like that which liad been
proposed bv the King of the Netherlands, was extreme
ly distasteful to the |>eople of Maine, who, standing on
ilicir rights, adhered with the greatest tenacity to the
lioandary described bv the treaty of 178a, as the United
Mates had alwavs claimed it. As the opposition of Maine
bad prevented that arrangement front taking effect, there
is great reason to suppose that it would have prevented
the adoption of the conventional line agreed to by Mr.
Webster and Lord Ashburton, but for the following cir
cumstance.
This was the discovery, the year before, hv I’re-ident
Sparks, in the archives ol the Bureau ol foreign Affiirs,
at Paris, of a copy of a small map of North America, by
D'Auville. published in 1748, on which a red line 'was
drawn, indicating a boundary between the (*uitcj State*
and (ireat Britain more favorable to the latter than she
had herself claimed it. By whom it was marked, or for
what purpose, did not appear, from any indication on the
map itself. There »n- also found, in the Bureau of for
eign Affairs, inn bound volume of ollieial correspondence,
a letter from Dr. franklin to the Count de Vergennes’
.filed on the rtih of December (six days after the signa
ture of the provisional articles,) stating that, incompli
ance with the Count's request, and on a map sent him
for the purpose, he had marked, "with a strong red line,
the limits of the United States, as settled in the prelimi
nary*." r
Thu french archives had been searched bv Mr. f'ati
ning's agents as long ago as 1847, hut this map either
escaped their notice or had not been deemed bv them of
importance. The Kuglish and french maps of this re
gion differ front each other, audit is known that the map
li-ed by the negotiators of the treaty of I7k:i was Mitch
ell's large map of America, published under the official
sanction of the Board of Trade in 1754. D'Anville's
map was but eighteen inches square, and on so small a
scale the ilillVrenee of the two boundaries would he but
•light, nod consequently open to mistake. The letter of
the Count de Vergennes, transmitting a map to be mark
ed. is not preserved, nor is there anv indorsement on the
red-fine imp to show that it is the map sent by the Count
and marked l.y franklin. D'Anville’s map was published
in 17 It'., and it would surely be unwarrantable Intake
tor granted, in a case such importance, that, in the
coiir-e of thirty year*, it could not have been marked by
a red line for some other purpose, and by some other
person. It would be equally rash to assume ns certain,
either tint the map marked by franklin for the Count
de Vergrnn. s was deposited by hint in tin- public archives;
or, if so deposited, may not still be bid nw.iv among the
I silty thousand m ips contained in that ilenosilnrvV Tim
official correspondence of Mr. Oswald, the llrltish nego
tistor, wa* retained l»y the Briti-li Minister in his own pos
session, anti doe* not appear to have gone into the pub
lie archives.
In the absence of all evidence to connect Dr. Frank
tin's h-tler with the map, it could not, in a court of jus
tice, hare burn received for a moment as a map marked
bv him; and any presumption that it was so marked, was
rcsi-teri by the language of the treaty. This point was
urged in debate, with great force, by lord Brougham,
who as well aa Sir Kolx rt Feel, liberally defended Mr.
Webster from the charge*, which the opposition journals
in l.otidou had brought against him.
Information of thia map was in the progress of the ne
gotiation, very properly communicated to Mr. Wclmter
by Mr. Sparks. For the reasons stab-1, it could not be
admitted aa prorlnt/ anything. It wa- another piece of
evidence of nnrertain character, and Mr. Webster could
have no *?suran> e that the neat day might not produce
, -nine other map rtgially strong or stronger on the Amer
| icsii side, which, as I shall presently state, wa* soon done
| in London.
| In this State of things, he made the only nse of it,
which could tie legitimately mule, in communicating it
to the commissioner* of the State of Maine and Ma-*a
I tihn-etta, end to the Senate, aa a piece of conflicting
j evidence, entitled to consideration, likely to la- urged
us of great impnrt’iliee by the opposite psrly, if the iliv
cu -ion should lx* renewed, increasing the difficulties
which already surrounded the tpiestion, and thus furnish
ing new grounds for agreeing to the proposed conven
tional line. No one, I think, act|iiainted with the history
of tlic controversy, and the state of public opinion and
fi-eling, can doubt that, but for this cnmniouication, it
i would have been difficult, If not lmpo«-ible, to procure
the assent either nf Maine or of the Senate to the treaty,
j This would seem to lx* going as far as reason or honor
required, in refereneo to sn unaiilbeniicated document,
having none of the properties of legal evidence, not ci
hibited by the oppo-ite party, and of a nature to tie out
weighed by contradictory evidence of the same kind,
winch ws* very -non done. But Mr. Webster was, at the
time, severely cenenred by the op|ro«ltion Free* in Kng
Isnd, and was accused of "perfidy and want of good
i faith," land this charge haa lately hccn|rcvlved in an elab
orate ami circumstantial manner.) for not going with hia
map to lord Ashburton , entirely abandoning the Amer
ican claim, and ceding the whole of the disputed territo
ry, more even than she aefccd, to flreat Britain, on the
etrength of thi* single piece of doubtful evidence.
Such a charge scarcely deserves an anawer; hut two
things will occur to *11 Impartial person*—one, that the
red line map, even had it been proved to have been
| marked by Franklin, (which it i* not,) would be but one
I |deee nf evidence, to be weighed, with the worda of the
treaty; with all the othvr evidence In the cane, and eape
j dally with the other menr, and, secondly, that aueh a
1 course, aa it is pretended that Mr. Wtbater ought to hava
ftiffitf <1, Wity OQlJ 0* i«W«h4V!; r*wlfl4 Qffcllboteog.
dllloo that ths Brill** Gorarnwaol had at— produced, or
would undertaka to produce, aU the nidi no*, and espe
cially all the map* In lu poammeion, Ihvoral 4* to the Ame
rican claim.
Now, nut to urge against th* rrdllo* map, that, as waa
vigorously argued by lam) Brougham, It »aa at varlauce
with the express words of the treaty, there were, accord
ing to Mr. liallatiu, the commlauoner for preparing the
claim of the 1'oiled States, to be submitted to the arbiter
in 18117. at least twelve maps, published in Loudon, ill the
course of two yean after the signature of the provisional
arrives iu 179t, *11 of which give the boundary line pre
cisely a* claimed by the United States; aud no map wa*
published lu laindou, favoring the British claim, till the.
third year. The earliest of the map* were prepared to il
lustrate the debates in I'arlismeut ou the treaty; or to il
lusirale the treaty iu anticipation of the debate. None of
the s|H>akers on either side iulimated that these maps are
inaccurate, though some of the opposition speakers at
tacked the treaty aa giviug a disadvantageous bouudary.
One of these map*, that of Faden, the royal geographer,
was staled on the face of It lobe "drawn according to the
treaty." Mr. Sparks Is of opinion (bat Mr. Oswald, the
British envoy hy whom the treaty was negotiate I, aud
who was in London wheu the earliest of the maps were en
graved, was consulted hy the map-iuakers ou the subject
of the Itouudary. At any rate, had they Ivcen inaccurate
iu thi* respect, either Mr. Oswald, or the minister, “who
was vehemently assailed ou account of the large endows
sion of the boundaries," would have exposed the etror.
Itut neither Mr. Oswald nor by any of the ministers was
any comttlaiul made of the iuaccurncy of the ina|M
One of these m»|«a was that contained in /lew’s Politi
cal Magazine, a respectable journal, for which il w a* pre
pared, to illustrate the debate ou the provisional artioles
of 1781. It happened that Lord Ashburton was ealling
■i|H>n me, about the time of tlio debate in the House of
Common* on the merit* of the Treaty, on the gist March,
1*4*. On my expressing to him the opinion, with tlie
freedom warranted by our iutiniuto Inetolly relations,
that Ills (lovernineiit ought to be much obliged to him,
for obtaining so much of a territory, of w hicli I consci
entiously lielievcd the whole belonged to us, " What,"
asked be, " have you to oppose to the redliue map?" 1
replied that, in additiou lo the other ohjectiou* already
mentioned, I considered it to lie outweighed by the nu
merous other maps which were published at lajiidon at
the lime, some of them to illustrate the treaty ; and,
aiiioug them, 1 added, "the map iu the volume ahicb
happens to lie on my table at this moment," which was
the volume of " Bew’s I’olilical Magw/ine," to wliieli I
called his attention. He told me that he was scvpiaiuted
with that map, and desired that I would lend him the
volume to show Sir Kobvrt IVcl. This I did, wild iu his
reply to laird 1‘aliuertitou, in the House of Commons,
Sir Robert I’eel, holding this volume of iniue in his ban.I,
referred lo the map contained iu it, aud "which follows,"
said lie " exactly the American line," ixs an ulfsel to the
red-line map, ol which growl n*e had been made by the
op|vositivin in Kngland, lor the purpose of showing that
Lord Ashburton had been overreached by Mr Webster.
In the course of his *|ieecli, he deleudcd Mr. Wehsier in
the handsomest manner, from the charges brought
against him in reference to this map, by the op|M»it?ou
press, and said that in hi* judgment " the reflection* ca-t
u|hmi that most worthy and honorable man arc unjust."
Nor was this all. The more clfcctually to remove the
imprest on attempted to be raised, in coii*c<|iicucc of the
red-line map, that Lord Ashburton had Ih-cii overreached.
Sir Robert I’ecl staled—aml tkr iliir/ularr wni* mw f\,r
tkr jtrnt Hint tmnlr—that there wo* iti the library' ol
King tieorge the Third |wliicli had been given lo the
British Museum bv tieorge the Fourth) a copy of Mitch
ell’s Hap. in which the boundary a* delineated "follows
exactly the line claimed by the United Stales.” tin lour
places ii|mui this line are w ritten the words, in a strong,
lw>ld hand, "The boundary as described by Mr. Oswald."
There is documentary proof that Mr. Oswald sent the
map used by him, iu negotiating the treaty, to King
tieorge tlio Third, for his information; and Lord Brough
am staled iu IiU place, in the House of l’ecrs, that the
wonLs, four times repeated, iu dilferviil part* ol the line,
were, iu his opinion, written lie the King himself! Hav
ing iistonetl, ami ol course with the deepest interest, to
the debate in the House of Commons, I sought the earli
est op|M>rluuitjr of inspecting the map, which was readily
granted to me by Lord Aberdeen. The boundary is
marked, in the most distinct and skilful manner, from
the St. Croix ail round to tlie St. Mary's and ia precisely
that which has been always claimed l>v us. There is ev
ery reason to believe that this is the identical copy of
Mitchell’s map officially used by the negotiators and sent
by Mr. Oswald, as we learn from Ur. Kratikliu, lo Eng
land. Sir Robert Reel intormed me that it was unknown
to him till after the treaty, and laird Aberdeen and Lord
Ashburton gave mo tlio same assurance. It was well
known, however, to the agent employed under Isud
Melbourne's administration iu maintaining the llritish
claim, and who was foremost in vilifying Mr. \Vrh«rr
for coueealing the red-line map! *
1 had intended to say a few words ou Mr. Wclister's
transcendent ability an a public speaker on the great na
lioual aunivetaarieo, and the patriotic celebrations of the
country. Hut it would bo impossible, within the limits
of a lew paragraphs, to do any kind of justice lo such
efforts ns the discourse on the ti'Jd December, at Ply
mouth; the Speeches on laying the eerner-stoue and the
completion of the Hunker Hill Monument; the eulogy ou
Adams and Jefferson; the character ol Washington;' the
discourse on laying the lovndatiou of the extension ol
the Capitol. What gravity and significance iu the topics,
what richness of illustration, w hat soundness of princi
ple, what elevation of seiiliiucuC, what fervor iu the pat
riotic appeals, what purity, rigor aud clearueso, iu the
stylet
With reference to the first-named of these admirable
discourses, the elder President Adams declared that
"Burke is no longer entitled to the praise—the most con
summate orator of modern times,'’ and it will, I think be
admitted by any one who shall aitontively study them,
that if Mr. Webster, with nil his powers aud all his at’
taiumeut.s, bad done uothing else hut enrich the litera
ture oftho country with these perlormauce* he would be
allowed to have lived uot unworthily, nor iu vain. When
wo consider that they were produced under the severe
pressure of professional and ollicial engagement*, nu
merous and arduous enough to «a*k even his intellect,
we arc lost iu admiration of the aliliiciice of hi* lueuui
resources.
In all the speeches, arguments, discourses, nml composi
tions of every kind proceeding from Mr. Webster’s lips or
pen, there were certain general characteristic* which 1 am
unwilling to dismiss without n passing allusion. Each, of
course, had ita peculiar mei its, aoconling to the nature
ami importance of the subject, and the degree of |iuiu*
bestowed by Mt. Webster on the discussion ; hut I find
some general qualities pervading them all. Une of (hem
is the extreme sobriety of the tone, the pervading com
mon. sense, the entire absence of that extravagance and
iM-cr-stateuirnt, which are so apt to creep into political
harangues, and the discourse* on patriotic anniversaries.
Hi* positions were takeu strongly, clearly and boldlv, but
without wordy amplification or one-nided vehemence.—
You feel that your understanding is addressed, ou lielialf
of a reasonable proposition, which rests neither on senti
mental refinement or rhetorical exaggeration. Tills is
tlie case even iu speeches like that ou the fireek Revolu
tion, where, iu euh.-titig the aid of classical memories and
Christian svmpathics, it was so difficult lo rest within the
hounds of moderation.
This moderation not only characterized Mr. Webster’*
parliamentary efforts, but is equally conspicuous in his
discourses on popular and patriotic occasions, which,
amidst all the itiducemeiils to barreu declamation, are
equally and always marked by the treatment of really
important topics, in a manly aud instructive strain of ar
gument and reflection.
l-*t It not I.* thought, however, that I wouhl represent Mr. Wrh
•tee's speeches In Congress or elsewhere as destitute on proper oc
casions of the most glowing anpeals to the mors I sentiments, or
wanting, when the topic Invites It. In any of Ihe adornments of a
magnificent rhetoric. Who that heard It, or has read It, will evrr
forget the desolating energy of his denunciation of Ihe African
Slave-trade, Iu the discourse at Plymouth, or the apostrophe lo
Warren, In the first discourse on Hunker Hill; or that lo the mon
omental shall aud Ihe survivors of thv Revolution in the second
or the trump" tones of Ihe •|.eech placed In Ihe llpeof John All
ams. In the eulogy nit Adams and Jefferson; nr Ihe snhlttue pern
ration of the speech on Tool's resolution j or Ihe lyric fire of toe
Imagery by which he illustrates the extent of the llriti-h
empire; nr the almost super natural terror ol his description of the
fore* Of conscience In the argument Iu Knapp'a trial. Then, how
bright anil free), the description of Niagara, how beautiful the pi
lure of the Morning In hie private correspondence, which, as well
as Ids familiar cotirrrsallon. were roll retied by Ihe perpetual plar
•if a joyous and fertile Imagination In a word, what tone In all
Ihe grand and nt. Itlng mlisle of one language Is there which |s tint
heard in some portion of 1,1a tpeeeh., or writings; while rrason,
sense find Iruth "impose the basis Hr Ihe strain * l ike the sky
above os, It Is sometimes aerefio and cloudless, and peace and
love shines oui front Its starry depths. At other time* Ihe eelant
stream* ra, in wild fantastic play, emerald, aud pise and ..r tnee
and Hr. rr wl.it., ..- .....i...1 V. , ' •
canopy at the k- i.ttl., and throw ont IhHr flickering curtains over
the heavens an-l Ihe earth; while at other times the mustering t« nt
j.est piles his lowering batllemrnta on the sides of (be in.rti,, a tu
r.ous st rm wind ra«h*t forth from their biasing loophole* and
volt ted thunder* give the signal of the rlem-t to! • ar !
Anoth *r quiMly, wlih h apne-tr* to to* to he very conspicuous In
all Mr Webster's speeches. Is the fair no* and raiotor alth which
l.e treat* the argument of Id* opponent, and tl.e total shaence ..f
otf*i»-lve personality. He wis accustomed, In preparing *o argue
a «|U»atl<*n at the bar, or to debate It In U|e M-nste. first to state
the opponent's rasa or argurne. t in hit own mind, with as me li
fec-e and skill (a* If It w-re his ownfvlrwnf the subject, not
deeming It worthy of a statesman .lisrus.lng the great issue, of the
piddle wea», to as- ill and prostrate a man of straw, and ml! It a
victory over Ids antsgonlsl True to hi* party sum latloi «. there
was ihe least possible mingling of the partisan In his parliantcntsry
• IT Tts. No one, | think, ever truly «ald of him that h* had cHber
misrepresented or failed to grapple fairly with the argument whh h
he undertook lo confute. That he po*»e«eed the power of 1 *vect|ve
In the highest degree |. well known, from lie- display of It on a few
orraalons, when great provocation Justified and required it ; but
be hahi'ually alrsfalncd from f.flvuslve personal!!r. regarding If a*
an Indication always of a bad temper, and generally of a weak
I notice, lastly a Mft ..f judicial dignity in Mr. Webster's inode
of treating pnbfl* questions, which maybe as. rib-d to the high
degre-fn which be united. In the range of his stmll-s and ihe ha
hit* of Ida life, the jurist with Ihe statesman There were orea
s« »n-. and these not • few, when, hut far the locality from which
he spoke, sou might have been at a !«**■, whether you were listen
log to Ihe accomplished Senator tin'oldliig the principles of the Con
stitution as a system of Government, or the consummate Jurist ap
plying Ita |egi*fallve provisions to the praetical Interests of life —
In the hartomuth College ease, and that of Itlhhons and Odg« n,
the dr Vness of a professional argument Is forgotten In the breadth
,Ih* r°iwtlf utlonal principle* shown lo lie Involved
in the lasne. H Idle In the great apstrhe* on Ihe Interpretation of
the t onwtito*|r>n, a aevere Judicial logic darts Its sunbesms Info th*
deepest rectses of * arltt n compart of Government, Intended to
work out a harmonious adjustment of th# *nf*g..nlst c principle#
of Federal and Flats sovereignty. None, I think, but a greet
statesman could have performed Mr. Webster’s part before the
highest tribunal* of the land; none hut a great lawyer mold have
sustained himself a* he did on Ihe floor of th • Senate In fart, he
fose lu that el-ration at which the law, lo Ha highest cone, ptlon,
and lo its v rsatlls function* a-d agencies, as the great mediator
between the fltate and the Individual; Ihe shield by whteti th*
we ,kness of the single man I# protected from the violence and
rrift of h's fellows, and clothed for the defence of his rights with
power of the ma«*; W. let, Watches, felthful guardian,
°ver the Hfs and property of the orphan In the cradle, spreads tl.e
wgla of the public peace alike over th* crowded street* of gresl el
f*es, and the sntHsry pathways of the trlMeraes*. which convey*
th* merchant and Ida cargo In *afety to and from Ihe end* of th*
earth, prescribe* the gentle humanities of civ flsatlon lo cuntend
Ing armies; *||s serene nmidr* *f the clashing Interests of confede
rated fit ales, and mould* them *11 Into one grand union. I say Mr
WeUter rose to an elevation at whlrh all these attribute* and func
tions of universal law-In action altevnatsty everative, fsftslattvs
and judicial. In form *ucce*#trely constitution, etata* and decree
- are mingled Into one harmonious, proctectlng, strengthening,
vitalising, sublime system, brightest Image on earth of that Ineffa
hie soverrfgn en.rgy, which, with mingled power,wisdom and lavs,
upholds and govern* the oniverss.
I*ed equally hy hit professional oecspatlont and Ms political du
tie# to make the Const Hot Ion the object of hfs profnandest study
♦dr Robert feel, with reference to the Roe on Oswald’* map,
observes "| do not s*y that that was the howndary.ntttmatefy *e|
tied hy ihe negotiator* Roeh, however, I* certainly the cage Mr
Jay’* cony of MhcheR’# map (whlrh was also discovered after the
negotiation «f *bv treaty) eahlhlts a Hit* running down the Rt
John’* to Ha mouth. and sailed "Mr. Oswald'* Mae." This I* tb*
line which Mr 0. oPrred to tha American negotiator* on the *th
of Oelohsr ft tra*, ho^gvtr, not approved by the Rrltish Govern
- ■ - i ,
Wf mddUaMda.h« -ffanldd H. wtth HWlH. IWHH, — » Owe.
UM of the Uhloa, bet seen ilMMabn »f thta groat aM tareaai
tog family of Mai... ud to that reef'd be -nod-weed M m tbe
awat layattMt document tear peuuml by tbe bud of walmplred
■ heed bat tell you that thl* reeereme fur lb* Ooutltotloa
“ '*• ««»enaot of unloa between the Mat., waa I ha rrat'al Idea
*f I* pwllUcal *y*lru.. whl. h. Iioo.ear, la Ihla. aa la all other re
•••••} dmed at a aUe aad aafe balance of oatoeaar nydnluwa He
*a»ed, aa mack aa any mu cu p.raUply value g, the Uilerlpte of
T* ■•ofgoty. Me looked vaoa tbe argauU.Uou of tboae aepa
jf* f^depeodeot repabgra - of different ahea, dltkrenl age* and
Mahvrtaa, dMbeeat geographical pnoitloat aa.i to.-at talereeta-aa
mruUl.ti.g a security of luapprc, labia valao fur a ala* and bene*
cant adtnluUtration uf local affaire, ud the rule. One .1 Individual
and local righta. Hal hr regarded a. an approach t. ib. per fee
Mon n« poIHlnnl alad uo. Ik. moulding of Umno aep.r.le ud lad.
pendent ao. eeetgnlle., with all thel, pride of Individual right and
nil Ihrlr ittloosv of In tlvItlMl consequent*. Into m ksnsutlmu
whole, lie never Weighed the two i>rto«lpl** against tsch other he
held them complement at lo each other, equallv and supreme!* vital
and saeentiaL
I happened one bright starry night to be walking home with
hbu, at a late httwr, from the t'apilol at Wsshlngiun, after a eklrm
Whlng defeat*, la whl« h he had hewn speaking, at no great length,
bwt with much earnestness and warmth, en the subject of the Own
stitutina as forming a untied got «-mm« nt The planet, Juslwr
shining with unusual hrllUln. *. a aa In full view. He panmd aa
V.a r*Ctnara,.LI*P,l°l 1,1 •• •"** uncouacloweljr puiswlng the train
•f which he had b*«n enforcing In th* Meoale, pointed to
the planet and s*hl "'Night unto night ahowrth knowleslge,'take
•way the Independent force, rmauatlng from the hand of the Hu*
ITewse, Which Impels that planet ouward, and It Would plunge In
hldesMts ruin from those beautiful skim into the Hun, lake awe*
the central altrsctl.bii of the Hun. and the attendant planet w«.ul.|
•hoot luadlr from Us sphere, urged and restrained hjr (he balanced
foresa. It wheels lu eternal circle through the Imarena "
• KiaSl'US** fwr OawgtltwUon led him lo meiUUIe a work In
"177" ^**7 s» IwmatUa .ml adoption ahuald be I aced,
I'a prio lpbd Uufuld.-d ami captained. It. analogic. .Ilk other goe
c.p,naive Alue.a l pram te the pro. »
peril/ of the enuntrr for age* yet lo coate a.v |.,»„l .twl main
rained. III. IbonghU had I iff'fcwediTSbLsSSl We
jecl waa twl ouly Ike uur on ahick be had he.lo.ed Mr amal can,
e.l parilaairtiiarT effotlr. but Ir form. <1 the |wutl of re fa tear, of
mock of kl> hl.iorical aad ruiareManeoua reading lie .aa .,.,i.,u.
lo Warn akallhe <a peri race uf mankind taught mi the .allied of
f» fn.'.’T"' ?• ” »»/:Wrc« reormbllng our own. Aa oar father*.
1? r?™?? th*.y?"?*4*r«!>?"v 'kill more tie merubveauflko
Uftitmllnn wlUr'h framed the tH>nstttui|*Hi - snd rti.evlsllv ka.h
ingtou «t wiled .III. diUgv-nce .he ... yaolutlv n JSlZfVmr
compa.1. of go.ernmcnr -iboee uf the Hrike,i,n.la.»f It.lUerl.ml,
.Il f ra'TV ' r0 Mr. Web tee direct... a pel at attention to
all former Icagu . and coafedorat-lea of muaiero and ancient.late,
for Ivosn.ra and analogic* of encouragement and warning u> hla
countrymen, lie dwell much on n.c AafkIUmdi league „i
ViT^T-' ”f'£* r*“f'M»f»de' to ukleh Ike Iran.era of Ike Con
•tllulUm Often- referred, and akl, h I. frequently apoken of aa a epr
clra uf federal gov crnmenl. t'uhaf.plly for flreeve. It had little
ctalm lo that character rounded ortgtaalle on confraternity ..(
rc.lrioua rite*, t. waa eapan.lr.1 l„ ike Ufae uf lime Into a I.-oar
political aaaocla.lv,a. eat dca.Uu.c Of all the .power* of in o.
ganUed rAHral government On ikl. auklcct Mr. IV. hater found
a remark l„ Urate .dilatory of Uterrr." *1,1.1, ..ruck Inn. ». be
Mgnlftcance to the people of the Unltr-I Male. -
Occaelonally, ev.aOr.tlc, “there aa* a parrlal pretence f.,r ....
«fH.n the Amphlktyowlc league be Cle,,u.
I onvawaae Wrvr. l e ..//,». but te do.uld completely niMn
Mlriore If We regardevl It aa a federal council ha
..l.uaUy direct lag, or habllu.lly obey eel." "An.l ana.” aald Mr
» carter, coma a |> i aage, which ought to be aritleu lu Icttcra oi
*li Vi'Ye/'/r.-Lr' th' UnplWf aad of crery Mate Lcgtalalare
lla.l there eiMlrrl any aoch t ..NPtvvmte ftvaW/.uM of tolerable
"t**1?!!1 *nJ P*,.,,", *.DI. *',,J ,’*'1 Icndcnclea of the Hellenic
t . V’.'T? ,*,P*.r "f UveauMr.a In H. .U whole court.
UacviT irlV1 .7. * ‘u" l,r"fvahlv hare Iran ajlercd .he
Macedoafan king, would bate rcn. ,i„,..| only o rca|«-ciat.le nrl h
l.or».. or rowing .heir rlelMaallaa f.omO.cc, an.l eartebing their
■ullllare cnerglea t.|w.n Thrnclan. and lllvrlaua; while ui.I.Jd II. I
laa nrigh. bare maintained her own Icrri.ucy aralne. IheVonqueelliff
legion, of Home -. A .1.. .„J patriot* fclceal g..v cri.mcnt
*uc"fcmu- *"•'
oc V h' *““••• hare treated If, Ira.
IngkbackloU. hU.o.W.1 foaal.ln^ ..,,1 ....ward I. It. pmphv.lo
hl^ : K ,l"' ,*W' ™S»"f«a .ink.ace
higher an.l richer elen.en.a of • hough., forth. American elate....
Slid I sti|.)t, Ihsiiuny oilier Itol d.*e. il> cuiuieclrd with the spiritu
al Urilwrc uf Utwit. *
. *’?' r';v U ''.'fcrlal ay .ten. Of the world, ao a, n
derful a. thl* raneratiurni of the tVeafern llembnbeea for .... I..
hln.1 .he ndgh.y yell of water, • flow . on/,/ h a 'er-rd lU kral
'/"XT'.. V‘‘T M ,b' "a 1,1 "" ,h* "f **" "f-cc.th c.l.lo
ry n ha. ... a-l.-nlahlnr aa the occur,ere, within Ir*. than a cen
tury, of lh,|n,e„tlon of printing, the dent.it,at ration of the true
ay.lcii of the I,carer,., an.l thl. great w..tl.l-,ll.rorere » tthatpo
tin atcriou- aa the dla.-.elation of the t.ativ e ulbra of ti.la r.-ntlnrnt
front the clyllUahlc racca ofman’ M hat ... remarkable, In ,H,t|„
cal hUtory, aa the opct.Uv.u of the lotlurn. .. now In rnnltlct now
n harmony. nmlcr which the varloua t,allot,a of the Old World aent *
n^rior.o C.7.? -ra raK :r; S'* • . ... tllcntly a,cat
O -UK no r' ,hr "f n»c century .warming In the
neat with m lllona; aacrndlng the at ream*, .roaring the mountain.
^dt’l*^".*," M* J ,',‘l!l*r‘l *1"* with rirai
.ettlrmenl. offotelpn I'-werp l.ul ercr onward, onwarvl? What »o
proplllnua aa thl. long rulntiial training in the arW.I ot chartered
t.uycrnmcni, an.l then, when tlu-lullnca* of time ha.l i--.ur *hat
separation — mmHally beneflcal In Ita final result' P, b“h\»IdW
the dread appeal to anua. that vr,.cable Continental Conners, the
auguat Deelarallon, the strange alllanea of fh-oldest n.oiael.y of
furope with Ihe Infanl Penn site* And, Uslly, what aa worthy
the admiration of men and an*. '* aa the appearance of him the
eanect -d. h m the hero, raised up to conduct thr momentous con
flirt to its auspicious Issue In the Confederation, Ihe Union th.
Constitution! '
_!’ ,hta » theme not unworthy ofthe pen and Ihe mind of Webster'
Then consider thr growth of the country .thus politically ushered Into
existence and organised under that cun.'Hull n.aa delineated III his
address on llir laying Ore Cornerstone ofthe extension of the Capitol
—Ihe thirteen colonies that armmpllahcd the Revolution multiplied
lo thirty two independent Males, a single one of them exceeding In
imputation ti e old thirteen; the narrow border of settlement along
Ihe roast, fenced In l>y Prenrh ami the native tribe*. expanded lo
ihe dimensions Of the .oMInenl; l-nul.ana, Helds, Texas, New
t exlc. California, ,w,g,.-territories e.p,»| t„ thr Brr„ mouar
oi". nf JnT7« ?' I' , ' 1 """■ *n*1 •«" millions of pop
Illation nhlrh flred the Imagination of llurkr. -welled lo Iwvnlx
four minion-, .luring the life.!,,.. Mr. Webster. .nd In term
* hlcli have since . tap-, d, I ner eased lo thirty I
Mil*, these atiifo ndous results In Ills own time as the null of
calculation beholding und.r Providence «ith each lie.adeof
sit iw * mT I ,1"l’,e, million, strong, (migrants In port fr-m the
OldWortd. Im msll.lv too . of our bone, aud flesh of nor Aral
he chi dr-u of the aot . growing up to Inl.ahit the waste place, o}
the conilnrat. to inherit aud transmit the r ghlaandhleastngi which
** ',''d ,Y’,.’,.-T Y.U"''' i •‘•cognising in Ihe Conatliutk.u
aud iti Ih*' ruit*n ralaliltalirtl by It thr creative inliornrr yhU'h a*
f.»r a» baiaau afrnclei #o. box wrought th«s* a lrorlra of growth
;»n.l proprrw. •nrtwhlrh mr»i» up In xarreil reserve the axpanaive
enenry. with whlrh Itie work U In h. car.id ...» .mi j.rrfr. td, he
lookd *»r» »H with patriotic aapirltioa |i> the time when, beneath
lit the wmoIc wraith of our r|vll!x%)i«m wmiM !*♦ |>ciue«l out
nut only to All up the broad li»l* i»tU-e» of ••tilmirui, If I »»»•* *3
exprcM mjftclf, in the oM thirteen ami their young amt Ihikvinr
•Utrr .'Mai*-a. alrrx'ljr orKx»Ue.l in the W«»t. but, in U.
tjtuc. to to ua.l a humlr it nr* repuhlu * in th* vaUew ofthe Mi«*onil
ami beyond the Rocky Mountain*. tIUour letter* and our an* our
wU.Uandoxrrhurchn, our law* and our liberties xhallbe’cr.
ried from the arctic circle to the tr- pU * . “ from the rt»lnr of tl,e
bum till the itoing down thrreoff 1
Tlda prophvvlc glance, not u>rnly at the Impending hnt Ihe dis
**nt Inlure -this rell.ue. un the fuldlliiienl of Ike great design- ..f
Providence, lllu.tr,.. d through our .hole (TteythSL^
the people of Ihiscour.try th- accumulated Messing* of a'l former
stage* of hu.nan prog,ess, made him more ttdrran* of Ihe latdy
and Irregular adrane,* aud temporary nanderings from the pain
of » hat he deemed a nise and sound poller, than those fervid apt
ritg. who dwell exclusively In the present, anj make less allowance
for the gradual operation nf moral luRue,ices Ihla sraa the case
in rrlrrrlics to the great sectional controversy, whlrh now so
alia, pte divide* and *«. y|,.lrntly agitates the country. He not on
ly confidently anticipated what Ih- lap.. seven years since his
decease lias oxnrr,. d and la witnvxs.ng, that Ihe newly organised
Territories of ih Union woul.l grow up into free nta.es, but, in
common with all or nearly all the stales,nen nf the Iss, general on
he helelved that free labor would uhimalely prevailVhroughout
Ihe country He thought he saw lhat, in the oprr illon of thrsamr
caus. s which haw produced llua r.suli in the Middle and gaairrn
Malra.it wa- visibly faking plaer in Ihe Mates north of Ihe enttnn
*r..a mg regi. n; and he nrlinrd lo the opinion that il.err also, on
,lcr flic iiiil-o ore ot pnisi -al and nnuomlcsl r.(uses, fir, labor
would • vnlually he I,.und must productive, at,, would therefore
be uit m-ilely
I'-r these ress-ms, hearing in mind, nhat all admit, lhat the com
plcit* Miiihuii of the mighty prohlrut vtiirh uow oo KrvBilr !a«k«
the pruilt ncr ami patriotism of 1b« w an«lb«wt In the land l«
• * V .ml ll. del* tfatnl |K.»r » of the U«nrral (iovrrntiirnt . that It
<irp«lMl9, »<1 farMlht % are c■ •ncerned, on their indrprmlmt
W ration, and that!* i., of all<th*i«. a aahjrwi in refarmre to
widcii public opliil.il> xn>I public teiilum-nt will lOfi.i powr full* In
flaancy thr Uw . ll,w« much. In the «.%,*«■ of tlmr. without law. i«
Ilk. ly to h#- hrnuffht about h* <le«*re«, and gratia .||> .lone and per*,
mltt-d, a» in M.-ourl, at thr p.r-.r.t day, nhllr nothin* la to t*
lt«»p<*t| fro** external luterirt *-me, whrihrr of caborti*Ion or re
h -hr ; that in all human affair* controlled by self governing com
mutinies, extreme opiuien* and extreme course*, on the one hand,
generally lead lo extreme op.nlou* In I extreme courses on the
other and lhat nothing wil inure ennirll.ute to the earllr.l pracl
cable relief of Ihr c.-untry from thismoM i-toUth source of conflict
and estrangement than to prevrm Ita bring Inlroducrd into our
party organisations, be deprecated lie bring aboard to r,nd a place
among Ihe fad Ural U«ur> of the day, .North or flouth, and seeking
a platform on whirl, honest arid patriotic nu n n ight 11,01 and
stand, hr thought he had found It where our fsUiers did. In thr Con
stitution.
ll Is ,rue that. In Interpreting the fundamental law, ,.n this suh
|ect, a divers ty of opinion hrtwren fhe two sections of the Union
presents Itself. Thia ha* erer hern the rase, first or last In rela
lion to every greal .|ae*tior> which has divided the country, ll Is
the unfailing iiuidrld of constitutions, wrlllru nr unwritten; an
evil t« hr dealt with In g od faith, hy prudent and ■ nltghlc'nrd
m-n. In both sections of the Union, seeking. •• tv.shlngton sought,
the public good, and giving -spread, n to Ihe patriotic common
•fftit Of III# pfiipir
Much, I hare reason to believe were the principles entertained
hy Mr Wef-ater; not certainly those heat calculated to win a tem
porary popularity in any part ol the I'nion, In times r f passionate
section >1 saltation, uhl.h, between the ratrrmr* of opinion, haves
m. middle ground for modrrat- counsel* llany one could have
trodden S«rh ground with sneers*, he would seen, In have been
qualified to do It, by l.ls Iran*-elide,It talent. Ids mature asperi
em e. his approved temper and raininess and hla tried patriotism.
II l.e failed nf finding such a pith fur himself nr Ihe country,—
oldie we thotlghlfdlly await whai time and an all-wl*e Providence
has In alnre fur ourselves aud our children, let ua remember lhal
Ida attempt wa. the high, st and Ihe pore.t, which ran engage ihe
thoughts of a Male emit an I a IMlfhd. Prace on Karth, good alii
toward men. harmony „nd brotherly lore among the . hlhlren of
nur ruintnoii country
And, O, my friend*. If among those, who,.Illf ring from him on
this or any other sulgrct, hare yet. with generous li.rgrlfuh.rss of
lhal whl-1, •• tr,rated yon, anil kindly r, In. tnhranee of all lhat you
lo-ld In eomamn. conn- up thia .lay in do honor lo Ins memory. Ha re
are any a In. .oppose that hr -To ,1.1—1 Iras tenderly Ilian ynurwlrr*
the great Men- of Idbrrty. Ilumunlly, and llndln rlusodlhal, h,
eattse In- was tsitliful lo llo- .lulh-s whl. h In- Internd fro,,, Ihe Can
,tIIillla„ ai d the las, lo which lie looked lor the gnvrminrul of
«*'»•> M- l-'T. lie »II I- •* -1 sllel II,xo y-mrodrrs lo lie broader re
lit ion* ami d—per syillliillllle- Whl h UllItr US ll. our fellow creature.
“ ,,r' u,r' " 0|’* 1 ■ ml • iMMimi of one l|t«|Vriil)r hllirr, fir
here IIV. pill (In hit Hifiiiiirjr n ifrlri nu« wryuf.
Tl.l* I. not I lie wra.l.. dwelt upon ll.r p-rmnal rhararter of
Mr. w tinier, or Urn faarli.aluui of hi- I,| Inter.
rharm nf ht. domed Ic life. thermfiling I r.mkl have eakl nn lib
minpnnkmah'r dt-portllou ami habit . M« geulil temper, ihe re
rmtrre. and attr wll.-o. nf hi- cnin r-allnu. Id- lore of nature, alike
In tier wild and imrnlllraled a*|»-.t-, and hi- keen p.„, mU of Ihe
hraullr-, of llil« fair World In whleh wt lire; amotthllil of Ida dr*...
Ikm lo agricultural pnr-Mlf, Whl-1 . l,. « l„ l,|. ,,h-..l„n»l and
m.hlle dull*., for mad the mrnpatlnn .,| hi. Ilf,, ..n.irihlng of 1.1.
fon.lne«a for athlellr ami manly .,..,1. and r.er, Ian; feme thing ..f
I... frirnd-hlna, and nf lib allaehiornl- warmer than frtrodehlp-,—
lm "on, Ihe brother, the hurbaml, a. .1 il.e fallow; munching of the
)nf» uni *nrfnff nf |*l« Imnm, of the •Irrnfll, of lil« rfHtftmoi
r .nab-lbd,., Ida le-llnea.y t.. Ihe |„H|, ,.f ihe Chrl.ilan K. relaiho.
«• hndeme.a ami uhllndiy ..film parting a. ene Purnell,lug on
there l .pi - I have .1-. win re raid, and m .y . -,t I,, r. „ .. ,i
other thing., n.y friend., will. y«.,r In.lolg. me. I would «a»
Ihnngal.. no n,.wk -. whirh er.na.1 I'f—.n me, loo wlwM l„ hr reprewod!
Inn fM-rtuj.J *ln*»*1 lo l» n*frr«.| 1
On Ihe lilh of .Inly I-ml. a young man from Jfrw Hamp-hlre ar
rlv.af In Ik,-Ion, all but pennlband all toil friend hu II. ...
Iw.nly two yeara of age, and had route lo late the r.i.l -lem. lo ihe
ea.rr r Of Ilf. at He eapHal of Tew Rngtand n'7 d.,.Tn! ,
r.rh.g In Hmfion he |.r .. W It hold klln. „| raenwwwen
dafk.o, lo Mr. Chrt-iwph-r flora, then Jqg relumml front Rngln.d
after an oOrtal reakl-m e of am yea, a.I r-l.m-l a ptorr In hi.
JuT, .i!, **"* Weld lo pronounce hi. n.n.e,
.Mrhhrd'.l o It.dl.l,lolly ar nol loin heard ||,. .Vml.r figure
■'.Iking rwmfwnai.ee, large .lark e)e a,„| „.a.-y l,r..w Id- general'
»|.|m.,a e Imlteatlng a .11 ale ..,g ,„b .11.,c!T7i7ge
and model demeanor, .rre-i.-l nun,Hon and In-plrrd rwifldrnrv
IIU litiinUr diiil ■ ** ifrMttf# il, b- «■« rmlrH In II.. i.fArr, Mf.<f |,A«f
tteirnler' III-, ll.r l.r.dlmr oiler In year-, hid Inter In e.drlnw
life- (for wham- e.|.e alhm Ifai.H, whit learher nf H.e gea.lemr a*
rryetm.gl. l.ad d r udg. d nil mMnlght In ihe otter nf Ih. llegho/r „f
lleeol-), at Ilia* lino- langhl a mall -hm.l ,u Hhorl Creel mow kn,«.
Won -IreeflH, Ik,.1.0,. and Whk. lo attend.nee .Tllie run,.
I nfe.t- ene ,,l at liar wealth. If, |w|,-o ireelye hi. ,1, g.e. It.,,LI ,,,
Ideal Id. id.ea Al that ml„«d, at Ho- age ,d i,„, \ w«. ilo-n a p!,
|.ll. and Ihera moa ert a Irk nd-l.lp whk h laa«rd wdloo.1 ier.77
rnpflon or ehltl, »Mh hi-Ilf, laded, of whU. whC’^kTuit^X
gr.lefol ,.o...|k. Hon Will n,.,e, nerM, p„ow'fl.a, ..TiZ.,!,,
knew I honored, llo,ml Mm I raw b|„, „ M and on .||
wren dote, (nflw "l” ’ triumph In ihe miln.ary of ihe
... ■i’L.'Ta unr"*: r"*» Infer, hwnge of purwenal, m.flitrnre .
Ill iH-nldt MM ft* |n •a.rrow »n«| in w.* „ Mrt. 1,.-.,..'
'-t- '» - "I*"--. -M It. .fle, life zJSZzyiXTS!
|ei'-lk- earner | ... him ,.u .a.w.lemr ll.al
•how llo- manly dr„ „h, and. whaf I. heffee. Ihe manly wrakt.ena
of Ihe human head. ami I dmla.e Ihb day. In Ihe prewar, ..r lira
re,, aod of men, ll.al I new. r heard from him Ihe etpreaekm of a
wlah nnlwemnlng a go al el,tarn and a patriot Ihe idleraliea of a
word nnwonhy of a gentleman and a (lirbflan, that I narer knew
« morr frnrrmj* •pint, • «ifrr Mlrbrr, ■ wanv*>r frWtKl.
Dn jon m+ If h« I hman u.
»nmr of thf f««||« nf % Inftf • (mill i^mpnattirnt «n>1
• *•'* ft+f\rtnnm f »l«rr ; h< HmI huh* n| IH# fmlti of •' *r<,
▼r«n*a tn<1 n«t«r#. I»r h.ri r«,,»r|»||» th#
Infirmity of a nohl. mind." and ha.l no dowhf ralaed an aanlrlT.
•yr lo Ihe hlgheel ohjee, of pedllleal ambition, pot ha did Hln ,h!
honeai pride of a rapacity ewnal in the rtailnn, and wtih a mo
Mlonaneat that hr ahnold relfeel bark Ihe honor whleh It eonfCered
He might aay with Pn-ke, that *’he had no art. but hnm-at art. -•
and If he wmftil the hlgheat honor, of Ih. filale, ho did It ht lVa...
e.odeoM.hrnt.I.hwrlo'm -rrrlrr, and patrh.llr drrotlon
ft wu not ytraa to him, any more than lo Ihe othar mrmher. -i
'he great Irlmnalr.ta with whom hta name b hahltna'li .moei.,'a
lo attain lh« ohjaet of thalr ambition , but poalarliy wllldr..h!i
Inatlea, and begin, already lo dtaaharga Ihi debt if impart
*Orota'a Hbtnry of Araara. Tot. ft a Mfi
aoaa> M-u,

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