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Richmond daily Whig. [volume] (Richmond, Va.) 1842-1861, December 06, 1859, Image 2

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THE C9I8TITUTI0E—STATE KltiHTS.
RIC II M O N I) WHIG.
Tl IKD tY flOHMMi, niw KVIRKIt «, 1SS0.
TO rORMRXPOIODRRn.
addrmttd la the" Kd Oar c/Ua
WUg.
Arludee wrlttem am hath ridre af Ike paper teUI mal be pttblith
gd Tbee le a rule <jf Umg ektudieg, aught In be teetee to all,
mtd ••11/ In ao alter be depitrlml friwu. Obituary MtoN sat-esrf.
f tg eight Hurt are charged tor <ia adeerlteemeuU.
IR* R# euemal umderhike be relure rejected twutmwmtatfhme
■Catrmrt of m Leltrr.
Tlie following is an extract of a letter to an intelligent,
enterprising and wealthy gentleman in this city, from a
correspondent in the Interior of the State of New York,
who is represented to us s* a man of intelligence and
•ubstanee:
•* Albany, X. Y., 2«Uh Nor.. Iti.">!».
*' Mr Dot Sia :—You are mistaken as to the opinion
of the North. I hare heard general condemnation, if
not execration, of lirow n. Himself and his acts tind no
apologisla. People living in security do not sttsch suf
ficient importance to the treaaou of Hroaii ; but, you
may rely upon it, the effect* will be lasting and favorable
to the South: for it has opened the eyes of thousands at
the North who heretofore hare not reflectin' much alxmt
it. but now shudder at the result of the principles of the
Abolitionist*. Too much apathy has existed, suppoaii g
it was only talk ; but now that they have acted on llnir
principles, people are becoming alive to their atrocity.
*• Believe me, yours truly.”
We hope the foregoing extract represents correctly
the condiliou of public sentiment at the North, in regatd
to the Abolition invasion at Harper's Kerry. But «e
confess that we have seen ourselves hut little to justify
the hope that the North is as sound ns it should be, on
the matter in question. Certain it is, that a haterer of
conservatism is there is dormant, inactive, and of no
practical value to the South. We have only to say that
if, a* is said, a large majority of the Northern people en
tertain just and friendly feelings towards the South, and
are ready and willing to frown down all aggression up> n
Southern rights and institutions, let the fact be manifes
ted publicly, emphatically and unmistakesbly. and fotth
w ith. If this be not done, then we see but little hope of
our continuing to live together coder the same govern
ment. The Northern people, conservatives and n a I
men, are utterly and entirely mistaken in regard to the
actnal condition of public opinion in Virginia and the
sincerity and candor, that the citizens of Virginia are
more thoroughly indignant and aroused now than they
haee been sioce the adop'ion of the Federal Constitution.
In conclusion, then, may we not appeal to the North
ern people, and the representative* of the Northern peo
ple. to tell us frankir and explicitly where the North
easily stands, and what It really contemplates, so far as
the South and her institution* are concerned? If con
sereatism predominates, will they not make the fact pub
licly and satisfactorily known 1
THE LEGISLATURF..
Both bran.-hesof the General Assembly net yesienlav,
at the Capitol, and organized for the session.
In the Senate, Lt- Gov. William L Jackson, presided,
and will continue to act as Speaker ej oifieio, until hi
■uecessor, Mr. Montague is installed a« Lieut. Gov. ou
1st January. Mr. Jacksou was elected clerk.
The House of Delegates was organized by the election
of Mr. 0. M. Crutchfield, of Spottsylvania.as Speaker, W.
F. Gordon, of Albemarle. Clerk; \V. E. M. Word of Bot
etourt, Sergeant-at-arms; H. D. Burrows, of King William,
1 at Door-Keeper, and Robert W. Burke, of Augusta, 2.1
Door-Kee|>er.
The length of the Governor's messages, which we pule
liah this morning, excludes our regular report ot the
Legislative proceedings. It will appear to morrow.
“The Sotprrus Brrntszn vrom ntr Waa."—The How
iuers. Young Guard, and German Rifles, reached thus
city yesterday afternoon, by the Northern cars, und r
the command of Ool. August. They were welcomed
home with loud cheers by a large crowd which had as
sembled at the depot in anticipation oi their return, and
the same manifestation of approval and gratification
greeted them along their line of march, down Ninth street
to Main, down Main to Fourteenth, and up Fourteenth to
the Square, where they were welcomed by the Governor
in a brief speech, iu which he stated to’the Howitzsts
that their guns were ready for them; and also recom
mended to the regiment, through their Colouel, the pro
priety ot tusking preparation for the reception ol the
Cadets, from tint Milit try Institute, who are to visit tl e
city iu a few days. After hearing the Governor’s wtl
coming speech, each company was assigned to the com
mand of its captain, by whom they were quickie du-misse 1.
Til II ( i:\nt u. SOI'TIII-IK k
RIGHTS ASSOC! ATIOS. ..(Virginia will mevtint!.,
Mall or ttie Uoosc of Delegates tins TL'KSItAV NItilir, at Jv» .
Vork.__
Vr^alPECMI. .MOTK.’E.—The „lc of
Mr. Thos. J. Deane's Farm, In Goorhlan.l roor.tr, aj
vorWae.l by Jams* Lyons, Irostre, will take pl.ee on TfKsPAV
zt>* Uth He.-., l*3t», together «|i|, as Mavra vrry l!k. :» au.l value
bl*. and also all the Stock, Crops. Ac , on 1st.! eat-te Per sms dj.
Ksed to attend ths sale ran leave Richmond M .ndav afte-noon
Ih Inal , at A O’clock, by way 1.1 the Packet float, he accunr. .
•fat'd at Cedar Point or Ooochland C. II.. that night, au.Hr n. |
which place* there will be conveyance* to take them toll.. I
tha next day, dbtant only about ;wo mile. There are few better 1
estates U.an this now in market, and an excellent opportunity •
now ottered to those disposed to purchase a valual.tr Farm Mar. 4
and all necessary personal properly.
For torn.* Ac., see auction head.
no». dActd __GORDIN A APPKR3KN, Aarts.
N OT IC’ II.—The particular attention of
VWsa.9 the public la reapeetfulty railed to our sate this ra n
to* at IIIH a’clork, ofthat very valuaMe FXUM. lauly purchased
by Ohu. Marx, R»<, ; the t.alanre of the Fain Plantation .Vi ralu
thin iUvm, »>la.oJ«rJ (■<.»•, mul-« h<»r»rs, f .r»« . ArU corn fv ! I
<l«r, fthuciu. Una, vafHat,>*, farming Implement ■, kc. ’ * |
V°r pMrtis uiara. auFt,.,n . Mumn.
The tale will eoataea** will, the l*rm first named, ar.d at 1 o’
clock, wiu be sold, the slaves
—_JAR. M. TATI.Og A FQN. Au-tr.
MM. K. LVOVS
FASHIONABLE MILLINERY ROOMS,
• I’M MAIN FTRFFT,
INVlTkF the attention of strangers t tatting the city an I - !
pnblle yeneTally.tr. her st k ol Millinery aa.l tsn-y dfl |
Goods, sonstatti.x ot new style w’liter IIATr, lll tl.l.ttf-m AJ
ms. HAIR HKAltM, utiRLr.A , A to wh.ch ah win dispose ..l’n
r«Monable terms
Draeaea and Cloaks mads to order In moat fashionable aisles
defi-dZasrilw ’
I’KHttfl DIMS, t OltDIAl.N, At.
received a snialllnvo.ee ot Ahaynth, Curare, at.d assorted u
roots In rases oft dossn taeii.
ALSO (.nstore!
Claret kn i HunsaHsnWli.es r.f a.nnl... ...j _ t
t1 Tff *!*»'•»»' purchased. Anxious to close their rooelamnsnia
I *111 sell them la*.
d«*—** _ CHAR. PAI.MKR I
9RRR0 MlUIJili A .ID GE9ERAL AGE9CT.
P. 91. TA nil A SOI
ATTFND to the Hiring out of Negroes, and collecting the Mr »
to the Renting out of Houses »• d Lot., in I collection the
Rent*, to the sale of Real Ret ate and Negroes, „r ,
wifely lo Ore aale of Prodncr, and to the collect.® i of claim, of
every description, and tender thrlr services to their patrons and
generally, lor th- mailing year. fVTn<r.. . In ll,.
Old Poat Office, under the Kaehanye Hotel. del*.—Vast*
HALE OF LA.\n. >Ei.HOES. hr.
ON WROHWIUT, the 14th of December, IVO. if fair If n -’
the nea' fair day, I ahall offer fat eilr, on the premises niy
Tree! of Lend, lying In the County of CumhrrUnd, (lie mil. a from
Per in till', three.fouilhs of a mile from the p 4 R p|.„k Pi'
eontalnlng a little lea# than POCK Ml**HRI'0 APRI.i t orn 7,’. to
WO of which la In original growth, moat of the worn! land 'a Bne
Plan! Land, the open I.anl la In a high state of cultivation well act
la rlnver and wall adsoled |* 'he growth of Tobacco 1 ,rn' tt l.ret
Date and liras, -thoroughly ditch'd and well eneloard Ipoti (|„
land la a apaeloaa and comfortshle liWri.I.INO lim ey and a’l
aereasary out houses AH the Negr i fpisrtera and plantation
Mouse, ere new .ml well built. 1*pnn this I. md la the celebrated
I.ACRLANIi writ , • . lent and famrahty known tor lia me !l «I
?nalU|e«. and the remarkable rnrea It hae eg. rted. mine. -
urd/ftf*, having been been entirely rueed left/ .,,,* t,it!fr I*
aeoold ihll be a great reaori If proper aceommodatlons <ere pro
sided The rdfwg of this Land la fnrthcr enhanced by Its being
underlaid with COAL. *
At the same time and place. I shall offer for sate th* sic k of
■fiRRM. 1 among them an etcellent pair of carriage h..,,„
kfl’I.M, CATTI.P, and the rropa of all d ascriptions PI. 4 NT VI l» t\
WAUONR, CAHTR, I Tr.NRIUi, Ac
I shall, at tho same time and place offer for sale TVrpNTY
LIRRI.T NROKf.M, nmhlltu of ki.n, U„anen and 1 Ml,Tern, !
Tanwa made known on the day of sale
. . _. JOHN J WAI.KPR
4e*-eH.... ..ga
LNIH H t I, rl tlllll 4’, the r.gular packet acbr /.*,
R MaRV WII.I fa. l ap' North, hsTIrig th®greater per
• ten of her rerg.. engaged end going un hoard, will hare
dwepeteh. for balance nf cargo, apply 10
■*ed—*4_ W. It, CDfgJt ITT A CO I
rdOH PHILtDKLPMlA.-ne A No 1
atesmehlp Pirr op RICH44IISll, la noe ready lo •wlCTTe
rw#lii frdfM, ud will Itrt# IaaIat M 11 aY|a h M. f!r( i
or i»tw«fr>«T|ng Bifpcrlor a<>roiiibi flatir.M, dfgfkly lo y fl'T i
T|ef, Agent, al R-t'-krtU. nr to lh« t'npt«ln. un Ho«r<1 ,|g*i
I860. NEGRO HIRING. imi.
K. A. J. CLOPTOI,
AGENT ANnB"oU'K( 'Tf >T{.
OPTICRCORNRt WAI.I. AND PRANRI.IN HTRTPTr,
OppnglU /rf./.ne.n Hill ,f f . , Hi -4.0 off | o
Tit* > win'Tibet begs lease to return hie acknowlegmrnta to bis
friends and yilrorn for ll.e’. fav..-s .. if ng the pm rear an t
weald Inform them that he etlll continue, 'he huatnesa of IIIRINtl
HITT NSV/RIIP t, RgNTINi) Ol r HOI PM. C'>I.I.Pi*TfNOCLAIMN
nad eM a4her bwsteeea perelntng to snrirKII AUTNCT, te all 1
of wMeh he glrea Ms personal attention parties III the country
wbe may awirust the hiring of thetr negroes to him, mar rest a.cured 1
of eeery etleoil n being paid te getting them n - nenth-r hot gooff I
hemes end the heel price., end Inlh- erent of at te.,., th# t,.ei
aetucai end pneeoaai ay ia>ri.*a shell etweys he supplied.
NegroIW for Idee the coming gear had better be sent In to me as !
early after Chrtaimee as posa ble
To those et • din an • to whom I am pereonnlly unknown, I beg
So refer lo the following persona
gfekwead- Dickinson Hill A Co
gl>g sad V*ft fkwrofg —De Thomaa l.alane, F»f o. Panntte
ray,
dr«eim fVesfy N J R Whtll~cb, De V. L. WrlgM, Dr. James
■ Letane, Td T Noel. Dr Net ft. Itf.
JTreg rif/him fVeefy John L Lwtnne, Wm. C. letane, ftr J no.
lewis _ _
tiro cafec * ..Hufy - ftr T. C flopton
W.ffrw.'af.io.f it eofy Nee. Thomas I leteke, ftr T ft. Wheel
* t£rWfec < tivafy No Huffgtn, Itr John D. Norton, L. H temp
dgd -etswtua ______
g tdTTKK Ni di A M.—Iff* hbt* . eatra C, Coffee Mia’ r®
CycJrt.7" mlr Lffwia wkffff * JOHN «, wlftT.
CdOVRli-NOKs* M fclSJJSACiKiS.
MBMMiB L
7I> tt* .Wufc |>«I M»N ./tt. li'twnW *->t r‘t
■/O' l i-u—WMtt </ |Viv«m
Utvtiiiitv *
1 > * fo|#1 !*«•*! d I ha«l f.-ndly hoped ti» »tooe ar "fikUi term
^ ,rw* mv »«WSk»r labor* • »th naught but cans* . f (**.
grnlwUM.m on 'he .-*a.lm.*i of the como. '.wealth Huh lh« up.
psr*a«wt then I In this my last rrnlir amp moot h«, thai our
f**" h.** . n*r rlttsena B*v * besn imprlaoBed, rob
boi and n«rderod . thr sanoUty «f tbsfe J*vtttnv« ha* been vie
^ har* b-*a outfaged . tbrir pr |erty ha* bora
Mlaed by for,-, of arms, a strong feud in their midst. with lu arna
«nd mnWon. of war haoderaoaptar. 4, and the w.habitant. rut off
’rwi"^ «u*an* of defence; a nations! high*ay through our limit*.
•/** Ueowiotiv* train* and leltwul.l wire* have boon stopped,
the stole and national sovereignties have been Insulted and assailed,
and state and federal troop* have been called out and t-ecn rompeil
tul to light, at the loss of several killed and wounded, to subdue re
beUlon and treason, at Harper'* hrrt la the county of Jefferson,
within our Jurisdiction.
ThU w*s no result of ordinary crime*, however highhanded and
felonious It wu no c '-plr,, , of baa-tlla socWit In renr
ral, with the motive* which usual’y actuate criminals^ confined to
the Individual perpetrator*, and to he crushed by their nrrrat and
pan shmetii. But It was an extraordlaa* v and actual In rail on, bv a
•ectkinal organtsat on. specially upon olaeeb dder* and upon thtlr
property In negro slaves. The home to be Invaded was the home
of domestic slavtry . the persons to be seised were the persons of
slaveholder* the property to be confiscated was the properly In
slav os and the other property of slaveholders alone, such as moaev 1
plate, jewels and other of like kind, whkh was to be taken to coat*
i ensate the rubber* for the trouble snd risk of robbing the master*
of their slavss; the slave* were not to be taken to be carried away
but they were to be made to stand by the side of the rob be**, and
to be forced to fight to liberate themselves bv mas*serving thri
masters, the arsensl was taken to supply arms to servile Insurgents
and a provisional government was attempted. In a British province
by our own countrymen, united to ua In the faith of confederacy
combining with Canvdiars, to Invade the slaveholding state* of the
I'nited {Mates . and thus thr nirht f the lf*dh of October last was
surpr.sed and ths day of the lf»h ef October last was startled hv
the signal guo* of rapine, murder, robbery and treason, begun at
Harper's Ferry for the pari nor of stirring up universal Insurrection
of slaves throughout the wh<4e south
Pud Jen. surprising, slocking as this Invasion has been. It Is not
more so than the rapidity and rancor of the cause* which have
prt tnpted and put It In motion. It Is not conflmd to the parties
who sere the present participators In its outrage*. Causes and
inrtuencts lie behind it more po<rnt far than the tittle band of dr*
per a does sh« sere sent ahead to kindle the spark' of a general
conflagration; and the event, sad as it Is, wonld deserve hut little
comment,If the cenditrn punishment of the immediate perpetrator*
of the felonies committed woul I fwthe future secure the peace
• Mch hs« been disturbed, and guarantee the safety which is threat
ened Indeed, If them serahle convict were the only Conspirator*
against oar peace and safety, we might have foi given their offenct*
mud constrained them only by the grace of parvlon. Hut an entire
• H-ial »nJ sectional sympathy Las ucited their crimes, and now
r.«tt« in rebel bon and Insurrection to the height of sustaining and
justifying their enormity.
It would be pusillanimous to shut our eyes and lo affect not to
see certain tact# fearful Import which si are us In the face, and of
• hlch I must sreak plainly to you. with the lirru and in an! v pur
pose of meeting danger and »iih no weak and wicked design of
exciting agila'ton. That danger exists, of serious magnitude, th-re
• *■ be n«> tloubt In the mind* of the m««st caltu and reflecting, anJ
the wav to avert It In ail cases is to msrch up to it and men it front
to front If it has not grown too great alrea ly. It will retire from
collision, and If it has grown strong enough already for the eacoun*
ter. It had better be tn* t at once, for it •lil not diminish by delay.
I BelleVr In truth, that the vetv policy of the prime promote* of
this Apparently mad m* vt mrnt U purely tentative to try whether
we will face the danger which Is no* scaled in blood. If we “take
the dare," the aggression • ill become more snd more ins-dent, and
If we do not. that it wlli either truckle or meet us In open roatiti t
to be subdued; and. In either event, oar safety and the natioi .U
peace will be best secured by a direct settlement at once—the
sooner the t»etter.
For a series of years social and sect'onal differences har# been
growing up. unhappily, between the states of our I'nion ant their
P~op'e. An eril spirit of fanaticism ha* suited upon negro slaver*
n« the one sutycct of social reft»rm, and the one idea of tt* a bolt
t‘oo Y as sesmed to madden ah<*lr masse* of one entire Section of
he country It enter# Into their religion. Into their education, in
•o the‘r politic' and prsyc’i, into their caurta of justice. Into th-ir
iiu'iness. Into their legislature'. Into al! cUfri of their people, the
iawt respect able and most lawless. Into ther palpt*« .xnd Into their
. resse* and schoobhou*es. Into the'r men, women and children of
all ages,every where. It has trained three generations, from child
hood up. Is moral and social habits ot hatred to masters of African
%Hve* In the Tnlte ! ?t*t.*s. It turns not upon slavery elsewhere,
or against slaveholder* In any other country, hut is cwpeeiaUy u.*
I gnar.t snd vind?.*tire towards Its ovrn countrymen, for the very
rra'**n that It Is bund to them by the faith and sanction of a con
federate !.vw. To set up that law to it U to enrage It br the sight
the law. a cause It Is bound by it. It has been taught by the
% nr.wa pi a n gner uv man mat or a regular government
s-'und by r 'restitutions and statute*, ll haa been made to bell,
n the «! *ctrine of ahs-dute Individual rights, independent of all re
i.*t nasof man to man in a conventional and social form ; and that
each m*:i for himself ha* ihc prerogative to set cp his console:: e,
h f v!1 and hi* judgment over and above all legal enactments and
‘odsl in-titutioM It has been inflated by prostituted teachers
•nd preachers and presses to do an I dare any crime and its ennse
,uenc* • which teaj set «:»its iulUitUiai supremacy over law and
-der. It 1 as been taught from the S-nat- chamber to trust in the
'atal'ty of an " •'conji-t” Into which It is bound to
j lunge. Its anti-Christ pulpit ha- breathed naught but iruutree.
tionarr wrath lnt» servants against their master*, and has dwnottn
- 1 .»ur national Union as a covenant with death for recognising
property In slaves and guaranteeing to It the protection of law. It
J as raised e 'ntributions in churches to furnbh arms and money to
s irh v 'itciaals as thtsc to tn*ke war for rmplre of settlement In
urma :vrr|t,*:;es. It has trained them on the frontier, and (her*
t iught thorn the skill of the Julian in savage warfare, and then
turned them back upon the ol lost and !arf-*t »lav-holding Plate,
t . surprise one of its strongest hold*. It has organised In Canada
and traversed and rorre*|>on(led thence to New Orleans and from
I*. >*t >n to lowv. It has -ria’.ilshed spies everywhere, and has secret
spent.- in lh- heart of every slave State, and ha* secret aasne latious
.4 .d "underground raBroads - In every free State. It enl'sts in
(Hence and money at home and abroad. It as sent comforter*
»nd counsellors and -ympa^y.and wouUlhav* .ent res ueto these
usssdM, robbers, murderers and traitors, whom it set t to felons*
-’»*•* 1' haa fnlj and Miwifr
rvecution of our laws. And since their violation It ha» dellan:;y
proclaimed aloud that " inmvrrt*fion U tie Itmwmi «-/ fAe h*sr ”~
not of slaves only, but all are to b- *-e« to r.-e up against filed
government. and no governm-nt is to be allowed except " JJU ure
’ itf+CGn:i;i 4 'ease th* r/t.isars,** and no protection Is to be per
muted aga! .ml th., power.
TliU I* but an epitome, piC*. a^-.I unvarn'shel,without exagtrera
lion. Whslls this but anarrhy* H hat ih.es ;; r, a" )»ut "confu
sion worse confounded," an 1 the -v-ribr-w of all rights, of all pro
p-rtr. of ail government, of all religion, of al! rule a tun* men ♦ —
N -thing but mad riot can rule an 1 misrule with such renilmeot* as
these. There can be no rouipromis- with them, t:o toleration of
t\em In safety or with self-re*pecL T ry must be met and c*u%?.r I,
• w they will crush us, or our union with non slave hoi ding state* can
not c -nth.ua
The strongest argument against thl* unnatural war upon negro
slavery In one section by at. rt.*rof tl e same common country i*
ti.at It itiev table drives to disunion of the statu, embittered with
al: the vengeful hat e of civil war. A- that union is among the
most precious of our blessings, so the argument ought to weigh
aliich weight its v ilue. H ■ ■ thisc**nsid-_ ration Is despised ly fanat
learn. It contemns the Union, and n«*w cunt -tuna us for clluglt g
to it sa we do. It sc 5* the warning that the Union Is en^anger-d.
Ihe Union itself is denounced as a covenant with sin. and we are
scorned •dioo timid to make the warning of danger to it worthy to
be h— d-d. It as.oea^tlv uiumrt to break all the hoods of faith
within it, and <icfl-s the atiom^ tc ewe ape oppression without it —
T.i« rt.'lfl; a**iU* imr ko*4>r,*m wsUuswut tfcte-e*', and deman *
*•( u» what we will do. W* hate but one thing to d.., au-ev* the nu
merical majority will cease to violate confederate faith, on a oat«
lion of such vital l*cjK>rtan *e to us. and w'.ll cease, ltnm-*d,*t-ly
ami abs • ute y cea«-,to disturb our peace, to destroy our live* and
property, and t-» deprive u* of a'l protection and re ire** nnd- r the
pcrv«r rd form* ami distorted workings of the Union; »e must |j*e
u;* a* ns. Th l*«ue f* too easmtial to be Compromised any more
A» cannM stand su-'h in* dts and outrages as those of llarp.-r's '
f erry without suffering worse than the death -f citizenswithout
suffering dishonor, the death of a slate
K.»r a warier of a century we h »ve been persuaded to forbear,
and patiently to waif for the waking and working of the cocserv a- I
t*ve elementa In our sta r. »t*t-s We have borne and Harborne,
atul waited In vain. Mr know that uoha.e t; any sound and sin
<• re friends !n the n n »1 ivrhtddit.g »tatw it may be that thev
are most numerous f*r wh , abhor and detest *u h wrongs us the*,
hot It Is not to be dl*ic«Urd that the Conservative elements are;#'/.
*/>r, whilst the fanatical areor/ire, and the former are fast disaln
UMn.v whilst the latter are Increasing in numbers and !u force. -
But wh.-re U the evidence that the cv^nse-^ at’ve t*!-men*s are L^-.«t
P • w rful% Do wc look t . the tc» » .’* ai l c dl g •* • »u U..- pulpd*
a *d rlcrgv , and churrhes and congrr cations % t*. ttie pre** v t*. the
, -urnals * to the books * u* the professions♦ to the aril* %n* t aa*<>
• I at I n*, which are marked characteristics of the age* t.o politics*
to public a*<etnblies and rpevker** to legivlatures * to . * t.grrss * tu
laws, either state or federal* to elections* to the administration
• ■f laws s to judicial decisions* Ala* ’ taro where we will an 1 to
what wr will, we find that the judgments of the court*, nly are
with u«, but they have loat all reverence and respect, and w- ar-*
left without protection, and the supreme court of the United State* I
i« lUelf aa«ailed f.»rnot assailing our eorstltaflonal defence* An !
t »~*e laat arc as*ai>d in d-nyinr th- rh 1 • f pm tertian Itself. A
now sovereignty and a new Uw is set up « rer the rdd, and we arc
• - nle 1 protection under both. M'here the federal government ha*
»* • l» ’■ •’r *<> oppress, it is assumed and where it ha* the pow-rand
It is Its duty to protect. It la o-t allowel to intervene. And the
n .n-ataveholdln<x ?4ate- a^e in n-trly « >!IH array npj*>*-d t«* us —
M'e. mat—J. «ay c -nlen i f..r awhile by the >»ld of plur slitl^w. ».ut
fra short tlmeo;#ly, %nd uu*ertainly al any lime, and at best
hive no majoriti*-*nt4 %e c$o r-ly in at Hast sixteen f»:xte«,
b ivibg the power ».f the » oinn turn a^;v- haa orer.-otn- tt.- p.ts
s ve elements , fat.st.rUni ha* subdued nnsfrvzuu In all thes
-’•tes- and th-se can u-.w. In our pr-*-t.t condition, practically
wle! 1 our destinies f .r weal or woe Mill thrv rowve ba.k to the
»: -t.viltuu n \o 1 abide Us covenants or not* Mist those cove
• «r>*« *r« > hw full/ discussed in a reply to tne re»ohj*.i ns of Ver
fiioi.t, wM. h are l.-r-'Sltii tu- u'd'ed. with rny r**i«nw appendei,
*« a part of this message j put ii upo,, !h_* archives rf rtat- s«
:n m..«t els’, ■ralestu ly of tha lulled of wht h I aw. cap th|e.
IHt no words * *n flat- *4t« th- .*•'»•* to w#..ch w« srw now prac- ,
t ul'jr brought by the * genii at llarpvr't Ferry.
It t* va!n to point t tt.r pvueiiy of th- numbers of th- inarau 1
er# Tli-daring of their at empt a »u! t prove r>ot more their fo I I
h ird.ii ** than thrir fo’l awurance that th-y were to be joined by a 1
forcesutncier-t to he fnrwldahle. If th-y had not t*.T*tak-n t»
number and disp'sitliMB of Ihe slaved, who th-y evpe<tfd toiehe 1
: i- spear* which they br« tight to capture an arsenal of arms. It U
n »i known, and n-vev will t.e k *n, h< w many uth-r whit- f«na
11 h«»* I" ■in'll thHr rrb-!1loo F-» wel*
it th.-» ni« (*i.! to ih« litn of MViral of <*ur in'st worthy «il
■ i*. »vl in<-jlt,iir!y M.f '1 in<"e« of duior IoriFjt,rab!t
i ** h *1 to «jr entire northern border.
And It |» m # kcry to . «|| them mMt<;IS4Alh.'4 Mania** they w*re
-ri'jr *S all great criminal* are ; and roonomai.. ar* th-/ *rrr only
h th# aotj' rt «.f tUvery makes man mre It.** • «*-. than* any
«J.*r on* subject can. If lh»*t m a wcr.- monomaniac*. th*n ar*
i large portion of the p* .pic -<f many of the states ir. ,?,oma» lac*
llrf .r# these ermav, they w*r* da*ro*d «o|«|fera in a nota
te cn»*a«l* against slavery ar d slaveholder*. Many ».f th v* who
. vplrkd their Insanity for th*iu( put Aharpes rill-s 2nth*!r hand*
rid anti.ted and trained and trusted their wit* for war In Ksnu*
; •ntrihullon* were raised forthea In churches. They had bee*
• ..T-dw th the praise of it«t professedly pin is f.rMr.g tha rarv
..-n of dait ny for th* tn«*: n arains* *:*• e s*ttlatn« n*s. Th*y had
• -*n furrjUb-d vltli rn o~y to mat - sharp •?«*«* %« hut'hery for th*
.r'*ata and breasts of a«a*f*r#, and to supp y munitions and aw.re#
' regular campaign*. Thfy assembled together lr«.m part* as far 1
***** A* they th*r selves wrr* few. They war* provid'd. gup
• ■led and furnished wit’, roact. b»y*it<| *» ti« own wsnts or m*%e«
tnd It Is |» s«lng stranre that they, madmen. ar.ouU, few aa th*r
• 'a, have been so rnanv madman, meeting from so far apart *,
r :i supplied hy other* than fh*m*elvre, at a point so w*!l #el*r ted.
n 1 that tner should have conrjHrtd with to much met! o I as »«.
so successful, against ivtf *. apparent odds. w*ra these parti*-* 1
in.wnandunkoown so situate*, all mad* It .. enough «o iuy
..at the leader himself sp.iraed the CaWho els. LypocrUy and row
r I r* of t . * mtwklah plea of moi n-mn’t, and n-itber hr, nor on# !
his men, nor t .*lr counsel, put !t In upon th# r trial* l|e aspect- i
I from hi# pr .m;.t r« and ».*caer and *y .npathls* * hatter pret*re*
•vnd rno»w potent defence than that B*f.ra his failure and defeat !
" •"•t. »© *h#»r. orreapondenca with Mm. they called a**fh rloue
m#*, their sympathy v-»; »;ll with bis desperate da**o7 ard tu* 1
-•«, and now It Is with Ms tn*an«ty f r a t»!aa sra<n*t th* l*gsl |
- uahtl.-* of Ms erlm** which ha l their origin la ;! Ir Tery syn.pt
• r A sympathy which suw Ms Insanity too let* to «natcn f|-*»
• hands th# weapon* ll ha t pta-*d ln*r*, too lata to ssva th* j
r *^'**^1hy °*n toc'.femso* and too lata to save him from *
Hy onv’ laws, the plea of InsmBy t .Id avail at ar.r tjms, In any
ee# of tr.a , and after r..o» .rtlon, haf .re seritroee ,.f u.* *0-141 ;
nd after th.. ivdiclal tribunals ware ion* with the prisoner* and
l,"’J **r* , ,4fh^d <*r#/ *0 the *** o»loner, the executive authorltv
WTTeud ’ha law « s-nt-fit* upon tha 1n«ana If either could
» low Of nr .va Insanity, either now. or on I rial, ha could not be
- «eruted as long a* I am lb- governor of the aot^founwealth, un
• » cured In an asvlu* and. If Insane at the time of eorontlff'ng'fce
-Ten**, ha could not be »aa*ut*d, cured or not cured, at a I. II it
• **#m*n &*•-.»*d no m .jtal ru** , th.-lrs was a moral malady of
• Vile, wMrh no power bu< divine c.u»d cast nut Th*y ware d*
1 vf #**"' ^©'inW m*i ynant malefactors, desperately b#f>t on my
1. ••Maeahwelh^ftit, gat.gr*r»*d by ** ti nil and so- i«|
' V1 •© ©* ' *'ts. ThHr vengeance waa wb’t'ed by
, rev:••••# roll.. ,n. bundrrda „f mil** fr..m a*, and It wh*tt*d jagg-d
t ©hlrh It hroufht the f nndrads of mile* for oi»r d*«truc
,n, *”•# fim* a f. w, li** «f.l*vasln th* nlglit, did thftr deed# of
•ath and ware aadly cruit.. d; but they ware pr mp'* <1 by puevil
. mI" '•ndlarl*m wh ». A*t .rallgas a wumerou*» oet of *n*tn1 e
e».nl th*w .w»... now blatat.tiv s-mpatMto with th*lr dec da In
• p*n dav before th- world. TI.-#* ».»r*d lh*m to l.a a.*.aes«n*t
. -vs murderers and fr,|tom, without th*tns*1v*e Incurring the risk
^ • •'* * H I* h<* #ond*r tf at they now ay m path is* w «h
• *u» #vau to madness, and tin* J Brown de«p1s*d th* hy»*or1*
• lLr_*^ ©ftHeir pratanc* that he was Insane.
lha detail- of thisconrpfracy and of Its denoutnenl at Harper's
1 <>fTy-*r* * *rn Hi th* various accompanying report■ Much ib*
j and wiaoy of the pa|*evs of ihatulpvits wave f<mad.
I hav* had them coll -ctc l sod ,pied l.y competent amanu*ne*«,
rad » 1-rare hevcfo app-. !*d Burr.*-# It to say. In refereoce to my
own ofhcUl action, tnet tJ-v Bret intelligence of the outbreak reach
• it me in the morning of the ITlb fMoW, and was verr vague —
' '• • ' • 1 t • i • 1 , of J- -
!* 1 necemavr f..*ce of hi* awn an 1 adja*. otrrglmenis But
M* In lho syrn r»g of it. tame day, atwrut 7 qVI# k. th* ‘eiegraph
a-.oouU'ed mrrr# #rr >us and pvarie* cawee of dane*v. Tha new*
«a* ths» TM marauders I id s*lr d th* arsenal at Harper** Tarry,
with all Its arm* and m«.r,l«h>nat an t wove arming the slave# and
that actual murder was den*, and aevaral dtIrene were killed
a fid wounded. I Immediately called out th# 1st ••411*01 of vol
untegre and aa many man of th* 17fth reglansnt of mltlUa as
• i d f-t raudy to move hy ih* first train tha following warn
ing And la one hour, at * F M.t on tb* 1iu», I de
p tried In person with pomnany r, Capt .In Cary, for th*
♦ n* At W asbington I Was lotned hy Cant Mary# of tha Alevan
drla rlflua, and pro **d*d wiU. HI mer* and offtrrr* at the Brlay
h.. s* lu Maryland I received intelligence on th# !**h tb*t num ra
f- r -e was n#«*a*avy. and I nr lara-t t.aek tha fbre# under f’l-m-i
A igw*t And from that place | telegraphed Colonel las in make
no I'rm* with th# loeurganta By | o cW.*k on tba 1MB I arrived
wl»h th* force under my command Cwl l^e made no terms, and
l »d subdued the Insurwanta before mr arrival. I Immediately
a * mined the leader, Brown, Ms lieutenant Alarms, a whits
I p.au named Copper, and a »T« Cunadu. TBr| wade
fell rmmtmml ■*«. Brows repelled the Ides Out his M|q vm
•o rww s*fn il«rw off from tbe'r waster* He defiantly avowed
that Ms purpose waa to arm them sal make tkem fight by
Ms side In defvwee of their freedom. If amalted by tbotr own
ers or any ow* vise ; and bo aakl Ms purpose if t-‘~“j was to
war «po>» the alaveholder*, *al to levy upon tfcrlr >-U*wc pc*>
petty to pay the expense of * mam Ipa’lng tfcrlr slave* llo aeowrd
Ikal be expected to be joined by the slav.* and by sswrrvua whir
peraop* f» <«•* many of the slave as Pell as Bee states. liter# was
sdh'm for me to do, bat to arrest than# wk> bad .-•*••pad, to
search for their Mdd« n Sims and plunder, to try to re* «ptwre the
Blares they bad taken, to get all their papei* which cofiM be
a-and, and to have them proceeded against ace >rdla* to law. Mad
1 reached the place before they surrendered. 1 weald haee pro
claimed martial law, have steamed them In the quick st time
ptwalblc. shown them no quavtrr. haee tried the su.vtvwra, If
»ty. by court tuartlal, and have shot the condemned
oa the »pot But «>*lng to the delay af the care at
Washing!* n and the Relay hon e and to the slow travel from ths
latter place to the ferry, 1 was too late. W hen l arrived thee w«re
subdued; they «. .rr prisoner* and Some of them wounded, and 1 waa
hound so prosect them. I took them wmtcr the jwrtodtcUoa of Vir
ginia . thev acre guarded from all violence; Joed and refreshment
and surgical aid and every comfort at my command were given
them, thev were proceeded against regularly by Che civil authority,
under civil process from both state and federal government*, and I
went in person with thews, under a military guard to ChaHcstown,
sad saw them safe’j l*d*cd lu jell. In custody of the shei Iff, under
eh II *nd ndttiarv guard. I remained a night to see that no violence
was attempted from any quarter, and the nest rooming, after giving
necmsary orders to lw. t)lh**n, and fhrnlahlug him nllh am.*, re
iume*l to Harper's Kerry. The serviced of counsel to assist the
.' 'mmoawealth's attorney were engaged by me for the slate Seeing
on the morning of the I Mb that the 1 ’ A marine* were ordered away
fhsrn Harper's Kerry, I ordered a j*oUce military guard for the eon
finm around the tnrnsL I did not remove the prisoner* further Into
tfcu 1 atari or. became I was determined to show no apprehension of a
renew#, and If the ja J of Jefferson had been on the line of the state
they should have been kept there, to show that they could h# kept
anywhere chosen In our limit*. Boon after I returned to Richmond
I notified the president of the United Mat. • that the reason so few
meo had captured the arsenal of the United Nate* wa* that Iher*
n* military guard thev*, ssd that I had organised a guard to
protect our frontier and, In«'tdenta1ly,tn protect the property of the
I lilted mates. A neglected arsenal hvl been made a poaltlv * dan
ger to tin; we had been Invaded by law leas bands from other states,
against which the United (date* were bound to defend us. we had
been ut tiged to c til out troop* to defend ihe federal property, and
at last to guard Ik
Thus the affair passed for the time being from the military to the
civil authority. And here I cat.not express too strongly what Is
da#to the militia for the promptitude with which th*-y volunteered
for duty and obeyed my orders. The Jefferson, Berkeley andbhep
hrvdutown militia were flr*t at the scene, and manifested good rvu
rage and did some service; but they were retrained by a natural
tendeeuees for their neighbors and friends who Were held prisoner*
and hostage*, and supposed lo be In Imminent danger from any at
tempt to storm their captor*. The first regiment of volunteers,and
Oompaay K r*p«*1alty of that regiment, which was ready in an hour
from the call, and a part of the iTPth, an t the Alexandria rides,
and the rompan cs oi Kred*rick*hurg and of Orange and Albemarle,
all gallantly took arm* and moved promptly More than I called
came, and w. re ready and anxious to do duty and to be first to m
counter danger A finer *p*rd *od better temper of soldiers could
not have been displayed.
The Mate judiciary took the culprits In charge. Legal warrants
were issued and »eeved upon them . a court of examination wa*
regularly held over those who did not waive It; and they were Mr
m*lly iodhted In a court of competent jurisdiction. They had the I
full ben* 111 of i uupuUory process for witnr«sce In their defence , I
had «cun»el sas'gncd Uicm and coun*« l of their own setc<*tlon. were I
confronted by wanes**# and accwsers; were given, according I
to our bill of tight*, as in all oilier k xirg x speedy and fair tri*i
by an Impartial jury of the vicinage ; upon their own confeva ou
and upon other evidence, leaving no doubt of guilt, were legally
o nvi. ted of sev rr*1 capital offence* ; were hears In person an*I hy
. unael, why sent* ti* •• mould n«»t be pronounced upon theta ; were
Siv. i every opportunity of applying lor writs .>f supersedeas ; dt*i
apply . and the court of highest resort, the C^urt of Appeal*, su*
talovd the judgment and sentence of the court which tried them. I
Never were prisoners treat**! »;th more len.ty of trial. And never I
iu any case, in the history of trials, was justice a ituiuisterrd w|:h
more forbearance, more * almncss, more dignity and more majesty
Uw—never were such prisoners treated with as much benignant
klndnros as they have been by the people whom they outrage d »uf
Intently to have incited summary punishment.
To prevent any such punishment *>n the one hand, and a rescue
on the other; to guard justice. In a word, I railed Into service
"•l I'arj guards, t > aid U.e civil authority and keep the peace hr
Crinng information that organisation oi guards w*s necessary, |
•cut an aid to the xceuc, there to see wluU was warn lug, to as*u*
tV adjutant general, aud to p^sa ury orders 0*4. J. Lucius Da
vis. a competent soldier, volun cereal his services, and I accepted I
them, to organise the corps, distribute anus, to p*t guards and
to provide subaistance and quarter*, and to cal! for whatever was
wanting. These services he continued moat faithfully and efficient -
lj *o pc form, with my full approbation, until very recent events
»sde it necessary lo call for more troops, and Major tieueral Wax.
U. TaUlaferto, oi the fourth division, repaired to the place, and
from hi* division, and I could not decline the tender of hi* servl
vvs. During the trial of the prisoners and since, appeals and
threats of every sort, the most extraordinary, from every quarter,
have beeu made to the executive. I lay before you the tnaas of
tftrse.lt being Impossible to enter Into their detaVt. Though the
laws do not permit me to pardon In caees of treason, yet pardons
and reprieves have been uemaeded on the grounds of, 1st. insanl
ty; 2d, magn.xnlc.ity 3d. the policy of not making martyr*.
At to the hr*t, the parties by themselves or counsel put In no
plea of nsauliy. No Insanity a as feigned even; the prisoner Brown
»{ umr-d it. >« . skis rf'iUnc*. an 1 Since th** decision on the ap
peal.one of Ms rcuns-l, hatnuel Chdt.m, foq., has hied with me a
number of affidavits prof.'s*! g to *V*tr ground* far delaying *xe
in never to girt Urns h» m its an issue of fact as r*> l*.r
pn»i4/r, li<»w sue.< an issue can now, after Sentence, confirmed
hy th- coart of ap|»eals, be made, I ignorant; but it is *uft
nrnt to say that 1 had repeatedly seen and conversed with the
prisoner, and had Just returned from a v.tlt to him. when this ap
peal to me was put Into my hands As well aa 1 can know the
•♦ate of mind of any one, 1 kn. * that he was sane, and remarks
11> sane, if quick and clear perception. If assumed rational prrsn
l.*es, and consecutive reasoning from them. If cautious tact in
avoiding disclosure*, and in covering conclusions and Inferences.
If memory and conception and practical common sen--, and if
r.nupocurr and s*-lf-|»oa*«a«lon are evidences of a sound state of
mind. He waa more sane than his prompters and promoters, and
concealed well the secret .which made him seem to do an a *t of
mad impulse, by leaving him without his backers at Harp**'* Ter
ry . but fia did nwl conceal his contempt for the coward!.-e whl h
did not hack him belter than with a plea of Insanity, which he
spurned to put la on his trial at Charlestown.
A* to the second ground of appeal: I know of no magnanimity
wh ch is inhuman*, and no Inhumanity could well exceed that to
ours Hety, our stares as well a* their masters, which would turn
felons like these, proud and defiant in their guilt, looae again on a
border already torn by a fanatical and sectional strife whi. h
threatens the liberties of the whits even mors than it does the
bondage ;f the Uvk race
A* to thet* ■ .1 ground Is it tru* that the dus execution of our
law*, fairly andj ml/ administered upon these confessed robbers,
murderers and trait »rs will make them mxrtyrs In the public »enti
uiet.l of other states* If an, then It Is time indeed that execution
•Sail t»« done L]*on them, and that we should prepare in earnest for
t«.e “ir.-ep essilde conflict,** with that sympathy which. In de::ian i
Ing for th.»e criminal* pardons and reprieve, and In wreaking ven
granc- for their refusal, would make criminals of us. Indeed, a
bU*ph« mo us inoral rea* m, and expressed fellow-feeling with felons,
a profess*-*! ccnserratira of crime, a defiant an 1 boastful gu'lty de
ni tnlxc spirit combined, arrxigt* us, the . utrsged coirmur ity, u th«
wiong doers who must do nance and prevent our penalty by par
don and reprieve the*e martyrs. Th s •yrup.tf jr sent these turn,
itxm.rv tools, to d<> the dee.b* which sentenced then*. It mav have
»rnt tr rin to be manyi s for mischief• sake ; but the t x* . u’:lou ..f
our laws ts "o-ro.rv to warn future victimsM again to be Its tools
To hre«i this (<ita.de clamor at all, was to graf t at once oo-or.dl
t-onal gpace. Tj hang w »uld be no more roartyrd *m than to Incar
c r-te ths fanatic. Tills sympathy w.uld have asked on and on f. r
1 b«r*tn.n, ap.l to nurse an<l so..the Mm. wh* 1st life lasted, in pH*or
H.s lists r f.eaUh jnuH l.ave been hers! Je-1 week Is as from a p«
Uce; visitors woubl have come aiT-ctedl/rvVereut,to Seethe
flion al his **k*rd labor,** the work o# 11« hands woo Id have bee •
sought as holy relics; and hU parfy-cufored dress would have be
fn"-p, pertiaps. a uniform f.ir the next band e f Impious marauder*
There v. as no middle ground of mitigation To pa don or reprieve
a all, wa* to pr claim a 1 • et nimpunity to the thousand fmatlcs
who are mad only in the guill an I folly of setting their Utdividu I
• .pretnacy oxer law, Ufo. properly, and civil liberty Itself. Th -
• v mpatl y with the loaders was worse than the Invasion itself The
appeal was: It i* policy to make no martyr«. but <H-arm murder*
us, traitors, robbers, insurrectionists, »<y fee pant yn for wanton,
mxliciona. unprovoked felons! I could tut -.sk, will execution of
the!-* il sent. r.re of a humane law n ake martyrs of su.hcrlmi
***'•♦ Dic-aecti,.r*al and social masses hall »w these crimes * Do
a hols c■>(«. .iunit .• s ay i».i*f.thi, * with t|,e outlaws, instead of sympx
lliisiug with th oull .ige.l socl-ty of a ft'xier snrerrlgnty f ff
then the sympatl y 1# as felon < us m the criminals, and Is far more
dxngerou* than was the Invasion. The threat o' tnarlrrdotn is a
threat against our peace, and demand* execution to arts »uch
sympathy and such saluts . f martyrdom. Tl..- U»u- was forced
upon us Kh«D John Brown »>e par<lotted, lest be i *| *ht l.»- ran,.n
ir -<l by execution of M»ny for e..nfoa*e<'. murder, r..Lhery au l
treason In Inciting servile Insu revtl tQ la Ylrgluia f Why a mar
ty r • lb-cause thousand* vpplau I his a ts an I opinions, ari l gtorl
f« kll crisis * 't *s I tj he-ltate after this ? Sympathy was insur
rection. and had to be sundned m-we sternlv thsn w %* hn Brown
J .hi» Brown h x 1 surely faille according to las, and \ irrula has to
M-et tl.e i«s>ie |t t« c \<l*. We bare friend* or we nave not In
»* e s'ate* whence the* Invaders eecie They m-*t now tie not on
ly >ns* i r if ire hut ttrtiss to prevent Invaders coming. We are In
arras.
Information from all quarters, with responsible names, and
an myn us, dated the t .me time, from placet far distant from each
other, came, of organised conspiracies and combinations t.» oh
struct o.ir laws, to ns* u- and i-itc h<**t **-#-*, to commit rapine and
burning alor g our herders < n M vrylan<l, I*, nnxylr.mi x. Oh o and
Indian*. proceeding from the-- Ptat.-s an I from New York, Ma>*a
t hosetu and other S? »te* and Canada. These multiplied In every
f • .i for weeks at. I at last,. n the tpth < f November, a call was
v-ry properly and timely made by Col. Davis for an additional
These reports and nwirf, from so man? sources, of er-rv ehs
r- r f# r’:'. limslun* <u«. from places *o f-r apart, at the
same « me, fr0:n per- r,« so ui.hk • In evM-ncesof rj«< at ori, could
be from r t,.piracy to 1. ax ; Out f relo t ro t e. much upon
■ . .. i nmomtU
tersmth the rr times. It i as . mpossdde Jar so nine* of muck ..
i ltKV ' ’ ti/* -1 *rrx. iitug bad men to actum ot rescue and
ft rsngs. On this i acted,
I Immediate 1/ put In u -lion »h« (rooftt of Richmond, Alexan
dda. F - rftbnrg and Fauquler, who obeyed proMptly— and In the
t toe fr<<ra II o'clock ' xturday night to ToexJay m .rning, *'Ji ?;ien
•ere add- il In tl.e g iard« at l liirlniusn. I again w-nt In t»er
• *i with the tre,-<pt as* tt»bl- l the c<>;umaoding officers, organised
the ci.msiud, issued gsnera. orJ*rs. aftf rvtarned to II xrpers fer
it -n I h ive ordered >n additional fotr* of bU) ra-n from Norfolk
and r.r.n., I, and Prfr.Lurj and Orange and Albemarle and
Augu.ta. and K ckir.trl.im ar,d Wheclmi, and have called out a
r| . . rii w ti ra under C >L Mn ih, of Virginia Military Inat.luto
And I hare ordered Menerala K”g.r« and llunton to do whaterrr
li neee#a*rjr to guard t>.r I.order# from the Point of Koeka to Alei
kndri* end the whole bor l-r l> yuarded w.-.t t„ piedmont. I bar*
il.auated tht, and the neat year'* <|ti..tae In leaning .Ih lent arm.
a .1 hat- putrhaied anna of the beat improved model, and leaned
them andeoji. and blanket, to the uoopa. In a word, I hare
been compelled hy apprel.ini.»aof th» re...* unparalleled border
war. lo Place the IP-ie in a. full a panoply of military d-'.-nee
.f a f .re.gn enemy had Invaded u., Ind-e l. at * .,f the m ..t |rr|
Ullny f-»t Jrr. of thle predatory wer, le the! It he* ile eeet In Hilt
l»*. proeln re. which furr.l.l. aerlume for our fog.tirre from loetlce
an I from lab r. and Mnde them and their hired outlaw* hock up
on oa from ilepab anA rnt-ir.u. In l.,.rd rnyitate*. There 1.
n . danyer from ’ if eiavt* or colored people The elaree taken
lefu.e i io lake arm., and th« f!r«t man killed wae a reap..table
free r.cyto who wae tnaeted with the beyyaye of the rail road and
who faithful tn hie duty waa ah.l running from the phllonthronlet.
who r.*m- lo !lbffi*p ih** |»l«ck ra^t! y
f;-j» 'It our rl«rc< fin if,- f, ir«hr not up armi
!h*lr W - in |«t Jr, k firm If at f»..» fort hgfr.rg |«|.. \t
k* a t Jar- In »ii* adittr .n II-*«>,«• ro*.l of nor darn
f t \fiu4*rm ,n tt>* t *.rti*r I**' Kf4rt 1k*4r $f • rM t.y 9„f
f '■nnr* Tftf *1art could Of lo J.hn M own much catf-r Hmh |.#>
could cot i# and tal# Mm. The •!»»#• at will pan !!».. rat - th#m
t-lrrM hy running ■ wtjr. Tli*n„i»ff». m>l railroad i« at t1.r«r
i*ry do* rt. and Ih-r miy l«kcwhrn lf»o* pi #■%**• Tf.rt
r—lur •-> rwrr»4lp Jnhn ttrmrn * »Urr1imt[ urn ; hyf %rf
• rrff* i t tuuty • f ulltna ft a ^rynUr rfftngtr, >r,t\,.vt *.*■
11 Tl** ►,4n » •»«•** •Utnl%y etrmpti and tt alt our aUvr«,
wMrt, t-ndt •• rrtl cmlMtrlr* ar,.«.nr u* to "atatoprda ' our »; • v.>«
which rof t » ctocatr t1ar« law*. which form ••reel tori*
!!*• for ml* I, ft, with If,* m . to, ''alarm tothHr »lo-p, fir* to thtlr
dw»- lin^#, and polton to their fond and water, and whl'h c*t*b
I «..ef underground rallroada, aad drpot* at, I reodetrou, h.r lore
. .n I. tn"r danger, na than the Inraelon by John II,own. Vet
t .e lalte' eicitea u«, and In the former we hare been ele.pliyeo
•I’lt.e ny It I. no anta'et., me, then, that »ur border elare, are
•O H erat.d already by Ihlyeiferlor atylatn. and by this Mill at
I-.t,e<eall-g.r.tem, that »ey A.,,* n., n.r.f t,l,
f' efrowo. UK. ration Onfedrr.’. at ale, ,. well aa Individual*
bare den. meed „ur law, and—t then, at drltaae* ; they hare by
th. lr law. ..urayed and faelllt.lrd the e,. ape of «ur elaree and
l.ae. marl abolition a ranee, eatlny Into nur rery male
We mu.t. then, a*knowledge and act no the fact that preeeM re
latloay between the Ht.tey cannot be permitted longer lo eel.t wlth
o.tt abollehtnyela.ary throughout the t! oiled Plate*, or romp III’,,
ne In defend It by force of arm..
fin th- rib’ ultimo I ad leoed letter, t* the yorernof of Mary
Und. Prnneylir.nl, andObi.. ..f ehlrh the aee. mpaaylny .re mpli.
’IT , f"’• "••«*•«* • •«' .elUf.cto
rf r ply. berewVb roh'Tiltfed | hare reeetred a reply, hy t,le
geefrn, from Ibe gorernor of Penney,ranla aleo, who, f an. proud
in eay he. p.nmptiy p.rforre.d I.. duty In defeating up tb. fogi
V’t- r.:lrV"' Wh* Wul do he, r !E
! aT ?, ,y 'r r," .'T™, "• '"•l'"»<»a lh*l Virginia o..yM
I.ot lo er.ll. Inete that p. „ne.Irani* *111 i. yle'f i prarent obru*.
dlaneblp of Vlrylola a eafety 'wld nol neyle.-, p, apprl.. p.nhnl,i
rani* a eothont no,eri-n..mrd lal.d again— either —air (of abhb
1 lnf*r”'^d. at", ih,. were, probably, n-d Informedt, by any
'.’La r £"T7n TVi' * 1"',n "f with Me aeeortatee, „oi
!2a —" - ’•'/'r" •I'kA'Iy !*•••*<1 thfoiiyh Peahuylvaot*
and bad retuel.. d *t place, In her limit*, and he had mli—el
’'fj * !-*rnl In r*ne of I r town. I had n .1, lh*r*f*y»,
enflrtpated he f.rt*, hat appealed to them for ,tep« of prerraUon
rrjnr’.t'e after what ba t already occwrrrd And ihe yor
rLLJT or I ^c 1 «*>"• •« Ihe .Id’ll nf a
pirt a at# pride than from .arh eeldenrm *» danger and. rue of
a, preben-or, a.th. -rentI., her* le la pw- ,, of. mp”,,
eomMnaflonr, depofa and rend'«r .u* In adjoining tta’rw fof Ine.
d n I the border, of \ IrylMa. Prop, the yoreruar of Ohio I hare a.
jrrt rcr-iTcal nn »r*«w-r.
■> ^aT^ • l#ft#r tn th#
O •».2 I •** h earl.Wed |, * enpr
Ou Of* »th I reeelred from tna. U.e ae.ompanrlny aoewer. to whlrh
, Bab® not repltad, hwl upon wMeh I o net hare roannent.
(I. aertna to think that the eaa—notion and lawa of the failed
Plate, do not pro ride an'l.oilly 1.., lb, Pi.aldrat t„ l.lrrp *. „
eegref IWCf.ef.n'’’ a® keep the Or,.* hMWren the Plate, fn ream
where th, fldrer.eof on* Ptaf lnr.de another gt.t*. nnlen’l,* >,
a.ullre or le*A.l. ur. of U*. Wat. Invaded apptle. for p„d«d|„n I
r'ZVklfraaaara of the r„n-lt*ii..n
nor ih- C.jfiwr#M r»1 wrt* jnillty of »>> groat nn o«ftt««1 ,n In »h®l#
prorlelon. fT., th* ru.tlon.1 .*f-y ‘ fain th.lg
By c|*u,e ,n of ae* Ion » of anlele |- *f th* eor.-Hutloa th*
- ...
Ta **—psa*.t, ih—a Mr tM* pr'f.Uo* tf th, pnw- .f p«par*.
rq»n*ffrivM^-ni </ih*c#rnme*r. .#««/ -4u// />Abrf mm* «y (bn
******** ,,'5T* • •*»•* ®« a*pS<-*U«>*’ s»f lb legislature, we af lira
I'lWwVJ T.*JeT*»SMalsrt cannot be owaiwnl), •ipinaf
"J**1 *• #t,T*r,lw“l prapor ijvJo awscWtfmU'Hs
,m“ nil other wram cooled In the -rfr* of
t**,Vitate^ nr la any 4t4»*r+"*nt or <^l.er thereof.**
-Jc1* HS5tL*£.J •* prowi-uo. to mpm-t
T" belong* unqwrstlsuabiy to roogrcsa. lias
It exervloed the power F It has. Tht» :
^ 41,0 liven the power ** to raise and te/tjorf
l^rr- *1 ,. nnd maintain a navy," and these are
called, sped tlly ‘the land and naval fowss** of the United Mateo.
*• one will gainsay the proposition that the chief
otyect of these land and naval forces Is “to suppress liwwsrecti on#
and to repel Invasions.**
Itot In *4.U0.n to Ihm* |H<w*n. •n.>ih«r U .p^cl.llr OWt
TV**' provide for the militia to eseeoto the laws ef the
,kTUTr Uo,“ *“** Add | presume
• Vi?* 0n# insist that the regular army and navy of the Uni
ie«i Matos may not be ordered to eaeculs the laws of the Uuioa.
ittm**T***on »«’• ■"•«*** Invasions, without calling
lh"**' ■*««• »r through thr ,nihil. m«j bo rollod totlh tort.
«JOl» •»”><■ l.urpuor,
, ■ *h* OtniMi <IM put Ih. I.o : lit, to rmiM troln,
£« mill'■«ort«l« o no.jr. mm o.ll mm hn fur rolling
Atulihia. b. article ta< Ut. IW d.nt U .Mod with Mo rworo.
7r'/' "T; . J* •»»»■ bilhfulljr to .loruto Ut. uOlco of Ivmi
itoOA. twItUo bett of Ml hb llllf. to pramr. pmim ond d.frnd
the of the 1 nlted Male# ; and he Is made commander
#!h J iB* navy of *he United Mates and of the mill
!• Matea-hen called Into the actual service of the
armC/1,/ *U*5 •*** Aes*u« hide evire iA.it Me Uum he fiiU^utlp
how to revert to the 4lh section of the 4th art'ole :
In this section, there are two thing* sgalost which tha United
Mates guarantee* protection to eesr* Male
1st, agsiust •‘wr.ui.ff." Not one kind or Invasion or another, but
“■P'J „ •'«r»»s#ou of «n kinds from every quarter, .>*,/*.. •tj»jds.
•Mht».e turn 1# require•! against “invasion Whenever
11 "uW,?fr •* comas. It U to be protected against. The
word Itself la|>or1i ^nv >nMW «rrf**sf any force from with
out the Mate Invaded, whether from foreign country, or alien
rncsurior Indian tribes; It Is confined to no particular !nva
**'ltx*t **»*• the PreaMeal has the means, pro
\lded by t ongrvM In the laws raising and providing a stand
Ing army and navy—the land and naval forces of the United
Mates, which Weed *»ot be “ called forth,** but are srmle* al
ready rsitnl and standing, and a navy already ,»•»«/
m'WtUuae.f * The President Is commander In chief of these, an*!
may order them to repel actual invasion, as they are already In
actual service without being * called forth “ And he Is surely as
much bound to es -cute the constitution as the statutes of congresa
“The laws, ’ to he executed, embrace both, and he has the means
tort-cute both provide>l f|* */,</«/## for r%tiainq umU+m,m*/
f< *».tey, «•« ted/ us m Its /*fwv c» lit * q fx„ i\ tAt mUiti.i
Hut to proceed :
. *** 2rvooJ, lh,n* lh«* every Mate Is to be protected against
IS, r«. ./*».•* TTuv. words import force from within -a
force, acting In rebellion or Insurrection sr otwtructiou of
the law*, agatusl theH*ate. To Interpose against this, there must
b.* an application of the legislature, or of the executive of the state
when the legislature cannot be convened.
And under this clause of this sevtiou. special sets of February
f-th l.^ andof March hd, 1*>T, hav. 6>rn pa^d. The/ire
wholly distinct ftvni the lsw» of t\ ngnss raising armies at I pen
vldb g a nav y The first c!*us- of the 1st section of the act id |?T5
relates to Invaxi. ns of the L»*Ud .dutu “ from any A**!?* ma
r-om or Jrn \ t‘ tf*w.** The Td clause of that section relates to
in*, crnrfsi . In any Mate against the govcrnmrnt thereof.*' Ac
to • douw-slic violence,** In other words, mud not exprcmly or its
p!ied> to ** Invasion of any Mate.” And the “nd section of the
act relates to obstructions of the laws of the United Mates, and not
of any Mate. And the whole act, so far as it relates to the Male*
Is an act to provide for f»rt\ fAe ” to suppress
domestic'violence, and n«*l for commanding the land am| naval
forces already In actual service against ” invasion " /»<-. !#•.>*
• /.lay.v iff m iw /«!.■t Isruoos tf fAe Vnitft Sfirfew. And tlic
•a ! of applies expressly to cases only of ** insurrection or
obstruction to the tin e'ther of the United Mates, or of anv Indi
vldusl Mate or Territory.” And, If the President*s eonstructi< n of
his power be correct, thlv act, which was Intended undoubtedly
to extend the sc* of 17T\ and enlarge its provisions, would
operate to restrict and contract Its provision*, lie could not
use such part of the land and naval fores of the United Mates as
•hall be judged necessary by him. without having first observed
ell the prerequisites of the law for calling forth the militia_
• hese acts. In a word, do not In word or meaning apply to ru«q of
' invasion of a state,” hot so far as a state Is concerned, to cases
only of domestic violence; and where the »» Ultia are called forth
on application of the legislature or of the executive of the r*.
nruru a* unit.
Here there was no “Insurrection.** no ease of force from wlthlo
InT v«ion «as threatened from without, by citltens of one state
arainst another state It l« monstrous lo say that therr is nothin*
In the eons'llutl.tn «r laws guarante« in* protection la> a state In such
***** Th# constitution is express. It needs in fact the laws on v
which hate been passed the laws of the army and nary of the t5
Mates, and the laws for calling forth the rail Ha, to execute both of
th* clauses of protection guarantee t by the constitution to ‘ every
•t.te Inthis Inlon. * The ram of 17*:» made no such gross otnls
s» >n They understood their work too writ for that. And what a
spec tael lAe l ii/eJ .Shifts would have presented. If on the second
an army of fanatics had Invaded \ irginia to rescue felons legaliv
convicted, and a Hoods battle had been joined, aud the I" S. land
force. »t lUfprr'* Kerry ha I Too l neutral •pretaton, .Mr.lliix
only the l nl»ed Mate* arsenal, and playing ;*'»».» «•«»*mtifu* to a
l . S. marshal. but not allowed to aid the execution of the 1*ws of
aBisUcr to repel invaa.on. because the Shitf were not
Invaded • from a f *r»lgn country, or by Indian tribes.** The bars
statement is revolting to the 4th section of the fourth article of the
r«m»l tution guaranteeing protection to everv Mate inr »
£"ji*£ e^V/.•UtU.“, °,f X>B«,5- raW** Un*' *»* riAWul forces of
the l uitcd States; to al: the ends aud purposes of »h.»se laws and
JV l° %hr “*lb ***d r*ecut,v* ©®<-e of the President of the
l tilted Mates to preserve, to protect and defend the Constitution
and to see Ihe lass failhfullv executed
Such are u.yvlrw. ol the ton.motion an.I Un. Th. .lava cf
lh« I'rr.. lent. It ..-ema, are different. I notified him ..f a juat ,r,
prehet,. on that thia Stale .« threatened with •W.r.l.o, by , 1>r^
datory border war, to reacur prUoncre convicted of high crime,
and felonii., and to ael.e our fifteen. a. h .tagea and .ictim. In
,b* cr‘»,n‘u-1'"*--'<«“«'-«•.*««
He ana.e.a, that-Mt would aeem almoat Incredible that any nor
th>o of the people of ihe State, mentioned, ahnnld be luilty of th e
etmeiou. wicketlneaa aa well a. folly of attempting to rrecite con.
Tided traiturw and mnrderen from Uie penalty due to their crime,
under the outraged law. of Virginia. crime.
I reply to Wot. through you, gentlemen. that It l» .1 range thi.
•I.oul l leent .0 InrreiHble. when the eery -convicted 1 rat ore and
lanMerrr. were portion. of t‘e people of the .tatee mentioned
\t,nr.,d,ny .... r leo/w, .eUing n
Mat.-a ara.nal. and of p. rpettallng irr»...0 ,„d mur.l.r
■ xa.na both the State and the l olled State, authority. And I
.urely may be allowedI latitude for acting on the mar. of Inforuta
, I ba»e received,ol renewed Invaalnn. wl,en. perhap., pardon
a ‘.e Inattention at Washington to warning cl the murder and trea
*°- *' !,.VTTT'* f"ry: ,e“ *" »"'»»> »»J • people defenceteaa
that InvwHiii.
I did not call on the Pr—I |,nt to protect Virginia, and would not
-• • < /- '..US, „.rj,l
■ ' • ••• I.-..lied out
our m al.it! 1, and they are a th upland fold ample to defrud Uielr
.late The, hare had not only to guard th Ir own border but to
guard la pyt the axwewsl at NwU u Tt- IT ■...lent ha.
roanlfettcda "cheerful at.d cordial” <1.portion lo defend, thi
phtre . nfrif fo I.U I nt:r.l .v.ife. .if // .rjn-, . frrry . he .ent a
wnall guard, al loon it Inf .rated It wa. unxaurded, and ha. r.ln
‘;'V c;vr1’V r,\"n'y V* ‘"■'•'•'■Cl the pul.Ho property dearly
•r /«•** , hut prtt**t lUr mmurufitm fnmn
a gainst the troop* of \ irglnfs.** “ft« sMrs/‘ he say %. “It |s , -.|
i: * »<!»lto:«*nwl tro«rpa xuy hr rcuuirctl t.j m-i •• •
00 foe r,,u.0M.0 ./Me fa/feif S!.,t../.,r U,r
er, ,/MfW.Y./ I.rjx/.hi to/Hereof XAe re.CO. ./.sf.r*,, „ow
h • coetody, rhargiol with the rise ol hlghtreaeon."
Then for U.eee ul.jrcle—let. To keep arm. of the l*nlte<| Stale,
out or the hands of the Invader, of Virginia end jj. To art a.
• rr, eiooff. • to the l-nlteil state, tnanhall, the land fore .
f the I tilled State, may b« u.ed ; loti Sd. ,V.Y f.■ j.reeeof ‘ i. r. 1
m.S" of one .Vf.i/e Ay Me y eoyfe r/.ia..ttae Sl.lt/ And hr
f.eran diwoeer n.-tSinj in .107 iirorlefoa fo V, 1 .01.1. '.,,1 .0 ,.e
-ftS* fnilnl .v/.tfe. ,rU A „„,UI,e Mn.l.-lil,
Oepa"yto-Or ,mn-,mrri„,j ,0 ,ce f.;p.eeo
' t-y /«•*•'( e If, *flfTf UM/<hl/ a'Vp.;/#- sW«-A r.M/y ^1 0,VM
> •*/ •• I'ef-t* reo J^oaa Ap ./e.yo.r.n/oea f„ f»„„/e rie^/,;„,
\« 1 uml.rkuml !.:• In«-i |.trt«Uon vf the constitution sml Uws he
rnc”\- P1 **cth‘hc rdlitla nor employ the land and naval li.ree.
..f the t nlted Staiee, */ e t’.l. j.urjm • ||e „y, |, |, the duly of
tb. reaper 11v. .f ife t/orereioenfa to break up iu. I. drp..te, and lo
prevent their rdi-nt from making Incur.!..n», Ac. hut that if th,
Olro'ee ,r. . I e.feef.. ■ „„/ l^rAam Uinjnlu
f.f,e W, /L.u r.o,V—
h.Y .1. .Ic. f . j.n-r. A.*/.'. >/.i ogeroe. Now.lhiat.
hew d ..-trine, and trach. a even Virginia a Ireson of alate right,
wl. ch lettroy. h-r ronrtltutn.na! guarantee of protection by the
1 alte l State, ag.lnt “lnvadon by abolition fanatic, from other
•tale. ” They are not front any foreign country, nor are tl.ev In
llan tribes. The fanatics from fr»-v statcs,«uch .«« J.,|,u Hr.iwn an I
1-teTena, hrtvyi, In effect, are n..f / nr.,.tiny ft, CnitrJ .<t„Un
inntJinj \iryini.,; they tre not "from any foreign nation or In
dial! tribe,•• rendering il lawful for the prerl.lrnt to employ Ihe led
eral forces lo refo t .u- h ”lnraa!on.”
These are alarming doetrlnet to ihe leraded State. And how
errr. Uie argonept . r the error may he beta,.,, tl.e Prclde.it and
your eaeeullre, t|, . at h aat I. rlear. fA.lf if i ,nn rijKt In >00
I Stay '”1r Ifeir.HW.jfy.oifivttw in M# . I... begrr. Be, frnmr
I'MrHrrrr of.re./fAe Cefferf Ahrfee, i/.we nof » cue
' '.** 7*’ ',7 '"■?*' /,r‘J'i tr. nee./, .rod ,,o ft.
n.trSan l .fKri. ■•]•./ ,„ t ,r, r.ittYM.rf.ie t\„ tth,
I .stair* -Saill ,,,. IS, fallen brfirr.e -V.ife. anj au Irant ,
-nr .Stair a.y.nn.l Inr.,..man,,th.r, /
.■nnnat intrr/.n. ,.. r,,rl ..r n, l\. I.,,,,. |„ either c„e,
wear. Clearly thrown on our .elf depeudenre. H. mnntrtly ,.n
..n,al,,...,n.l_R.jSl r ! I ynrt.nt. / (X,.
•jiiiiLs* ttnrf am* . v
Thr cuoslllatimisl gusr.iutcc of protection is wl'fcbrid. whilst we
are Invaded from all around, and tVe withholding will In.plritth.
•» m|islliU«rs In felony ftfffitnst our pro|>rrtjr an 1 lives To defend
ur.eUes and 11 sup2*rcss sjiupathy In Imurrectkoo. which mukt
• mulUply felons ag«litst oor i^-sre %nij safely %i„| n ^ n ,t
lotert'l lnvadon before it wdlutakr Hik.ni enact It n«w . under tlds
! r xiisiructioo of state rishts to «listurb an 1 sfate rifhts to defend
I the puMtc pea<-et we will ne«<| all our forret for t».e conflict I
7«'U mor- *r»crgruc m-Asurr. tlian th*
prrMMt rompllmrr.u me for adopting on th- side of /**»<■# agalnu
iorMiun.
I rrp««t
Ut Organise and arm.
id Demand of each stair In th« I’nlnn what position shs means
to maintain tsr the future In r«*pcr< to slavery and ihe provision#
'.f the constitution and laws of tne l nlt#*IXtatef. «nd the pruvls
Ions of state laws f..r Its protection In our fol-ral relations ; and b«
rovcmstl ac« online to the manner In which the demand shall be
answered. Let usd-fend oor own position, or y|.|,| it «t once
Let us hare action and no* resolve*-tbfli.lt- setrlemcnt. and no
more temporlrng the convolution, and no more c -itnpromis .
John llrown, the loader In* Invasion of Harper’* retry was
executed, accord I fig to the sentence of the court.on the 2d Instant
il s body was delivered, by mv request, to the sheriff of JofT-rann
county, to the orders of Major General Taliaferro, to he guarded
s»My to llarper s Ferry, and there delivered to hi* widow. Mary
Hrown. The laws of the commonwealth have reigned in his acres*
trial aod exe« u*ton; and when dead, under Ihe sentence, they re*
l ased hie remain* toh • relatives, to whom they have, with dignity
and decency, been handed over.
The other convict* await execution, and win he executed on Ihe
Kth. unless th* General Assembly order* others!#-*. I shall he
gut ted In my course In respect ta the reprieve, pardon or rompiU'
tail m of punishment x,t there, or In respect tolhelr execution, hy
your revolver TW- will meet the open Invasion, hut It act* only
•n the individual convtet*. an I It don’t settle the Question of our
p*-ace and protection against future agfreevlon To do that we
n tiv re*.. t„ revolve, and (sire dee|d*d action What action. Is for
you to drelde. I have done my part, according loth* bs*tof my
ability —and ft remain* only for me to *'1f+r tpysetf, all that I am
and alt that f have t > th - r>mivKmv«||Ui. wherey*r she mi; nf
d r me or mine, lo any sc, vies, when the term of my present ofles
Closes.
I subm.t detailed rerommemlatlon* In anothtr simuga
I am, most rrspectfully and devotedly,
fn*r obedient servant,
HF.5CKY A. WIJtK.
mbuiaoe i i
'/« the Sennit nml 1/ met nf helegntet nf th* flenrrnl
Aeermhlf nf th* I'mnm .nirenllh nf Vifijinin :
lir.TTi wrv : l/din, detail. of in? firm m**«*ge, nml
rme.ellaneoua rubje. t,_ io * aecond communication, I
cnntifiM io rail your altrnllon to variou. • object* of
nio.l immediate Ocgnllude.
I a«k for apeciil favor to th* gallant militia eorpa who
h»rr volunteered *o .piritedly for public defence. They
barr rivaled oath olbor In a patriotic and martial apirlt ;
and the teaaon taught ihrtn ta worth far morn than thn
motiny etpended In railing them forth, and thn public
rpirit inapired give, na tbr confidence of * victor? at leant
over a atate of comparative disorganization, I cannot i
•liaringrii-h among the corp*. eiccpt in training and I
drill. The let regiment of volunteer* I, now worthy of J
being the pride of the State. K»«t*r it, and never H it
he leva in number, or lower in diacipline. Braid«a It,
p«y I »*k that it may be complimented with full camp
e'piippxge, and he allowed at atato ejpenar a troop of i
raaalrr, w| h military riddle,, bridle, and vail wa, and
• r-ued with < OH*, army revolver. with breech a'Uched,
• nd >abrea, and a uniform lo lie pre«cribed hy the y«r
e-nor, and to be hi- guard of honor on at«te occiona.
I armed a aeont gmrd and placed at it, head Captain
II nry lljinlrr, of .f< flrraon, who did good aerrice at
Harper* Kerry, and I trnat that rorpa, with the other*
aim kept eonatant guard at Chart* atown, nod-r Colonel
iib-on, may let banlouxly cowiplimented. Cult llotta
deaervea to l»e noted. r r
■ f?",,# Maryland Tohinte<ra, and par
ticnlarly their body of „,rg. on*, wltli J. W. It. Uunbar,
a V.rg.mman hy birth, at their head.
(,nl Htrrith, the devoted •nperlntendent, haa proved
l tat the Military ioatitale can make men of bor*. I have
a lowed and invited lum to di-plny hi* howitrera before
you, on In, return with them from aetnal aervlce. t beg
that the annuity lo tide ntirxery of officer* for citizen aol
dier* may he doubled a. I prnpoae.
To all who have tendered eervlre, a tendev of thank*.
To a few individual*, anecially by name, an aoknow
ladgmtnt la dn* without Invldlouanea*. Ooi. J. I.neina
teeta, a trained —Utre.vwlwataarad to Mt aa av aid, and
a* acting assistant lo the adjutant gwnrral, and In that ca
pacity hr want to the acouo at Charlsalown sad acted aa
commissary general and aaaisUul lo adjutant grnrral,
with great vigilant-# and efficiency. Ills arrvicr* have
bowu invaluable. Hcaidea Col. Davis, liswteuaat Given,
of tbs United SUlea marine*, the oflfewr, a Virgiuuui,
who .-litdown John Brawn, has volunteered to train aur
artillery, and ha baa baan assisted by another eoluntaar,
n naturalised oltlscn, Mr. Uuchholli, a acienlMe officer,
whu though poor, left hi* labor here to devoM Inmaell
to our drleuce. lie has bean employed by me on nur
State map. I ask that he may be couliuued on that work
with an advance of liberal pay.
The adjutant general, aged and unpaid aa ho is, haa
doue hia duly faithfully to the utmost of his power. It
is not creditable to us that he La without a salary.
The Alexandria troops, under CoL Stewart slid M.yjor
DulTwy.and the Fauquier and Newton and Shepherdstowu
cavalry deserve a couipliiucut of the bast anna and ac
coutrements.
Major Oen. Taliaferro presented himself In per**** and
asked to arrve, and Ilia service* have met ray entire ap
probation. All, alt hare done well and deweree your
kindest conaidr ration. 1 beg you lo appropriate m hand
some compensation lo A. Iluuter, Kaq., for hia assistance
to the criminal prosecutions.
I shall contiuue a sufficient military force uutil after
the 16(b, and urge upon you in anticipation of a with
drawal of troops an elhcicul organisation and arming ol
the border from the 1’oiut ol Hock* to Wheeling. That
city has shown her truth to Virginia, and I waa proud of
the corps she was prompt to aeud to prova it. I relv
upon the Northwest, which haa nobly tendered aervlce
from every point.
Without slopping to meutiou more of merit, I recom•
ntnnd the neoowiary measures :
I at. An approbation of $*5,000 to meet expenditures
already made for defence. It is impossible to submit ac
count* and estimates at present, but this sum is not more
than sufficient, and more may be required before you ad
journ. Tlii* ks instantly requires).
2ml. Appropriate $25,000 to pay for arms and muni,
lion already purchased, and for altering or exchanging
the old.
3d. A reorganization ol the militia system. The pre
sent is utterly futile. I urge the plan submitted by iue
to the last legislature, which was never considered;
1st. An iirlire militia, of men trum 18 to 25 year* of
age. and of volunteers or any age; to be fully armed and
equipp'd and frequently drilled; and compelled to do duly
under heavy and summary tinea aud penalties. To be
ordered out from time to time, in squads, at discretion
of commsnding officers, to do military duty as military
patrols. To be organised into regiuieuts, batlalhoua or
companies, as the density of population will admit Com
manding officers to lie revqionxiblc for arms, and lo have
full and summary authority to preserve, collect aud se
cure arms without bonds, with power to line for loss oi
abuse. This branch of militia to be exempt from working
on roads and serving on juries. And
2d. An enrolled and reserved militis of all men over
25, not volunteers, to be assembled hut once in a year,
and to pay a tax of $1 per man for exemption from ac
tive duty, utiles* called into actual service. Hut any oue
volunteering lo do active and compulsory service to he
exempt from thi* tax.
tth. An adjutant general, with amnio salvrvof at least
$2,500; and a commissary general, with the same—their
respective duties to be defined by law; with necessary
clerks and a*- is tan is to each. Make these correspond
with MajoV-Generals, and Msjor Generals correspond with
Brigadier Generals and ColoucLs ol their respectire iliris
ions. Gire to Major Generals. Brigadier Generals, Colo
nels and Captains the powers now givcu in section 1st of
.„-- iu un suuuen emer
gency, to call out the militia.
.Mh. Enact that all general officer* shall be nomina
ted, and by aud with the advice aud consent of the sen
ate shall he appointed by the Governor. Aud that all
field officer* and captain* shall bo ap|>ointed by the Gov
ernor. aud make captains superintend and declare the
elections by companies from lieutenants down.
6th. 1'rovide the best aud most approved arm*. Alter
and exchange all the old arm*. Direct depot* of arm*
»nd fixed ammunition at numerous eligible points. Cause
the arm* to be assigned to corps in regiment* of active
militia, and allow of no selection of arm* by companies;
let them be assigned by competent officers under a regu
lar system. I called attention to our arms iu vain here
tofore.
7th Make the military institute a part of the regular
system, subject to the orders of the Governor alone. It
has proved its value in this emergency, and deserves
great praise. Especially organize out of that school a
corps of engineer, having one at least for every brigade
of active militia. *
8lh. Organise thoroughly, inspector*, adjutants, com
missaries and engineer*, and pay these and all other of
ficer* required to be constantly or generally ou duty,
out of Uses oil reserved miliatia and fines. The esti
mates of these can easily be made by the census.
9th. Increase t!>« stale guard to Da) men ; increase
their pay ;o that of the regular army of the United States;
make them prepare fixed ammunition; allow them a full
bind of tnu-io. Ucorguui/e them, as was proposed at
the last session of the General Assembly, The present
pay will not obtain reliable personel. Tonng men, sons
of our citizens, without families, should he taken and
trained iu certain schools. Make it an armorv of cou
struction.
10th. I’rovide military patrols for police purposes,
lltb. Give greater and more definite power to the ex
ecutive to proclaim martial law and to do summary exe
cution in extraordinary case*. And provide better to ex
pedite trial- be lore the civil courts.
l -ith. Regulate telegraphs, and Uke care of who arc
oiterators therein; and coi»|dete the wavs of transporta
tion as early as po-il.l.-, especially the Winchester aud
StrauMhurK railroad.
13th. Revise the laws as to the distribution by mails or
bv newspapers or hook-eller* of iuceudiary written aud
printed matter.
1 Ith. Regulate aud restrain the intercommunication
and intercourse of slaves and free negroes to or from
north of Virginia.
13. Extend the inspection laws of vea-els to all our
waters, eastern and western shore; and make the laws
apply to all vessels hound northward, whether by the
b.ijr or tin* cape*.
16th. The most stringent laws are required against all
secret and nightly association* of negroes, bond or free
!7t!i. Correct the evils and mischief* which arise out
of the manner in which negroes are hired, boarded and
lodged and paid fur extra work in the various factuties
particularly of Richmond. This subject ought to be -pe’
ciallv enquired into. r
18th. I earnestly urge not to drive free negroes
North, and refer to my last message on that subject.—
Force them to lie constantly employrd. Compel nil
idler-, vagabonds, per-ons of had behavior, petty crimi
nal* among them, to go upon the public works and labor
under guard. Encourage the worthy and respectable
among us to remain, on condition of good Itehavior and
habit* of in lustry and faithfulness. Allow them not to
hoM real
Turning from these, I call your attention to other sub
jects of less painful interest. And in doing so I shall t.e
a* brief as possible, inasmuch a* most that I liavo to say
is already contained in my previous messages unacted
"P0". which I resume and repeal; and my successor will
more properly, perhaps, he expected to introduce anv
new tit titer for consideration.
The Sinking fund shuw* :
Debt due on the ist Jan. 1852 ... 11,971 838 80
I Debt created since,.ltf,460,Vjl 83
Total of old and new debt, • . 81,452 |59 63
Redeemed of old, ... 1,261,843 00 ’ ’
Investment in bonds for re
demption of new, • - 1,038 657 20
Total redeemed slid invested
for redemption, • -- 2 315 500 2o
(.caving of old debt, - - 10,709,993 Jto
l-vaving of new debt, . 18,89V./.<;| \*
Total of old and new, un
redeemed and utiinvest
cJ...t‘29,10<t,6SV 43
Tho annual intercat to bo provided for tha
whole debt now stands, adding unredeemed
and invested together, is . . $1.788,829 8V.
For each half year, . . . $893,414 08
The results are obtained by the very clear and satis
factory details of tho report of the commissioners of the
Kinking fund.
I earnestly unite with that report In recommending:
1st. That nil tales, state and corporation, on state
bonds, he repealed and forbidden. The tai tends to
keep tho bonds below par a per cent, far greater than
the amount of the tea, and that fact alone costa the elate
more than the treasury gains by the tat. It is a tai ton
upon our own citliena, (or the advantage of non-residents
who are hcnrfittrd by speculating in nor stocks to the
citent of any factitious cause which keep* them down in
tho market below their intrinsic value. It drives our
state bonds out of the stale, because they are held to
greater advantage elsewhere than at home, by the amount
of the till and by the greater amount to which it affects
the credit of the bonds.
2d. I recommend that the commissioners he reqnlr
ed iu all cases to invest tho sinking bind in our bonds at
par. That is in the true sense and spirit of the constitution
al provision of the fund. It contemplated that the hoods
should never he sold Mow par hy the Htate, should be I
redeemed in a limited period of time, and that was with
the view of hsvnig them always honored at par. When
ever the Htate is seen, hy its officers, In tha market sha
ving its own bonds for its own investments, it cannot
hut injuriously affect their credit. The fact of a per
petually Operating sinking fund always redeeming them
and always investing in them at par, would tend more
than any other intrinsic cause could, to keep them at
par. let tho motto of Htate credit bo: Wo will not sell
nor pay our bonds at less than par, and we will not buy
because w# cannot sell at bias. And this policy is not
only the I»est, because most moral snd honest, hut It Is
the tnovt profitable in dollara snd cents ton. For :
3d. The cost of keeping bonds below par is incalcula
ble. Those opposed to public improvements and to ap
p-opriatious for them, are short sighted in resisting them
hr this mode of keeping down our liot.ds in the market.
They embarrass appropriations by depreciating oor cred
it ; and if appropriations are made, their app'leation is
embarrassed or prevented hy ths Inability, aa they imag
ine, of selling bonds below par. Hut the bonds are issu
ed to ths companies st par They are immediately sold
at a discount, ths appropvi itiona are diminished so much,
and the contracts on the works raised so mnch snd more
hr the operation. Thi« cost and loss snd risk at last all
falls npo i the state, snd is far greater than the diarotmt
on the bonds. Ami
4 th. I earnestly ssk the legislators to provide hy gen
eral law againat the failure to pay Interest punctually on
one guaranteed bonds. The bonds of the state at one
period the present year went tip above 99 in New York,
snd so cominned until shoot $S7,oo0enly of the Interest
due on the guaranteed bonds of the James river and
Kanawha company fell due in Julv, and failed to be paid.
The last general assembly had made provision np to that
day only ; and though there was plenty of money in the
treasury, there was ne authority of law In any functiona
ry to pay this intevsst. thif hoods sank immediately to
*«, and sines to 98 in ths market I recommend that
authority bo given the siscutlve to pay the Intereat on
them aa It may happen to (all dan
•th. I rNMirnl that l> fetor*. so far .lit can be
don* consistently with existing engagement*. the Interrat
due upon our autu bonds and all debt* be paid at our
own treasury in Richmond, a ad not eta* • here *
Sth. That the mod* and rat* of bortvviug moorr and
WKurtttoa by Joint atoch tompanie*, be prek
cribrf and regulated hy law so aa to conform bettor 10
tb# con«*rv*noti of rr«d)L
7th. That the rate of legal interest ba not changed and
that the nsurr laws, ba uot relaxed. The ban kata' and
broken sod money changers and capitalists in New York
may clamor for the abolition of usury law* fee the ob
vious reaaou that they have the centre of trade, to whieh
the Bow or moury teuda, vnd the money there la the mou
ey lent; but the provincial people and the btatos are the
borrower*. 1 ruler to my last mt-mag* ou this autuect.
The Imnd* hypothecated in the hands of J. T. Sootier
in New York, and the aelUeiueuI with hiiu, are fully ac
counted Toe hy the coinmiaaionei* and the report of the
attorney general, hereto appended. I recommend a care
ful review and understanding of that autuevt, with n view
to an enquiry by the legislature, as to the beet mode of
preventing such cams in future.
Outstanding Busting debt In 1867, on ac
count oi tiukfng laud, of troasury note*
outstanding lat October, IHS?, on ac
count ol interest due Mterary Kcad, on
account of lutrrest ou bonds of J sine*
Kiver and Kanawha Company, and capi
tation tax of 1838, • • . • j 283,466 61
Actually paid up to 1st October, 1849,. '930)564 71
Leaving a balance then outstanding of 831 pol 80
Hy aniouut of balance in trwaaury that
d»y.. 66,888 53
Actual Boating debt, ... $263,018 33
Showing a Boating debt paid, and cash in
hand since 1st October, 1857, - 1,017,458 16
IVrinatient debt paid and invested by Sin
king F und since 1852, - - . 2,343,500 20
Leaving the funded debt now, . 29 10*1039 43
Floating debt,.266)o|3 33
Total liabilities of State, - . $29,371,678 78
Besides thus sinking the permanent and
paying the Boatiug debt, there has been
added to the investment of the Literarv
fund (be sum of .... $19173)80
Ou the 1st of October 1837, It was - 1,611)758 37
And 011 tbe lit of October 1839, it was 1,833)490 17
Making the above increase of $191,73180
And, in addition to this, the public works
have yielded, the last two years, an in
crease of surplus reveuuo of $222 0o<> 00
Thus: 1833-36, : . 168,000 00
1836- 57, - • 130,000 O0
228.000 00
1837- 38, . . 170,000 INI
, 1838-39, - - 420,000 00
$590,000 00
Showing an increase of the last over the
previous year of .... $260,Ota) 00
These fact* are encouraging, and show that our debt*
are diminishing, and our mcaus and sources of credit are
increasing.
If no cause of depression in trade occurs, we may rea
sonably assure ourselves of tho fruits of past expendi
tures for the future, and Calculate that, with care and
goon management, mey will yield a steady annual in
crease.
aiinncaars KSTmaTtn aicmrrs ub cHaaon.
Balance iu treasury (Commonwealth proper),
on the I at of October, 183y, . 104,013 36
Estimated .receipts for fiscal year 1889-60, 3,77l|oti8 96
„ 8,878,082 St
Disbursement* for Gscal year 1839-60, 8,660,239 13
Estimated surplus 1st October 1860, 211.843 17
Estimated receipts for 1860-61, 8,785.762 96
Total receipts for 1860-61, 4,000 606 13
Estimated charges lor 1860-61, 8,li>6’4»a 31
Surplus ou 1st October, 1861, 6894,162 82
The above includes estimate for James river and Ka
nawha interest lor both years, end 610.000 lor support
of Trans-Allegheny lunatic asylum for 1861; but does not
include estimates lor coostructioo of the asylum, nor in
creased expenditures for defence of our border*.'
But the average annual surplus for tho two current
Gscal yva-s is §447,026.41. This enables the payment of
a 7 per cent, interest ou Hvo millions of dollars, and
leaves a margin boai.les of 627,026.41 per annum.
I announce to you, then, in view or this statement, that
you may ealcly appropriate jive million* of dollars to the
public works, and add that amount lo tho public debt
without impairing public credit. I refer you to the ac
companying ayuopsis, prepared by tho first auditor.
This brings us to our
rcnLir Works.
We have seen how much wo cau venture to expend at
once on our improvements. We bare but to review them
as they now stand, to see their relative importance. Tl o
great argument for them all is, that they aro indispensa
ble to build up for us a rtntrr of tnuU . aud for tbo val
ue and effect of that 1 must relcr you lo my message to
the last general assembly.
1 repeat, that the most important line of the state is the
James river and Kanawha canal. It should uot be left
whore it is any longer. On the 11th Feb’y, 1S8C, 1 re
ported that this great work was left "without funds’ with
out credit, hound by a mortgage, aud resting iu whole
weight on tbo arm of the state." Since then uothiug has
been done but lo appropriate the sums sufficient to meet
the interest due ou IU debts up to 1st July last; and then
the appropriations failed, and the state failed to pay iLs
interest on guaranteed bond*. This affected the suiu
credit more injuriously Ilian it did that of tbo canal. I
ask for an immediate appropriation of tbia iutereel, and
for a permanent provision lor it in future. For tho’rca -
sons given in my message of 1836, I repeat the recoin
■adulation thru made, ' that the capital stock of the com
pany shall be increased to the amount of hn.issi shares,
of which the state shall take 60,00)1 in payment of her
debt and liabilities due by the causl, ami the remaining
20,000 shall lie sold, il practicable, to private persons,
thus commuting the debt ami liability of the sutc into
slock of the company.” This will complete tho canal lo
Coviugton. nml when the Covington and Ohio railroad
is completed, the revenue, it is supposed, will pay the in
ti rest on the whole investment.
Beside* the couucctiou of this work withe Kanawha,
il lias another connection, which embraces one of the
grandest developments of our Sute. Tho continental
water shed cast of the Audes is from north to south.__
The only exception, remarkably, is chietly in the western
pari of Virginia's territory. The New river rises far
south in North Carolina, and passing our line,runs north
east lo Montgomejy, ami thouco west or north, cula
through tho whole range of the Alleghany mountain.*,
and run* north to tho month of the tlauley , thence
northwest to the Kanawha. It is one of the most re
makablc water passage* in the world, and full of devel
opment in every respect. Opposite ile junction with the
Kanawha, eastward, the heads ol the Jfonongahela rise
and run northward to I’ittsburg. Thus Virginia alouo
has waters, for hurdred* ol miles, runuing from South
to north, contrary to the general How of water*. There
i* great power iu this peculiarity of formation, and time
will show that it is one or the element* of our
future progress ami gieatuese in wealth. It in
vites Virginia, by all m- ai.a, to connect the James aud
the New rivers first, aud the James anil the Monongshela,
il practicable, alterwards. I believe that the connection
with New river is nraeticable. and servers nuviit in I...
ordered for it. hooking to this, and secondarily to test
lh<- present Ite-aliou of the Junes river canal across the
Alleghany ridge, I ordered a small rcrotmoisance out of
the contingent fund the past summer. The 1’rosident
•»nd engineer of the canal gave me every facility and as
sistance, and I was further aided by Col. Smith of the in
stitute with a corps of its graduate. The report of Kn
gineer i<orvaiiie will be submitted to yon. I trust the
genernl assembly will by a liberal appropriation edible
the institute to purchase a complete act of topographical
instruments, ami to organise a corn# of civil engineers for
survey* generally, and especially for ascertaining the bast
inode ol connecting the James with Jfcw river, and o(
improving the navigation of the latter. I recommend to
your attention the full and able report of Col. P.UU on the
.■flairs of the James river and Kanawha company.
The next most important work is :
Thr Oorimjlon onH Ohio Hoilrood.
It ought to be completed in the shortest possible time.
To that end I recommend an appropriation of two mil
lion* per annum until the work is Hniahed to the Oldo.
Argument is idle on this policy.
The other works should be classified according to their
state of completion. The Charlottesville and l.ynrhhnrg
road is ncsrlT finished; ihe Norfolk and I’elersburg road
i« finishrd ■ the York river has reached the I’amunkey ;
the I *« ii v il l«* road will soon be connected with the works
of North Carolina. I pon the whole, then, I recommend
b>r I lie next two years, the following appropriation* ;
To the Covington and Ohio road, • . 4,000,1)00 00
To the Manassas gap road, . . 2oo,.hhi on
To the extension of the Daurille road, • tiin.OHO 00
To the ch-ariiigof James and Appomattox
river#, .... 150,000 00
To all other works, as it may he distributed, 430,000 oo
Total recommended, $5,oOO,0oo 00
And by all mean* I urge tho charter to construct the
railroad from Htrausbnrg to Winchester.
And the Harper's Kerry branch of tho Manassas rail
road (the fxmdoun branch.) diverging from the main
etem *1 mile* from Alexandria, and 4* miles only in
length, upon which $180,000 has been expended, ought
to be constructed, to give n* access to the northern bor
der on our own territory.
The Isle transportation of troop* from every point to
Charlestown and Harper's Kerry and back, required that
we should pass through the District of Columbia and Ma
ryland, for the want of 18 miles of rood, which the people
hero petitioned in vain to tie allowed to construct at their
own expense. It la positively necessary to the state if
this border war continues, or ever be renewed. The
way* are absolutely necessary for defence.
aiviaoe.
It i* worse than idle to urge the collection of revenue
In specie. The banka and brokers would make a profit
and the people he oppressed by it, even if it was practi
cable at all. but It Is entirely impracticable. The
federal government can collect In specie beet'we
it haa the power of levying duties upon foreign
commerce, and can thereby control com by other mean*
tlisn ita mini. Hut the Htate haa no customs and no
mint. The collection Is safe through the batiks' cireula
lion, and the coavenienoe of the tat payers i* the most
materiel consideration of taxation and ravens*.
I do not recommend any reduction,of taxes, but a re
arrxngement of taxes, especially on merchant*' license*.
The small dealers with retailer* are now mail* to pay
higher taxe* than the wealthier who are able to lum haae
by wholesale from the large merchants or the otataw; for
the tai upon merchant* I* but a tax upon their easte
rner*, the ooMamen. The proportion of tat apoo trade
li Mo large far Mr the Mi eo Weds.
ru mod* of uwwm.1 la unequal and un
ju«t, and tempting to pe Jure and fried. Tbare ought
to lx •worn appraisers. A better system of assessment
• ill increase levsnuc without increasing tha rate of
lasso.
And 1 repeat my recommendations more rernstly tbsa
ever of increasing the revenue by e tax upon the oyster
trade; and Xd, by policies of insurance by tbe Stale.
Since tbe last adjournment of tha legislature, I bare
caused authentic statistics to be obtained by tha Inspec
tor-in-chlrf of vcearla uuder tbe lav to protect propeily
lu slaves. Tbe reports on tbe subject will prove that
my flrvt estimates were not too large, and that at least
live millions of dollars worth of oysters are taken from
tbe Slate per annum, cbietiy by Northern remain. Tbe
packing and pickliug of oystare la becoming e large bw
eiueae, and our policy of taxing tbs cwluhing and trading
lu oysters would turn tbe profits which now flow into tbe
C-keta of non resident*, many of whom are dangerous
our property in slaves and to our peace, Into thopork
ota of our own citiisna. Now wo gat tbs price only of
catching the wild seed oysters, sod than wo wqtrid get
the price and profits of catching, planting, packing, pick
ling, and of ail tha Incidental occupation* of carrying
to marks! and of tho other business connected with tbo »
trade. Tho MB proposed by the committee of tho last
legislature is very def.-cUve, and ueads revtaal and cor
rectloa. The revenue from oyster* can’t bo collected
without at least three steamers coetleg about |ll,uOu
each, and >5,000 a piece per annum to run thorn. They
may lie made invaluable to aid the lasoeotioo of res-rlt
to prevent the running off our si. “ Undm . p^r
tilll, with good management, I am coufldeut that a net
revenue of >*50,000 per annum can be realised, besides
otherwise materially benefiting the Ruts and our owa
people.
awura.
No oonaiderehl<*niouitl of taxation la now raised from
the tea ou insurance offices. I cannot eutcr into dataifc
lure on this adbject, hut refer to my previous tneassgrs
lu February IB6* and in December 1857. If a border
war continue* as in Jefferson county lately, the necoasity
of insurance against tire by tbe state may he made too
manilest. And this source of revenue is much more fruit
ful and more easily regulated than that of oysters. Proper
bUli. efficiently executed, on these two subjects would
yield s revenue equal to 7 per cent, on ten million of do!
Lira; and if passed and pul into operation, would mako
our present public debt a light burden, and tbe oompleUoo
of all our public works sure very soon. Our bond* would
immediately command a high premium in the market.— *
I beg the earnest attention of the general amemblv to
this subject. 1
UANKS.
Intimately connected with our finances, our credit
revcuue and public works, are our baukiug institutions’
I have not had tha opportunity to analyse and generalise
the statistics of our banks, and to compare their condi
tion with what it was in 1857-68, as I elaborated tho
subject in my last regular message; but tbs general as
■M-mbly I invoke to do this work by a cetumittee oi its
own. 1 have shoe u:
I*L That tbe capital employed in trade flows to the
centre* of trade.
Sd. That it flows thero in spite.of what U catted “tk*
kat.nu* of trad*"
•d.Thala balance of trade in favor of states produ
cing the raw materials against the commercial centre*
instead of being a strength, is a weakness in lime* of a
money pressure or crisis.
■Ilh. That the best defence a state or people can have
against the tax of paying txekaupt to centres all around
them, sud against the danger and dismay of having their
surplus or balance of trade caught uuder the dead fall of
--- wvto.uv VI lunr nirnrui, if to but id
up ''"tree of trade for themeetve* uith.n their ome limit*,
6» huehanding their eredit, and eonetrueling uorit of
improvement. J
ftlh. Thai wc ought not to attempt to draw capital
from other states or sections, by raising the rate of inte
rest on money.
The stale bauks are necessary auxiliaries of this policy
snd ought to be chartered cautiously, and kept souud
beyond suspicion. 1 he legislature must look to the char
ters; aud the executive and bauk officers to the adminis
tration after the bauks are put into operation.
Charter* have not been sufficiently guarded. The lata
case of'he Hank of Weston is s lamentable illustration ot
this. The full report of this instance of abuao is here
with submitted. It was owing entirely to tho provision
of the set of March, 28, 1858,which, sec. 4th.excepted the
7th section of ch. 58 of the Code—a section which pro
vides the preliminary arrangements for putting a bank
into operation. Freed from this section, and no duly im
posed upon the treasurer such as that imposed by this
section on the Governor, this fraud was |>crpctratod
which put into circulation someone hundred thousand ot
notes, without at any timo Having in reality ona thous
aud dollars in cum-ut coin. It U due to tho directors to
aay, that they brought the wrong to the attention of tha
executive, and caused it to he arrested. The treasurer
very rationally explains his part in the transaction. Hut
some or two of the parties to it, in my opinion, were
feloniously guilty, aud ought to ho prosecuted to the ex
tern ol the law I ask an investigation of this case, with
a View more especially to a review of all the special'char
ters, and making them conform to a general and uniform
law ; and I call your especial attention to the accompa
tiying list of banks which have been chartered and may
go into operation if the acts are not repealed. Tbo num
ber ol' those now in operation ought to ho reduced, and
I hope that no more charters will bo granted until the
number of hanks is considerably diminished.
Tho crisis ol 1857 was characterised by two most sig
nificant snd suggestive fsets:
1st. Trices did not (all; aud
2d. Debtors were not compelled to psv off their debts
Ku-prnsion and resumption of specie pxymeuts look
place, snd iho condition of debit aud credit and price
remained the same during and after as hoforo tho crisis.
This non-settlement of debts st home, and easy escape
from the ombarraasment of the times, were aided in a.
great measure by the sudden arrestofimportations. The
value of imports fell from 350 miliums to 240 millions in<
one year, aud thoa the home trade was relieved and the
homo debtors were indulged. Hut, tho next year tha
importations increased again to about what they wero
belorc suspension, aud an extension is now going on at
the expense of our specie ; and, another crash of credit
may be looked for, unless there lie rrenter vigilance aud
caution. We have need now to contract instead of ex
panding ; and that is inv advice to the banks snd to in
dividuals.
I unhesitatingly recommend the repeal of the act pass
ed April 2d, 1858, entitled “an act providing for a moro
uniform currency of the batiks of the state.” It is wrong
in principle snd ill practice:
1st. It disparages all the notes of hrsnch hsnks re
deemable at the parent hanks, and all the notes of inde
pendent hanks redeemable at agencies, one-fourth of one
per cent, below par. Tho law should allow of tto redemp
tion b-low par, and make all notes payable in specie on
demand, wherever payable at all.
2nd. It makes the noteholder tha creditor, pay to tha
hank, the debtor, a discount for redeeming its own
notes.
3d. It prorinciaiizea our people, in a degrading sense,
by sending them in certain aud frequent cases to Balti
more, out of our jurisdiction, Slid makes thsm pay thu
expense of going there,and a discount after getting thero,
where our laws ran hare no aanrtion whatever for the en
forcement of legs! remedies, for the collection of debts
and promises to pay at home, which the laws had made
redeemable at par in specie.
4lh. It makes onr people forfeit remedies nt home, un
der the ISth seeliott of the 68th chapter of tbo Code, if
they do not, in certain rases, go elsewhere than where
bank notes arc payable, and out of the state, to redeem
them st their own cost.
There is but one section of this law, the 7th perhapi,
whioh is not sn intolerable eril. Practically, It has bceti
disappointed in its intended effect, in erery instance —
It Km marls* (lias Kr*n»k..s man A _I a a a •
able to redeem at their own counter*, without at all pro
portionately strengthening the parent banke and agao
t-iee to redeem. In moat cues, the brauchea and inde
pendent banka haro not sent the specie to parent banka
and agencies to meet the redemption of their note* ; aud
the redemption being compulsory there, the parent bank*
»nd agencies bars liccn ronipeltod to restrict the accom
niodationa in their own localities. Thi* law ha* operated
stringently at Richmond, without drawing apeci* to tho
centre, •* wt* eiperted.
.4th. It is a law lor the benefit of broker* alone. If drawn
by broker* for the prnmotion of their huaincM.it could not
hare operated more selfishly Tor them. To illustrate :
Take the operation* of the Northwestern Itank, for ei
ample, at Wheeling. The art operate* ouly to aid bro
kets in returning the note* of that bank, which I take aa
the instance, because it ha* ever been one of th* sound
>st in the state. This h*« been done, I am in formed, to
a disastrous and crippling extent. The manufacturers of
Wheeling are compelled to sell their articles, in confor
mity with Pittsburg, their rival, on a credit of aiz
month*. These sales sre made to per* on* living In Ken
tucky, Indiana, Missouri, Illinois, Ohio, and all the wes
tern states. The manufacturers draw upon the persons
to whom they sell, at oil months, and must have their
b tls discounted. Th# rhief business of the Northwestern
Ilenk ha* hern the discount of these bills, which Is orw
fur the eiialence of the manufacturers. When tho
bsnk discount* such bill*, they are sent to a friendly bank
near the residence of the party npon whom the bill* are
drawn. They ere then paid in the hank notes or currency
of that locality, and put to the credit of the Northwea
tern H»nk at Wheeling. I'nder this law, by tho 5lh •ec
ho". that hank cannot draw for these fund* except by a
check in coin. The roosciiuence is, that no bank will
collect these hill* for the Wheeling torik in currency or
betik noted, end he Held* for s check In roln. Thi# com
pel* the Wheeling bank to avoid them hills, and the man
ufarturer* have to sell them to broker* at a heavy din
count. Section f.th h** the same effect.
Oth. The eutire hill in effect make* the noteholder take
draft* instead of specie, «nd make* him pny fbr R too;
and it in demonstrable that specie certificate* are no bet
ter than nothing in a crisi*, rot they Weaken tho decurily
for redemption. 7
lle.ide* repealing thi* law, other amendmende of bank
ing taw* ought to he adopted. *
let More power ought to be given to theexeeutlve to
enforce compliance with th« law* by the hank* Now
the sole Miiction by the governor kt to prevent the re
eelpt of note* for revenue, sml then only In cane of »u»
penMon There ought to lie a eummary mode of com
pellmg the hank* to keep within the limit* of th* rel*
tion of sperle and circulation, and to restrict the total
amount of liabilities to Hi* legal standard, whatever It
mftf b#.
itd. The State Mock* in the hank* ought not to he
eold ; hot Whether separated from the Hut* or not a
control, and greater than present control, ought to be
lissM owe^r the-m hy the Oovernor.nd KlrM Auditor
,1Vr* not to he two .y.tern* of banking In
the Rtatc ; ,„d each corporation ought to be ledepen
and hand no branch**. n
4th. The circulation ought never to exceed doubt*
the .mount of oapttsl, nor three time, the amount of
apccK*.
5th. The hank* should be aummertly compelled to •«.
deem wW their Usuce In rpecie, and to register nil their
note* Issued in some government office end to iasna no
not* under Un dollart, *
k>Wui .Md *• "••tr# deposit* of

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