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Staunton spectator. [volume] (Staunton, Va.) 1849-1896, December 27, 1849, Image 1

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Jo37*S™D»iS£?miAj’ \ Ecllt°r9 P,01,liet«rS- ‘ CONST A NS ET LENIS, UT RES EXPOSTULET, ESTO. r Published Weekly- Auuua,.
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The protracted contest for Speaker of the House
of Representatives was brought to a close on Satur- J
day evening, by the election of tho Hon. Howell
Cobb, of Georgia, tho Democratic candidate. On
Saturday afternoon, after a silting during which
much confusion prevailed, the House passed a reso
lution offered by Mr. Stanton, of Tennessee, provi
ding that after balloting, rt’p« rocc three times with
out a majority of the votes of the whole house being
given toanv member,the House shall then proceed t0
ballot again, and on any such succeeding ballot tho
Member receiving !ho largest number of votes, if
they be a majority of a quorum, shall be declared
elected. 1’assed by yets 113, nays 100. Tho House
then proceeded to ballot, with the following results:
Winthrop. Cobb.
1st ballot 90 75
2d “ 93 90
3d “ 97 97
The resolution referred to above now became op
erative, and on the 4th ballot the vote stood for
Winthrop 100; for Cobb 102. One of the tellers
then declared the Hon. Howell Cobb, of Georgia, to
be elected. Mr. Stanly then offered a resolution de
claring Mr. Cobb to be Speaker, which was adopted.
The Clerk requested Messrs. Winthrop and Mc
Dowell to conduct the Speaker elect to the chair,
which was done amid profound silence and great
sensation, when he addressed the House as follows: i
Gentlemen of the Ilcusc of Representatives :
It would be useless to disguise the fact that I fee! ,
deeply embarrassed in taking ihe Chair under the
r*irniimctnnr>nc nllntiflintr »»iv r>lni>tinn
I am conscious of the ilillicullies by which this po
sition is surrounded at tho present time.
Tho peculiar organization of this body, as exhib
ited in our proceedings since we first met—the na
ture and character of tho various important and ex
citing questions of public policy which will engage
our attention during the present session of Congress
—conspire to render the duties of the office peculiar
ly embarrassing, onerous, and responsible. I may
be permitted, therefore, to ask in advance your gen
erous aid and support in the effort I shall make firm
ly .faithfully, and impartially to discharge its duties.
The country has boon looking with anxiety to our
efforts to effect an organization—the people will con
tinue to regard with intense interest every step we
tako in our legislative course. Our duties will be
laborious—our responsibilities great. Let us then,
in view of these considerations, invoke in tho dis
charge of these a patriotism as broad as the Union,
and as comprehensive as the nature and character of
her various interests and institutions. Guided by
this spirit, under the blessings of Heaven, our ac
tion will result in the continued prosperity of our
common country.
Accept, gentUmen.my grateful acknowledgments
for the honor you have conferred on mo in selecting
me as your presiding olficer during the present
The Hon. Linn Boyd, the senior member, ad
ministered the oath of offico to the Speaker,and the
House adjourned till Monday.
Monday, December 24th.
In the Senate.— A message was received from
the House informing the Senate of its organization,
and a committee was appointed on the part of the
Senate to wait on the President, in conjunction with
a similar committee from the House to inform him
that they were ready to receive any communication
from him.
Mr. Dickinson presented a memorial asking aid
for Whitney’s road.
Mr. Cass offered a resolution, which he would
oall up after the holydays, declaring it expedient to
suspend diplomatic intercourse with Austria.
Mr. Foote gave notice that he would ask leave to
introduce a bill to provide for the organization of the
territorial government of California, Deseret and
Now Mexico; to enable the peopla of California and
the District of Jacinto, in Texas, with the consent
of that state, resjiectively, to form a Constitution
and State government.
At a quarter before 2 o’clock the annual message
was received from the President of the U. States,
by tho hands of Col. Bliss, his private Secretary,
and was read from the Clerk’s table.
The House metat 12o’clock, and the Journal of
Saturday being read, the members presented them
selves by delegations at the Speaker’s chair, when
the tisnal oath to support tl.e Constitution of the U
nited States was administered by the Speaker
—commencing first with the Representatives from
the State of Maine, and concluding with the dele
gates from Oregon and Minnesota.
The message from the President was presented
by Col. Bliss, and, after being read, 15,000 extra
copies were ordered to be printed, with the accom
panying documents. The House adjourned until
Fellow-citizens of the Senate
and House of Representatives:
Sixty years have elapsed since the establishment
of this Government, and the Congress of the Uni
tod States again assembles, to legislate for an em
pire of freemen. The predictions of evil prophets,
■who formerly pretended to foretell the downfall of
our institutions, are now remembered only to be de
rided, and the United Stales of America, at this
moment, present to the world the most stable and
permanent government on earth.
Such is the result of the lalxirs of those whohavc
gone before us. Upon Congress will eminently de
pend the future maintenance of our system of free
government, and the transmission of it, unimpaired,
to posterity.
We are at peace with all the world, and seek tc
maintain our cherished relations of amity with thr
rest of mankind. During the past year, we have
been blessed, by a kind Providence, with an abun
dinco of the fruits of the earth ; and, although the
destroying angel, for a time, visited extensive por
tions of our territory with tho ravages of a dreadfti
pestilence, yet, the Almighty nasal length deignci
to stay his hand, and to restore the inestimablebless
ing of general health to a people who have acknow
ledged his power, deprecated his wrath, and itn
plorcd his merciful protection.
While enjoying the benefits of amicable inter
course with foreign nations, we have not l»een in
sensible to the distractions and wars which havi
prevailed in other quarters of the world. It is i
proper theme of thanksgiving to Him who rules t.h
destinies of nations, that we have been able to main
tain, amidst all these contests, an independent am
neutral position towards all lielligerent powers.
Our relations with Great Britain are of the mo?
friendly character. In consequence of the recent al
teration of the British navigation acts, British vet
sels, from British and other foreign ports, will,(tin
der our existing laws,) after the first day of Janna
ry next, be admitted to entry in our ports, with cat
goes of the grow th, manufacture, or production <
any part of the world, on the same terms, ns to dtj
ties, imposts, and charges, as vessols of the Unite
States with their cargoes; and our vessels will b
admitted to the sameadvautages in British ports.en
tering therein on tlte same terms as British vessels.
{Should no order in council disturb this legislative
arrangement, the late act of the British Parliament,
by which great Britain is brought within the terms
promised by the act of Congress of the 1st of March,
1817. it is hoped, will bo productive of benotit to
both countries.
A slight interruption of diplomatic intercourse,
which occurred lw>tween this Government and
France, 1 am happy to say, has been terminated,:
and our Minister there has beon received. It is!
therefore unnecessary to refer, now, to the cireiun- j
stances which led to that interruption. I need not
express to you the sincere satisfaction with which
we shall welcome the arrival of another Envoy Ex
traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary Iromasis
ler republic, to which we have so long been, and
still remain, bound by the strongest ties of amity.
Shortly after 1 had entered upon the discharge of
the Executive duties, I was apprized that a war
stpamer, belonging to the German Empire, was be- *
ing fitted out in tho harbor ot New York, with the !
aid of some of our naval officers, rendered under tho !
permission cT the late .Secretary of tho Navy. 'Plus
permission was granted during an armistice between
that Empire and the Kingdom of Denmark, which
had been engaged in the Schleswig-Molston war.
Apprehensive that this act of intervention, on our
part, might lie viewed as a violation of our neutral
obligations incurred by the treaty of Denmark, and
of tlie provisions of the act of Congress of the iJOth
of April, 1818, I directed that no furlheraid should
be rendered by any agent or officer of the Navy ;
and I instructed the {Secretary of State to apprize
the Minister of tho German Empire accredited to
to this Government, of my determination to execute
the law of the United States, and to maintain the
faith of treaties with all nations. The correspon
dence, which ensued between tho Department of
State and the Minister of the German Empire, is
herewith laid before you. The execution of the law
and the observance of the treaty wero deemed by
me to be due the honor of the country, as well as to
the encred obligations of the Constitution. I shall
not Tail to pursno fhe same course, should a similar
case arise with any other nation. Having avowed
the opinion, on taking the oath of office, that, in dis
putes between conflicting foreign governments, it is
j our interest, not less than our duty, to remain strict
ly neutral, I shall not abandon it. You will por
[ ceive from the correspondence submitted to you, in
i connexion with this subject, that the course adopted
j in this caso has been properly regarded by the bel
I ligerent powers interested in the matter.
Although a Minister of the United States to the
I German Empire was appointed by my predecessor
j in August, 18-18, and has, for a long time, been in
I akTiiuiiiivD * laiiiuwa-UM-ll.U-iMtUlU! ; HI1U .IllIH)
a Minister appointed to represent tliat empire, was
received and accredited here, yet no such Govern
ment as that of the German Umpire has been defi
nitely constituted. Mr. Donelson, oor representa
tive at Frankfort, remained there several months,
in the expectation that a union of the German
States, under one constitution or form of govern
ment, might, at length, be organised. It is believ
ed, by those well acquainted with the existing rela
tions between Prussia and the States of German}',
that no such union can be permanently established
without her co operation. In the event of the for
mation of such a union, and the organization of a cen
< tra] power in Germany, of which she should form a
part, it would become necessary to withdraw our
Minister to Berlin ; but while Prussia exists as an
inde|>endcnt kingdom, and diplomatic relations are
maintained with hpr, there can be no necessity for
the continuance of the mission to Frankfort. I have,
therefore, recalled Mr. Donelson, and directed the
archives of the legation, at Frankfort, to be trans
ferred to the American legation at Berlin.
Having been apprized that a considerable num
ber of adventurers were engaged in fitting out a
military expedition, within the United States, a
gainst a foreign country, and believing, from the
best information that I could obtain, that it was de
stined to invado the Island of Cuba, I deemed it due
to the friendly relations existing between the Uni
ted States and Spain; to the treaty between the tw'o
nations ; to the laws of the United States, and, a
bove all, to the American honor, to exert the law
ful authority of this government in suppressing the
expedition ami preventing the invasion. To this
end, I issued a proclamation, enjoining it upon tlie
officers of the United States, civil and military, to
use all lawful means within their power. A copy
of that proclamation is herewith submitted. The
, expedition has been suppressed. So long as the .act
i of Congress, of the20th of April, ISIS, which owes
' its existence to the law of nations and to the policy
; of Washington himself, shall remain on our sla» *<<?
■ bonk. I hold it to he the duty of the Ev«!Utive
| faithfully to obey its injunctions.
While this expedition was in progress, I was in
i formed that a foreigner, who claimed our protection,
’ bad been clandestinely, and. as was supposed, for
: cibly, carried oft* in a vessel from New Orleans to
1 the Island of Cuba. 1 immediately caused such
J steps to he taken as I thought necessary, in case the
information I had received should prove correct, to
vindicate the honor of the country, and the right of
every person seeking an asylum on our soil to the
protection of our laws. The person alleged to have
been abducted was promptly restored, ami the cir
cumstances of the case arc about to undergo investi
gation before a judicial tribunal. 1 would respect
fully suggest, that although the crime charged to
havn been committed in this case is held odious as
, being in conflict with our opinions on the subject of
national sovereignty and personal freedom, there is
no prohibition of it, or punishment for it, provided
I in any act of Congress. The expediency of snp
l plying this defect in our criminal code is therefore
! recommended to your consideration.
I have scrupulously avoided any interference in
the wars and contentions which have recently dis
tracted Europo,
During the late conflict between Austria and
Hungary, there scorned to be a prospect that tin
latter might become an independent nation. How
ever faint that prospect at the time appeared, I tho’
it my duly, in accordance with the genera! senti
ment of the American people, who deeply sympa
thized with the Magyar patriots, to stand prepared
! upon the contingency of the establishment by her o
I a permanent government, to be the first to welcomi
! independent Hungary into tho family of nations.—
j Eor this purpose, I invested an agc.it, thou in Eu
j rope, with power todeclare our willingness prompt
: ly to recognize her independence in the event of he
' ability to sustain it. The powerful intervention e
j Russia, in tho contest, extinguished the hopes c
! the struggling Magyars. The United States dii
I not, at any time, interfere in the contest; but th
I feelings of the nation were strongly enlisted in th
- j cause, and by the sufferings of a brave people, wh
i had made a gallant though unsuccessful effort to b
i free.
5! Otis claims upon Portugal have liccn, during th
| past year, prosecuted with renewed vigor, and i
I has be n my object to employ every effort of honoi
, aide diplomacy to procure their adjustment. On
t late Charge d’ Affaires, at Lisbon, ihe Hon. (»e*
- | W. Hopkins, made able and energetic, but unsur
- cessful efforts to settle these unpleasant matters r
' controversy, and to obtain indemnity for the wrong
- which were the subjects of complaint. Our preset
- Charge d’ Affaires at that court will, also, bring t
f the prosecution of these claims ability and sseal.
• 1 The revolutionary and distracted condition of Pol
I toga I, in f»sl times, has been represented as one <
c > tbs lending causes of her deliy in indemnifying oi
Buffering citizens. But I must now say, it is mat
ter of profound regret that these claims have not yet
been settled. The omission of Portugal to do jus
tice to the American claimants has now assumed a
character so grave and serious, that I shall shortly
make it the subject of a special message to Con
gress, with a view to such ultimate action as its
wisdom and patriotism may suggest.
With Russia, Austria, Prussia, Sweden, Den
mark, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the Italian
States, we still maintain our accustumed amicable 1
During the recent revolutions in the Papal States, •
our Charge d’ Affaires at Rome has been unable to ;
prcs?nt his letter of credence, which, indeed, he ,
was directed by my predecessor to withhold until
be should receive fuitber orders. Such was the '
unsettled condition of tilings in those Stales, that it
was not deemed expedient to givo him any iustruc
tions on thu subject of presenting bis credential let
ter different from those with which he had been
furnished hy the late administration, until the y.!»tli
of Juno last; when in consequence of tho mint of
accurate information of the exact slate of things, at i
that distance from us, he was instructed to exercise i
his own discretion in presenting himself to the then j
existing government, if, in his judgment, sufficient- !
ly stable ; or if not, to await further events. Since
that period, Rome has undergone another revolu
tion, and he abides the establishment of a govern
ment sufficiently permaincnt to justify him in open
ing diplomatic intercourse with it.
With the Republic of Mexico, it is our true pol
icy to cultivate the most friendly relations. Since
the ratification of the treaty of liuadalupe Hidalgo,
nothing has occurred of a serious character to dis
turb thorn. A faithful observance of the treaty, and
a sincere respect for her rights, cannot fail to se
cure the lasting confidence and friendship of that re
public. The message of my predecessor to the
House of Representatives, of ihe 8th of February'
last, communicating, in compliance with a resolu
tion of that body', a copy of a paper called a protocol
signed at Qucrelaro on the 30lh of May, 1848, by
the commissioners of the United Stales and the
minister of foreign affairs of the Mexican govern
ment, having been a subject of correspondence be
tween the Department of State and the Envoy Ex
traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of that re
public accredited to this government, a transcript of
that correspondence is herewith submitted.
The commissioner on the part of the U. States
for mar kino the houndarv between the two Renuh
lies, though delayed in reaching San Diego by un
foreseen obstacles, arrived at that place within a
short period after the time required by the treaty,
and was there joined by the commissioner on the
part of Mexico. They entered upon their duties ;
and, at the date of the latest intelligence from that
quarter, some progress had been made in the survey.
The expenses incident to the organization of the
commission, and to its conveyance to the point
where its operations were to begin, have so much
reduced the fund appropriated by Congress, that a
further sum, to cover the charges which must he
incurred during the present fiscal year, will
bo necessary. The groat length of frontier along
which the boundary extends, the nature of the ad
jacent territory, and tbe difficulty of obtaining sup
plies, except at or near tho extremes of the line,
render it abo indispensable tliat a liberal provision
should Ire made to meet the necessary charges dur
ing the fiscal year ending on the 30tbof June, 1851.
I accordingly recommend this sul'jecl to your atten
In the adjustment of the claims of American cit
izens on Mexico, provided for by the late treaty,
the employment of counsel, on the part of the gov^
ernment, may become important for the purer'*’ 01
assisting the commissioners in protecting ‘np ,n,Pr"
ests of the United States. I rtco'~“'enb l*M,s
jeet to tho earl}' and favorably consideration of Con
Complaints have been made in regard to the in
efficiency of the means provided by the government
of Now Grenada for transporting the United .Stales
mail across the isthmus of Panama, pursuant to our
postal convention with that republic, of the Glh of
.Mareh. 1841. Our charge d’ a CM res at Bogota lias
been directed to make such representations to the
government of New Grenada as will, it is hoped,
lead to a prompt remo,>nlof this cause of complaint.
The sanguinary c;,ril war with which the liepub
lic of Venzuela h*5 for some time past been ravaged,
has been hroup'1'1 *•> a close. In its progress the
rights ofsor»c of our citizens resident or trading there
have bre’ violated. The restoration of order will
afford 'be Venzuelan government an opportunity to
ex»<i'ine and redress these grievances and others of
I Amger standing which our representatives at Carac
cas have hitherto, ineffectually urged upor. the at
tention of that government.
Tho extension of the coast of the United States
on the Pacific, and tho unexampled rapidity with
which the inhabitants of California, especially, art;
increasing in numbers, have imparted new conse
quence to our relations with the other countries whose
{ lerriivrirc utiruer upon mat wnui.
It is probable that tho intercourse between these
j countries ana uur possesions in that quarter, parlic
: ularly with the republic of Chili, will become ex
1 tensive and mutually advantageous in proportion as
California and Oregon shall increase in population
j and wealth. It is desirable, therefore, that this
Government should do every thing in its power to
foster and strengthen its relations with those Stales
and that the spirit of amity between us should be
mutual and cordial.
I recommend tbe observance of tbe same course
towards all other American States. The United
.States stand as the great American power to which
as their natural ally and friend, they will always be
disposed, first, to look for mediation and assistance,
in the event of any collision between them and any
European nation. As such we may often kindly
mediate in their behalf, without entangling ourselves
in foreign wars or unnecessary controversies.—
Whenever the faith of our treaties with any of then
shall require our interference, we must necessarily
A convention has been negotiated with Brazil
providing for the satisfaction of American claims ni
. 1 that government, and it will lie submitted to tin
, | Senate. Since tbe last session of Congress, w<
f have received an Envoy Extraordinary andMinistc
. ! Plenipotentiary from that empire, and out relation
. j with it are founded upon the most amicable under
. i standing.
! Your attention is earnestly invited loan amend
r 1 merit of our existing laws relating to the Africai
f slave trade, with a view to the effectual suppressioi
f of that barbarous traffic. It is not to be denied, tha
1 this trade is stiii, in part, carried on by means c
, vessels built in the United States, and owned o
, navigated by some of our citizens. The corrrspon
9 | dence between the Department of State and th
Minister and Consul of the United Statcsnl Rio d
! Janerio, which has from time to time been laid be
r. fore Congress, represents that it is a customary dr
l vice to evade tbe penalties of nur laws by ineatis »
. ( sea-letters. Vessels sold in Brazil, when provide
r with such najicrs by tbe Consul, instead of rotnrr
. ing- to tlm United States fora new register, procee
. i at once, to the coast of Africa, for the purpose <
f obtaining cargoes of slaves. Much additional info
s mation of the same character, has recently bee
t transmitted to the Department of State. It h»sn<
9 been considered the policy of our laws to subject a
_ 1 American citizen, who, in a foreign country, pu
. | chases a vessel built in the United States, to the ii
if} convenience of sending her home for a new registi
r i before permitting her to proceed on a voyage. An
alteration ol’the laws, which might have a tenden- I
cy to iinpedo the free transfer of projrerty in ves- j
sels between our citizens, or the free navigation of
those vessel*-- hot ween different parts of the world,
when employed in lawful commerce, should be well
ami cautiously considered ; but I trust that your wis
dom will devise a method by which our general
|xdicy in this res|>ect, may he preserved, and at
the same time the abuse of our flag, by means of sea
letters, in the manner indicated, may ho prevon- j
Having ascertained that there is no prospect of i
the re-union of the five States of Central America, j
which formerly cuui|x>sed there public of that name, J
we have separately negotiated with some of them
treaties of amity and commerce, which will be laid I
before the Senate.
A contract having been concluded with the Slato I
of Nicaragua, by a company composed of American
citizens, for the purpose of constructing a ship canal
through the territory of that Stale, to connect the
Atlantic and Pacific oceans, I have directed the ne
gotiation of a treaty Willi Nicaragua, pledging both
governments to protect those who shall engage in
and perfect the work. All other nations are invited
by the State of Nicaragua to enter into the same
treaty stipulations with her; and the benefit to be
derived by each from such an arrangement, will he
the prutccliuti of this great inter-oceanic cniiitiiuni
cation against any jiowor which might seek to ob
struct it, or to iiiono|M*lize its advantages. All states
entering into such a treaty, will enjoy the right of
passage through the canal on payment of the same
The work, if constructed under these guaranties,
will become a bond of peace instead of a subject of
contention and strife, between the nations of the
earth. Should the groat maritime Slates of Kurope
consent to this arrangement,(and wo have no reason
to suppose that a proposition so fail and honorable
will he opposed by any,) the energiesofilieirpeople
and ours will co-o|»eiate in promoting the successof
the enterprise. 1 do not recommend any appropria
tion from the National treasury for this purpose,nor
do I believe that such ail appropriation is necessary.
Private enterprise, if properly protected, will com
plete the work, should it prove to be feasible. The
parties who have procured the charter from Nicara
gua, for its construction, desire no assistance from
this government beyond its protection, and they pro
fess that, having examined the proposed line of com
munication, they will be ready to commence the un
dertaking whenever that protection shall he extend
ed to them. Should there appear to bo reason, on
examining the whole evidence, to entertain a seri
ous doubt of the practicability of constructing such
a canal, that doubt could be speedily solved by an
I actual exploration of the route.
ShitiiM ctiol) u vinrl; lip onnctrnr*ti>rl nnilrr lltnritm.
moil protection of all nations,for equal benefits to all,
; it would be neither just nor expedient that any ma
| rititne State should command the communication,
j The territory through which the ranal may beopen
i ed ought to he freed from the claims of any foreign
1 power. No such power should occupy a position
j that would enable it hereafter to exercise so control
ling an influence over the commerce of the world,
or to obstruct a highway which ought to be dedicat
ed to the common uses of mankind.
Tho routes across the Isthmus, at Tehauntepec
and Panama, are also worthy of our serious consid
eration. They did not fail to engage the attention
of my predecessor. The negotiator ,!|o treatv of
; Gaudaioupe Hidalgo wan *Ҥyucted to oiler a very
j large sum of wonw /',r *^10 °* transit across
! the Isthmus ‘r -tehauntepec. 'I'he Mexican Gov
! Cr,„m.nKiui not accede to tho proposition for the
i1 purchase of the right of way, probably Itecause it
i had already contracted with private individuals for
| the construction of a passage from the Guasacualco
j river to Tehauntepec. 1 shall not renew any pro
position to purchase,for money, a right which ought
to be equally secured to all nations, on payment of a
reasonable toll to the owners of tho improvement,
who would doubtless, be well contented with that
compensation and the guarantees of the maritime
States of the worid, in separate treaties negotiated
with Mexico, binding her and them to protect those
who should construct the work. Such guarantees
would do more to secure the completion of the com
munication through the territory of Mexico, than a
ny other reasonable consideration that could be of
fered ; and as Mexico herself would be the greatest
gainer by the opening of this conimunica'ion between
the Gulf and the Pacific ocear. it is presumed that
she would not hesitate to yield her aid,in the manner
proposed, to accomplish an improvement so import
ant to her own best interests.
We have reason to hope that the proposed railroad
j across the Isthmus at Panama will be successfully
j constructed, under the protection of the late treaty
I with New Grenada, ratified and exchanged by my
; predecessor on the 10th day of June, 1818, which
j guaranties the perfect neutrality of the Isthmus, and
( tho rights of sovereignty and properly of New tiro
' nada over that territory,“with a view that the free
I transit from ocean to ocean inav not he interrunted
; or embarrassed” during the existence of the treaty
, It is our policy to encourage every practicable route
across the Isthmus which connects North and Soul I
America, either by railroad or canal, which the en
| ergy and enterprise of our citizens may induce then
to complete; and I consider it obligatory upon me t<
adopt that policy, especially in consequence of tin
absolute necessity of facilitating intercourso will
our possessions on the Pacific.
The jKJsiliou of the Sandwich Islands, with refer
ence to the territory of the United States on the Pa
cific; the successs of our presevering and benevolcn
citizens who have repaired to that remote quarter ii
| christianizing the natives and inducing them to ado;
j a system of government and laws suited to their c:i
! pacity and wants; ami the use made by our numei
I otis whale ships ofthe harbors of the islands as place
I of resort for obtaining refreshments and repairs, a
j combine to render their destiny peculiarly iuteres
I ing tous. It is our duly to encourage the author
, "es of those islands in their efforts to improve an
I elevate the moral and political condition of tho ii
J habitants ; and we should make reasonable allowai
, res for the difficulties inseparable from this las
' 1 We desire that the islands may maintain their ind
1 i pcndence, and that oilier nations should concur wii
• us in this sentiment. We could in no event lie ii
' | different to their passing under the dominion of ar
5 I other power. The principal commercial States ha'
I in this a common interest, and it is to ho hoped th
no one of them will attempt to interpose obstacl
- to the entire independence of the islands.
i The receipts into the treasury for the fiscal yc
i | ending on the thirtieth of June last were, in cas
t forty eight millions eight hundred and thirty tho
f, sand ninety-seven dollars and fifty cents, (48,83(
r , 097 50.) and in Treasury notes funded, ten milliu
- j eight hundred and thirty three thousand dollar
| (10,833,000,) making an aggregate of fifty-nine m
c . lions six hundred and sixty three thousand nine!
- i seven dollars and fifty cents. (59.663,097 50;) a
| the ex pend if u res, for the same time were, in cas
f forty-six millions seven hundred and nioety-ei”
1 | thousand six hundred and sixty-seven dollars a
- eighty two cents, ($4G,798,067 82,) and in Treat
d ; ry notes funded, ten millions eight hundred a
■f; thirty-three thousand dollars, ($10,833,000, nu
’ | ing an aggregate of fifty-3even millions six hundi
n and thirty-one thousand six hundred and sixty sev
>t ; dollars and eighty two cents, ($57,631,667 82.)
n | The accounts and estimates which will luj hi
r- milted to Congress in tho report of the 8ecretarj
i- : the Treasury, show that there will probably b
•r 1 deficit, occasioned by the expenses of the Mexif
y ! war and treaty, on tho first day of July next, off
millions eight hundred and twenty-eight thousand ! «
onu hundred and twenly-one dollars and sixty -six 1 ;
ceiils, (5.828,121 GO.) and on the first day of1;
July, 1&51, often millions five hundred and forty
seven thousand and ninety-two dollars and seventy- i
three cents, (10,547,092 73,) making in tho whole
a probable deficit, to be provided for, of sixteen mil
lions three hundred and seventy-five thousand two, :
hundred and fourteen dollars and thirty-nine cents,
(1G,375,214 39.)
Tho extraordinary expenses of tho war with Mex
ico, and the purchase of California ttiul New Mcxi- i
co, exceed in amount this deficit, together with the
loans heretofore made for those objects, i therefore !
recommend that authority be given to borrow what
ever sum may bo necessary to cover that deficit.—
1 recommend the observance of strict economy in
the appropriation and expenditure of tho public
I recommend a revision of the existing tariff, and |
its adjustment on a basis which may augment the
revenue. I do not doubt the right or duly of Coil- j
gress to encourago dutnco'.i'j indrfry which i* Jut
great source of national as well as individual wealth j j
and prosperity. I look to the wisdom and patriotism (
of Congress for the adoption of a system w hich may j |
place home labor, at last, on a sure and permanent • i
fooling, and. by dueencoitragcmcnt of manufactures, 1 i
give a new and increased stimulus to agriculture, i
and promote the development of our vast resources (
and tho extension ufour commerce. Believing that 1 \
to the attainment of these ends (as well as tho tie- j
cessary augmentation of the revenue and the pre- t
volition of frauds) a system of specific duties is best ■ j
adapted, I strongly recommend to Congress the a- ! ■
doption of that system, fixing the duties at rates i
high enough to afford substantial ami sufficient en- : f
couragement to our own industry, and at the same i
time so adjusted as to insure stability. i j
The question of the continuance of the Sub-treas
ury system is respectfully submitted to tho wisdom j
of Congress. If continued, important modifications 1 1
of it ap|icar to be indispensable.
For further details and views of the above, and ,
other matters connected with commerce, the fman- 1 1
ees, and revenue, I refer to the rejiort of the Secre
tary of the Treasury.
No direct aid has been given by the General Gov
ernment to the improvement of agriculture, except
by the expenditure of small sums for the collection
and. publication of agricultural statistics, and for
some chemical analyses, which have been thus far,
paid for out of the patent fund. This aid is. in mv
opinion, wholly inadequate. To give to this lead
ing branch ot American industry tho encourage
ment which it merits, 1 respectfully recommend the
establishment of an Agricultural Bureau, to be con
nected with the Department of tiic Interior. To
elevate the social condition of the agriculturist, to
increase Ids prosperity, and to extend his means of
usefulness to his counliy, by multiplying his sources
ot information, should be the study of every sales
man, and a primary' object with every legislator.
No civil government having been provided by
Congress for Calif irnia, the people of that Territory,
impelled by the necessities of their political condi
tion, recently met in convention, for the purpose of
forming a constitution and Stale government, which,
tho latest advices give me reason to suppose, has
been accomplished; and it is believed they will
shortly apply for the admission of California into
the Union, as a sovereign State. Should such be
the case, and should their constitution beconforma
tile to the requisitions oi im,
l nited States, 1 recommend their application to the
favorable consideration of Congress.
The people of New Mexico will also, it is be
lieved, at no very distant period, present themselves
for admission into the Union. Preparatory to the
admission of California and New Mexico, the peo
ple of each will have instituted for themselves a re
publican form ofgovennent,“laying its foundations
in such priciples, and organizing itu powers in such
form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect
their safety and happiness.”
By awaiting their action, all causes of uneasiness
may bo avoided, and confidence and kind feeling
preserved. \\ ith a view of maintaining the har
mony and tranquility so dear to all, wo should ab
stain from the introduction of those exciting topics
of a sectional character which have hitherto produc
ed painful apprehensions in tho public mind ; and 1
repeat the solemn warning of the first and most il
lustrious of mv predecessors against furnishing “any
ground for characterizing parlies by geographical
A‘ballector Ins been appointed at San Francisco,
under the act of Congress extending the revenue
Ia"'s ovi r California ;and measures have been tnktn
to organize the custom houses at that and the oilier
ports inentioned in that act, at the earliest period
practicable. The collector proceeded overland, and
advices have not yet been received of his arrival at
San Francisco. Meanwhile, it is understood that
the customs have continued to he collected there by
officers acting under the military authority, as they
were during the administration of mv predecessor.
It will, I think, he expedient to confirm the colloc.
lions thus made a-.id direct the avails (af;rr such
allowances as Congress may think fit to authorize)
to be expended within the Territory, or to be paid
i into the Tresnry, for the purpose of meeting appro
> priation3 for the improvement of its rivers and har
! bors.
i | A party engaged on the coast survey, was dcs
' patched to Oregon in January last. According to
- the latest advices, they had not left California : and
- directions have been given to them, as soon as they
t shall have fixed on the sites of the two light houses
r and the buoys authorised to bp constructed and
t placed in Oregon, to proceed without delay to make
- reconnoisanccs of the most important points on the
- coast of California, and especially to examine am!
s determine on sites for light-houses on that coast,
1 the speedy erection of which is urgently demanded
■- by our rapidly increasing commerce.
I have transferred the Indian Agencies from Up
d per Missouri and Council IllufTs to Santa Ft- awl
i- Salt Cake ; and have caused to be appointed sub
i- agents in the valleys of the Gila, the Sacramento
». and the San Joaquin rivers. Still further legal pro
*- visions will be necessary for the effective and sue
h ccseful extension of our system of Indian intercourse
l- 1 over the new Territories.
y I recommend the establishment of a branch min
rc in California, as it will, in my opinion, a fiord im
at portanl facilities to those engaged in mining, as wel
l’s as to the Government in the disposition of the ndn
i eral lands.
tr I also recommend that commissions he organize
It, i by Congress, to examine and decide upon the valid
u- iiy of the present subsisting land titles in California
*,- i and New Mexico ; and that provision be made fb
ns the establishment of offices of Purveyor Genera! ir
s, New Mexico, California, and Oregon, and for tin
il- surveying and bringing into market the public lamb
y- in those Territories. Those lands, remote in posi
ad tion and difficult of access, ought to be disposed o
h, on terms liberal to alt, but especially favorable i<
lil the early emigrants.
nd In order that the situation and ebar,actor of thr
u- principal mineral deposites in California may be as
id certained, I recommend that a geological and min
k cralogical exploration be connected with thelinoa
ed surveys, and that the mineral lands be divided inti
en small lots suitable for mining, and be disposed of, b;
sale or lease, so as to give our citizens an oportuni
ib ly of procuring a j*rmauent right of property i
of the soil. This would seem to be as important I
; a the success of mining as of agricultural pursuits,
an The great mineral wealth of California, and th
vo advantages which its ports and harbors, and tho?
it Oregon a Hir'd to commerce, especially with the
fttande of Clio Pacific and Indian oceans, and the
xrpulous region* ot Lastern Asia, make it certain
hat ill ere will arise, in a lew years, largo and pros
enjus communities on our western coast. It, there
ore, become* important that a lino of cotnnnmica
ion. the test and inoat expeditious which flic na
ure or i lio country will admit, should bo opened ;
vithin the territory of the i'nited States, from th«*
Navigable waters of the Atlantic ortho Gulf of
Mexico, to the Pacific. Opinion, as elicited and
“'pressed by two large and respectable conventions,
ale'y assembled at St. Louis and Memphis, joints
t> a railroad as that which if practicable, will heat
;eet tbo wishes and wauls of the country. But
iviiite this, it in successful operation, would be a
.vork of great national iin|>orlftncc, and of a value to
he country which it would be difiicult to cs-.in.an-.
* ought also to be.regarded as an undertaking of
■ ast magnitude and expense, and otto which must,
ri. be, indeed, practicable, encounter many difii
.'tips in ils construction and use. Ther- fi re, io
: 'p;» ;ji:::nc :it, 1^ onei-I. CV,<
[ress to judge whether, in the condition of if.e
ountry through w hich il must "pass, the work b«
iasible. and if it bo found so, whether il should be
inderlnkrn as a national improvement cr le ft to
ndividual enterprise; and iu the latter alternative
vliat aid. if any, ought to bn extended to il by lb*
Jovenunent, 1 recommend as a preliminary meas
ire a careful reconnoissanco of the several pro
iosed routes by a scientific corps, and a report as
0 ilie pracUcabiliiy* of making such a road, with
n estimate of the cost of its construction uud sup
For further views on these and other matter*
onnectrd with the duties of the 1 lome Department,
refer you to the report of the Secrelaiy of the In
I recommend early appropriations for continuing
ho river and harbor improvements which have*
een already begun, and also for the construction of
hose for which estimates have been made, as well
is for examinations and estimates preparatory to
be commencement of such others as tlm wants of
he country, and esjxtcially the advance of our jiopu
aiiur. over new districts, and the extension of com
merce, may render necessary*. An estimato of thu
amount which can be advantageously expended
within the next fiscal year, under the direction of
1 lie* Bureau of Tooooranhical F.nnineers. aerninnu
nies t ho report ofthe Secretary of War, to which 1
respectfully invite the attention of Congress.
The ces.siun of territory made by the late treaty
with Mexico has greatly extended our exposed fron
tier, and rendered its defence more difficult. That
treaty lias also brough. us under obligations to
Mexico, to comply with which n military forco i»
requisite. But our military establishment is not
materially changed, as to its efficiency, from tin*
condition in which it stood before the commence
ment of the Mexican war. Some addition to it will
therefore be necessary ; and I recommend tu Hie fa
vorable consideration of Congress an increase of tlm
several corps ofthe army at our distant western,
posts, as proposed in the accompanying report of tin*
Secretary of War.
Great embarrassment lias resulted from lhe < fTiect
upon rank, in the army, heretofore given to brevet
and stall'commissions. The views ofthe Secretary
of War, on this subject, are deemed important, and
if carried into effect will, it is believed, promote the
| i.. r <i,0 e. rvicc. Tlio plan prop sod for ro
ii.ing disabled ontiro, ana pruvruing an asv.'unr tor
such of the rank and file as from age, wounds, and
other infirmities occasioned by service, have Icccmo
unfit to perform their respective duties, is recom
mended as a means of increasing the efficiency of
the army, and as an set of justice, due from a gra'.t
ful country to the faithful soldier.
Tiie accompanying report of the Secretary ofrho
Navy presents a full and satisfactory account of tliw
condition and operations of tire nav.il service during
tiro past j ear. Our citizens engaged in the legiti
mate pursuits of commerce have enjoyed its bene
fits. Vi herever onr national vessels have gone,
i they have been received with respect, our officer*
j have been treated with kindness and courtesy, and
they have, on all occasions, pursued a course ufstiict
neutrality, in accordance with the policy of our
The naval force at present in commission is as
large as is admissible, with the number of men au
thorized by ('ungres.s to be employed.
1 invite yonr attention to tlio recommendation of
, the Secretary ofthe Navy on tlio subject l! re-or
i ganizalion ofthe Navy, in ils various grades of offi
cers, and the establishing of a retired list for sncii
1 ofthe officers as arc disqualified fur active and eftect
| ive service. Should Congress adop* some such
I measure as is recommended, it will greatly increase
; ihe efficiency of the Navy, and reduce ils expendi
! turcs.
I also ask your attention to the views expressed
; by him in reference to the employment cf war steam
] ers ; and in regard to llto contract for the transpur*
| tation of the United States’ mail; and the operation
: of the system upon the prosperity of tlio Navy.
By an act of Congress passed August Idtb, 18-18,
provision was made for extending post office ana
mail accommodations to California and Oregon.—
Kxertions have been made to execute tlm* Jaw ; but
the limited provisions of lire act, the inadequacy ( l
the means it authorizes, the iil-adaplation ot our
post-office laws to the situation cf that country, nn-i
tho measure of compensation f >r service:; alluvvr.j
i bv liinsc laws, eninnareil v.ti, tlm ?-rip< .. ,,1'lrl. .
i and rents in California, render those e.\oni • .. i;, n
i great degree, ineffectual. More particular and <fii
j cien'. provision by law is required on this subject.
The not of lb!5, reducing postage, has now, by
| its operation during four years, produced results
fully showing that the income from such rev!need
postage is, sufficient to sustain the whole expense of
the service of the Post Cilice Department, not iu
, eluding the cost of transportation in mail steamers
; on the lines from New York to ( hr. re-, and from
Panama to Astoria, which have not been consider
cd by Congress as properly belonging to the mail
It is submitted to the wisdom of Congress, wheth
er a ftirtlu r reduction of postage should net now 1 e
made, more particularly on the letter cor res j> n,j_
euro. 'Phis .should bo relieved ftom the unjus# :>ur
tlien oftransporting and delivering tho flunked
matter of v’or.gress, for which public service provis
ion should bo made from the treasury. I confident
1 ly believe that a change may safely be tr.ade, redec
ing all single-Ii-ttcr postage to tho uniform rate
live rents, regardles;. of distance, without, therehv
! imposing any grralertnxon the treasury than would
constitute a very modernto compensation fbr this
, public service : and 1 therefore . respectfully recoin
mend such a reduction. Should Congress prefer to
abolish tho franking privilege entirely, it seems
r probable that no demand r ,, the treasury would re
| suit from the proposed reduction of postage. Whcth
er any further diminution should now be made, or
, (lie result of the r« miction to fivo cents, which T
have recommended, should bo first tested, is sub
. milled to your decision.
hinee the commencement of the last session of
> Congress, a Postal treaty with Croat Britain has
lieen received ami ratified, and such u-gulations
, have, been formed by the Post Office Deportment*
i of the two countries, tn pursuance of that treaty, as
j to earry its provisions into lull operation. The at
j tempt to extend this same arrangement, through
e F.ngland, to France, lias not been equally ance<
n fnl; but the purpose has not abandono*1

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