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Staunton spectator. [volume] (Staunton, Va.) 1849-1896, January 23, 1850, Image 1

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LYTTELTON WADDELL, (A Proprietors. CONSTANT ET UNIS. OT RES expostulet, ESTO. [PublDReS weekly-.* per Annum.
JOS. A. WADDELL, S _ _ _. —. :• ' ^~=~ ■■ —=r-=r.r-.— ■■ ■ .
t e u m s.
w. Thg "SPECTATOR”i* oublishedoncea week,
at Too DAlarsa year, if paid in advance, or Two
Dollars and Fifty Cents if delayed beyond the expira
tion of the year. -Vo subscription will be discontinued,
hat at the option of the Edita* s, until allarreuragesare
^ ilt co n nunications to the Editorsby maitmusl
he o ist-omd, or they will not be attended to.
ilrt- ADVERTISE ME VI'S of thirteen lines (or
less,) inserted three times for one dollar, and twcnty
£*9 cents For eachsubseynenlcontinaance Larger ad
vertisements in the same proportion. At ibera/dtscoutU
made to advertisers by the year.
toV&KSOK 24. V>t.\A,,
PR ACTISES in the various Courts of Augusta,
Rockbridge, Bath and Highland. Prompt at
tention will be^gtvea to all business entrusted to
Jus care. „
OtS-.-e in the whin. building opposite 'the Lourt
House, next door to John N. Hendren—where he
may always he found during business hjurs, except
when professionally absent.
May 2, 1849.—if- _
PRACTISES in the Superior and Inferior Courts
of Augusta, the Superior Courts of Rooking
ham, Ro ikhridge, and Albemarle, and in the U. S.
District Court for Western Virginia.
OFFICE, next door to the Court House, in the
Brick Row.
May 2, 1849.
n~A 1WESB OR O', VA.,
PRACTICES in the Courts of Augusta, Albe
marie and Nelson. Office in the room lately
occupied by Col. George Baylor, where he maj
be found al all times, unless when absent on pro
fessional business.
Nov. 29, 1848.
bojliiur cw/fismr,
attorney at law,
»■* J’ILL attend tbe Courts of Augusta and theadjaeen
V\ Counties.
Stauntou, Nov. 14, 1949.—tf.
attorney at law,
WILL attend the Superior and Interior Court:
of Albemarle. Augusta, Nelson and Louisa
£3gr Offick in Charlottesville.
September 5, 1849.—tt.
Dr. llvAievt \\. Ilo\jev\sou
HAVING located on Christitn’s Creek.at th:
residence of his brother, lenders his profession
al services to the neighborhood and the public gen
urally. He may he found at homo at all hour* «
cept when professionally engaged.
September 19, 1849.—On.
44 Cedar Street, New \ork.
Print fVarekouse—established in 18*43. for the sal
of Printed Calicoes exclusively—ut low prices.
I EE & BREWSTER confine their attention cxclu
J lively to the purchase and sale ot American am
Foroijrn Prints. Their facilities enable them to be lb.
largest purchasers in the United States, ami secures t.
their establishment advantages in assortment and price;
over any oth?r Hokc,—and to which the attcution o
Merchants is respectfully solicited. .
December 26, 1949.—btu.
37, Nassau St, Opposite Post Office, J\'cu> Vork
Importers ami Jobbers of French, India, German and
Italian Silk Goods of every variety.
ALSO a complete assortment of British and Ameri
can Fancy floods suited to all sections of trade u
the United Slates, and comprising the most Fashiona
ble Style, to be found in tbe New York Market.
December 26, 1949.—6iu.
No 35 Nassau Street, (Opposite the Post Oflice,)
Dec. 26, 1849.—t>«.
THE Merchants of Virginia are particularly invitee
to call and examine their stocU.
December 26, 1849.—6in.
IRVING’S Life of Goldsmith; Shirley, by lb<
Author of ‘‘Jane Eyre?”—Also a lot of Fin*
PRAYER BOOKS, some in velvet binding—
Pictoral Brother Jonathan, just received and foi
Staunton, Doc. 12, 1849.
A FEW more of those Celebrated Double Act
ing Rotary Cburns, received and for sale by
Staunton, Jan. 9, 1850.
MRS. JARVIS’ Cold Candy for Coughs,Colds,
&c., for sale by
January 9, 1850.
WM. G. STERRETT, on the corner opposite
the Post Office, has Window Glass and Put
ty fer sale.
Staunton, Dec. 26, 1849.
WM. G. STERREFT, corner opposite P»«t
Office, has an excellent assortment ol Groce
ries in store and for sale.
December 26, 1*49. __
"The mail tcho has no music in his soul,
Is Jit Jar treason, stratagem and spoils.”
WM. G. STERRETT, has one dozen superi
or Lined Violins, fur sale at low prices.
Staunton, Dec. 26, IS49.
PILE OINTMENT, a certain cure for the Pile*
Prepared and sold by
Druggist, Main Street.
Staunton. Nov. 2S, 1849.
Celebrated Wholesale and Retail
I'lolliiug Warehouses.
(7Vie largest assortment in die United States,) |
New Warehouse, South-west corner of Fourth ati^J |
Market Streets.
Old Stand, 193 and 200 Market Street, above Sixth, j
TT7HF.RE the largest assortment ofREADY-MADE |
W CLOTHING can be found in this market. Their |
' stock is always full and complete, and they arc there* ,
: fore always prepared, either in “Summer’s heat or :
Winter’s cold” to supply every demand upon them.
Their motto is Superior Goods, at fair prices, and they
\ would therefore respectfully solicit the Merchants ol j
the Valley of Virginia to give them a call ou then next
■ trip to Philadelphia.
December 19,1849.—6ui.
Wholesale Ladies’ Boot and Shoe Manufacturers,
No. 18, South Fourth Street, Philadelphia.
M& W. are extensively engaged in the Mnnu
. facture of LADIES, AND CH1L
: DREN’S HOOTS ASiD SHOES in all their vatic- j
ties, and keep always on hand u full supply to answer ,
the demands oTtrade. They invite the attention or
‘ Country Merchants to their extensive stock, satisfied
that at no other establishment of the kind iu Philadel
phia, cau they suit themselves better, either as itre
| gardsthe quality of their Goods or the terms upon
j which they are prepared and determined to sell them.
; Call and see them at their Old Stand, No. 13, South
! Fourth Street, Philadelphia.
I December 19, 1849.—6ui.
(Du MirWIKa
,Vo. 3, South Fifth Street. Philadelphia,
Importer and Dealer, Wholsalc «fe Retail,
! in Wines, Liquors and Segars.
CCONSTANTLY on hand, a largo and well assorted
) stock, which is offered in any quantities on raodcr
| ate terms, comprising
Medcria, Sherry. Port, Lisbon, Sicily, Tencriff, Mul
! aga, Champagne, Claret, Hock, Sautcrnc aud Barsac
| Wines.
i Old Pale and Dark Cognac Brandies; Jamaica and
St. Croix Rum ; Holland Gin; Irish, Scotch and Monon
gahela Whiskies; Wine Bitters, (of very superior
1 'quality*;) Londcn Brown Stout, ami Scotch Ale; Li
quors, «$-e., aud the finest brands of choice Havana Sc
i gars.
I A II orders promptly* and carefully* executed,
j December 19, 1849.—6m.
j Wholesale and lletail Saddle and 'Prunk Maker,
! No. 30, South Fourth Street, between Market & Chest
nut Streets, Philadelphia.
rpHE attention ofdealers and others is invited to his
JL assortment of Saddles, Bridles, Saddlebags. Col
lars. Winns, kc.—Also to his superior article of
TRUNKS, viz.: Sole Learner I runks, Solid Leather
Steel Spring Trunks, of lightweight; Riveted Iron
: Frame Trunks, Lady’s Dress Trunks. Bonnet Boxes,
Wood Trunks, of different qualities; Valievs, ofvari
ous style aud prices; Velvet Tapestry and Brussels
! Carpet Bags, Enamelled Leather Bags, Lady’s Trav
i citing Bugs, Satchels, &c., &c , all of which he oilers
j at low prices for Cash, or approved paper. Orders
i thankfully received, and promptly executed,
j December 19, 1349 —6m.
i Clothing Rooms, No. 1F;, Market st., above 4tb,
' TTTTHERE at all times can be found a complete and
| VV extensive assortment of
Ready-Made Clothing.
I They specially invite the Merchants of the V alley
' of Virginia to give them a call, promising to furnish the
I w.t mi iicKa lu tbcfr ftm- upon stien terms as nm'Si coni
j main! and secure their patronage. Tht-y manufacture
! CLOTHING to order u >on the shortest notice, and will
be happy to respond to ail suitable calls Irotu thecoun
I try to that effect.
i December 19, 1S49.
! Hats, Caps. Liulit’s’ Rich Furs, Beaver Bonnets, ic.
133 Ches.vlt Sr., Philadelphia
HA V E oil hand a large and superior assortment of
FINE GOODS, in the greatest variety in their
' , line of trade, and offer them to Merchants and Dealers
' j generally, at fair and moderate prices. They cspecial
i Fv solicit the attention of the Merchants of the Valley
of Virginia to their splendid Stock, and trust that on
their visit to Philadelphia they will not fail to give
! them a call. Wm. H. Gardner, late of Richmond, Va.,
is associated in the firm of W. II. Beebe & Co.a-ul will
take great pleasure in waiting on his Virginia friends,
j Dccembvr 19, 1349.
!piiil;i. I»i*y Gootlti ICiiiporiuiiB.
Foreign & DomtMic I>ry Goods,
jYo. 128 and 130 JY. 3d St., above West Side.
ITEEP at all seasons a complete assortment of FOU
dapted to the trade of all sections of the country, and
adequate to any demand that may be made upon them.
: They invite the attention of Southern dealers, and es
pecial lv rhe Merchants of the VaH-y of Virginia, to an
I 1 -r.i. (hat tlifv will find
it to their interest to deal with them.
December 19, 1349.
JVo. 28s JS'i/rth Third Street, Philadelphia,
Wholesale Importer, Manufacturer and Dealer in
Saddlers' Hardware, Carriage and Harness Fur
niture, Saddle and Carriage Trimmings, ic-,
KEEPS constantly on hand, a rich ami extensive as
soitment ol SADDLERY HARDWARE, and
through the medium of their own home journal, invites
the Merchants of the Valley of Virginia to call and see
him before purchasing elsewhere, lie offers his Goods
at such prices as will not fail to please his customers.—
Hemember. his place of business is No. 23 1-2 North
Third Street, Philadelphia.
December 19, 1349.—6m,
To Southern and Western Merchants, &c.
SILVER Ware.—Forks—Table, Medium, Dessert,
Tea.Ojster, and Pickle. S|ioons—Table, Dessert,
Tea, Gravy, Mustard ami Salt. Ladles—Soup. Oys
! ter, Sauce, Sugar and Ocain. Knives—Ice Cream,
j Fish, Cake, Butter, Fruit, Dessert,
i 'I ea Sets, of variouspatterus, plain to richly chased,
j and of every variety of form. Odd pieces made to
match, and broken sets completed. Silver warranted
! standard.
Plated aud Britannia Ware, of latest patterns, con
stantly ou hand and lor sale at
WILSON’S Silver Ware Manufactory,
S. VV. corner 5th and Cherry sis., Philadelphia.
December 19, 1-49.—6ui.
Wolfe & Peyton,
Wholesale Di alers in Foreign k Domestic Dry Goods,
No. S9. Market Street, Philadelphia.
T1TE would respectfully call the attention ol Soulh
j \\ ern Dealers to our well selected stock ol Fo
reign and Domestic Dry Goods. They have been pur
chased for cash, and will be run off to customers upon
the chrapest term*. We ixhul « sp«cial imitation to
the Merchants of Virginia to pay us a visit at our house,
' No. t?9 Market St , Philadelphia.
Dec. 19, 1349--6iu.
No. 83 Chesnut St., k 27 South Third St.,
Dec. 19, 1349.—6ra.
MTJI, G. STF.KRF.TT, on the comer opposite
▼ ▼ the ‘’ost Office, hag just received a superior
; article of I ea, for sale low,
December^, 1849.
tyy The following lines are from the pen of an ac
complished gentleman who was for a lime a patient
at the Western Asylum at this .place, and express
tlie forebodings of his mind previous to leaving the
Institution. It will be gratifying to all who read
them to know that the author’s fears were nut real
ized, and that he is now in the bosom of his family,
restored to health and enjoying (he confidence and
esteem of a large circle of intelligent and polished
friends.—[Eds. ok !?pec.
“lie breath’d —
But not the breath of human life.”
* «• e * * *
Alike all time, abhorr’d all place,
Shuddering he shrunk Irom nature’s face,
V\ here every hue that charm’d before,
The darkness of his bosom wore.”
They sought his dreary cell and called him forth—
They told him he was free—he linger'd still—
They bade him brenthe the air and tread the earth,
And be once more the sovereign of his will.
They told him he was now no’longer bound
To time and place, as others best might derm;
But there he stood unmoved, or gazed around,
As one just waken’d from some hideous dream.
They Cade him speak, for speech was now his own ;
They claim’d no more dominion o’er its use ;
They ask’d him where the power of thought was gone,
Now they had ca-t the loug worn fetters loose.
They told him winged coursers were at hand
To bear him swiftly to the arms he loved ;
1 And marvel I’d he should mill in stupor stand,
| As one who fear’d perdition if he moved.
They pointed to the hills which Fancy’s flights
1 So oft had crossed, in dear loved scene* to roam,
! And urged him now to scale their barrier heights,
And be himself again—the lord ofhomc.
I They spoke of eye*, whence tears had long been shed,
I At sight of him would sudden cease to mourn ;
i They told of hearts, whenct pleasure long had fled,
! Would call her back to greet his glad return.
j They pictur’d her. whose prayers so long seem'd vain,
i Now on her knees in grateful Iragsport cast;
They ..aid, to hear his well-known voice again,
Would make her own her God was kind at last.
I They plead for those whose youthful mirth repressed,
( Whose sports had languish’d,his bright smile withdrawn,
j Impatient now to have their bouds released,
1 And shout his welcome once more on the lawn.
They said the Sun would give to them more light—
i A livelier spirit dwell upon the air—
j Each flower and shrub assume a hue more bright,
i The very flocks rejoice to know him there.
' They told him Fame had only slept awhile,
Rut soon would hail him in her paths again—
Soon on his new career in favor smile,
Ami more than compensate his years of pain.
They said that Wealth would piove to hiur the tido
Just ebbing out to gather spoil the more,
And in returning flood hrinjc ikipwmk’d prid*.
I To take again her station on the shore.
! They told him troops of friends would crowd his hall,
I And whispergcntle flatt’ries to his car;
| That Memory would not deign the past recall,
; So bright the* future would to Hope appear
But he stood still, as ono whodar’d not feel
j A joy revive, whence all had long been wrung;
i And he was mute, as deaf to all appeal
] Of words that spoke a long forgotten tongue.
They led him forth, for Nature would revive,
They thought, the love once ardent in his breast;
They knew ’twas there, but was it yet alive
Or dead, no sign, no motion now coufcst.
They show’d around the wondrous works of Art,
' For these, they knew, his genius once could scan,
And strove to rouse within some dormant part,
i To animate bis outward form of man.
i But strove in vain, tho’ all unsullied still
Within were Nature s gifts, and Art’s rich stove;
| Crushed, gone forever was the power of Will
To call them forth—to give them action more.
| Evorybody has heard- of the Ragged Schools.and
most people know that Lord Ashly is their princi
i pai prumoier. r>u\v, mure is wuai is ivmieu mo
; London City mission, established fur the purpose of
! supporting Ragged be hols and employing mission
aries to reform people living amongst us uf humble
! callings and of all ages. One of these missionaries
| is Mr. Jackson, of the Rag Fair and Rosemary lane
1 district. His house is often to all who choose to
| visit him in search of advice and assistance ; and
! between June and December, lfc47, so many as 2,
343 calls upon him were made by children and
young persons. People, acquainted with the neigh
borhood to which Mr. Jackson’s zealous, pious,and
1 philanthropic labors arecoufined, will not be surpris
ed to learn that he is termed the “Thieves’ Mis
sionary.” a distinction of which he is doubtless, by
S no means ashamed, and one which he has been at
I much pains tu obtain. He is, in fact, in the confi
dence of the thieves of London—a confidence prof
itable to them, to him, and to the whole commu
The fact that half a dozen pick-pockets occa
sionally drop in and t3ke tea and pray with him
and his resectable family, or that he, is a moral
! man and a Christian, goes openly into dens of infa
my, and familiarizes himself with sin in its most
sickening shapes (and theseare facts.)is not so strik
ing as is the evidence of the existence of such cool j
I out-laws, and such deliberate crime, as those to i
which we allude.
It occurred lo Mr. Jackson, upon the receipt of
Lord Ashley’s speech,spoken in the House of Com
mons, in June last, that some of his ‘young friends’
might desire to emigrate “at the expense of the
Government,” but not after the manner in which |
culprits usually leave the mother country. He ac- j
cordinoly put the question to one of them; theanswer;
was. “I should jump at it.” Thus encouraged,;
he made further inquiry among his wicked nssoci- j
ates, an I shortly afterwards, Mr. Jackson was sent
lor by a number of thieves lodging in a c *uri adja- j
cent to the dis rict, called Blue Anchor Yard. He j
went, and they expressed themselves extremely
desirous to know whether any hope coulJ be held
out of iheir obtaining an honest livelihood, howev
er humble, in our colonies instead of continuing
! to pursue iheir course in this country, from which
they found it now almost an imp<*sibility to exlri
| cate themselves. “It wou»d.” said they, “beacap
I ital thing f r chaps like us.”
Of con se the matter was seriously discuesed.and
we ask any thinking man, whether a scene more
i interesting can be imagined than that w herein the
I moral and religious champion stood, surrounded by
the lawless gang of cast aways, the miscreants,
whose hands and fingers were against everybody,
and at whom every man’s (particularly every po
liceman’s) hand or finger was directed ? Mr. Jack
son informed his audience that Lord Ashley was
about to honor him with a visit, and he would have
much pleasure in introducing them to his Lordship.
The Irish Free School was fixed on as the place of
meeting, and on the evening. July 27, 1848, the
convicted felons vagrants and known thieves, as
sembled together to the number of two hundred and
seven, for the purpose of consulting Lord Ashley as
to the best means of bettering their condition. Two
hundred and seven thieves! Even Mr. Jackson
was not prepared for this. It was a meeting that
had never taken place since Spartan boys had ceas
ed to congregate. Two hundred and seven profess
ed thieves surrounding half dozen honest men, was
a sight worthy of all the ineiropolitan magistrates
and the entire police force. The “City Mission
Magazine” says, with becoming candor, cwdness
and gravity : Several of the best known and most
experienced thieves were stationed at the door, to
prevent llie admission of any but thieves. Some
four or f’ v«: individuals, who were not utjirsi known
were subjected to a more public examination, and
only allowed to remain upon their stating who they
were and being recugnized as members uf the dis
honest fraternity ; and before the proceedings of the
evening commenced, the question was carefully put
and repeated several times, whether any one was
in the room of whom others entertained doubts as
to who lie was. The object of this care was, as so
many uf them were in danger of gelling into trou
ble, as they called it, or in oiher words, of being
-taken up tor their crimes if discovered, to ascertain
whether any one who could betray them was pre
How will it be supposed that the meeting waso
pened ? Why, with a hymn and then a prayer.
And the writer of the Magazine, who was one ol
the few honest men present,shrewdly says: “ A hat
was the real slate of the hearts of those present,
while these devotional exercises were proceeding,
it is, ofcourse, impossible for any ma.i to say.”—
Who indeed, shall fathom the heart of man ?
An adddres was next read to Lord Ashley .setting
forth the nature and object of the meeting, and the
character of those who attended it; together with
the results of the reader’s previous exertions in the
cause uf reformation. From that it appeared that
rehearsals or trials had previously taken place, and
when they met only one hundred and thirty-eight
avowed thieves were present.
We extract from a table the results of inquiries
made uikiii that occasion.
Number of individuals present
lluw many of you have been in prison ? 135
Have all of you been in prison for theft? 13;
I How many of you ascribe your fall to intoxica
ting liquors? #
How many of you are abandoned by your friends
who might help you ? 21
How many of you have friends who cannot
help y»u? &
How many ofynu havefriends who would help
you if they knew your present state? I
Are you willing to give up theiving and go to
work? . 1^
j How many of you have mothers living? lj
J How many of you have a father living ? H
I How many of you are married ?
How many of you sleep in unions? 6*
I How many of you ascribe your present ruin to
' sleeping in the casual ward? k
■ How many of you are likely to get into trouble? 13;
How many of you are. willing to emigrato ? lo*
■ l low much do you get f»r every pounds, worth
of goods? Five shillings in the pound, if
we"are not known ; but if we are known, ten
shillings in the pound. ^ 13<
The above is an important document. We leavr
the reader to [Kinder over it, and the intelligen
mind will find there more to engage it than we havt
space to point out, or ability to describe. One linn
dred and thirty-eight of our fellow creatures in tin
prime of manhood, thieves by trade, selfacknowl
edged felons, ready to abandon their unlawful pnr
suns, and in this Christian, moral, liberal, and en
lightened ago, actually incapable of discovering how
to be honest, and live ! Out of 372, 278 had re
ceived no education, and iheir times of imprison
ment varied from one to twenty seven limes, while
two forgot how many times they had been incar
ceraied.—London Era.
Louis Napoleon’s Ambition.—Mr. Cooper
the American writer, iclales tiie following inciden
which occtrrred during Ins residence ai I’arisin 1833
I was calling upon La Fayette one day and was lei
in by his confidential servunt, who, it struck rnt
showed signs of having something to conceal. Ilf
said his master was it home, and, after a moments
hesitation, made way for me to go on as usual ti
his private room—but I saw there was some em
barrassment. 1 walked in and found the General
alone. He received me with the same cordiality as
ever, but inquired with some eagerness who let nif
in,and whether i met an uldarquunlancegoingout,
1 told him that his old servant had admitted me,and
that there was certainly something peculiar in tht
. i.mrtmir • hilt i IlHcl KMPll Mil imp pl«M_ i
knew nmhmg more.
“Ah,” said the General, “that fellow put him in
the side mom. bit down and 1 will fell you. Prince
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was here two minutes
I expressed surprise of course, for it was when it
was death for a Bonaparte to enter France.
“Yes,” continued the General, “and lie came
with a proposition, lie wishes to marry my grand
daughter Clementine, unite the republicanism and
imperialism, make himself Emperor and my grand
daughter Imperalrice!”
“And if it be not an indiscreet question,” I said,
“what was your answer, my dear General?”
‘*1 told him,” said Li Fayette, “that my family
had the American notion on that subject, and chose
husbands lor themselves—that there was the young
lady—he might go and court her, and, if she liked
him, I had no objection.”
Mr. Cooper did not tell us (for of course he did
not know) how the Prince plied his wooing, nor
why he failed. The fair Clementine, who, thus
pos»ibly lost her chance of being an Empress,niar
reid M. de Beaumont and now represents her rejec
ted admirpr, as the French Embassadress at the
court of Austria. Shortly after this visit to Lal'ey
ette, Mr. Cooper was in London, and mentioned to
the Princess Charlotte, (the widow of the older
brother of ihp prespnt President of France.) this ad
venture of Prince Liuis into the den of the Orlean
istSk “He is mad !” was the only reply. But the
finger post of “that way madness lies,” does not al
ways point truly. At any rate, there is a certain
“method in his madness,” for the same match be
tween Imperialism and Republicanism has been the
Prince’s pursuit ever since, ami the chances are
that he will finally bring it about—Clementine’s
audother intermediate unbelievers,notwithstanding.
The Household Affections.—Dr. Doddridge
once said of a contemporary that he brought joy in
to every house he eniered. but must if nil to his own
home when he returned to it. If we except the eu
logium passed ti|Hin the patriarch Abraham, and
two or three others of a kindred character found in
the Inspired Writing, perhaps higher praise was
never bestowed upon man. We feel constrained tn
bless, alike him who uttered and him who was the
subject of the commendation of those sweet affections
that lie at thebasisofeverylhinglhaf’is lovelyand ol
good report,’’and that constiute the charm and joy
ufsocial existence.
We have already alluded to the extraordinary :
case of John Talmadge, of one of the interior towns ,
of the State of New York, who after being indicted j
fur murder and imprisoned for six months, was found
to be whully innocent. The case is one of the most t
remarkable on record, and shows how careful we j
should be in our judgments and verdicts. A cor- j
respondent of the New York Mirror gives the fol- |
lowing thrilling narrative of the incidents connected j
with the affair. Nothing more fully imbued with
startling interest can oe fonnd in the most absorbing
works of fiction :—Baltimore American.
Balestow Spa, Dec. 24th, 1849.
The most singular and astiwnding developments
that ever characterised the proceedings of a court
of justice, have jnst been made before the Oyer and
Terminer now sitting in this place. You remem
ber the case of John Talmadge, indicted here last
I spring for the murder of Wui. L. Dorlge, the engt
I neer who was killed by the running of the cars from
| the track. The catasirophe was produced by stones
i placed by the accused oil the inside of the rails.—
Talmadge was an inielligent and wealthy farmer
1 of the higher grade, and up to the time of his arrest
had maintained a character and standing that plac
ed him beyond the reach of calumny. Yet he was
a hi,fh spirited and passionate defender of his own
and "he rights of others. And as the railroad passed
through h?s farm, he had been coolly subjected to
the loss of several cattle, run over by the cars, for
which the company refused all remuneration, and i
in consequence of which, much litigation and bitter ■
animosity had ensued between the parties.
Talmadge had been heard to say, he ‘hoped to |
God the cars would run off,’ and this, together witli j
the circumstance referred to, had concentrated pub
lic suspicion upon him, aud he was indicted. At
lengtli two witnesses, (Irishmen connected with the
road) were found, who saw Talmadge place the
, stones on the track. Their story was simple and
plausible, and there seemed on the part of the ac
cused no possible escape from the gallows. The
j man whom all had esteemed, who had been honor
. ed by the people with many a high public trust,
and represented them in the State Legislature, was
soon, in the reluctant belief of all, to swing upon
the scaffold, and expiate the crime of deliberate
cold blooded murder. In this stateof things lire day
of trial arrived.
Thousands from all sections of the country crowd
! ed to the scene, eager to catch every movement,
j and l:6ti n with teaifuleyes to every word that seeni
. ed to make against the prisoner. The mo6t emi*
I nent counsel were employed un both sides, lhe
. prisoner persisting in Ins entire innocence, with pale
countenance and an eye ot wild agony, sat trem
bling and restless in Uja box. 'I he two principal
wiloesses took the staid. They were caltn and
apparently honest in the natural and plausible story
which they told, from the effect of which it seemed
, impossible for the accused to escape. Ills wife,
. who saL by his side, and who, up to this moment,
had preserved an unexampled composure, now burst
into a flood of tears, and by her sobs interrupted the
proceedings of the court, and the friends vl I al
1 nudge began to abandon all hope and to prepare their
i ’ minds fur the awful sentence, and the still more ap
palling scene that was soon to follow it.
;; At this p lint,a movement of the crowd took place
; toward ihydpjr of the court-room. “Make way,
1 make way J'Vresounded through the epacioue haH.
the story of these two witnesses was all a fabrics- 1
,; tion, to obtain the reward offered for the detection (
of the man who placed the stones, had been moved •
i by conscience to disclose it, and to conduct another
oersun to the proof, positive and undeniably that
I when the latal catastrophe occurred, they were trot
j in this country, but in Ireland,
i This proof was now presented to the prisoner’s
! counsel. The witnesses were placed upon the stand.
; The evidence of Talmadge’s entire innocence was
clear and undeniable-— the attorney for the people at
I once moved permission to withdraw the prosecu
, ! tion, and to arrest the two false witnesses on the
spot, which was granted, and such a shout as rang
through the multitude present, never before thun j
derecH'roni the windows of a court-house.
Talmadge was borne off on the shoulders of the |
| people, and the booming of a six pounder as expres- !
sive of their exultation, closed up one of the most j
; novel and exciting scenes that ever transpired in ;
any court or country.
How a man feei.s whenhe’s hcku.—Hanging
though a death which has prevailed more univrt j
1 sally than any single mode of execution, is a death !
I from which the imagination revolts. This a vulgar
! error. Louis, the eminent French professor,seeing |
that the Faris criminals were some instants in dying
i while those at Lyons bung a lifeless mass the mo
ment the rope was strained by their weight,learned
! from the executioner the trick of the trade which
: the ladder, he steadied with one hand lire head,and
with the other im|»arted to the body a rotary move
ment, which gave the neck a wrench. The verita
ble Jack Ketch, of the reign of James II., who has
transmitted his name to all inheritors of his office,
was said by his wife to alone know how to make a
culprit “die sweetly though his assistants could
manage to get through the business tolerably well ,
too. An immense number of persons,recovered from •
insensibility, have recorded their sensations, and a- j
gree that an easier end could not be desired. An i
acquaintance of Lord Bacon-, who meant to hang :
himself was cut down in the last extremity and de- j
dared that he felt no pain, his only sensation being
1 that of fire before hts eyes, which changed first to j
black and then sky-blue, affording a source of plea- I
i sure. Montague, hangttl in France during the re- j
liginus wars, and rescued at the intercession ofTu
i renne, complained that having lost all pain on the
instant he had been taken from a light of which
defied all description. Another, who escaped by j
the breaking of the cord, said that after a second’s
suffering, a fire appeared, and across it a most beau !
1 tiful avenue of trees. Henry IV. of France sent bis :
I physician to question him* and when a pardon was
, talked of> the man answered coldly that it was not
j worth the asking. The uniformity of the descrip- I
i tions render it useless to multiply instances. They
fill pages of every book of medical jurisprudence.—
All agree that the uneasiness is quite momentary ;
that a pleasurable sensation immediately succeeds:
colors of various hues start up before the sight, and
these having been gazed on for a trivial space, the
rest is oblivion.
09* The only exclusive bedstead manufactory in
: the United States is presumed to be that of Messrs.
Clawson Modge in Cincinnati, which has been
established about nine years and now does a busi
ness averaging $150,000 per annum. The building
is of brick and is 190 feet long, 70 wide and five
stories high. One hundred and thirty hands are
regularly employed, who by the aid of excellent
machinery driven by steam, turnout 125bedsteads
perday.or about 37,500each year.ofdilferentstyles,
ranging in prico from $1.75 to $G0. In their manu
factory .nearly 3,000.000 feet of lumber are annually
consumed. The business extends over the South
and West,but New Orleans is the greatest market,
next to which ranks tlie home market. In the last
two years the homo demand has been over $10,
“Who arc the truly great?
Minions of pomp and stale,
Who the knee bow?
Give us hard hards and free,
Culiurers of field and tree,
Best friend of liberty—
God save the plough!”
This term is used by vegetable physiologists ta
designate woody and vegetable fibre in a state of
decoy. It consists essentially of carbon. In its nat
ural slate it is insoluble, or nearly so, and cannot,
therefore, nourish vegetation—but from the act •;
of alkalies, lime, potash, &c.,it becomes >cotr;p v
ed, carbonic acid i9 evolved, which serves to nour
ish the plant in the first stages of its growth Lefcre
the development of the leaves enables it to absorb
sufficient from the atmosphere.
Another property of litimut which renders it mcr»
important in vegetation is the power it poss'-s-esut
uniting with ammonia and otliur compounds contain
ing nitrogen—forming solluble salts—which are es
sential to vegetation. It is upon a combination ,.t
this kind, tli3t the development of gluten, albumin
nf seed, depends. Carbon and nitrogpn are essential
ingredients of these, as is demonstrated by an ex
amination of their ultimate -composition. These
both consist of the following substance in the came
proportion :
Carbon 54.76
Hydrogen 7.00
Oxygen 20.0f5
Nitrogen 18.12
The presence of homos in the soil seemsfSKert:&l
to the due action of potash, lime, Stc., especially she
latter. This is demonstrated by the action i f lime
in soils in which carbonaceous matter is deficient
If a crop be attempted to lie grown fr> rn such a soil,
to which lime has been added, the liiue'extracts
from the plant thp carbonic acid which it requires—
9 processor primary composition takes plac—ike
crop presents a burnt apiiearaiwe, and is only pro
vented from ultimate decay by thp continual renew
al of the carbonic acid from the ainuwphere. This
must continue until the soil is supplied with a suffi
ciency of carbonaceous matter from some source.—
Hence the necessity in liming or marling of supply
iug this corhonacemts matter.
Supply of Corbonaceous Matter to the Soil.-—
This is chiefly supplied by the decay of vegetable
matter grown upon the soi'. Land to be enriched
with corbonaceous matter, must either have vegets
ble matter supplied in the lurm of straw, haves,
manure, swamp muck, &c., or green crops fallow
ed, which extract from the atmosphere the largest
amount of carbonic acid—for this purpose the legu
minous or pnpiilinaceous p'anls are the must suita
ble. They should be ploughed in More maturing
the seed. In every case where it is intended to im
prove by marling or liming, this supply must be at
tended to, if deficient in the soil.
Potato Rot.—We copy the following letter ad
dressed by Charles Richardson to the Committee
on Agriculture, of the Maryland Agricultural Soci
ety, dated Baltimore Co., Oct. 10, 1849:
Gentlemen,—After three years constant attention
to the sui-ject, 1 flatter myselfl have discovered the
cause of the potato rot. The rot re caused by tho
deposition of the egg, and the destruction of the
pith or heart of the vine (by consequence the circu
lating capillaries) by the larva of an insect. This
insect is of the circulio or weevil genus ; as there
are many species of the curculio in this state, !i.r
distinction, 1 have called this the Curculio Magna.
The first deposition of the egg is from the 5th t»;
10th of June, (this accounts at once for the acknowl
edged fact, that very early planted potatoes sufl'c:
little with rot, if they do not altogether escape it—
and why 1 Simply because they have their growth
before the vine is poisoned by the insect.) 1 have
seen no eggs deposited later than 20th August. Ten
days after the egg is deposited it hatches—the larva
is then very small. The ego is generally placed
in the vine about ten or fifteen inches from the root.
The larva nlways eats downward, but seldom goes
below the surface of the earth ; it feeds for four or
five weeks, it then ceases to eat, and, if 1 may use
the term, cocoons, and undergoes its metamorpho
sis; the larva is about a line and a half in length,
perfectly white with a brown head. It completes
its change in about three weeks. If this is early in
the season, it leaves the vine, mates and deposits
its eggs; if late in the season, it remains quiescent
in the stalk ; it, as all other varieties, of the curcu
lio, hibernates in the ground. I this day had tho
honor of exhibiting to the agricultural committee,
the potato in the different stages of the rot, both in
cipient and perfect. The diseased capilarh s in the
vine ami in the tnbet—the destruction in ti e vine
by the course of the larva—its exuvia, as also the
curculio, in its perfect state.
Keep it before the people, as the politicians my,
that agriculture well pursued is the basis of all j n s
Keep it before the people (hat the farmers l<;u
nearly the whole burden of the government.
Keep it before the people that farmers receive less
of the fostering care of government than any other
class of men in the community.
Keep it before the people that the Legislature i ns
voted millions for rail-roads and internal improve
ments, and nothing to encourage agriculture.
Keep it before the people that thousands are spent
annually in teaching theoretical chemistry at our
colleges, and nothing in procuring proper analyse
if out soils.
Keep it before the people that our Legislature
^ives nothing in aid of a State Agricultural Society,
whilst oilier Legislatures vote liberally and cu.b-:
blessings upon their constituents.
Keep it before the people that they annually pay
thousands to the workshops of the North ft i manu
facturing their own materials, carried and re-car
ried in Yankee vessels, into implements of husband
ry, and all fur the want of a properly diieetly Ag
ricultural S ciety.
Keep it before the people that the encouragement
given to household economy and the mechanic arts
by a Stale Agricultural Society will enable them t;
export the vaiue of thousands, which^ey now im
Keep it before the people that the interest, and
perhaps the principal, of the public debt of Virgin
ia will have to be met by taxes upon toe fanning
community more than any other, and hence the ab
solute justice of a State appropriation in aid ot agii
culture. Nomoo.
OO* Guano was first brought to the United Sts: s
by Commodore Thomas Ap. Calcsby Jones, a \ ir
ir;nian and an officer of Ihs navy, about twenty-hr*
years since, lie (and not those who notv claim it}
is entitled to the credit of introducing the article.
The amount of guano sold in Richmond City
this season is stated to be eight hundred lon*
nearly all of which w as applied to land seeded in

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