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LYTTELTON WADDELL,) Editors <fc Proprietors. ■CONStANS F.T LENiS, UT RES EXPOSTULET, ESTO. [Published Weekly—$2 per Annum.
JOS. A. WADDELL, S _ __ _ ' __ - _ __ ^VOL XXvir STAUNTON; YA., WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 30, 1850. NO. XL ---- ■ STAIN TON SPECTATOR. TERMS. The “SPECTATOR,,i$publishedoncea week, ttlT*o Dollars a year, if pet id in advance, or Two Dollars and Fifty Cents if delayed beyond the expira tion of the year. No subscription will be discontinued, tat at the option of the Editors,until allarrearages are ^ All communications to the Editors by mcihnust te post-paid, or they will not be attended to. ADVERTISEMENTS of thirteen hues (or less,) inserted three limes for one dollar, and twenty 7;oe cents for each subsequent continuance Larger ad vertisements in the same proportion. Aliberuldiscount V.ade to adverUser sby the year. VVV'..VVH'.USOX Ji. Y.V'.l.C, attorney at law STAUNTON, VIRGINIA. PRACTISES in the various Courts of Augusta, 5. Rockbridge, Bath ant Highland. Prompt at lotion will be given to all business entrusted to ‘his care. . , r, , Office in the white building opposite the Court House, next door to John N. Ilendren—where he may always be found during business lours, except when professionally absent. May 2, 1849.—tf. JAMES H. SKINNER, £32 Si&TOa STAUNTON, VIRGINIA. PH v OTISES in the SuperioYtind Inferior CoUTts of Augusta tbc Superior Courts of Roeking ham Rockbridge, and Albemarle and in the C. b. District Court for Western \ trgt.ua OFFICE, next door to the Court House, in the Brick Row. May 2,1849. __ E THOMAS ALBERTSON, ATTORNEY AT I.AAV, WAYNESBORO', VA., PRACTICES in tho Courtsot Augusta, Albe marle and Nelson. Office in the room lately occupied by Col. George Baylor, where he may bo found at all times, unless when absent on pro fessional business. Nov. 29, 184S. BOLtwnz cmtfSIMlV, attorney at law, STAUNTON, v A ., WrlI.L attend the Ccmrt3 of .Vngustaand the adjacent Couutics. Staunton, Nov. 11, 1849.—tf. JOHN LEWIS COCHRAN, attorney at law, WILL attend the Superior and Inferior Courts of Albemarle, Augusta, Nelson and Louisa. Office in CnAtu.omesvikt.fi. September 5, 1849.—tf. Dr. Robert H. TUAwv-\Mm HAVING located on Christian's Creek, at the residence of his brother, tenders his profession al services to the neighborhood and the public gen erally. Mo may be found at homo at all hours ex cept when professionally engaged. September 19, 1849*—Gift. PRINTS ONLY. lee a b r e av s ter, 41 Cedar Street, New York. Print Warehouse—established in 1843, for the sale of Printed Calicoes exclusively—at lino prices. * EE & BREWSTER confine their attention excln 1 j sivcly to the purchase and sale ot American aud Foreign Prints. Their facilities enable them to be the ’'arcest purchasers in the United States, and secures to • heir establishment advantages in assortment and prices over any otfur House,—and to which «e RVtcirtion of Merchants is respectfully solicited. December 26, 1849.—6m. CHESEBROUCrH. STEARNS 8c CO. SILK ROODS, 37, JYassau Si., Opposite Post Office, J\'e w York. importers and Jobbers of French, India, German and Italian Silk Goods of every variety. ALSO a complete assortment of British and Ameri ca,, Fancy Goods suited to all sections ot^ trade in *thc Uuitcd States, and comprising the most Fashiona ble Styles to be found in the New York Market. December 26, 1849.—6m. JOHN COMPTON.] [DAVID B. TURNS*. COMPTON 8c TURNER. IMPORTERS AND WHOI.ESAI.fi DEALERS IN STAPLE AND FANCY DRY GOODS, No 35 Nassau Street, (Opposite the Post Office,) NEW YORK. Dec. 26, 1919.-—6m. CL AIIK A WEST, IMPORTERS OF, AND JOBBERS IN 'CLOTHS, CAS8IMKUKS. VESTINGS AND TAI LORS’ TRIMMINGS, 158, BROADWAY, NEW YORK. >¥XHF. Merchants of Virginia arc particularly invited X to call and examine their stock. December 26, 1849.—6m. NEW BOOHS. IRVING’S Life of Goldsmith; Shirley, by the Author of “Jane Eyre;”—Also a lot of Fine Grayer books, some in velvet binding— fc>ictoral Brother Jonathan, just received and fot **}« \rj ROBERT COWAN. Staunton, Dec. 12, 1849. NEW CHURNS. A FEW more of those Celebrated Double Act ing Rotary Churns, received and for sale by DAVIS A. KAYSER. Stabnton, Jan. 9, 1850. MRS. JARVIS’ Cold Candy for Coughs,Colds, &.C., for sale by ESKRIDGE Sc KINNEY. January 9, 1850. WM. G. STERRETT, <*i the corner opposite the Post Office, has Window Glass and Put ty fer sale. Staunton, Dec. 2G, IS49. WM. G. STF/RRF.FT, corner opposite Post Office, has an excellent assortment of Groce ries in store and for sale. December 26, 1849. “ The man trlio hits no music in his soul, h JiL far treason, stratagem uml spoils WM. G. STERRETT, has one dozen superi or Lined Violins, for sale at low prices. Staunton, Dec. 20, 1849. PILE OINTMENT, a certain cure for the Piles Prepared and sold by I)R. BERKELEY. Druggist, Main Street. Staunton, Nov. 25, 1849. LIPPINCOTT, TAYLOR &. CO. Celebrated Wholesale and Retail C loJkica” Wat’eliottses. (7’/te largest assortment in l/ie United Stoles,) \ New Warehouse, South-west corner of Fourth and Market Streets. Old Stand, 193 and 200 Market Street, above Sixth, i Philadelphia, TlTHElxE the largest assortment offtEADY-MADE W CLOTHING can he found in this market. Their stock fs always full and complete, and they are there fore always prepared, either in “Summer’s heat or Winter’s cold” to supply every demand upon them.— Their motto is Superior Goods,at fair prices, and they would therefore respectfully solicit the Merchants of the \ alley of Virginia to give them a call on t licit next trip to Philadelphia. December 19, 1849.—Cm. JOHN MACINTOSH. "M. F. WHITE. MACINTOSH & WHITE, G /iofesoie f^adies’ Bout and Shoe Manufacturers, No. 18, South Fourth Street, Philadelphia. M‘ & W. are extensively engaged in the Mami . fact arc of LADIES, MISSES, AND CHIL DREN’S SOOTS AXD SJiOPS in all their varie ties, and keep always on hand a fid I supply to answer the demands of trade. They invite the attention of Country Mcichntits to their extensive stock, satisfied that at no other establishment of the kind in Philadel phia, can they suit themselves better, either as it re gards the quality of their Goods, or the terms upon which they are prepared and determined to sell them. Call and sec them at their Old Stand, No. 18, South Fourth Street, Philadelphia. December 19, 1849.—fiui. So & *Vo. 3, South Fifth Street, Philadelphia, j Importer ami Dealer, WhOlMile <fc Retail, in AYiues, Liquors ami Scgars. Ct ONSTANTLY on hand, a large and well assorted / stock, which is offered in any quantities on moder ate terms, comprising Mederia, Sherry, Pori, Lisbon, Sicily, TcncriiV, Mal aga, Champaguc, Claret, Hock, Sauterno and Barsac W ines. Ol.l I’a'.r and Park Cognac Brandies; Jamaica and St. Croix Rum ; Holland Gin : Irish, Scotch and Monon gahela Whiskies; Wine Bitters, (of very superior quality:) London Brown Stout, and Scotch Ale; Li quors, $x., and the finest brands of choice Huvuuu So gain. All orders promptly and carefully executed. December 19, 1819.—6ra. JA1YIES E BROWN, ll'holesalc and llela'd Saddle and Trank Maker, , No. 30, Soujh Fourth Street, between Market Si Chest nut Streets, Philadelphia. THE attention of dealers and others is invited to bis assortment of Saddles, Bridles, Saddlebags, Col lars, Whips, &c.—Also to bis superior article of TRIA’k’S v! / • Still* Leather Trunks. Solid Leather J Steel Spring Trunks, of lightweight; Riveted Iron Frame Trunks, Lady’s Dress Trunks, Rennet Boxes, Wood Trunks, of different qualities ; Vulices, ofvari- 1 ous style and prices; Velvet Tapestry and Brussels Carpet Bags, Enamelled Leather Bags, Lady’s Trav elling Bags, Satchels, &c., &c , all of which he offers ■at low prices for Cash, or approved paper. Orders thankfully received, and promptly executed. December 19, IS 19 —6m. WRIGHT 8c KING. — Clothing Rooms, Xo. lb\ Market st.,above 4lli, Philadelphia. ■f T”itnan ..t .*11 limes can oe pmuu a complete amt i Y V extensive assortment of Rcady-IVIacle Clothing. 1 They specially invite the Merchants of the Valley ; of Virginia to give them a call, promising to furnish the best articles in their line upon such terms as must com- ; | mand ami secure their patronage. They manufacture CLOTHING to order u,.on the shortest notice, and will be happy to respond to all ■suitable calls from the coun try to that effect. ■ December 19, I'm1'. Huts, Cups,ladies1 Rieli Furs, leaver Bonnets.&c. WILLIAM II. BEEBE <fc CO., ISSCitESNcr St., Philadelphia HAVE ou hand a large and superior assortment of FINE GOODS, in the greatest variety in their line of trade, and offer them to Merchants and Dealers "•enerally, at fair and moderate prices. They especial ly solicit the attention of the Merchants of the Valley Of Virginia to their splendid Stock, and trust that on their v*i-sit to Philadelphia they will not lail to give them a call. Wm. 11. Gardner, late of Richmonda., is associated in the firm of \\ • II. Beebe & Co. nod will ! take great pleasure in waiting on his V itginia friends. ; December 19,1S49. iPliila. Dry Goods Emporium. ECHEL, RAIGUEL <fc Co., IMPORTERS & WHOLESALE DEALERS IN Foreign & Domestic Dry Goods, j\o. 128 und 130 ,V. 3il St., above If eat Side. ITEEF at all seasons a complete assortment ofFOIl IV. EIGN & DOMESTIC DRY GOODS on hand.u dapted to the trade of all sections of the country, and adequate to any demand that may be made upon them. They invite the attention of Southern dealers, and es pecially the Merchants of the Valley of \ irginia, to an 1 examination of their Stock, satisfied that they will find it to their interest to deal with them. Dcccmbei l'1,1849. j WXvX. W2.A.& A'JfAUiia, „V0. 28| Sortli I’/iird SLcef, Philadelphia, Wholesale Importer, Manufacturer and Denier in Saddlers' Hardware, Carriage and Harness Fur niture, Saddle ami Carriage Trimmings, KEEPS constantly on hand, a rich and extensive as sortment of SADDLERV HARDWARE, and through the medium of their own home journal, invites the Merchants of the Valley of Virginia to call and see hiiu before purchasing elsewhere. He oilers his Goods at such prices as will not tail to please his customers. Remember, his place ot business is No. 28 1*2 North Third Street, Philadelphia. December 19, 1849.—6m. To Southern and Western Merchants, «fec. SILVER Ware.—Forks—Table, Medium, Dessert, Tea,Oyster, and Pickle. Spoons—Table, Dessert, Tea, Gravy, Mustard and Salt. Ladles—Soup, Oys ter, Sauce, Sugar and Ocain. Knives—Ice Cream, FWi.-Cake, Butter, Fruit, Dessert. Tea Sets, of vsriouspatterns, plain to richly chased, and of every variety of form. Odd pieces made to match, and broken sets completed. Silver warranted standard. plated and Britannia Ware, of latest patterns, con ! stonily on hand and for sale at _ WILSON’S Stiver Ware Manufactory, S. W. corner 5th and Cherry sts., Philadelphia. December 19, 1*49.—tun. ERASMUS D. WO-LFE. JESSE E. PEYTON. Wolfe & Peyton, Wholesale Dealers in Foreign & Domestic Dry Goods, No. 89. Market Street, Phi-a pelt hi a. tttk would respectfully call the attention of Soufh VV cm Dealers to our well selected stock of Fo reign and Domestic Dry Goods. They have been pur chased lor cash, and will be run off to customers upon the cheu/iest terms. We extend a spicial invitation 1o the Merchants of Virginia to pay us a visit at our house, No. SS Market St., Philadelphia. t>ec. 19, 1849’—6m. CONGRESS HALL, ... SSmiDEV&SS’ffa No. 83 Chesnut St., ,v 27 South Third St,, PHILADELPHIA. Dec. 19, 1849.—6m. 1MTM. G. STEHKKTT, on the corner o|HKisitc ** the l?ust Office, has just received a superior , article of Tea, for sale low. 1 December 20- 1844*. > I TIIE OLD CLOCK IN THE IIALL. BY 11. K. STODDARD. It stands in a corner of the room, Behind the door, in the shade and gloom, In a heavy and antique case, Rich mahogany, maple and oak, Battered and scratched and dim with'smoke, And the hands are bent on the face. The knob and hinges arc fcfl with rr.st, The top o’ th’ mouldings corcVed with dust, - j The panncls are yellow with stains, And a ragged web, like a tattered pall, Runs from its side to the "Sombre Wall, And over the window panes. The pendulum swings, the wheels go round, Making a dull monotonous sound, As the vanishing moments licet; A ‘•tick,” like the falling ot grains of sand, As Time was pouring from out his hand, The dust of years at his feet! Years have vanished—forgotten years — With all their sorrows and sins and tears, And left their marks in the hall;— The old have died, the young grown old— Generations have gone to mould, And the Clock survives them all. Beautiful gii Is have watched the hours, Knitting at stands, or working flowers lu frames of ’broidery fine— Ami mornings, the young folks playing late, Wished the moments fettered to “Eight,” For the school began at “Nine !” Mothers, with sons in distant lauds, Sorrowing, chide its tardy hands, And dreamed of the meeting dear— And wives, whose husbands returned at night, Marked the time in the fading light, And listened for footsteps near! Blushing brides at their toilets gay, In snowy-robes on the happy day, Have waited the hour to wed ; -\ntl giAlr fnlL‘<t Inccm** nn hrfls of nairt. Gazed at the Clock again ami again, Ami watched beside the dead! But years hare vanished, and others fill Their place, and the old Clock standeth still, Ticking as in its prime :— Summer and Winter, day and night, A Sexton’s chiming the Hours’ flight, Telling the knell of Time uaHMn—awf—■■■■! wwwi « M ISC EL LAN Y, RV.SSIA AM) THE EXTI.ES «P SIBERIA, 1 iie^nies td Siberia, though thousands of tniles distant, and shut out from all communication with the rest of mankind , have long drawn towards them the lively sympathies of lire world ; and in our con dolence with the bereaved and the lonely, wo arc apt to speak harshly of the Russian Emperor. In such a tone we were strongly drawn by the late ru mors about the Ambassadoi Bodisco. But in this we may mistake the proper objpet of censure. A gainst the despotism of their constitution, and the despotism of their government, our indignation as republicans must be directed ; for both the laws and the administration of the empire, must be carefully distinguished from tho person of its nominal chief. A Russian Czar is by no means the independent, all-controlling being, which his high office seems at first view to indicate. lie is restrained and governed by the ancient u sages, customs, and laws nl the empire, tantamount to what we denominate the common law and tho constitution. He is controlled by powerful councils of the nobility, and by the high administrative bonds, proving a power behind the throne, coinpar 1 cd with which tho throne itself is but a mere pa geant, By these strong aristocratic associations, the father of the late Emperor, Alexander, was de posed and put to death, and he, then a young man, was declared to be Emperor. Such transactions had occurred there before. Even so late as in 1825, on the death of Alexander, the regular succession was again interrupted by these, to us, unseen pow ers, and Constantine was set aside, and his young er brother, the present Nicholas, an abler and bright er intellect, was forced to assume the imperial pur ple. In truth, Russia is essentially an oligarchy, though not in name for the aristocratic element is practically more influential than the imperial. And it is this large assemblage of boards, coun cils. synods, heads of departments, and controlling aristocratic families, all collected together, which, •by their very numbers and power, have made St. Petersburg!) in tho cold parallel of (50 degrees North .m, curinrr in, lil.'n pnnhn nlmt'il t. Mild rrrnW to be a city of GilU.UOO inhabitants—far greater limn uttr own New York, and only a little more than half as old. Built in a dreary waste, and named after her chief Emperor, it has prospered beyond all example, while our own seat of government, situa ted in a fertile region, and called after the Father of his Country, seems destined to languish ; another point on which Russia and the United Slates, look ing alike to an unbounded and incomprehensible fu ture, are yet the very antipodes. The Siberian exiles, long enveloped in a cloud of, darkness from the world, have been recently brought to light by the travels of Sir George Simpson, gov ernor of the Hudson Bay Company’s territories on our North,Who, to use his own language, has truly “seen more of that colossal Empire than any other individual, living or dead.” According to him, their condition is lar more favorable than that ol . c invicts transported from his own native islands to Australia. Indeed, on the score of humanity, Eng land should blush when thus compared with Rus sia, ai d the testimony is the more reliable, coming as it does, not simply from one of her must intelii gent sons, bill from one of the high officers of her government. We take a lew passages from his tour through Siberia: . . “For the reforming if tire criminal, in addition to the punishment of the crime, Siberia is undoubt edly the best penitentiary in the world. When not bad enough fi r tlm mines, each exile is provided with a lot of ground, a liuttse, a horse, two ctnvs, and agricultural implements, and also for the first year with provisions. For three years he pays no taxes whatever—and for the next ten, only haltt^e j full amount. To bring fear as well as hope to op erate in his favor, he dearly -understands that his very first slip will send him from his home and his friends to toil as an outcast in the mines. “Tire perpetrators of heinous offences arc sent to the mines; those for minor delinquenccs arc settled in villages or on farms; and political offenders, com prisin'' sdrfiers, authors and statesmen, arc gener ally psiablished by themselves in little knots, com municating to all around them a degree of civitaa tiun and refinement, . , . ,r . , “Among the exiles at the capital of Yenisseu tv saw one or high rank. I. ieu tenant General David off, banished for some attempt or other at revolution.— He was very comfortably, nay, happily, settled with his whole family about him,sons-in-law, bro ther-in-law, and so on, and appeared to enjoy al the luxuries and eleganciesof jrolished life. So fai as the eye could judge, General Davidoff was n< more an exile than Governor KapillofT himself. At Udoisk, the principal inhabitant, the son o an exiled Jew of tire name of Pricetnan, was said to Ire Worth a million and a half of dollars, partly made by his father as distiller, and partly by him 6eIf as general trader. We had also the pleasure of seeing his daughter, celebrated not only as the great beauty, but as the rich prize of the little world of which Udinbk was the centre. “The dwelling in which we breakfasted to day at Kansk was that of a person who had been senl to Siberia against his will. Finding that there was only one way of mending his condition, he had worked hard and behaved well. He had now a comfortable house and a well cultivated farm, while t stout wife amPphiity of se; vants bustled alxiui the premises. His son had just arrived from Peters Inirgh to visit his exiled father, and had the pleas ure of seeing him amid all the comforts of life, reap ing an abundant harvest, with 140 persons in his pay. “Along the river Iga we found many of the set tlers to be convicts in whom a change of residence had not produced any essential change of character and in spite of all our caution and vigilance, seve ral things were last evening stolen from our carri age at Zeminsky. On the contrary, the native pea sanis, though generally the descendants of convicts, appeared to Ire remarkably steady and obliging.— They were strong and compact; and throughout the district they were, as a body, the largest race of men that I had ever seen. ‘•At Tobolsk a considerable part of lire civil busi nrss appeared to be connected with the exiles, fht whom this city was said to be a sort of entrepot.— Here these people, of whom at certain seasons of the year about 300, on an average, arrive every week, are distributed into different bands according to their grade of crime, and despatched to their several des tinations. About one-sixth uf those who come thus far, are pardoned, and in course of time, find their way hick to their homes. “Russia lias been indebted to Siberia for the a melioration, both moral and political, of her own condition. Through her system of deportation she has made good citizens of myriads, who, in other countries, would have been indirectly condemned-, on their first conviction, to a life of ignomy and shame ; and thus she has virtually achieved the miracle of reconciling the safety ol the innocent, with the impunity, and even prosperity t.f tlieguil iy. . . The immense region of Siberia is rising undet Russian rules to a big!) degree of importance.— Neither its climate nor its soil is so forbidding af has been supposed. Il is capable of supporting ma ny millions of inhabitants, who are already rapidly increasing in numbers and wealth ;"and its mines ol gold, and extensive commerce with China, Tam ry, ar.d Russia, lend it further interest. We may Tefer to it soon again.-•^-Sentinel of Freedom, JVeic ark, jV*.«/. A oumoVs Lottery.—The N. V. Home Journa copies from a French paper the following account o a lottery at Paris,in which a young lady with a hand bout* Iurt«f:i5 v>uo *in» m^ncoi jnizt;. i nu a Frau o& certainly a very French appearance: '*A y oung girl, warranted to be well educated well-bred and virtuous, and with a dowary of 200, 000 francs ($10,000) has been offered as the prin cipal prize in a recent lottery at Paris. The pro sj ec'a.8 announces that the money, payable on hei marriage to the furtunate drawi r is deposited and reg istcred at a certain public office, where its ccrtifica lion is open to those interested. Responsible per sons give warranty for as much as can be reasona bly warrantable in a young lady's beauty, etcetera and, when all the tickets are sold, she will be in trodured to sulscribers, at a ball r ven previous t( the drawing. What seems stranger, still, at a first glance, it that ladies and married men are invited, eqnally with bachelors, to take tickets in this Temarkabk lottery. The consistency of this is explained by tin frequent examples of prizes drawn by those win have no use fur them, and who part with them ati sacrifice; and another lottery is instanced, where i a service of plate, worth 75,000 francs,is the princi pal prize. The drawer of sncti a luxury, which none but a prince could use, would of course par with it for its mere value in stiver,and,in like man ■ner, an an marriageable drawer of a young lady will a dowery, would forego the fair shape with which the dowery came—taking only the money,and pay ing her a stipulated indemnity for non-pcrfurmanci of the connubial portion of the price for the ticket It is provided also, by the programme, that the young lady can Tefuse the match by relinquishhing the whole of the dowery, if her repugnance to the drawer should be insuperable. What is the price of s. ticket for this prize of com bined money and innocence, the French paper does not state ; hut. probab|y, any foreign banking-boost would secure one for an American who should de sire it.” Ancient buildings in Virginia.—Tire nios remarkable of all the buildings in Northern Neck is that of Stradlbrd, County of Westmoreland, or the south side ot the Potomac, lor a long tune Hit property of the Lees. It was built by Mr. Thom as Lee, father of Richard Henry l/ee. Heis knowr by the name of President Lee, cr Governor Lee having been President of the King’s Council, anc Governor of Virginia, while a colony. While Go vcrnor, his lvouse burned down, and either the Brit ish Government or ihe merchants of London buif this house for him at groat ex pense. There is, we presume, no structure like it in our country. Prob ably some ancient seat was the pattern. The bricks were brought fnm England, and are of the bes quality. The wall of tire first story is two feet ant a lialf illicit; the second story, two feet. The pres ent number of rooni3 in the main building is ninety Originally there were more. The late Richari Henry Lee, of tire Revolution, took-down some o the partitions. The present hall is large enough fm four rooms. There is also a stable, which, will the space allowed in our city stables, would holt one hundred horses. When it is considered that all of these buildings are of brick brought from England, and the wholi work of the best kind, it is not to be wondered a that tradition makes them to cost sixteen tiimisanc pounds sterling.—SohHi Chxcrcli. Lifting great masses.—A correspondent of : weekly paper says:—“1 have just finished reading Miss Ma-rtineau’s travels in Egypt and Palestine and observed a remark of the authoress twice re petted-, once m the first anil once in the third vol nine, to the effect that the art of lifting such masse! of shine as are found in the ruins in Egypt ami a Baa! bee is lost, and that the men of these days couli nut quarry, transport-, and Taiso such immense weights. Now, as an engineer, I most positively deny this to be the case, arrd shall briefly emieavo to do away with the imputation on the present stall of engineering science. The size of the stone men tinned at Baalbec was if I recollect right, 08 x 18." 14 feet, which would give a weight of between 1, 100 and 1,200 tons. Now the weight of one of tin tubes of the Brittanriia Bridge at present erectin' over the Menai Strait, is 1800 tons, or GOO ton: more.and 1 can hardly imagine that the stones o Baalbec were in a worse position to set than On lubes at Menai ijlraiL” GOLD HEARIXO QUARTZ OF CALIFORNIA The Pacific News of the 29th of November ha a long article on the discoveries of gold bearin' quartz, a rejxirt upon which to the State Dppart ment at Washington is to lie made by Thus. Buile King. This discovery is said to surpass in impor lance any yetmadein the gold region. Mr. Wright (lie member of Congress elect, brings one fragment weighing twplve pounds, worth six hundred dollari This piece of rock is destined to be laid (as a me morialfrom the California mountains) upon th table of the Speaker of the House of llepresenta tives. The News adds— Mr. Wright has spent, he informs us, much o the past season among the mountains, collecting hi , samples of the quartz in different localities, am subjecting the yield of gold from them in veiy s:i3 ny instances to the most rigorous tests, j The astonishing results brought out by these in vestigalions are, that in a particular and very ex ' tensive vein, four pounds of this rock yielded upw the average eleven dollars worth of pure gold, val ued at sixteen dollars to the ounce. That is to say the yield of gold from those average samples of th< rock in this particular vein, is nearly three dollar, for cadi pound of quartz. Mr. Wright exhibitei to us two small masses of gold, each about the sizr J and shape of a large musket ball, and both present ing the granulated appearance of gold extracted and collected by the aid of quicksilver. One of these contains about twelve dollars of pure gold, and is i the largest yield which has been obtained from four pounds of the rock from the vein in question. 'I lie other contains about ten dollars, and is the smallest yield which has been obtained from any of the ex periments upon the rock of this vein. We under stand that the tests applied have been sometimes the operation of quicksilver, and sometimes the test of the comparative specific gravity of the pure quartz and the gold bearing quartz. The samples oflhe rock which Mr. Wright has tested, have been taken from many different veins. In nu sample tested has the yield been less than one ' doilar to the. pound of quartz. The average yield of the different veins has been, as determined by the samples, from one dollar and a half to two dollars to the pound of rock. A shigle fact will show the unheard of and as tonishing character of the results which have been | thus arrived at. Mr. Wright informs us that he i has recently conversed with an intelligent gentle ! man, now in this country, who has lieen long con versant, in the capacity of an overseer, with mining i operations, as carried on in the quartz veins ot • Georgia. From this source Mr. Wright learns that a fifteen horse steam power, working twelve stamps, will stamp about a thousand bushels o: I quartz rocks in a day—each bushel of quartz weigh .: ing eighty pounds. If seventy five cenas worth ol : gold is yielded from each bushel of eighty pounds the bnsinpss is considered a good one, in Georgia. If the yield he fifty cents to the bushel, the profit is large. Now the yield of the rock which Mr Wright has collected and tested, instead of being a quarter of a dollar, or half a dollar, to the seventy • i five pounds, is. in one great vein, nearly three dot lair, in oik. pound. Abate this, in view of possible j ui jmii'j'iic iiiImuIvc, ui in viuw o! ino superior yiek cf a single richer vein, to an average of two dollars ! or of one. dollar, or of half a dollar to the pound, anc ’ i the result still remains, in every point of view, al most equally unexampled and momentous. j The Mayor of Pittsburgh.—It has already ! been officially announced, that a reckless and turbu lent creature named Joseph Baker, a brawlingstree preacher who had been convicted and imprisunec for delivering indecent and blasphemous harangue; to crowds of people in the streets, was, on Teusdaj ; i the 8th inst., elected Mayor of the city of Pittsburgh He ran as the Anti-Catholic candidate, receivinj 1 1818 voles, while Guthrie, the Democratic candi : date received 1575, and McCutchcon, Whig 9S! ! vo:e3. It was announced by telegraph from Harrisburg that Gov. Johnson had pardoned Baker, but on Fri day morning, the day appointed for the i auguratim of the new Mayor, the pardor. not havingyet reach ed Pittsburg, the new Council assembled and Bar ker was brought from jail to the council chambe by the Sheriff, and inaugurated amid the iinmonsi cheering of the crowd of his “friends” in the lobby On administering the oath to the new Mayor Judge Patton,who a short time since passed sentenci upon him, made the following cool and pointed re marks, and immediately withdrew : “I hope, sir, you will more than realize the ex pectation of your friends, by an honest, impartial and energetic discharge of your duties.” After Barker had been sworn in ho madeaspeecl to the crowd, declaring that the “friendship,” o those who had “sympathized with him in his houi of trial, should not be forgotten while he had a feel ing heart or a beating pulseand that he shouh need their advice in the new and untried dutie3 o the mayoralty, and having concluded lira harangue he was conducted back to jail to await the pardon u the Governor. Here is an exhibition of triumphant moborracj characteristic of Pittsburgh, and which has seldom or perhaps never, had a parallel in any part of tin United States.— Wheeling Gazette. Thf. Horrors ok War.—In the Mexican liis ! tnry of the late war between that country and thi L\ Stales, an account is given of the march of San ta Anna’s army from San Louis Potosi to Buenr Vista, or Angostura, as the Mexicans call it. anc j and tlreir retreat after the DEttle, which furnishes r striking evidence of the horrors of war. That marcl : was one of the most remarkable acbeivements of a ny military commander in modern times, but it war ! attended with horror-stricken hard ships to the ill ! fated force. The march it will be recollected, tyy| place in the dead of winter, the army being poorl) ! clad, and almost without resources,and the loss sus j tallied in it from cold, fatigue, See., is set down at . 4,000, and the loss from all causes on the retreat at ten thousand five hundred making fourteen thou sand five hundred,out of twenty or twenty-0110 thou ■ sand. There must be much exaggeration in this; hut ' after deducting one-tlirid, it appears that Santa An ' na hist one half his army, besides the loss eustain J ed in the battle, and. so completely demoralize* f^iad the army become that, on the retreat, the sol tnbfs murdered their own officers with the view 0 ! concealing their plundering and robbery.— Jiujful 1 j Express. ’Tis sweet to know there is an eye will mark ■Our coming, and look brighter when we come. In the mountains of the Tyrol, hundreds <*l ihi women and children Come out When it is bed lime > and sing their national songs until they bear thei t husbands, fathers, or brothers answer them fron ! the hills on their return home. On the shores 0 the Adriatic, the wives of the fishermen come dowi about sunset and sing a melody. They sing tin ' first verse and then listen for some time; they thei i sing the second verse, and listen until they hea the answer come from the fishermen, who are thui ■ guided by tne sounds to their own native village. ; j CO- There 13 a farm in this State which contain ; : twenty-seven thousand acres. The proprietor of i i j the present season , raised 13,000 acres of corn, 3, f 030 of which ts in oiro field. At fifty bushels pe ■ | acres, this would give 050,001) bushels. Beat i H who can.—Huff. Patriot. ; AGRICULTURAL—SCIENTIFIC. r AGRICULTURAL BUREAU. President Taylor in iiis Message (o Congress re r commends the establishment of a Bureau of Agri . culture. The President says truly: ( “No direct aid lias been given by the General Government to the improvement ofagricultural sta ’ tistics, except for some chemical analyses, which • have thus far been paid for out of the patent fond. - This aid is, in my opinion, wholly inadequate.— 5 'fo give to this leading branch of American indus try the encouragement which it merits, I respect ' j fully recommend the establishment of an Agricul | tural Bureau, to be connected with the Department f | of the Interior. To elevate the social condition of ; the agriculturist, to increase his prosperity, and to I extend his means of usefulness to his country, by poultipl)ing hissourcesof information, should bethe study of every statesman and a primary object with • every legislator.” We have no choice respecting the appointment i of a commissioner when the organization of such a Department is completed ; a competent and experi , enced head should, of course, be selected. ■ We. whose interests are so much greater, have i never seriously urged the necessity of such an ad dition to our machienery of government. Every other and minor interest receives due attention at the hand3 of our legislators, but the agricultural, ’.lie foundation of all others combined, is left to take care of itself. We are glad to notice the recom mendation of President Taylor, and hope that no time will be lost in idle and useless debate in the establishment of it. The Burlington Gazette recommends Professor Majres, and says : “It behooves the friends of agriculture in the U. Slates to advocate the offer of the responsible de partment alluded Ur, to Professor M., fhan whom we are free to say there is no man in the nation better fitted to give the correct tone and impetus to that important office.” Professor Mapes jrossesses all the requisites for the post, and his appointment would certainly give satisfaction to the agriculturalists of the Union, and particularly to those who have read the able articles and lectures on agriculture, by Prof. M. We hope , the day is not far distant when we shall receive the “Report of the Bureau of Agriculture.”—Boxeeix't Former. Raising Tor kies in Tennessee.—You have no idea at the north of ihe immense number of lurkies raided by us in this quarter, $-sent to the towns south of us fur consumption. Only imagine a mall flock of gobblers, amounting to seven hundred and thirty one by actual count, which I saw passing my house the other day. They were driven along the high road by two men and three boys, and were on their wav to Nashville, where they would be cooped anti put on Iwaril a steamboat for the ^ew Orleans j market. And this, remember, is only one of a large number of Hocks which we annually export. liaising turkies here is a great and peculiar busi ness among our farmers. We usually let them steal their nests, for we find they bring out larger and stronger broods for it. When the young are -dis erjvered, we bring tlmm home to a friendly wood, high and close fenced in near the house, and then feed them nn coarse Indian meal pudding, allowing them to find shelter as they can, within the large wooded enclosure. As soon as the young ones get ! stout enough they wander round the plantation in search of^grubs, grasshoppers, and other varmint, which they pick up by the million—fattening them ’ selves, and greatly benefitting the crops of the plan ters. In fact, although they partially destroy some I of the grass and grain crops on the plantation, wo | have come to the conclusion that the grasshoppers, &.c., would beat thprn at this, so we let the turkies ' run, and put up with our losses in this way as beat ' we can. In the fall when mast is plenty, they get j very fat on that; but if this crop be short, we are " obliged to add corn till they are fattened for the ■ ! market, and then they are marched off as above for ’ the South. i The turkeys, young and old, have to contend II with many enemies, such as the hawk, owl, fox, polecat, mink and weasel; but to destroy, these is ' great sport for the boys, and teaches them how to handle fire-arms;. and will make good soldiers of J them for the defence of their country, if wanted hereafter; which heaven forbid may be the case-, ; for I don’t believe in one man’s killing another to settle a paltry dispute. E. <*. Yancey. 'I -_ Interesting Facts.—A legal stone is 14 pounds , in England, and 113 in Holland. A fathom, G feet, j is derived from the height of a full grown man. A i hand, in horse measure, is 4 inches. An Irish mile f 1 is 2240 yards; a Scotch mile i3 1984 ; a German is 1809; a'Turkish 182G. The human body con - r-ists of 240 bones, 9 kinds of articulations or joint I ings, 100 cartilages or ligaments, 100 muscles or f tendons, and 100 nerves, besides blood, arteries. , ! veins. &c. Potatoes planted below 3 feet do not f vegetate; at ono foot they grow thickest, two feet : they are retarded two or thiee months. There are no solid rocks ir. the arctic regions, owing to the . severe frosts. TIip surface of the sea is estimated ; at 150,000,000 square miles, taking the whole sur face of the o lobe at 190,000,000 square miles. Its i greatest depth is supposed to be equal to tne oeigut • of tlie highest mountain, or 5 miles. Compound Iltf.rkst.—Few persons have a correct idea of the effect which onwisely accumu lated debt, and quarterly dividends of interest paid thereon, have upon the fortunes of A nation, a fami ly, or an individual. A bottle of wine focT hundred i years old was drank one day at President Tyler’s 1 iable, and a calculation was made of its cost, on the supposition that the price was half a dollar at first s and that the interest on that half dollar had keen collected everv three months, and also laid out at i interest during the four hundred years, by whicli I mode the principal would double every II years.— ' i The result was, that 400 years’ compound interest on ;">0 cents amounted to somo $10,000,000,000 e | nong|, to pay the public debt of Britan ten limes over. A noon temper EssF.rrmr. to breeimjhJ ***: mam._Never breed from a bad tenypered animal rt i you can possibly avoid it. Good or bad temper in f animals is transmitted to their offspring with the i! same certainty that a good or bad loin or brisket may bp, or coarse legs, head or horns. You cannot there fore, be hto careful on this point as well as all oth ers in selecting your breeding animals. Many person has been killed hy had tempered horses and ' [„,||* and even females have occasionally done se ’ rious injury. We think agricultural society cwn r mitlees ought to take into consideration the temper t (if animalsTas well as other good or bao points, be r fore passing judgement npon them. ! 1 A Freak of Nature.—A communication m the !' Courier from the late editorof that paper states that , Mr. Win. Carter of Cambridge, has a healthy well i formed calf having a coat of wod instead of hair. There is no perceptible difference m tbeappearance , of the animal’s hide from a sheep of the same age. t Like the sheep, the face and the lower part of th* - leers are covored with a short kmd of plrant hair.— r The rest of the body has a covering of wool, and t from its appearance may afford as good service ** true Siaxon ir Merino.