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I YTTELTON WADDELL, ?Edit01.s & Proprietors,.. C0N3TANS ET LEN1S, UT RES EXPOSTULET, ESTO. [PubliAea Weekly-*2 per Annum. JOS. A. WADDELL, S _ __ ■ .. ■ -- --- VOL. mT _STAUNTON, VA., WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 13, 1850._NO. ML ST A1/ jfTO NSPEC T A T 0 R. TERMS. The “SPECTATOR” is publishedonceaweek, at Two Dollars a year, if paid in advance, or Two Dollars and Fifty Cents if delayed beyond the expira tion of the year. No subscription will be discontinued, but at the option of the Editoi s, until ullarrearagesare ^ 0^- All communications tothe Editor sby mailmust be post-paid, or they willnot be attended to. jvL ADVERTISEMENTS of thirteen lines (or less,) inserted three times for one dollar, and twenty five cents for each subsequent continuance Larger ad vertisements in the same profiortion. Ahberaldiscount made to advertiser sby the year. UEXDLUSO.X J4. BELL, attorney at law STAUNTON, VIRGINIA. PRACTISES in the various Courts of Augusta, Rockbridge, Bath and Highland. Prompt at tention will be given to all business entrusted to his care. .. .. .. n Office in the white building opnosite the Court House, next door to John N. llendren-where he may always be found during business lours, except when professionally absent. May 2, 1849.—if. __ JAMES H. SKINNER, £82 a STAUNTON, VIRGINIA. PRACTISES in the Superiorand Inferior Courts of Augusta, the Superior Courts of Koeking ham, Rockbridge, and Albemarle, and in the L . S. District Court for Western V trg'nia OFFICE, next door to the Court House, in wie Brick Row. May 2, 1849. __ B. THOMAS ALBERTSON* ATTORNEY AT LAW, WAYNESBORO', VA-, PRACTICES in the Courts of Augusta, Albe marle and Nelson. Office in the room lately occupied by Col. George Baylor, where he may be found at all times, unless when absent on pro fessional business. Nov. 29, 1848.. BOJLIWiK CHRlSTHiJY, attorney at law, STAUNTON, V A ., tlTILL attend the Courts of Augusta and the adjacent VV Counties. Staunton, Nov. 14, 1849.—tf. JOHN LEW IS COCHRAN, attorney at law, WILL attend the Superior and Inferior Courts of Albemarle, Augusta, Nelson and Louisa. jg/jr Office in Charlottesville. September 5, 1849.—tt. Dy. Ho\)eYt \\. UobcY\sow HAVING located on Christian’s (Jteek, at the residence of his brother, lenders his profession al services to the neighborhood and the public gen erally. Ho may be found at home at all hours ex cept when professionally engaged. September 19, 1849.—6:n. __ PRINTS ONLY. LEE At BREWSTER, 44 Cedar Street, New York. Print Warehouse—established in 1843, for the sale of Printed Calicoes exclusively—at low prices. LEE & BREWSTER confine their attention exclu sively to the purchase and saleot American and Foreign Prints. Their facilities enable them lobe the largest purchasers in the United States, and secures to their establishment advantages in morlmtmtand prices -over any othsr House,—and to which the atteution o Merchants is respectfully solicited. December 26, 1849.— 6m. _ OHESEBROUOH, STEARNS Sc CO. SILK GOODS. 37, JNatsau St., Opposite Post Office, Mw York, j -Importers and Jobbers of French, India, German and , Italian Silk Goods of every variety. ALSO a complete assortment of British and Ameri can Fancy Goods suited to all sections of trade in the United States, and comprising the most Fashiona ble Styles to be found in the New York Market. December 26, 1849.—6m. JOHN COMPTON.J I.DAVID B. TUB**"* COMPTON Sc TURNER, IMPORTERS AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN j STAPLE AND FANCY DRY GOODS, No 35 Nassau Street, (Opposite the Post Office,) NEW YORK. Dec. 26, 1849.—6n». CLARK A WEST, IMPORTERS OF, AND JOBBERS IS CLOTHS, CANSIMEltES, VESTINGS AND TAI LORS’ TRIMMINGS, 158, BROADWAY, NEW YOKE. THE Merchants of Virginia arc particularly invited to call and examine their stock. December 26,1849.—6m. _ ; NOTICE. WHITE &. CO., respectfully announce to all »r persons indebted that all accounts due are •drawn off and ready for adjustment. It will save us much trouble in calling on those indebted if they vill call and settle their accounts either by Cash •er Bond—the former greatly preferred. Staunton, January, 16, 1850. UT Vindicator and Messenger copy.__ j BRITT AN N 1A WARE. JUST received at the Hardware Store Brittan nia Coffee and Tea Pols, Candle Sucks, Spit toons, &c., very handsome and cheap. GEORGE. E. PRICE. January 16, 1850. \17HITE &. CO., will from this day to the 1st ( vv day of April next offer their entire stock of. Goods, which ia very large, at very reduced pricet, for cash. Many styles of Goods will be offered at , Cost and below. January 16, 1850.—Vkrtk a'nd Mess. copy. MRS. JARVIS’ Cold Candy for Cooghs,Colds, &c., for sale by ESKRIDGE & KINNEY. January 9, 1850. WM. G. STERRETT. on the corner opposite j the Post Office, has Window Glass and Put ty fer sale. Staunton, Dec. 26, 1849. WM. G. STERREFT, corner opposite Post Office, has an excellent assortment ot Groce ries in store and for sale. December 26, 1849. _ Y17M. G. STERRETT, on corner opposite the vv Post Office, has 4 Barrels of Prime Cider Vinegar, for sale by the barrel and retail. December 26, lo 19. LIPPINOOTT, TAYLOR & CO. Celebrated Wholesale and Retail Clothing Warehouses. (T/ie largest assortment in the United States,) New Warehouse, South-west corner of Fourth and Market Streets. Old Stand, 198 and 200 Market Street, above Sixth, Philadelphia, WHERE the largest assortment ofREADY-MADE CLOTHING can be found in this market. Their stock is always full and complete, and they are there fore always prepared, either in “Summer’s heat or Winter’s cold” to supply every demand upon them.— Their motto is Superior'Goods, at fair prices, and they would therefore respectfully solicit the Merchants of the Valley of Virginia to give thcuiacallon theii next trip to Philadelphia. December 19,1S49.—6m. JOHN MACINTOSH. W'M. F. WHITE. MACINTOSH & WHITE. Wholesale Ladies* Boot and Shoe Manufacturers, No. 19, South Fourth Street, Philadelphia. M& W. are extensively engaged in the Mnnn . facture of LADIES, MISSES, AND CHIL DREN’S BOOTS AND SHOES in all their varie ties, and keep always on hand a full supply to answer ,the demands of trade. They invite the attention of Country Merchants to their extensive stock, satisfied ■ that at no other establishment of the kind in Philadel phia, can they suit themselves better, either as it re gards the quality of their Goods, or the terms upon which they are prepared and determined to sell them. Call and see them at their Old Stand, No. 18, South ! Fourth Street, Philadelphia. December 19, 1849.—6m. <5*0 JVo. 3, South Fifth Street, Philadelphia, Importer ami Dealer, Wholsale <fc Retail, in Wines, Liquors and Segars. ONSTANTLY on hand, a large and well assorted stock, which is offered in any quantities on modcr I ate terms, comprising j Mcderia, Sherry. Port, Lisbon, Sicily, Tcneriff, Mal I aga, Champagne, Claret, Hock, Suutcrnc and Barsac ; Wines. Old Pale and Dark Cognac Brandies; Jamaica and St. Croix Rum ; Holland Gin ; Irish, Scotch and Motion gahcla Whiskies; Wine Bitters, (of very superior quality ;) London Brown Stout, and Scotch Ale; Li quors, $-c., and the finest brands of choice Havana Se gars. All orders promptly and carefully executed. December 19, 19-49.—Cm. JAMES E BROWN, Wholesale and Retail Saddle and Trunk Maker, No. 30, South Fourth Street, between Marke|& Chest nut streets, rniiaiicipma. THE attention of dealers and others is invited to his assortment of Saddles, Bridles, Saddlebags, Col lars, Whips, &c.—Also to his superior nrticle of TRUNKS, viz: Sole Leather Trunks, Solid Leather Steel Spring Trunks, of lightweight; Riveted Iron ; Frame Trunks, Lady’s Dress Trunks, Bonnet Boxes, Wood Trunks, of different qualities; Vuliccs, ofvari ! ous style and prices; Velvet Tapestry and Brussels : Carpet Bags, Enamelled Leather Bags, Lady’s Trav elling Bags, Satchels, &c., &c., all of which he offers at low prices for Cash, or approved paper. Orders thankfully received, and promptly executed. December 19, 1849 —6m. WRIGHT & KING. Clothing Rooms, No. llfi, Market st., above 4th, Philadelphia. WHERE at all times can be found a complete and extensive assortment ot Ready-Made Clothing. They specially invite the Merchants of the Valley of Virginia to give them a call, promising to furnish the best articles in their line upon such terms a9 must com mand and secure their patronage. They manufacture CLOTHING to order upon the shortest notice, and will be happy to respond to all suitable calls from the coun try to that effect. I December 19, 1849. Hats, Caps, Ladies' Rich Furs, Beaver Bonnets. &c. WILLIAM If. BEEBE <fc CO., 138 Ciiesnut St., Philadelphia HAVE on hand a large and superior assortment of FINE GOODS, in the greatest variety in their line of trade, and offer them to Merchants and Dealers generally, at fair and moderate prices. They especial ly solicit the attention of the Merchant* of the Valley of Virginia to their splendid Stock, and trust that.on their visit to Philadelphia they will not fail to give them a call. VVra. H. Gardner, late of Richmond, Va., is associated in the firm of W. H. Beebe & Co. and will take great pleasure in waiting on his Virginia friends. December 19, 1849. Pliila, Dry Goods Emporium. ECHEL, RAIGUEL «fc Co., IMPORTERS & WHOLESALE DEALERS IN Foreign A Domestic Dry Goods .Vo. 128 and 130 -V. od St., above West Side. KEEP at all seasons a complete assortment of FOR EIGN & DOMESTIC DRY GOODS On harid, a dapted to the trade of aH sections of the country, and adequate to any aeniana inai • ... They invite the attention of Southern dealers, and es pecial tv the Merchants of"the Valley of Virginia, to an examination of their Stock, satisfied that they will find it “to their interest to deal with them. Deccmbci 19, 1S49. WXH. P. WI1STACH, JVb. 283 A'mth Third Street, Philadelphia, Wholesale Importer, Manufacturer and Dealer in , Saddlers' Hardware, Carriage and Harness Fur niture, Saddle and Carriage Trimmings, &c., KEEPS constantly on hand, a rich and extensive as sortment of SADI)LER\ HARDWARE, and through the medium of their own home journal, iuvites the Merchants of the Valley of Virginia to call and sec him before purchasing elsewhere. He oilers his Goods at such prices as will not fail to please his customers.-— Remember, his place of business is No. 28 1-2 North Third Street, Philadelphia. December 19, 1849.—Cm. To Southern and Western Merchants, Sec. SILVER Ware.—Forks—Table, Medium, Dessert, ' Tea,Oyster, and Pickle. Spoons—Table, Dessert, . Tea, Gravy, Mustard and Salt. Ladles—Soup, Oys- ! ter, Saofce, Sugar and Cream. Knives Ice Cream, i Fish, Cake, Butter, Fruit, Dessert. .... Tea Sets, of various patterns, plain to richly chased, and of every variety of form. OdJ pieces made to match, and broken sets completed. Silver warranted , standard. ,, ! Plated and Britannia Ware, of latest patterns, con stantly on hand and for sale at , WILSON’S Silver W are Manufactory, , S. W. corner 5th and Cherry sis., Philadelphia. December 19, D49.—6ni. _j ERASMUS D. WOLFE. JE68E E. PEYTON. Wolfe Sc Peyton, Wholesale Dealers in Foreign & Domestic Dry Goods, No. 89. Market Street, Philadelphia, yyte would respectfully call the attention of South VV ern Dealers to our .veil selected stock of Fo reign and Domestic Dry Goods. They have been pur ged for cash, and will be run off to customers upon the cheapest terms. We extend a special invitation to the Merchants of Virginia to pay us a visit at oar house, No. 89 Market St., Philadelphia. Dec. 19, 1849-—6m. __ CONGRESS HALL. So SSTOiBffilftr&EJEa No. 8S Chesnut St., & 27 South Third St., PHILADELPHIA. Dec. 19, 1849.—6m. G. STfiRRfc lT, on the corner opposite the Post Office, has just received a superior article of Tea, for sale low. Decernoor 26, 1840. -t POETRY. TO MY LITTLE DAUGHTER’S SHOES. Two little rough-worn, stubbed shoes, A plump, well trodden pair; With striped stocking* thrust within, Lie just beside my chair. Of very homely fabric they, A whole is in each toe, They might have cost, when they were new, Some fifty cents or so. And yet, this little worn out pair, Is richer far to me, Than all the jeweled sandals arc Of Eastern luxury. I This mottled leather, cracked with use, Is satin in my sight; Those little tarnished buttons shine With all a diamond's light. Search through the wardrobe of the world ! You shall not find me there, So rarely made, so rarely wrought, So glorious a pair. And why ? Because they tell of her, Now sound asleep above, Whose form is moving beauty, and Whose heart is beating love. They tell me of her nicrrj’ laugh ; Her rich, whole-hearted glee ; Her gentleness, her innocence, And infant purity. They tell me that her wavering steps Will long demand my aid ; For the old road of human life 1* very roughly laid. High hills and swift descents abound ; And on so rude a way Feet that can wear these coverings Would surely go astray. Sweet little girl, be mine the task Thy feeble steps to tend; To be thy guide, thy counsellor, Thy playmate ami thy friend ! And when my steps shall faltering grow, And thine be firm and strong, Thy strength shall lead my tottering age In cheerful peace along ! MISCELLANY. WINTER IN THE ARCTIC CIRCLE. So much has been published, during the last ! year, about the expedition of Sir John Franklin, ; lost in the Polar regions,thatthe following account of winter there, by a writer in the London Times, I will be read with peculiar interest: 1 Snow begins to fall as early as August, and the whole ground is covered to the depthof two or three I feet beforo the month of October. Along the shores I ar.d bay6, the fresh water, drained from the thaw I ing of former collections of snow, becomes quickly converted into solid ice. As the cold augments, the ! air deposits its moisture in the form of a fog, which r.y.i.tA.o into u tint, guoatiuiei netting, at spicutar i icicles, dispersed through the atmosphere, and ex I tremely minute, that might seem to pierce and ex coriate the skin. The hoar frost settles profusely, I in fantastic clusters, on every prominence. The whole surface of the sea steams like a lime kiln, an appearance called frost smoke—caused, as in other ! instances of the production of vapor, by the water ! being still relatively warmer than the incumbent ' air. At length, the dispersion of the mist, and con sequent clearness of the atmosphere, announce that ! the upper stratum of the sea itself has cooled to the same standard ; a sheet of ice spreads quickly over the smooth expanse, and often gains the thickness of an inch, in a single night. The darkness of a 1 prolonged winter now broods impenetrably over the frozen continent, unless the moon chances at times to obtrude her faint rays, which only discover the horrors and wide desolation of the sceno. The wretched settlers, covered with a load of bear skins, remain crowded and immured in their huts, every chink of which they carefully stop against the pierc ing cold ; and cowering about the stove or the lamp, they 6cek to doze away the tedious night. Their slender stock of provisions, though kept in the same apartment, is often frozen so hard as to require to be cut by a hatchet. The whole of the inside df their hut becomes lined -frith a thick crust of ice; and if they happen for an instant to open a window, the moisture of the tortfined air is immediately pre- | cipitated in The form of a shower of snow. As the j frost continues to penetrate deeper, tho rocks are , heard at a distance to split with a loud explosion.— i The sleen of death seems to wrap the scene in ut ter ruin. Sir Edward Parry has thus beautifully described this effect: “The 6ound of voices, which, during the cold weather, could be heard at a much greater distance than usual, served now and then to break the si lence which reigned around us; a silence far differ ent from that peaceable composure which charac terizes the landscape of acultivaled country—it was the dealh-like stillness of the most dreary desola tion, and the total absence of animated existence.” ( During the winter at Melville Island, people were j heard conversing at the distance of a mile. This was, no doubt, owing to the density of the frigid at mosphere, but chiefly to the absence of all obstruc tion in a scene of universal calm or darkness. Melville Island was discovered on Sept. 4th, 1819. Here Parry and his companions pushed for- ; ward, but soon found their course arrested by an ' impenetrable barrier of ice. After waiting fur a fortnight, in hopes of overcoming the ice, they went to work, cutting and sawing it—and at length, af ter several days’ hard toil, they brought their ships within about cable’s length of the beach, in five fathoms water. The usual winter protection for the vessels is cov ering in the deck. Sometimes a house is erected on the 6hore, with blocks of ice, which soon become ; a solid concrete mass, which being a slow conduc tor, checks the access of cold. It was necessary to be very economical of fuel, the small moss and turf which could be collected being too wet to be of any use. By placing the apparatus for baking in a cen tral position, and by several other arrangements, the cabin was maintained in a very comfortable tem perature ; but still, around its extremities and the bed places, steam, vapor, and even the breath, set tled first as moisture and then as ice. To remove these annoyances became, accordingly, a part of their daily employment. To keep the men’s minds in a lively and cheerful slate, plays were performed,; Lieut. Beechy being nominated stage-manager, and the other gentlemen coming forward as amateur performers ; the Arctic management and-the North Georgian Theatre were very popular. The offi cers had another source of amusement in the North Georgian Gatette, of which Captain Sabine became editor, and all were invited to contribute to this chronicle of the frozen regions. Thu* pass’d the time Till through the hrtid chamber* of the south Look’d out the joyous sun. It was on the 4th of November that this great orb ought to have taken his leave—but a doep haze prevented them frem bidding a formal farewell, Ami from ascertaining the period to which refraction j would have rendered him visible j yet he was re ported to be seen from the mast-head, on the 11th. Amid various occupations and amusements, the shortest day came on almost unexpected, and the seamen then watched with pleasure lire twilight gradually strengthening at noon. On the 28th of January, none of the fixed stars could be seen at that hour by the naked eye ; and on February 1st and 2d, the sun tvas looked for, but the sky was wrapt in tnist; however he was perceived from the maintop. Throughout the winter, the officers, at the period of twilight, had taken a regular walk of two or three hours'; not proceeding, however, fur ther than a mile, lest they should be overtaken by a snow drift. There was a want of objects to di versify this promenade. A monotonous surface of dazzling white covered land and sea ; the view of the ships, the smoke ascending from them, the sound of human voices which through the calm and cold air was carried to an extraordinary distance, alo^ gave sny^nimation to this wintry scene. On March loth, the general attention was turn ed to the means of extrication from the ice. By May 17lh, the seamen had 60 far cut it from around the ships, as to allow them to float; but in the sea it was still immoveable. By the middle of June, there were channels in which boats could pass;yet throughout this month and the following, the great covering of ice in the stirtounding sea remained en tire, and kept the ships in harbor. On the 2nd of August, however, the whole maw, by one of those sudden movements to which it is liable, broke up and floated out. IRISHMAN'S LETTER FROM CALIFORNIA. As every thing from Califirnia is “important,” we offer no apology for publising the following letter, kindly furnished by our washerwoman, whose sweetheart went out,some fourteen months ago, to dig up a “forten” for himself and Biddy : San Fransiskt, Dec. 1st, 1849. Biddy Dari,an’—I’ve been to the mines, bad luck to ’em. For siven weeks, Biddy, acushla, 1 sarched the bowels of terry firmer for goold, and all 1 got was the dissenterry, by rason of workin on an empty stomack. The devil a thing to ate for brek fist, the same for dinner, and ditto repated fur sup per, an all the time throwing up mud an’ water, is ; mity wakening for the insides. Pitaytees was a i dollar a pound, and no mate to be had but gristley j bares, which is tuff customers. In cowld wether the crayturs(l mane the gristly bares) comet down from the inountins, with their arums extended as if ] they wantid to bid ye welkim; but the moment j theyre fornenst ye, they grab ye, the traythors,and ; squaze the bretb o’ life out ov you. Some ov the j boys that went out in the same ship wid me found •'ll_i. ... _ JJUUIU UUV IIIV UV'II MV. MM •••v/ 'MIIJ «• ! a weddin ring, Biddy, did Terry get for his thrub I ble. The black luck was on :nct darlin, fur lavin I ye, a dacent, modest colleen, as ye are, to a kunthry where the wimmin are the culler of a dirty copper kettle, and have no more dry goods on their hacks, savin your presence, Biddy, than mother Eve had, before she turned manty-maker and introduced the fashion of vegetable aprons. ] got back from the mines a furtnit ago,-and a most unfortunit go it was for me thatl iver wint there. Here I am in San Fransisky, knockin about without a rap. What’s to become ov me, Biddy, mavourneen, the saints only know. Only to think iiiai t snouiti rave me comfortable berm 1 had swa ping the strates of New York, to come to this hay then kuntry, where tliestrale claning is done by burds, and drinking, gambling, specklation, and shooicide is the only fashionable amusements. Yi’ll see it stated in the papers, that the diggers are finding goold in quarts. Biddy it’s a lie !—a base, disgraceful, onchristian lie! I niver seen a lump of goold yit that would fill a gill measure. Couldn’t ye raiso a subskripshun, Biddy, among the strate swapers, to pay me passidge back ? If I was only back in New York, dead or alive, l’de never lave it while grass grows and wather runs. Your loving, Terence McVerdant. A Turkish Love affair.—The modern laws of Cos do not reward female chastity, but they discountenance in a very singular manner, any cru elty in females towards their admirers. While Dr. Clarke was on that island, an istance occurred, in which the fatal termination of a loVe affair occas ioned a trial for what the Mohammedan lawyers called “homicide” by an intermediate cause. The case was as follows': A yohng man desperately in love with a girFof Stranchio, eagerly sought her; but his proposals were rejected. In consequence of his disappoint ment, he bought some poison and destroyed himself. The Turkish police instantly arrested the father of the young woman, as the cause, by implication of the man’s death ; under the fifth species of homicide he became therefore amenable for this act of sui aMa U a •> tl.A />• non ma hafnra tlia msrriotrotn it was urged literally by the accusers that “if he, the accused, had not had a daughter, the deceased would not have fallen in love; consequently he would not have swallowed poison ; consequently he would not have died ; but he, the accused, had a daughter, and the deceased had fallen in love, and had been disappointed, and had swallowed-poison, and had died. Upon all these accounts he was called upon to pay the price of the yonng man’s life and this being fixed at the sum of eighty piastres, it was accordingly exacted ! OCf- The following descriptidh of the burial of a seaman, a Mr. Macaskey, on a desert island, we find in a letter to the Pittsburgh Gazette. Its beau ty and pathos richly entitle it to attention : “Upon hearing these particulars (of the wreck of the Brig Alfred in the Pacific, near the Gallipa gos) the Three Brothers immediately set sail for the place, but head winds and baffling currents de- j tained us six days. When we arrived, two boats and fourteen men were sent on shore to search for I the persons left on the island. After searching five hours without success, we were on the point of re turning to itre ship j at this juncture I was attracted j by foot prints in the sand to a clump of low bushes, I under which was the dead body of your son. We buried him in the sand, and filled his grave with : coral from the beach. No prayer was audibly said, | nor a word spoken, but the rough sailors that sur rounded his grave, each shed a manly tear to his ' memory, which was all they could give. We turn-1 ed away with sad hearts and left him, with nought but a broken oar to mark the lone spot where we laid him.” Predictions for 1850.—Should the following predictions come true (but we have no faith in such things)—the popular song of “there’s a good time coming” will be verified before another year has passed over our heads. The Sultan ofTurkey, and the Czar of Russia, however are exceptions: “A German newspaper recently published a prophecy by a Benedictine monk, whojnied in 1847, the purport of which is that the present year, 1850, will bo one of unusual prosperity. The different sects of Christianity will in that year accord. The Sultan will be poisoned,(Aboul Medjihi had best lake care,) and his empire will become Christian. Rus sia will suffer much from a warlike nation of the Hast. A German Prince will found an eastern em pire. Grain, fruit, lentils and other vegetables will be so plentiful that the barns will lie unable to con tain them. The disease of the sweet potato will everywhere cease, and old men will not remember such a year of fruitlulness. 'Ilie wine of this yrar will surpass that of the year of the comet.” ' THE AVIT OF DIFFERENT NATIONS. Irish wit.—Once when the lord lieutenant wat . riding in the Plroenix Park, with Sir Herculei Langrishe, he complained of his predecessors foi ! leaving it so wet and swampy, Langrishe replied i “They were too much occupied in draining the res of the kingdom.” Three Hibernians were travelling together on Tool at night j tired and hungry, they asked the distance to their point of destination. ‘Three miles’ was the reply. “Good luck to you,” replied the spokesman “that’s only a mile apiece for us.” An Irish cab driver was presented with a shilling at his journey’s end, St grumbled loudly at the small ! ness of the fare. “Faith,” said ho, “it’s not nut ting me off with this ye’d be, if ye know all.” The traveller’s curiosity was excited. “What do you mean ?” “Faith that ’ud be telling.” Another shilling was tendered. “And now,” asked tire gentleman, “what do you mean by saying if you knew but all ?” “ That I drov yer boner the last three miles without a lynch-pin.” i A beggar woman in the country followed a gen tleman, to his great annoyance,for about a mile,and | on bidding him good bye, had the modesty to ask [ him for “a little sixpence.” “For what,” asked the gentleman, “what have you done for mo?”— I “Ah, the sore,haven’t I been kepping yer honer in discoorse■*” | Scotch wit.—The national wit of the Scotch is altogether different from that of the Irish. Indeed I the Scotchman is not witty so much as satirical. If lie perpetrates a pun or a jole it often carries a sling with it. He may raise the laugh, but see if it is not at somebody's cost. The following is a good il lustration : A meeting of the elders of a certain kirk had assembled fur the purpose of determining | about the position of a stove, which was to be erec ted for the purpose of warming the huilding on Sun r+nys. After considerable discussion, an old man, | who had an opinion—“In an humble opinion,” he said, “the stove should be placed in the pulpit for it is by far the couldest place in a’ the kirk.” English wit.—The English are not famous for j their wit. The national stock consist rather of a j set of conventional sayings, which men agree to I laugh at, than of those rational coruscations of wit which distinguish the Irish character. American wit.—American humor mainly con sists in strong exaggerations,and is ludicrous chiefly from its incongruity. The Americans, by pitchfork ing together the most odd and heterogeneous ideas, force you to laugh in spite of yourself. This kind of burlesque humor has already become their na tional type; its best specimens are to be found in Sam Slicks and Major Downing’s letters. The lu dicrous is a lower order of humor than the witty— It is difficult,however, to define in what the differ ence consists, and men generally agree to laugh in their own way, without definitions.—Eliza Cook’s Journal. h.Mrr.noR sambo.—a corresponaem oi me uos ton 'l'ravellcr gives ihc following amusing-descrip lion of the new Emperor of Hayti, Faustin I., and of his character as a ruler; he says : “I have already had one tolerable good look at the Prince of Darkness as he rode through the town on the 1st, escorted by several hundred very shabby looking cavalry, and surrounded by the Ministers in brilliant uniforms, lie is large and Square built <uid was iiiuuiued on a Handsome and richly ca parisoned grey, and rigged up in a georgedus the atrical costume—a sort of common tunic, something like that of a herald in the olden time, the material being concealed by a profusion of heavy gold em broidery ; a chapeau also richly laced, and having three large white ostrich plumes, arranged in the Prince’s crest,a broad,blue,and red sash worn cross wise, a sort of trunceon or sceptre in his huge paw, a face thoroughly African, capable of expressing great ferocity, but just then full of a sort of sheep ish consequence—and you have his Ethiopian Maj esty Faustin I., Emperor of all the Haytis, after seeing whom I am less surprised at the asinine 'Stu pidity manifested in some of his measures. In or der to facilitate the weighing of logwood, some of the merchants not long since, put up several scales at their own charge. On hearing this he flew into a violent rage, swdfe they Were conspiring to de fraud hrrtr,ordered the scales away instantly,threat ened to hang to the cross beams the first of the offi cers he should detect cheating him and wound up by declaring he would cause both blacks and whites to know that he was the greatest man on earth ; and by way of proving his greatness he has just is sued directions that no vessel shall be allowed to weigh over 10,000 lbs. a day, which, if carried out will prevent many from loading at all as they could not afford to lay long enough to complete a cargo.” The Vatican.—The Vatican which crowns one of the seven hills of Rome,is an assemblage or group of buildings,covering a space of 1200 feet in length and 1000 feet in breadth. It is btillt'ftpdn the spit which was oecup:ed by the gardens of Nero. It owes its origin to the Bishops of Rome, who erected a humble residence on its site, in the early part of the sixth century. Pope Eugenius III, rebuilt it on a magnificent scale about the year 1150. A few year* afterwards, Innocent II, gave it tip as a lodging to Pe'er II.,King of Arrajoh. In 1405 Clement V ., at tlie instigation of the King of France, removpd the papal see from Rome to Avignon, when the Vatican remained in a con dition ofobscurity and neglect for more than seventy years. But soon after the return of the poritificial court to Rome, an event which had been so earnest ly prayed for by the poor patriarch, and which fi nally took place in 163G, the Vatican was pul in a state of repair,and enlarged and thenceforward con sidered as a regular palace'and residence for the Popes who, one after another, added buildings to it, and gradually enriched it with antiquities, statutes, pic ture* and books, until it became the richest reposi tory in the world. Its library was commenced fourteen hundred years ago. It contains 40,000 manuscripts, among which are some by Pliny, St. Tlromas, St. Charles Burromeo, and many Hebrew, Syriac, Arabian and Armenian Bibles. The whole of the immense buildings forming the Vatican are filled with statues found beneath the ruins of ancient Rome,with pain ting by the masters, with curious medals and an tiquities of almost every description. When it is known that there have been exhumed more than 70,000 statues from the ruined temples and palaces of Rome, the reader can form some idea of the rich es of the Vatican. _ A Large business.—We are told on good au thority, that a manufacturer in Worcester, Mass., has made by the sale of six barrel pistols in Cali fornia, upwards of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars.—JV. V. Post. Qcj- A fire-proof ealico is now made for children by immersion in phospale of magnesia. It will ig nite by contact with flame, but the fire will not spread. It goes out immediately. The Old Tree.—There is an oak on the do main of the Grand Duke of Hesse Darmstadt, which is believed to be 1000 y’re old. Its trunk mea* urt'S 3G feet in circumference. 03- “A lawyer,” said Lord Brougham, in a fa cetioO* mood, “is a learned gentleman who rescues your estate from your enemies, and keeps it him self.” __ CO- An epitaph on a negro baby at Savannah, teoinmences, ••Sweet blighted Rly /” AGRICULTURAL—SCIENTIFIC. INSECTS. Many spielers, moths,' and beetles, counterfeit dea^ when in danger, and no torture will make them show signs of life while the danger continues. Gossamer consists of the-fine threads of the flying spider, covered with dew. The flea, grass-hopjter, and locust, jump two hundred times their own length, equal to a quarter of a mile for a man. An am s nest consists of males and females, who have wings, and also of neuters. The females enjoy the same pre-eminence as among bees; but the manner ofants are more varied; and system, object, and end, mark all tlretr varied reasoning and labors. They have long and tenacious memories, know each oth er, and distinguish any stranger. They carry on systematic wars, and practise all the arts of attack : and defence. Man himself is not more savage in ' war; but they are citizen soldiers, and not hired and I trained for butchery and murder. They also prac tice slavery, making slaves of those they overcome, i They keep aphides, as men keep cows, for the jui ces which they yield. Their nests are formed at i pleasure; and their cells of various forms. Fn Dra ■ zil they are masters of the county; and in Africa I not less formidable. There are six or 6even gene r itions of gnats in a summer,and each lays tv o hun dred and fifty eggs. Bees, beetles, dragon-flies, gnats, spiders, etc., have been observed to have mites on their bodies. More than a life time would be necessary to enumerate the various species of insects and de scribe their appearances. There aie numerous spe 1 ctes collected in the TbuseumB of Europe, but they fufm only a small part of the whole number; and even of these, the habits and metamorphoses are al most entirely unknown. Melger, a German, who devoted his whole life to the 6tudy, had collected and described GQOO species of flies; which he col lected in a district ten miles in circumference ; but | of their habits he knew scarcely anything. Thert have been collected in Europe 27,000 species of in sects :preying on Wheat, In Berlin, two professors ate engaged in collecting, observing and describing insects and their habits, and already they have pub lished five large volumes upon the insects which at tack forest trees. The Yeoman.—Tlie man who stands upon his own soil, who feels, that by the laws of the land in which he lives—he is the rightful and exclusive owner of the land which he tills, is by the consti tution of our nature, under a wholesome influence not easily imbibed from any othersource. lie feels —other things being equal—more strongly than an other, the character of a man as the lord of the in animate world. On this great rind wonderful sphere, which fashioned by the hand of God, and upheld by his power, is rolling through the sky a portion of his; his, from the centre to the sky. It is the apace on which moved -generations before him in their rrtnnri nf dntipa • anrl Tepta ed, by a visible link, with those Who'prCceded him-, as he is also, to those who will follow him, and to whom he is to trasmit a home. Perhaps his farm has come down to him from his fathers. They have gone to their last home; but He can trace their j footsteps over the daily scenes of his labors. The | roof which shelters him, was reared by those to j whom he owes liis being. Some interesting domes | tic tradition is connected with every enclosure. The favorite fruit tree was planted by his father's hand. He sported, in his boyhood, by the side of the brook, which still winds through the meadow. Through , that field, lies the path of the village school of his ; earliest days. ‘He still hears from his window the ■ voice df the Sabbath bell, which called his fathers and forefathers to the house of God ; and near at hand is the spdt where he laid his parents down 16 ; rest, and where lie (fusts, when his hour is comr, 1 he shall be dutifully laid by his children. These are the feelings of the owner df the soil. Words can* 1 not .paint them ; gold cannot buy them ; they flow i from the deepest fountains of the heart; they arS j the life spring of a fresh, healthy, generous nation ' al character.—Edward Everett. The Use of Hogs.—The fat of hogs, is only good as an article of food, to keep up the heat of the body. In warm weather, the lean alone should be used. Well mixed pork is good food, but it is by ! no means equal to good beef, but in raising animals for food or otherwise, the hog is an animal of stinie | consequence, and more so, since improvements in the arts, have opened up a way to make hisoork ship subservient to the most useful purposes of illu mination, in the shape of oft, and hog tallow, (stea rin.) Anrtdrlca may be called the country of hogs, ‘for probably tho number of old and young annually slaughtered in this country,does not'fall below 10. 000,000, worth in market an avenge of at least $5 efcch, giving us ah annual return of $50,000,000. The flesh of swine furnishes more than half the meat consumed by the laboring portion of the Union, Including those employed in the military and ma rine service, and eur merchant vessels. Hogs that arc fattened without being stall fed, make the best food, but prodace less laTd, and those that raise them should feed and use them for the separate purpttses offood, or for lard. Large quantities^it are con verted into lard and oil. This is done not only with ■ the more exclusively fatty portion of the meat, but i frcouenilv the whole carcass is placed in a steam I bath, and all the oily particles are extracted. The lard may be subjected to a pressure which j separates it into two substances, widely differing I from each other, one being a pure oil, limpid in all : weather, and known as ofem; the other, a compact i substance resembling the best mutton tallow, and melting only when exposed to considerable heat.— Both are equally suited to the purpose of illumina [ tion, the former in lamps, the latter in candles.— 1 Extensive use i9 made of the oil for machinery, and none is found (from its purity and freedom of girm miness) to answer a better purpose by lessening friction. Mr. Campbell Murfi it, Phila., was the first to discover and publish the method of making the lard into oil and tallow. The discovery was a valuable one to the United States, and has contrib uted greatly to the industrial and productive wealth. j Black Lkad.—The lead from which pencil points are made, comes from the principal plumbago ' mine in the world, at BorYow'rtale, Cumberland, England. It is situated on a hill, and instead ot being worked continually, like other itifnes, is open ed only once a year, when a sufficient quantity ifc taken out to supply the world for the year to come, and it is again closed with strong doore, baTs and locks, until the next annual supply is requited.— Erom life time of Queen Elizabeth it it said that all the fine pencils in tho world have been made of | the black lead from tills mine. 03- It ta stated, that if a horse be shut up in a psture where ihete is ho water, he will at certain times of the day make it a practice to stand in the place where water is nearest the surface, and 'hui indicate the best place fur digging for it. Those who allege this to lie a fact say that horses hive a faculty of smelling water, like camels in the Afri can desert, or the cattle of Shut h American pmp*. CooiciNc: Cbanucrries.—To each quart of ber ries, very shortly after the cooking of them is com menced, add a teaspoon full of fcaleralus. This will so much neutralize the acideferous juice which they contain, as to make it necessary to use only ortv fourtsi part as much sugar as would have beer, re ! quisite, bad they been cooked without saleratus.