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CONSTANS ET LENIS, UT BES EX'POSTULET, ESTO. [Publbh.B W«kl,-*» per A»w JOS. A. WADDELL, $ _ ___ . —.. •— -- ~ ------- " ' — .... , — VOL. XXVII. _ STAUNTON, YA., WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 20, 1850. _NO. XIV. __ ——————————————WW——’ ■■—’■■ 1 ■1 ■ — ■ ■ ~ » - ST AI N TON SPECTATOR. TERMS. v*. The "SPECTATOR” is publishedonceaweek, atTioo Dollars a year, if paid in advance, or 7Vo Dollars and Fifty Cents if delayed beyond the expira tion of the year. Xo subscription will be discontinued, bil at the option of the Editois, until allarrearages are Alt communications to the Editor sbymailmusl he post paid, or they wit l not be attended to. fry- ADVERTISEMENTS of thirteen lines (or less,) inserted three times for one dollar, andlwenty koe cents for each subsequenlcontinuance- Larger ad vertisements in tke same proportion. A liber a l discount made to advertisersby the year. _ HENDEittSON' 3f. BE.LI., ATTORNEY AT IAWi STAUNTON, VIRGINIA. PRACTISES in the various Courts of Augusta, Rockbridge, Bath and Highland. Prompt at tention will be given" to all business entrusted to his care. , ,, , Office in the white building opposite the Court House, next door to John N. Hendren-where he may always be found during business haurs, except when professionally absent. May 2, 1849.—if. _ JAMES H. SKINNER, STAUNTON, VIRGINIA. PRACTISES in the Superiorand Inferior Courts of Augusta, the Superior Courts of Bing ham, Rockbridge, and Albemarle, and in the U. S. District Court i'or Western \ irginia. OFFICE, next door to the Court House, tu tne Brick Row. May 2, 1849. _ E- THOMAS ALBERTSON, ATTORNEY AT LAW, WAYNESBORO’, VA., PR VCT1CES in the Courtsof Augusta, Albe marle and Nelson. Offioe in the room lately occupied by Col. George Baylor, where he may be found at all times, u 'less when absent on pro fessional business. Nov. 29, 1848. HoJLMVJiR CliRiSTMoiM', attorney at law, STAUNTON, V A ., t ..._i .u.. „»• luniKt., nml the adjacent m —---c VV Counties. Staunton, Nov. 14, 1949.—tf LEW 18 COCHRAN, ATTORNEY AT LAW, WILL attend the Superior and Inferior Courts of Albemarle, Augusta, Nelson and Louisa. Office in Charlottesville. September 5, 1849.—tf. Dr. Do\)evt U. DoVievtson HAVING located on Christian’s Creek, at the residence of his brother, tenders his profession al services to the neighborhood and the public gen erally. He may be found at home at all hours ex cept when professionally engaged. September 19, 1849.—G-.ii. PRINTS ONLY. L. F. E & BREWSTER, 44 Cedar Street, New York. print Warehouse—established in 1843, J'or the sale nf Printed Calicoes exclusively—at low prices. LEE & BREWSTER coniine their attention exclu sively to the purchase and sale ot American and Foreign Prints. Their facilities enable them to be the largest purchasers in the United States, and secures o their establishment advantages in assortment and prices over any othsr House,—and to which the attcntiou of Merchants is respectfully solicited. December 26, 1S49.—6m. ©HESEBROUQ-H. STEARNS Sc OO. SILK GOODS. 37, wYaasau Sf., Opposite Post Office, JVew lork. \ Importers and Jobbers of French, Iudia, Germau aud Italian Silk Goods of every variety. A LSO a complete assortment of British und Aineri \ can Fancy Goods suited to all sections of trade in The United States, and comprising the most l ashiona ble Styles to be found in the New York Market. December 26, 1849.—6u». _ JOHN COMPTOS.) [nAVID D. TCttNER. ©OIWPTON Sc TURNER, IMPORTERS AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN j STAPLE AND FANCY DRY GOODS, No 35 Nassau Street, (Opposite the Post Office,) JiKlV YORK. Dec. 26, 1319.—6m. CLARK SL WEST, tMPOBTEBS OF, AS D JOBBEttS IS CLOTHS, CASHMERES, VESTINGS AND TAI LORS* TRIMMINGS, 158, BROADWAY, NEW YORK. THE Merchants of Virginia are particularly invited to call and examine their stock. December 26, 1849.—6ni. _ NOTICE. WHITE & CO., respectfully announce tu all J persons indebted that all accounts due are drawn off and ready for adjustment. It will sa\e us much trouble in calling on those indebted if they ■will call and settle their accounts either by Cash «r Bond—the former greatly preferred. Stinnlnn, January, 16. 1850. ggT Vindicator and Messenger copy. BRITT ANNIA WARE. JUST received at the Hardware Store Brittan- j nia Coffee and Tea Pots, Caudle St.cks, pit-1 ^ h*n<bSEORGE.e’l'. PRICE. j January 16, 1850. __j WHITE St CO., will from this day to the 1st: day of April next offer their entire stock of' Goods, which is very large, at wry reiljccd prices,! for cash. Many styles of Goods will be offered at C<«t ami below. January 16, 1850.—Vind. and Mess. copy. MRS. JARVIS’ Cold Candy for Coughs,Colds, ike., for sale by _ ESKRIDGE & KINNEY, i January 9, 1850. WM- G. STERRETT, on the corner opposite \ the Post Office, has Window Glass and Put-1 ty Per sale. Staunton, Dec. 26, 1849. WM. G. STERREFT, comer opposite Post Office, has an excellent assortment of Groce ries in store and for sale. December 26, 18-19. WM. G. STERRETT, on corner opposite the j Post Office, has 1 Barrels of Prune Cider Vinegar, for sale by the barrel and retail. December 26, 1849. LXPPINCOTT, TAYIsOR & 00. Celebrated Wholesale and Retail Clothing Warehouses. (77je largest assortment in t/ie United States,) New Warehouse, South-west corner of Fourth and Market Streets. Old Stand, 199 and 200 Market Street, above Sixth, Philadelphia, WHERE the largest assortment ofREADY-MADE CLOTHING can be found in this market. Then stock is always full aud complete, and they ure there fore always prepared, either in “Summer’s beat or Winter’s cold” to supply every demand upon them — Their motto is Super ior'iioods, at fair prices, and they would therefore respectfully solicit the Merchants of the Valley of Virginia to give them a call on theif uext trip to Philadelphia. December 19, 1849.—6m. * JOHN MACINTOSH. "’M. F. WHITE. JIACISTOSH Si WHITE, j I Thole sale Ladies’ Boot and Shoe Manufacturers, No. IS, South Fourth Street, Philadelphia. M& W. are extensively engaged in the Manu . facturo of LADIES, MISSES, AND CHIL DREN’S BOOTS AND SHOES in all their varie ties, ind keep always on hand a full supply to answer the demands oftrade. They invite the attention of Country Merchants to their extensive stock, satisfied that at no other establishment of the kind in Philadcl [ phia, can they suit themselves belter, either as itre , gards the quality of their Goods, or the terms upon ! which they arc prepared and determined to sell them, i Call and sec them at their Old Stand, No. 18, South ’ Fourth Street, Philadelphia. December 19, 1849.—6m. (So dTo •Vo. 3, South Fifth Street, Philadelphia, Importer ami Dealer, Wholsale «fc Retail, in Wines, Liquors amt Se^ars. CONSTANTLY on hand, a large and well assorted stock, which is offered in any quantities on moder ! ate terms, comprising Medcria, Sherry, Port, Lisbon, Sicily, Tcneriff, Mal | aga, Champague, Claret, Hock, Sauterue and Barsac ; Wines. Old Pale and Dark Cognac Brandies; Jamaica and St. Croix Ruir ; Holland Gin ; Irish, Scotch aud Monon , gahela Whiskies; Wine Bitters, (of very superior ! quality ;) London Brown Stout, and Scotch Ale; Li quors, $-c., and the finest brands of choice Havana Se | gars. All orders promptly and carefully executed. | December 19, 1849.—6m. JAMES E BROWN. Wholesale and Retail Saddle and Trunk Maker, No. 30, South Fourth Street, between Market & C'hcst uut Streets, Philadelphia. THE attention of dealers and others is invited to his assortment ofSaddles, Bridles, Saddlebags, Col lars, Whips, &c.— Also to his superior article ol TRUNKS, viz : Sole Leather Truuks, Solid Leather Steel Spring Trunks, of lightweight; Riveted Iron ITPan,e Trunks. Ladv’s Dress Trunks. Bonnet Boxes, Wood Trunks, ofditlcrcnt qualities; Vuliccs, ofvan ous st vie and prices; Velvet Tapestry and- Brussels i Carpet Bags, fcuamclled Leather Bags, Lady’s Trav elling Bag's, Satchels, &e., &c., all of which he offers j at low prices for Cash, or approved paper. Orders ! thankfully received, and promptly executed. December 19, 1849 —6m. WRIGHT & KING. Clothing Rooms, No. 13(r, Market st., above 4th, Philadelphia. "ITTHERE at all times can be fouud a complete and VV extensive assortment of Ready-Made Clothing, j They specially invite the Merchants of the Valley j of Virginia to give them a call, promising to fnrnish the best articles in tbeir lino upon such terms as must com j mand ami secure their patronage. They manufacture CLOTHING to order uiion the shortest notice, and will be happy to respond to all suitable calls from the coun try to that effect. December 19, 1849. Hats, Caps. Ladies’ Rich Furs, Beaver Bonnets. &c. WILLIAM II. BEEBE «fc CO., 138 Chesnuf St., Philadelphia HAVE on hand a largo and superior assortment of FINE GOODS, in the greatest variety in their line of trade, and offer them to Merchants and Dealers generally, at fair and moderate prices. They especial ly solicit the attention of the Merchant* of the Valley of Virginia to their splendid Stock, and trust that on their visit to Philadelphia they will not fail to give them a call. Wm. H. Gardner, late of Richmond, Va., is associated in the firm of W. H. Beebe St Co. and will take great pleasure in waiting on his Virginia friends. December 19, 1849. Fhila* Wry Goods Emporium* ECHEL, RAIGUEL «fc Co., IMPORTERS & WHOLESALE DEALERS IN Foreigu & Domestic Dry Goods, *Vo. 128 and 130 %V. 3d St., above JVest Side. ITEEP at all season* a complete assortment of FOR L E1GN & DOMESTIC DRY GOODS on hand, a dapted to the trade of all sections of the country, and adequate to any demand that may be made upon them. They invite the attention of Southern dealers, and es pecially the Merchants of the Valley of Virgiuia, to an examination of theirStock, satisfied that they will find it to their interest to deal with them. December 19, 1849. WM. P. WXLSTACH, JVb. 28j JS'orth Third Street, Philadelphia, Wholesale Importer, Manufacturer and Dealer in Saddlers’ Hardware, Carriage and Harness Fur niture, Saddle and Carriage Trimmings, &c., KEEPS constantly on hand, a rich and extensive as sortment ot SADDLERY HARDWARE, and through the medium of their own home journal, invites the Merchants of the Valley of Virginia to call and sec • • . t. c ...l_Mn at such prices as will not fail to please his customers.— Remember, his place of business is No. ‘28 1-2 North Third Street, Philadelphia. December 19, 1S49.—6m. To Southern and Western Merchants, «fcc. Q1I-VER Ware.—Fork* Table, Medium. 1^ T.»a nrito" . Snrvrmw— 1 *1, 9 , Tea, Gravy, Mustard and Sait. Ladles—Soup, Oys ter, Sauce, Sugar and Cream. Knives—Ice Cream, Fish, Cake, Butter, Fruit, Dessert. Tea Sets, of various patterns, plain to richly chased, and of every variety of form. Odd pieces made to match, and broken sets completed. Silver warranted *'p fated and Britannia Ware, of latest patterns, con stantly on hand and for sale at , WILSON’S Silver Ware Manufactory, S. W. comer 5thand Cherry sts., Philadelphia. December 19, 1M9.—6m. ^ ERASMUS D. WOLFE. JESSE E. PEYTON. Wolfe & Peyton, Wholesale Dealers in Foreign & Domestic Dry Goods, No. 89. Market Street, Philadelphia. WE would respectfully call the attention of South ern Dealers to our well selected stock of bo reien and Domestic Dry Goods. They have been pur ■hased for cash, and will be run off to customers upon the cheapest terms. We extend a special invitation to the Merchants of Virginia to pay us a visit at our house, No. 89 Market St., Philadelphia. Dec. 19, 1849-—6m. _. CONGRESS HALL. No. 83 Chesnct St., & 27 South Third St., PHILADELPHIA. Dec. 19, 1849.—6m. W"M. G. STERRETT, on the corner opposite the Post Office, has just received a superior article of Tea, foi* sale low. December 20, 1849. 1 | POETRY. I THE ANGEL WATCHER. A daughter watched at midnight, Her dying mother’s bed; For five long nights she had not slept, *' And many tears were shed. A vision like an angel came, Which none but she might see ; “Sleep, duteous child,” the angel said, “And 1 will watch for thee !” Sweet slumber, like a blessiug, fell Upon the daughter’s face ; The angel smiled, and touched her not, But gently took her place; And, oh ! so full of kiunan love, Those pitying eyes did shine, The angel guest half mortal seemed— The slumbcrer, half divine. . Like rays of light, the sleeper’s locks. In warm, loose curls were thrown— Like rays of light, the angel’s hair Seemed like the sleeper’s own— A rosc-likc shadow on the cheek, Dissolving into pearl— j A something in the angel’s face, Seemed sisftr to the girl! The mortal and immortal, each Reflecting, each were seen ; The earthly and the spiritual, With earth’s pale face between; Ob, human love, what strength like thine ! From thee those prayers arise, Which, entering into Paradise, Drew ungcls from the skies ! The dawn looked through the casement cold, ■| A wintry dawn of gloom, And sadder showed the curtained bed— The still ami sickly room. “My daughter! art thou there, my child ? O, haste thee, love, come nigh, That 1 may see once more thy face, And bless thee ere I die. “Ifl were ever harsh to thee, Forgive me now,” she cried ; “God knows my heart; I loved thee most When most I seemed to chide ; Now bend and kiss thy mother’s lips, a_.i ........... ; The angel kissed her—and her soul Passed peacefully away ! A sudden start!—what dresm, what sound, The slumbering girl alarms? She wakes—she sees her mother dead Within the angel’s arras— She wakes—she springs with wild embrace— But nothing there appears, Except her mother’s sweet dead face— Her own couvulsire tears. MI SC E L L AN lT. MILTON’ AND PAIIA DISK LOST. _ Whittier's Book of Old Portraits and Modern | Sketches furnishes some interesting memoranda of many noteworthy men and places. Among uthers, he introduces Thomas Ellwood, a young Quaker who was in the habit of reading to John Milton dur ing his blindness. In 1655, when the plague was in London, Milton desired to escape to the country and consults his friend Ellwood, who writes : i “Wherefore, some little time before I went to Aylesbury jail, I was desired by my quondam Mas ter Milton to lake an house for him in theneighbor hood where I dwelt, that he might go out of the city in safety of himself and his family, the pesti lence then growing hot in London. I took a pretty box for him in Giles Chalfont, a mile from me, of which I gave him notice,and intended to have wait ed on him and seen him well settled, but was pre vented by that imprisonment. But now being re leased and returned home, I soon made a visit to j him, to welcome him into the country. After some j common discourse had passed between us,he called 1 for a manuscript of his, which having been brought j he delivered to mu, bidding me take it home with me and read it at my leisure, and when I had so j done, return it to him with my judgment ihcreup i on.” Now, what does the reader think young Ellwood carried in his grey coal pocket across the dikes and hedges and through the green lanes of Giles Glial font that autumn day? Let us look further:— j “When I came home, and had set myselftoreadit, ' I found it was that excellent poem which he enti ! tied Paradise Lost. After I had, with the best at tention read it through, I made him another visit; and, returning his book with due acknowledgment of the favor he had done me in communicating it to me, he asked me how I liked it, and what I thought of it, which I modestly but freely told him and, after some further discourse about it, I pleas ant 1 V cniil to him. ‘Thou hast siid much hern of Paradise Lost; what hast thou to say of Paradise Found f He made me no answer, but sat some time in a muse, then brake off that discourse, and fell upon another subject.” “1 modestly but freely told him what [ thought of Paradise Lost!” What he told him remains a mystery. One would like to know more pre cisely what the first critical reader of that song ‘of Mim’a n— ihoughl of it. Fancy the young Quaker and blind Milton sitting some pleas ant afternoon of the autumn of that old year, in'the pretty box’ at Chalfont, the soft wind through the open window lifting the thin hair of the glorious old poet! Backslidden England, plague-smitten, and accursed with the faithless Church and libertine king knows little of poor'Master Milton,’and takes small note of hie puritanic verse-making. Alone, with his humble friend, lie sits there, conning over that poem which he fundly hoped the world which had grown all dark and strange to the author, ‘would not willingly let die’ The suggestion in respect to Paradise Found, to which, as we have seen, ‘he made no answer, but sat some time in a muse,’ seems not to have been lost; for, ‘after the sickness was over,’ continues Ellwood, ‘and the city well cleansed, and become safely habitable again, he re turned thither; and when afterwards 1 waited on him there, which l seldom failed of doing whenev er my occasions drew me Gu London, he showed me his second poem, called Paradise Gained ;and in a pleasant tone said to me, ‘This is owing loyou,for you put it into my head by the question you put to me at Chalfont, which before I had not thought of.’ The poser posed.—In a jolly company, each one was to ask a question ; if it was answered he paid a forfeit. Pat’s question was: How the little ground squirrel digs his hole without showing any dirt about the entrance? When they all gave up Pat said, “Sure, do you see, he begins at theolher end of the hole.” Ono of the rest exclaimed,“But how does he get there?” “Ah,that’s your question,” said Pat, “can you answer it yourself?” TIIB WILD WOMAN OF THE NAVIDAD. About a year since an account was published in ' the Victoria Jldoocale, (which we copied into the 1 Spectator,) respecting a strange creature, whose • tracks had been discovered on the banks of the Na vidad, near Texana. The footmarks of this crea ture resembled those of a woman, and a report was circulated tu the effect that a wild woman had made her retreat in the forest of the Navidad. Within a | few weeks several attempts have been made tocap | lure ibis singular being. Mr. Glascock pursued it | several days with dogs, and at one time approach* ; ed so near it as to cast a lasso upon its shoulders.— J It, however, with great adroitness eluded the snare, and fled to a dense thicket, where it could not be ! traced. Mr. Glaseock states that he was near a small prairie enclosed by the border forests of the river, when the creature emerged from the woods, and ran across the prairie in full view. It wasabnut five feet high, resembling a human being, but cov eriid with hair of reddish brown colour. In its band it held a stick about six feet long, which it flour- 1 from side to side, as if to regulate its motions, Slid"uid it when running at full speed. Its head and neck are covered with very long hair, which streamed backward in the wind. It ran with the speed of a deer, and was soon out of sight. The dogs pursued it, and came so close upon it at a small creek, that it was compelled to drop its stick, which i was taken by its pursuers. This stick is about six feet long, straight and j smooth as if polished with glass. Several other persons have repeatedly seen the creature, and they all concur as representing it as a human being, but so covered with shaggy hair as to resemble an uu ! rang outang. It has frequently approached the hou ses of settlers in that neighborhood during the. night, and stole various articles—among other things it | carried off a quantity of towels, onn or two books, and has also taken several pigs. One of its nests was found in the forest, in which were several nap kins, folded up just as they were taken from the house, and a Bible, marked J. J. Wright. A bill for washing was also enclosed in the Bible. The foot-marks of this strange being have often been traced in the bottom of the Navidad,but it has elu ded all attempts to capture it. The old settlers in that section say that these foot-marks have been no ticed for ten or twelve years, and that several years ago there were other foot-marks, indicating that j three creatures were in company. Within the last ! year the foot-marks of only one have been noticed. Mr. ’Glascock intends to collect a pack of good | hounds and resume the pursuit, and he is confident I llmt Iia i«»111 aiiaaoaiI in as htuplner if (Tn lines in curred considerable expense, and has exposed him- ( self to great hardships and danger to secure it, tlius evincing his full belief in the identity of this mys terious being. It is not improbable that during the war of the Revolution when the people of that sec tion were driven from their homes by the victorious army of Urrea, some children might have been se creted in the woods, or left (here, and their relations never returning, have become like wild beasts, clothed with hair, and feeding upon herbs and such small animals as they can capture or pilfer from the settlers.—Houston ( Texas) Telegraph. ___— New Mexico Indians.—The St. Louis Repub- ! lican contains a letter from L09 Vegas, New Mex- j ico, under date of December 1st, which furnishes the following particulars respecting the capture and death of Mra. White. Major Grier has just returned from an expedition against the lieorillas tribe of Apache Indians. In October, Mr. White, a merchant of El Paso, who was bringing nut his family, left his train, as the ! weather was becoming cold and disagreeable lor Mrs. White and child, and came on in advance, | 1 with a party of eight persona. The Indians prepared an ambuscade some sixty I miles from Los Vegas, the first settlement, and kill ! ed Mr. While and all the men of the party, taking : Mrs. White, child and negro servant prisoners.— As soon as this was reported to the commanding officer of the department, Maj. Grier was ordered with his own company, and Capt. Valdez’s compa ny of volunteers, to proceed to rescue Mrs. White, if possible. Taking Kit Carson and Watkin Lerieux as guides, he proceeded at once to the scene of the out rage, thence to follow the trail. The Indians had taken every precaution to avoid pursuit. They trav elled in every direction, one day going east and the next day going west, encamping near where they had been the previous night. On leaving camp, they had moved off in small parties, diverging in many directions, and fame together after getting some miles distant. Though seventeen days had elapsed the indefatigable Kit Carson and Lerieux followed the trail with the precision and certainty of a blood-hound, coming on the camps night after night, notwithstanding their precaution. Major Grier finally came upon one of the camps, the fires of which were still burning, and imagining that they had got news of his approach and were flying, he gave chase, and after running about sixteen miles ho came upon them. They had again en camped, and were only apprised of his presence by some of their hunters a few minutes before lie was on them. They had time, however, to mount their fleetest horses, and Major Grier’s were so much fa tigued that the Indians could readily outrun them. Five or six were killed and three taken prisoners. In their flight they abandoned every thing, and even threw their children away as they ran, so much were they pressed. Their lodges, horses, saddles, bridles, blankets, fire-arms, ammunition, provisions, dressed skins, in a word, every thing except their own denuded persons, and the horses on which they rode, was captured. Fifty animals were packed with the most valuable things, the rest were burnt. i When Major Grier got on the ground which had been occupied by the Indians, he found the body of Mrs. While transfixed with an arrow—lifeless but still warm. She had evidently been put to death, and thus freed from her sufferings at the time the alarm was given. She still had her bible and nrarer ! iMjck, hfirf t*on ner companions aurmg her captivity. They were marked at various places where she had been reading. The child and negro frirl were not seen or heard of, and they are doubt- i ess with the Indians. Major Grier had Mrs. While buried as decently ' as circumstances would admit, and that the Indians might not discover her resting place, and that her bones might lie undistnrbed, he burned grass over ' her grave and set fire to the prairie around it. ' Mr. White was a native of Sullivan county, Ten- 1 neseee, and his lady the daughter of Mr. John 1 Dunn, of Abingdon, Virginia. 1 CCJ* It is singular that while thus far we have had an open and moderate winter,it has been pinch- < ing cold in the south of Europe, and dreadfully so ' in the north. A soldier has perished from cold at Lisbon, a climate always warm and bland; at Mad- < rid, three sentinels had frozen to death at their posts I and at Vienna, the snow rendered the streets im- < passable. That city is also suffering- severely from < typhus fever. Thirty medical men have been at- 1 tacked with it. i -j (K5- Garribaldi, the Roman patriot, has found his i way into Algiers, where he has ingratiated him- i self into the good graces of the Emperor ofMoroe- ; co. He will command the Moorish forces, in their ' hostilities against the Mellila, and will doubtless < prove a valuable acquisition. CO- An aerolite weighing half a ton (according to i the Missouri Republican,) fell nenr Jefferson Bar- j i racks on the 25th ult. > I PRIMROSE HILL TUNNEL. The London and Birmingham Railway has been called the greatest public work ever executed1 ei ther in ancient or modem times. If we estimate its importance by the labor alone which ha* been ex pended on it, perhaps the great Chinese wall might compete with it; but when we consider the great outlay of capital which it has required, the great and various talents which have been employed upon the work during the whole of its progress—together : with the unprecedented engineering difficulties, which were to be overcome—the gigantic work of the Chinese sinks wholly into the shade. An ingenious comparison has been made between this railway and the great Pyramid of Egypt, in order to illustrate the magnitude of the uuder j taking. After making the necessary allowances for the foundations, galleries, ect., and reducingthe whole to one uniform denomination, it will be found that 1 the labor expended on the great Pyramid w>9 equiv alent to lilting 15,733 millions cubic feet of stone one foot high. This labor was performed according to Diodorus Siculus, by 300,000; to Herodotus, by 100,000 men, and it required for its execution twen ty years. If we reduce in the same manner the la bor expended in constructing the London and Bir ' mingham Railway to one common denomination, j the result is 25,000 million cubic feet of material I (reduced to the same weight as that used in con structing the Pyramid) lifted one foot high, or 9, million cubic feet more than was lifted one loot high in the construction of the Pyramid; yet this im mense undertaking was performed by about 20,000 men in less than five years! From the above calculation have been omitted all i the tunnelling, culverts, drains, ballasting and fenc ing and all the heavy work at the various stations, j and also the labor expended on engines, carriages, | wagons, etc.; these are set oflfagainsl the labor of drawing the materials of the Pyramid from the quarries to the 6pot where they were to be used—a much larger allowance than is necessary. One of the wonders of this road is the tunnel through Primrose Hill. On approaching it the dark cavern has a peculiar appearance from the steam, ! which has been left by passing trains, am! not clear ing out if the weather is dull and heavy, remains in the tunnel, and to which a lurid tint is at times given by the sun at the opposite end, so as almost to make one think that the tunnel is a furnace. The entrance has been handsomely constructed, having finished facing of the finest Portland stone. It cost 835,000. Here is situated the lodge of a policeman who hulds constant communication with another at the opposite end, by means of an electric telegraph j constructed for the purpose. He also informs the policemen of the arrival of trains from the north as ! soon as they enter the tunnel. The face of the tel- 1 egraph has on it the words, “train in,” “train out,” j “line clear,” “line closed,” any of which commu- | nicatio:is be makes to his colleagues with the pas- j sage of every train according as the case may be; ] and in this way perfect order and regularity are ob- j served. Fastened against the frame-work of the j tunnel is a large bell, according to a rough estimate about three quarters of a yard in diameter,weighing i ten cwt. As soon as the bell of the telegraph atj this end rings the policeman knows that a commu- ' nication is made fr^m the opposite end, and looking j to the pointers, he finds that there is a “train in” I the tunnel. Acknowledging the information, he | proceeds at once to the great bell.and pullings rope attached to it, which acts in a similar manner to I the drawing up a clock, the bell is set “a ringing” j some twenty or thirty times, and gives due notice ; to all the people at the opposite station; who make ; the necessary arrangements for the reception of the ; train, and the examination of the tickets of the travellers. The tunnel is 1,250 yards long, twenty-five feet high, and twenty-two feet wide, and is ventilated | by five shafts, eight feet in diameter. In some places the line is fifty feel below the surface. It cost $2,000,000. Cor,d winters in oeden times.—In 1664 the cold was so intense that the Thames was covered with ice sixty-one inches thick. Almost all the birds perished. In 1691 the cold was so excessive that the fam ished wolves entered Vienna and attacked beasts and even men. Many people in Germany were frozen to death in 1695, and the winters of 1697 and 1699, were nearly as bad. In 1709 occurred that famous winter called, by distinction, “the cold winter.” All the rivers and lakes were frozen, and even the sea for several miles from the shore. The ground was frozen nine feet deep. Birds and beasts were struck dead in the fields, and men perished by thousands in their houses. In the south of Franee the vine plantations were almost all destroyed ; nor have they yet recov ered from that fatal disaster. The Adriatic sea was frozen, and even the Mediterranean about Genoa, and the citron and orange groves suffered extreme ly in the finest parts of Italy. In 1716 the winter Was so intense that people traveled across the straits from Copenhagen to the province of Senia, in Sweden. In I729> in Scotland, multitudes of cattle and sheep were buried in the snow. In 1730 the winter was scarcely inferiorlo that of 1709. The snow laid ten feet deep in Spain and n _1 r/.I_rj __e __ _I t UI Mi^uu jl iio fjHjuci ” ao Iiir^cn w*vi J mhu thousands of people went over it. And the lakes in England froze. In 1744, the winter was extremply cold. Snow fell in Portugal to the depth of twenty-three feet on a level. In 1754 and 1756 the winters were very severe and cold. In England, the strongest ale, exposed to the air in a glass, was covered in fifteen minutes with ice one-eighth of an inch thick. In 1771 the Elbe was frozen to the bottom. In 1770 the Danube bore ice five feet deep be low Vienna. Vast numbers of the feathered and ^"Hie^nntereof 1784 and 1785 were uncommon ly severe. The Lillie Belt was frozen over. From 1800 to 1812 also, the winters were re markably cold, particularly the latter, in Russia, which proved so disastrous to the French army un der Napoleon. The whiskeV trade.—Bui few persons have a correct view of the amount of Whiskey annually consumed in this city in the manufactures of Domes tic Liquors, Alcohol, Burning Fluid, There are four Distilleries in the immediate vicinity of this city, which consume about 300,000 bushels of Corn and Rye yearly and produce 1,050,000 gallons of Whiskey, valued at $275,000. The following are the names of the proprietors J Alexander Young, Samuel Smith, Powers & Weightman, and J. K. ! Tyson. These works are all driven by steam, and consume 3,000 ton9 of coal annually. They employ from seventy to eighty workmen, and the amount uf capital invested cannot be less than halfa million of dollars. Besides this amount there was received last year by theCohimbia Railroad 562,825 gallons and by the Delaware canal 1,432,815gallons,which added to the amount manufactured by the city dis tilleries make 3.045.G40 gallons equal to about 101,- , 521 barrels. To this we tnu9l add a considerable amount received annually by the Schuylkill and Tidewatpr Canal, and New York, which would I < swell the the total amount to 125 a 130,000 barrels. < —Phil. Com. List. j < Advices from Turkey up to the very latest | date stale that Gen. Bern, the Hungarian patriot, j l had died suddenly. I AGRICULTURAL—SCIENTIFIC ' " VALUABLE TO FATHER^ j»AHH^ ' 1 The British Gardner’s Chronicle states the <•! ’ lowing interesting, and happy anecdote of* fanner ■ of the olden time and school. “This farmer who owned and occupied 1.000 t cres of land, had three daughters. When his el dest daughter married, he gave her one quarter ef his land fur her portion, bnt no money; and he found . by a little more speed and * little better manage ment, the produce of his farm did not decrees*.— When his second daughter married, he gave her ond-thifd of the remaining land for her portion, but no money. He then set to work and began to grab up hia furze and fern, and ploughed up what he called the poor dry furze land, even when the fart* covered in some cloee, nearly half the land. After giving half his land away to two of his daughters, to bis great surprise lie found that the produce in creased ; he made mote money, because hia new broken furze land brought excessive crops, and at the same time he farmed the whole of hia land bet ter, for he employed three times more laborers upon it, he rose two hours sooner in the morning, had ue more dead fallows once in three years; instead ef which he got two grten crops in one year, and at* them upon the land. A garden never require* * dead fallow. But the great advantage was, that he had got the same money to manage 500 that heh«d to manage 1000 acres; therefore he laid out double the money upon the land. When his third and last daughter was married, ho gave her 250 acre* or half what remained, for her portion, and no mottey. He then found that be had the same money to farts one quarter of the land as he had at tint to farm tbs whole. He began to ask himself a few questions, and set his wits to work how he was to make ae much of 250 as he had done of 1000 acre* He then paidoffhis bailiff, who weighed twenty stone; rose with the lark in the long days, and went to bed with the lamb; he got as much more work done for his money ; he made his servants, laborers, and hor ses, move faster, broke them from their snail’s pace; and found that the eye of the master quickened the pace of the servant. He saw the beginning of every thing ; and to his servants and laborers, instead ef saying, “go and do it.” he said to them, “let us go, my buys, and do it.” Between come and go, tie soon found out a very great difference. He grub bed up the whold of his poor grass land, and con verted a great deal of corn into meat for the sake of manure, and he preserved his blank water, (thee* cence ot manure;,) cut ms Hedges down, wmcn naa I not been plashed for forty or fifty year*; straighten* i ed his zig-zag fences; cut his water courses straight, : and gained a deil of land by doing so; made dams and sluices, and irrigated all the lend he could ; he grubbed up many of his hedges and borders, borders covered with bushes, in some more of his small clo ses, some not wider than streets, and threw ihre«> four, five, and six closes into one. He found out that instead of growing white thorn hedges and hews to feed foreign birds in the winter, he could ! grow food for man instead of migratory birds* Af ter all this improvement, he grew more and mad* more oft'250 acres than he did from 1000; at the very same time he found uut that half of England at that tiime was not cultivated from the want ef means to cultivate it with. I let him rams and sold him long horned bulls, (said R. Bakewell,) and told him the real value of labor, both in doors, end out, and what ought to be done with a certain num ber of men, oxen, and horses, within a given limn* I I taught him tu sow less and plough better; that ! there were limits and measures in all things; and ; that the husbandman ought to be stronger} than the farm ; I told him how to make hoi land colder, and cold land hotter, light land sliffer, and stiff land lighter. I soon caused him to shake off all his old deep-rooted prejudices, and I grafted new ones in | their places. 1 told him not to breed inferior cattle, ! sheep or horses, but the best of each kind ; for the | best consumed no more than the worst. My friend | became a new man in his old age, and died rich. Farming.—The Christian Banner,Fredericks burg, Va.f is an excellent religious and miscellane ous newspaper. We copy the annexed beautiful sketch from its columns. It contains both poetry and truth •—“The Lord‘planted a garden,’ that is, he enclosed a nortion of ground in the East, in which he placet/ the mati he had formed, and com manded him to dress it, and keep it. Hence, we discover that the Lord intended man to work inside of an enclosure, and not in the wild woods. One of the great secrets in prosecuting the science orAgri culture, is good enclosures. Inferior fences hare made more mischievous cattle—created a greater number of disturbances between neighbors and fel low-citizens—caused the destruction of more pro duce, perhaps, than any other evil connected with the whole system of farming. There are particu larly, three important items connected with th# science of farming. The first is, good land ; the second, good enclosures, and the third, good work ing; these will secure an abundant harvest if ths good i.ora send an abundance of rain, l nis is tnt season of the year to attend to the repairing and building of fences, and getting ready for a good b* ginning fora heavy crop. Don’t forget it. Ejects or Camphor on the Teeth.—Froirt attentive observations of the teeth for several years* it has been ascertained that the use of dentifrices* containing camphor, renders them brittle. Teeth allowed to remain in chalk impregnated with the camphor, for a few days, had the enamel very much altered; placed in camphorated spirit they become very brittle; and if exposed to the fumes of camphor* a morbid condition to a still greater extent super vened. A writer in the London Lancet states, that seven-tenths of the dentifrices now used contain more or less of this destroying agent. Fire Wood.—As this Is the season to lay in fire wood. I would ««.v ,K“* e~-~ CA' poiience, green wood taken as fresh from the stump as it can be had,and dried under eover*ii worth one third more than wood dried in thfe ordinary way, exposed to the weather. The difference is so much in favor of the cover-dried, that two cords are equal to three of the other. I find the worst swamp wood cut green and dried in good wood sheds, farsapsri. or to the best hickory seasoned in the open air. To Silver Clock Faces.—Take one part of chloride of silver (the white precipitate which falls when a solution of common salt is poured into a so lution of nitrate of silver or lunar caustic,) thres parts of pearlash, one of whiting, and one and a half of curamon salt, or one part chloride of silver, and ten parts of cream of tartar, and rub the brass with a moistened piece pf cork, dipped in the jk>w der. Something New.—For the first time in tine country, says the Co/ombos (Ohio) Statesman, of the 25ih ult.. one hundred head of ftit cattle belong ing to Mr. Seymour Renick, have been shod with iron shoes, f«r the purpose of travelling over ih* mountains. If ihe experiment proves good, ilia the intention of Mr. Renick to shoe eleven hundred more. _• CO- A Roston Medical writer says that it pro duces chilblains, chapped skin, inflamed eyes, and colds, to go to the fire suddenly when you are very cold. Accustom youself to the warmth by degree*. (jry- The blood of the cow is an excellent manure for fruit trees. It also forms the basis ®f Prussia* blue.