_ _.. .... . ... _L-.-..--.lAoi-j !■' uu .
CONSTANS ET LENIS, UT BES EX'POSTULET, ESTO. [Publbh.B W«kl,-*» per A»w
JOS. A. WADDELL, $ _ ___ . —.. •— -- ~ ------- " ' — .... , —
VOL. XXVII. _ STAUNTON, YA., WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 20, 1850. _NO. XIV.
__ ——————————————WW——’ ■■—’■■ 1 ■1 ■ — ■ ■ ~ » -
ST AI N TON SPECTATOR.
v*. The "SPECTATOR” is publishedonceaweek,
atTioo Dollars a year, if paid in advance, or 7Vo
Dollars and Fifty Cents if delayed beyond the expira
tion of the year. Xo subscription will be discontinued,
bil at the option of the Editois, until allarrearages are
Alt communications to the Editor sbymailmusl
he post paid, or they wit l not be attended to.
fry- ADVERTISEMENTS of thirteen lines (or
less,) inserted three times for one dollar, andlwenty
koe cents for each subsequenlcontinuance- Larger ad
vertisements in tke same proportion. A liber a l discount
made to advertisersby the year. _
HENDEittSON' 3f. BE.LI.,
ATTORNEY AT IAWi
PRACTISES in the various Courts of Augusta,
Rockbridge, Bath and Highland. Prompt at
tention will be given" to all business entrusted to
his care. , ,, ,
Office in the white building opposite the Court
House, next door to John N. Hendren-where he
may always be found during business haurs, except
when professionally absent.
May 2, 1849.—if. _
JAMES H. SKINNER,
PRACTISES in the Superiorand Inferior Courts
of Augusta, the Superior Courts of Bing
ham, Rockbridge, and Albemarle, and in the U. S.
District Court i'or Western \ irginia.
OFFICE, next door to the Court House, tu tne
May 2, 1849. _
E- THOMAS ALBERTSON,
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
PR VCT1CES in the Courtsof Augusta, Albe
marle and Nelson. Offioe in the room lately
occupied by Col. George Baylor, where he may
be found at all times, u 'less when absent on pro
Nov. 29, 1848.
attorney at law,
STAUNTON, V A .,
t ..._i .u.. „»• luniKt., nml the adjacent
Staunton, Nov. 14, 1949.—tf
LEW 18 COCHRAN,
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
WILL attend the Superior and Inferior Courts
of Albemarle, Augusta, Nelson and Louisa.
Office in Charlottesville.
September 5, 1849.—tf.
Dr. Do\)evt U. DoVievtson
HAVING located on Christian’s Creek, at the
residence of his brother, tenders his profession
al services to the neighborhood and the public gen
erally. He may be found at home at all hours ex
cept when professionally engaged.
September 19, 1849.—G-.ii.
L. F. E & BREWSTER,
44 Cedar Street, New York.
print Warehouse—established in 1843, J'or the sale
nf Printed Calicoes exclusively—at low prices.
LEE & BREWSTER coniine their attention exclu
sively to the purchase and sale ot American and
Foreign Prints. Their facilities enable them to be the
largest purchasers in the United States, and secures o
their establishment advantages in assortment and prices
over any othsr House,—and to which the attcntiou of
Merchants is respectfully solicited.
December 26, 1S49.—6m.
©HESEBROUQ-H. STEARNS Sc OO.
37, wYaasau Sf., Opposite Post Office, JVew lork. \
Importers and Jobbers of French, Iudia, Germau aud
Italian Silk Goods of every variety.
A LSO a complete assortment of British und Aineri
\ can Fancy Goods suited to all sections of trade in
The United States, and comprising the most l ashiona
ble Styles to be found in the New York Market.
December 26, 1849.—6u». _
JOHN COMPTOS.) [nAVID D. TCttNER.
©OIWPTON Sc TURNER,
IMPORTERS AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN j
STAPLE AND FANCY DRY GOODS,
No 35 Nassau Street, (Opposite the Post Office,)
Dec. 26, 1319.—6m.
CLARK SL WEST,
tMPOBTEBS OF, AS D JOBBEttS IS
CLOTHS, CASHMERES, VESTINGS AND TAI
158, BROADWAY, NEW YORK.
THE Merchants of Virginia are particularly invited
to call and examine their stock.
December 26, 1849.—6ni. _
WHITE & CO., respectfully announce tu all J
persons indebted that all accounts due are
drawn off and ready for adjustment. It will sa\e us
much trouble in calling on those indebted if they
■will call and settle their accounts either by Cash
«r Bond—the former greatly preferred.
Stinnlnn, January, 16. 1850.
ggT Vindicator and Messenger copy.
BRITT ANNIA WARE.
JUST received at the Hardware Store Brittan- j
nia Coffee and Tea Pots, Caudle St.cks, pit-1
^ h*n<bSEORGE.e’l'. PRICE. j
January 16, 1850. __j
WHITE St CO., will from this day to the 1st:
day of April next offer their entire stock of'
Goods, which is very large, at wry reiljccd prices,!
for cash. Many styles of Goods will be offered at
C<«t ami below.
January 16, 1850.—Vind. and Mess. copy.
MRS. JARVIS’ Cold Candy for Coughs,Colds,
ike., for sale by
_ ESKRIDGE & KINNEY, i
January 9, 1850.
WM- G. STERRETT, on the corner opposite \
the Post Office, has Window Glass and Put-1
ty Per sale.
Staunton, Dec. 26, 1849.
WM. G. STERREFT, comer opposite Post
Office, has an excellent assortment of Groce
ries in store and for sale.
December 26, 18-19.
WM. G. STERRETT, on corner opposite the j
Post Office, has 1 Barrels of Prune Cider
Vinegar, for sale by the barrel and retail.
December 26, 1849.
LXPPINCOTT, TAYIsOR & 00.
Celebrated Wholesale and Retail
(77je largest assortment in t/ie United States,)
New Warehouse, South-west corner of Fourth and
Old Stand, 199 and 200 Market Street, above Sixth,
WHERE the largest assortment ofREADY-MADE
CLOTHING can be found in this market. Then
stock is always full aud complete, and they ure there
fore always prepared, either in “Summer’s beat or
Winter’s cold” to supply every demand upon them —
Their motto is Super ior'iioods, at fair prices, and they
would therefore respectfully solicit the Merchants of
the Valley of Virginia to give them a call on theif uext
trip to Philadelphia.
December 19, 1849.—6m.
* JOHN MACINTOSH. "’M. F. WHITE.
JIACISTOSH Si WHITE,
j I Thole sale Ladies’ Boot and Shoe Manufacturers,
No. IS, South Fourth Street, Philadelphia.
M& W. are extensively engaged in the Manu
. facturo of LADIES, MISSES, AND CHIL
DREN’S BOOTS AND SHOES in all their varie
ties, ind keep always on hand a full supply to answer
the demands oftrade. They invite the attention of
Country Merchants to their extensive stock, satisfied
that at no other establishment of the kind in Philadcl
[ phia, can they suit themselves belter, either as itre
, gards the quality of their Goods, or the terms upon
! which they arc prepared and determined to sell them,
i Call and sec them at their Old Stand, No. 18, South
’ Fourth Street, Philadelphia.
December 19, 1849.—6m.
•Vo. 3, South Fifth Street, Philadelphia,
Importer ami Dealer, Wholsale «fc Retail,
in Wines, Liquors amt Se^ars.
CONSTANTLY on hand, a large and well assorted
stock, which is offered in any quantities on moder
! ate terms, comprising
Medcria, Sherry, Port, Lisbon, Sicily, Tcneriff, Mal
| aga, Champague, Claret, Hock, Sauterue and Barsac
Old Pale and Dark Cognac Brandies; Jamaica and
St. Croix Ruir ; Holland Gin ; Irish, Scotch aud Monon
, gahela Whiskies; Wine Bitters, (of very superior
! quality ;) London Brown Stout, and Scotch Ale; Li
quors, $-c., and the finest brands of choice Havana Se
All orders promptly and carefully executed.
| December 19, 1849.—6m.
JAMES E BROWN.
Wholesale and Retail Saddle and Trunk Maker,
No. 30, South Fourth Street, between Market & C'hcst
uut Streets, Philadelphia.
THE attention of dealers and others is invited to his
assortment ofSaddles, Bridles, Saddlebags, Col
lars, Whips, &c.— Also to his superior article ol
TRUNKS, viz : Sole Leather Truuks, Solid Leather
Steel Spring Trunks, of lightweight; Riveted Iron
ITPan,e Trunks. Ladv’s Dress Trunks. Bonnet Boxes,
Wood Trunks, ofditlcrcnt qualities; Vuliccs, ofvan
ous st vie and prices; Velvet Tapestry and- Brussels
i Carpet Bags, fcuamclled Leather Bags, Lady’s Trav
elling Bag's, Satchels, &e., &c., all of which he offers
j at low prices for Cash, or approved paper. Orders
! thankfully received, and promptly executed.
December 19, 1849 —6m.
WRIGHT & KING.
Clothing Rooms, No. 13(r, Market st., above 4th,
"ITTHERE at all times can be fouud a complete and
VV extensive assortment of
j They specially invite the Merchants of the Valley
j of Virginia to give them a call, promising to fnrnish the
best articles in tbeir lino upon such terms as must com
j mand ami secure their patronage. They manufacture
CLOTHING to order uiion the shortest notice, and will
be happy to respond to all suitable calls from the coun
try to that effect.
December 19, 1849.
Hats, Caps. Ladies’ Rich Furs, Beaver Bonnets. &c.
WILLIAM II. BEEBE «fc CO.,
138 Chesnuf St., Philadelphia
HAVE on hand a largo and superior assortment of
FINE GOODS, in the greatest variety in their
line of trade, and offer them to Merchants and Dealers
generally, at fair and moderate prices. They especial
ly solicit the attention of the Merchant* of the Valley
of Virginia to their splendid Stock, and trust that on
their visit to Philadelphia they will not fail to give
them a call. Wm. H. Gardner, late of Richmond, Va.,
is associated in the firm of W. H. Beebe St Co. and will
take great pleasure in waiting on his Virginia friends.
December 19, 1849.
Fhila* Wry Goods Emporium*
ECHEL, RAIGUEL «fc Co.,
IMPORTERS & WHOLESALE DEALERS IN
Foreigu & Domestic Dry Goods,
*Vo. 128 and 130 %V. 3d St., above JVest Side.
ITEEP at all season* a complete assortment of FOR
L E1GN & DOMESTIC DRY GOODS on hand, a
dapted to the trade of all sections of the country, and
adequate to any demand that may be made upon them.
They invite the attention of Southern dealers, and es
pecially the Merchants of the Valley of Virgiuia, to an
examination of theirStock, satisfied that they will find
it to their interest to deal with them.
December 19, 1849.
WM. P. WXLSTACH,
JVb. 28j JS'orth Third Street, Philadelphia,
Wholesale Importer, Manufacturer and Dealer in
Saddlers’ Hardware, Carriage and Harness Fur
niture, Saddle and Carriage Trimmings, &c.,
KEEPS constantly on hand, a rich and extensive as
sortment ot SADDLERY HARDWARE, and
through the medium of their own home journal, invites
the Merchants of the Valley of Virginia to call and sec
• • . t. c ...l_Mn
at such prices as will not fail to please his customers.—
Remember, his place of business is No. ‘28 1-2 North
Third Street, Philadelphia.
December 19, 1S49.—6m.
To Southern and Western Merchants, «fcc.
Q1I-VER Ware.—Fork* Table, Medium.
1^ T.»a nrito" . Snrvrmw— 1 *1, 9 ,
Tea, Gravy, Mustard and Sait. Ladles—Soup, Oys
ter, Sauce, Sugar and Cream. Knives—Ice Cream,
Fish, Cake, Butter, Fruit, Dessert.
Tea Sets, of various patterns, plain to richly chased,
and of every variety of form. Odd pieces made to
match, and broken sets completed. Silver warranted
*'p fated and Britannia Ware, of latest patterns, con
stantly on hand and for sale at ,
WILSON’S Silver Ware Manufactory,
S. W. comer 5thand Cherry sts., Philadelphia.
December 19, 1M9.—6m. ^
ERASMUS D. WOLFE. JESSE E. PEYTON.
Wolfe & Peyton,
Wholesale Dealers in Foreign & Domestic Dry Goods,
No. 89. Market Street, Philadelphia.
WE would respectfully call the attention of South
ern Dealers to our well selected stock of bo
reien and Domestic Dry Goods. They have been pur
■hased for cash, and will be run off to customers upon
the cheapest terms. We extend a special invitation to
the Merchants of Virginia to pay us a visit at our house,
No. 89 Market St., Philadelphia.
Dec. 19, 1849-—6m. _.
No. 83 Chesnct St., & 27 South Third St.,
Dec. 19, 1849.—6m.
W"M. G. STERRETT, on the corner opposite
the Post Office, has just received a superior
article of Tea, foi* sale low.
December 20, 1849. 1
THE ANGEL WATCHER.
A daughter watched at midnight,
Her dying mother’s bed;
For five long nights she had not slept, *'
And many tears were shed.
A vision like an angel came,
Which none but she might see ;
“Sleep, duteous child,” the angel said,
“And 1 will watch for thee !”
Sweet slumber, like a blessiug, fell
Upon the daughter’s face ;
The angel smiled, and touched her not,
But gently took her place;
And, oh ! so full of kiunan love,
Those pitying eyes did shine,
The angel guest half mortal seemed—
The slumbcrer, half divine.
Like rays of light, the sleeper’s locks.
In warm, loose curls were thrown—
Like rays of light, the angel’s hair
Seemed like the sleeper’s own—
A rosc-likc shadow on the cheek,
Dissolving into pearl—
j A something in the angel’s face,
Seemed sisftr to the girl!
The mortal and immortal, each
Reflecting, each were seen ;
The earthly and the spiritual,
With earth’s pale face between;
Ob, human love, what strength like thine !
From thee those prayers arise,
Which, entering into Paradise,
Drew ungcls from the skies !
The dawn looked through the casement cold,
■| A wintry dawn of gloom,
And sadder showed the curtained bed—
The still ami sickly room.
“My daughter! art thou there, my child ?
O, haste thee, love, come nigh,
That 1 may see once more thy face,
And bless thee ere I die.
“Ifl were ever harsh to thee,
Forgive me now,” she cried ;
“God knows my heart; I loved thee most
When most I seemed to chide ;
Now bend and kiss thy mother’s lips,
; The angel kissed her—and her soul
Passed peacefully away !
A sudden start!—what dresm, what sound,
The slumbering girl alarms?
She wakes—she sees her mother dead
Within the angel’s arras—
She wakes—she springs with wild embrace—
But nothing there appears,
Except her mother’s sweet dead face—
Her own couvulsire tears.
MI SC E L L AN lT.
MILTON’ AND PAIIA DISK LOST.
Whittier's Book of Old Portraits and Modern
| Sketches furnishes some interesting memoranda of
many noteworthy men and places. Among uthers,
he introduces Thomas Ellwood, a young Quaker
who was in the habit of reading to John Milton dur
ing his blindness. In 1655, when the plague was
in London, Milton desired to escape to the country
and consults his friend Ellwood, who writes :
i “Wherefore, some little time before I went to
Aylesbury jail, I was desired by my quondam Mas
ter Milton to lake an house for him in theneighbor
hood where I dwelt, that he might go out of the
city in safety of himself and his family, the pesti
lence then growing hot in London. I took a pretty
box for him in Giles Chalfont, a mile from me, of
which I gave him notice,and intended to have wait
ed on him and seen him well settled, but was pre
vented by that imprisonment. But now being re
leased and returned home, I soon made a visit to
j him, to welcome him into the country. After some
j common discourse had passed between us,he called
1 for a manuscript of his, which having been brought
j he delivered to mu, bidding me take it home with
me and read it at my leisure, and when I had so
j done, return it to him with my judgment ihcreup
Now, what does the reader think young Ellwood
carried in his grey coal pocket across the dikes and
hedges and through the green lanes of Giles Glial
font that autumn day? Let us look further:—
j “When I came home, and had set myselftoreadit,
' I found it was that excellent poem which he enti
! tied Paradise Lost. After I had, with the best at
tention read it through, I made him another visit;
and, returning his book with due acknowledgment
of the favor he had done me in communicating it
to me, he asked me how I liked it, and what I
thought of it, which I modestly but freely told him
and, after some further discourse about it, I pleas
ant 1 V cniil to him. ‘Thou hast siid much hern of
Paradise Lost; what hast thou to say of Paradise
Found f He made me no answer, but sat some
time in a muse, then brake off that discourse, and
fell upon another subject.”
“1 modestly but freely told him what [ thought
of Paradise Lost!” What he told him remains a
mystery. One would like to know more pre
cisely what the first critical reader of that song ‘of
Mim’a n— ihoughl of it. Fancy the
young Quaker and blind Milton sitting some pleas
ant afternoon of the autumn of that old year, in'the
pretty box’ at Chalfont, the soft wind through the
open window lifting the thin hair of the glorious old
poet! Backslidden England, plague-smitten, and
accursed with the faithless Church and libertine king
knows little of poor'Master Milton,’and takes small
note of hie puritanic verse-making. Alone, with
his humble friend, lie sits there, conning over that
poem which he fundly hoped the world which had
grown all dark and strange to the author, ‘would
not willingly let die’ The suggestion in respect
to Paradise Found, to which, as we have seen, ‘he
made no answer, but sat some time in a muse,’
seems not to have been lost; for, ‘after the sickness
was over,’ continues Ellwood, ‘and the city well
cleansed, and become safely habitable again, he re
turned thither; and when afterwards 1 waited on
him there, which l seldom failed of doing whenev
er my occasions drew me Gu London, he showed me
his second poem, called Paradise Gained ;and in a
pleasant tone said to me, ‘This is owing loyou,for
you put it into my head by the question you put to
me at Chalfont, which before I had not thought
The poser posed.—In a jolly company, each
one was to ask a question ; if it was answered he
paid a forfeit. Pat’s question was: How the little
ground squirrel digs his hole without showing any
dirt about the entrance? When they all gave up
Pat said, “Sure, do you see, he begins at theolher
end of the hole.” Ono of the rest exclaimed,“But
how does he get there?” “Ah,that’s your question,”
said Pat, “can you answer it yourself?”
TIIB WILD WOMAN OF THE NAVIDAD.
About a year since an account was published in
' the Victoria Jldoocale, (which we copied into the
1 Spectator,) respecting a strange creature, whose
• tracks had been discovered on the banks of the Na
vidad, near Texana. The footmarks of this crea
ture resembled those of a woman, and a report was
circulated tu the effect that a wild woman had made
her retreat in the forest of the Navidad. Within a
| few weeks several attempts have been made tocap
| lure ibis singular being. Mr. Glascock pursued it
| several days with dogs, and at one time approach*
; ed so near it as to cast a lasso upon its shoulders.—
J It, however, with great adroitness eluded the snare,
and fled to a dense thicket, where it could not be
! traced. Mr. Glaseock states that he was near a
small prairie enclosed by the border forests of the
river, when the creature emerged from the woods,
and ran across the prairie in full view. It wasabnut
five feet high, resembling a human being, but cov
eriid with hair of reddish brown colour. In its band
it held a stick about six feet long, which it flour- 1
from side to side, as if to regulate its motions,
Slid"uid it when running at full speed. Its head
and neck are covered with very long hair, which
streamed backward in the wind. It ran with the
speed of a deer, and was soon out of sight. The
dogs pursued it, and came so close upon it at a small
creek, that it was compelled to drop its stick, which i
was taken by its pursuers.
This stick is about six feet long, straight and j
smooth as if polished with glass. Several other
persons have repeatedly seen the creature, and they
all concur as representing it as a human being, but
so covered with shaggy hair as to resemble an uu
! rang outang. It has frequently approached the hou
ses of settlers in that neighborhood during the. night,
and stole various articles—among other things it
| carried off a quantity of towels, onn or two books,
and has also taken several pigs. One of its nests
was found in the forest, in which were several nap
kins, folded up just as they were taken from the
house, and a Bible, marked J. J. Wright. A bill
for washing was also enclosed in the Bible. The
foot-marks of this strange being have often been
traced in the bottom of the Navidad,but it has elu
ded all attempts to capture it. The old settlers in
that section say that these foot-marks have been no
ticed for ten or twelve years, and that several years
ago there were other foot-marks, indicating that j
three creatures were in company. Within the last !
year the foot-marks of only one have been noticed.
Mr. ’Glascock intends to collect a pack of good
| hounds and resume the pursuit, and he is confident
I llmt Iia i«»111 aiiaaoaiI in as htuplner if (Tn lines in
curred considerable expense, and has exposed him- (
self to great hardships and danger to secure it, tlius
evincing his full belief in the identity of this mys
terious being. It is not improbable that during the
war of the Revolution when the people of that sec
tion were driven from their homes by the victorious
army of Urrea, some children might have been se
creted in the woods, or left (here, and their relations
never returning, have become like wild beasts,
clothed with hair, and feeding upon herbs and such
small animals as they can capture or pilfer from the
settlers.—Houston ( Texas) Telegraph.
New Mexico Indians.—The St. Louis Repub- !
lican contains a letter from L09 Vegas, New Mex- j
ico, under date of December 1st, which furnishes
the following particulars respecting the capture and
death of Mra. White.
Major Grier has just returned from an expedition
against the lieorillas tribe of Apache Indians. In
October, Mr. White, a merchant of El Paso, who
was bringing nut his family, left his train, as the
! weather was becoming cold and disagreeable lor
Mrs. White and child, and came on in advance, |
1 with a party of eight persona.
The Indians prepared an ambuscade some sixty
I miles from Los Vegas, the first settlement, and kill
! ed Mr. While and all the men of the party, taking
: Mrs. White, child and negro servant prisoners.—
As soon as this was reported to the commanding
officer of the department, Maj. Grier was ordered
with his own company, and Capt. Valdez’s compa
ny of volunteers, to proceed to rescue Mrs. White,
Taking Kit Carson and Watkin Lerieux as
guides, he proceeded at once to the scene of the out
rage, thence to follow the trail. The Indians had
taken every precaution to avoid pursuit. They trav
elled in every direction, one day going east and the
next day going west, encamping near where they
had been the previous night. On leaving camp,
they had moved off in small parties, diverging in
many directions, and fame together after getting
some miles distant. Though seventeen days had
elapsed the indefatigable Kit Carson and Lerieux
followed the trail with the precision and certainty
of a blood-hound, coming on the camps night after
night, notwithstanding their precaution. Major
Grier finally came upon one of the camps, the fires
of which were still burning, and imagining that
they had got news of his approach and were flying,
he gave chase, and after running about sixteen
miles ho came upon them. They had again en
camped, and were only apprised of his presence by
some of their hunters a few minutes before lie was
on them. They had time, however, to mount their
fleetest horses, and Major Grier’s were so much fa
tigued that the Indians could readily outrun them.
Five or six were killed and three taken prisoners.
In their flight they abandoned every thing, and even
threw their children away as they ran, so much
were they pressed. Their lodges, horses, saddles,
bridles, blankets, fire-arms, ammunition, provisions,
dressed skins, in a word, every thing except their
own denuded persons, and the horses on which they
rode, was captured. Fifty animals were packed
with the most valuable things, the rest were burnt. i
When Major Grier got on the ground which had
been occupied by the Indians, he found the body of
Mrs. While transfixed with an arrow—lifeless but
still warm. She had evidently been put to death,
and thus freed from her sufferings at the time the
alarm was given. She still had her bible and nrarer !
iMjck, hfirf t*on ner companions aurmg her
captivity. They were marked at various places
where she had been reading. The child and negro
frirl were not seen or heard of, and they are doubt- i
ess with the Indians.
Major Grier had Mrs. While buried as decently '
as circumstances would admit, and that the Indians
might not discover her resting place, and that her
bones might lie undistnrbed, he burned grass over '
her grave and set fire to the prairie around it. '
Mr. White was a native of Sullivan county, Ten- 1
neseee, and his lady the daughter of Mr. John 1
Dunn, of Abingdon, Virginia. 1
CCJ* It is singular that while thus far we have
had an open and moderate winter,it has been pinch- <
ing cold in the south of Europe, and dreadfully so '
in the north. A soldier has perished from cold at
Lisbon, a climate always warm and bland; at Mad- <
rid, three sentinels had frozen to death at their posts I
and at Vienna, the snow rendered the streets im- <
passable. That city is also suffering- severely from <
typhus fever. Thirty medical men have been at- 1
tacked with it. i
(K5- Garribaldi, the Roman patriot, has found his i
way into Algiers, where he has ingratiated him- i
self into the good graces of the Emperor ofMoroe- ;
co. He will command the Moorish forces, in their '
hostilities against the Mellila, and will doubtless <
prove a valuable acquisition.
CO- An aerolite weighing half a ton (according to i
the Missouri Republican,) fell nenr Jefferson Bar- j i
racks on the 25th ult. > I
PRIMROSE HILL TUNNEL.
The London and Birmingham Railway has been
called the greatest public work ever executed1 ei
ther in ancient or modem times. If we estimate its
importance by the labor alone which ha* been ex
pended on it, perhaps the great Chinese wall might
compete with it; but when we consider the great
outlay of capital which it has required, the great
and various talents which have been employed upon
the work during the whole of its progress—together
: with the unprecedented engineering difficulties,
which were to be overcome—the gigantic work of
the Chinese sinks wholly into the shade.
An ingenious comparison has been made between
this railway and the great Pyramid of Egypt,
in order to illustrate the magnitude of the uuder
After making the necessary allowances for the
foundations, galleries, ect., and reducingthe whole
to one uniform denomination, it will be found that
1 the labor expended on the great Pyramid w>9 equiv
alent to lilting 15,733 millions cubic feet of stone
one foot high. This labor was performed according
to Diodorus Siculus, by 300,000; to Herodotus, by
100,000 men, and it required for its execution twen
ty years. If we reduce in the same manner the la
bor expended in constructing the London and Bir
' mingham Railway to one common denomination,
j the result is 25,000 million cubic feet of material
I (reduced to the same weight as that used in con
structing the Pyramid) lifted one foot high, or 9,
million cubic feet more than was lifted one loot high
in the construction of the Pyramid; yet this im
mense undertaking was performed by about 20,000
men in less than five years!
From the above calculation have been omitted all i
the tunnelling, culverts, drains, ballasting and fenc
ing and all the heavy work at the various stations, j
and also the labor expended on engines, carriages, |
wagons, etc.; these are set oflfagainsl the labor of
drawing the materials of the Pyramid from the
quarries to the 6pot where they were to be used—a
much larger allowance than is necessary.
One of the wonders of this road is the tunnel
through Primrose Hill. On approaching it the dark
cavern has a peculiar appearance from the steam, !
which has been left by passing trains, am! not clear
ing out if the weather is dull and heavy, remains
in the tunnel, and to which a lurid tint is at times
given by the sun at the opposite end, so as almost
to make one think that the tunnel is a furnace. The
entrance has been handsomely constructed, having
finished facing of the finest Portland stone. It cost
835,000. Here is situated the lodge of a policeman
who hulds constant communication with another at
the opposite end, by means of an electric telegraph j
constructed for the purpose. He also informs the
policemen of the arrival of trains from the north as !
soon as they enter the tunnel. The face of the tel- 1
egraph has on it the words, “train in,” “train out,” j
“line clear,” “line closed,” any of which commu- |
nicatio:is be makes to his colleagues with the pas- j
sage of every train according as the case may be; ]
and in this way perfect order and regularity are ob- j
served. Fastened against the frame-work of the j
tunnel is a large bell, according to a rough estimate
about three quarters of a yard in diameter,weighing i
ten cwt. As soon as the bell of the telegraph atj
this end rings the policeman knows that a commu- '
nication is made fr^m the opposite end, and looking j
to the pointers, he finds that there is a “train in” I
the tunnel. Acknowledging the information, he |
proceeds at once to the great bell.and pullings rope
attached to it, which acts in a similar manner to I
the drawing up a clock, the bell is set “a ringing” j
some twenty or thirty times, and gives due notice ;
to all the people at the opposite station; who make ;
the necessary arrangements for the reception of the ;
train, and the examination of the tickets of the
The tunnel is 1,250 yards long, twenty-five feet
high, and twenty-two feet wide, and is ventilated |
by five shafts, eight feet in diameter. In some
places the line is fifty feel below the surface. It cost
Cor,d winters in oeden times.—In 1664 the
cold was so intense that the Thames was covered
with ice sixty-one inches thick. Almost all the
In 1691 the cold was so excessive that the fam
ished wolves entered Vienna and attacked beasts
and even men. Many people in Germany were
frozen to death in 1695, and the winters of 1697
and 1699, were nearly as bad.
In 1709 occurred that famous winter called, by
distinction, “the cold winter.” All the rivers and
lakes were frozen, and even the sea for several
miles from the shore. The ground was frozen nine
feet deep. Birds and beasts were struck dead in
the fields, and men perished by thousands in their
houses. In the south of Franee the vine plantations
were almost all destroyed ; nor have they yet recov
ered from that fatal disaster. The Adriatic sea was
frozen, and even the Mediterranean about Genoa,
and the citron and orange groves suffered extreme
ly in the finest parts of Italy.
In 1716 the winter Was so intense that people
traveled across the straits from Copenhagen to the
province of Senia, in Sweden.
In I729> in Scotland, multitudes of cattle and
sheep were buried in the snow.
In 1730 the winter was scarcely inferiorlo that
of 1709. The snow laid ten feet deep in Spain and
n _1 r/.I_rj __e __ _I
t UI Mi^uu jl iio fjHjuci ” ao Iiir^cn w*vi J mhu
thousands of people went over it. And the lakes
in England froze.
In 1744, the winter was extremply cold. Snow
fell in Portugal to the depth of twenty-three feet
on a level.
In 1754 and 1756 the winters were very severe
and cold. In England, the strongest ale, exposed
to the air in a glass, was covered in fifteen minutes
with ice one-eighth of an inch thick.
In 1771 the Elbe was frozen to the bottom.
In 1770 the Danube bore ice five feet deep be
low Vienna. Vast numbers of the feathered and
^"Hie^nntereof 1784 and 1785 were uncommon
ly severe. The Lillie Belt was frozen over.
From 1800 to 1812 also, the winters were re
markably cold, particularly the latter, in Russia,
which proved so disastrous to the French army un
The whiskeV trade.—Bui few persons have a
correct view of the amount of Whiskey annually
consumed in this city in the manufactures of Domes
tic Liquors, Alcohol, Burning Fluid, There
are four Distilleries in the immediate vicinity of this
city, which consume about 300,000 bushels of Corn
and Rye yearly and produce 1,050,000 gallons of
Whiskey, valued at $275,000. The following are
the names of the proprietors J Alexander Young,
Samuel Smith, Powers & Weightman, and J. K. !
Tyson. These works are all driven by steam, and
consume 3,000 ton9 of coal annually. They employ
from seventy to eighty workmen, and the amount
uf capital invested cannot be less than halfa million
of dollars. Besides this amount there was received
last year by theCohimbia Railroad 562,825 gallons
and by the Delaware canal 1,432,815gallons,which
added to the amount manufactured by the city dis
tilleries make 3.045.G40 gallons equal to about 101,- ,
521 barrels. To this we tnu9l add a considerable
amount received annually by the Schuylkill and
Tidewatpr Canal, and New York, which would I <
swell the the total amount to 125 a 130,000 barrels. <
—Phil. Com. List. j <
Advices from Turkey up to the very latest |
date stale that Gen. Bern, the Hungarian patriot, j l
had died suddenly. I
' " VALUABLE TO FATHER^ j»AHH^ '
1 The British Gardner’s Chronicle states the <•!
’ lowing interesting, and happy anecdote of* fanner
■ of the olden time and school.
“This farmer who owned and occupied 1.000 t
cres of land, had three daughters. When his el
dest daughter married, he gave her one quarter ef
his land fur her portion, bnt no money; and he found
. by a little more speed and * little better manage
ment, the produce of his farm did not decrees*.—
When his second daughter married, he gave her
ond-thifd of the remaining land for her portion, but
no money. He then set to work and began to grab
up hia furze and fern, and ploughed up what he
called the poor dry furze land, even when the fart*
covered in some cloee, nearly half the land. After
giving half his land away to two of his daughters,
to bis great surprise lie found that the produce in
creased ; he made mote money, because hia new
broken furze land brought excessive crops, and at
the same time he farmed the whole of hia land bet
ter, for he employed three times more laborers upon
it, he rose two hours sooner in the morning, had ue
more dead fallows once in three years; instead ef
which he got two grten crops in one year, and at*
them upon the land. A garden never require* *
dead fallow. But the great advantage was, that he
had got the same money to manage 500 that heh«d
to manage 1000 acres; therefore he laid out double
the money upon the land. When his third and last
daughter was married, ho gave her 250 acre* or
half what remained, for her portion, and no mottey.
He then found that be had the same money to farts
one quarter of the land as he had at tint to farm tbs
whole. He began to ask himself a few questions,
and set his wits to work how he was to make ae
much of 250 as he had done of 1000 acre* He
then paidoffhis bailiff, who weighed twenty stone;
rose with the lark in the long days, and went to bed
with the lamb; he got as much more work done for
his money ; he made his servants, laborers, and hor
ses, move faster, broke them from their snail’s pace;
and found that the eye of the master quickened the
pace of the servant. He saw the beginning of every
thing ; and to his servants and laborers, instead ef
saying, “go and do it.” he said to them, “let us go,
my buys, and do it.” Between come and go, tie
soon found out a very great difference. He grub
bed up the whold of his poor grass land, and con
verted a great deal of corn into meat for the sake of
manure, and he preserved his blank water, (thee*
cence ot manure;,) cut ms Hedges down, wmcn naa
I not been plashed for forty or fifty year*; straighten*
i ed his zig-zag fences; cut his water courses straight,
: and gained a deil of land by doing so; made dams
and sluices, and irrigated all the lend he could ; he
grubbed up many of his hedges and borders, borders
covered with bushes, in some more of his small clo
ses, some not wider than streets, and threw ihre«>
four, five, and six closes into one. He found out
that instead of growing white thorn hedges and
hews to feed foreign birds in the winter, he could
! grow food for man instead of migratory birds* Af
ter all this improvement, he grew more and mad*
more oft'250 acres than he did from 1000; at the
very same time he found uut that half of England
at that tiime was not cultivated from the want ef
means to cultivate it with. I let him rams and
sold him long horned bulls, (said R. Bakewell,) and
told him the real value of labor, both in doors, end
out, and what ought to be done with a certain num
ber of men, oxen, and horses, within a given limn*
I I taught him tu sow less and plough better; that
! there were limits and measures in all things; and
; that the husbandman ought to be stronger} than the
farm ; I told him how to make hoi land colder, and
cold land hotter, light land sliffer, and stiff land
lighter. I soon caused him to shake off all his old
deep-rooted prejudices, and I grafted new ones in
| their places. 1 told him not to breed inferior cattle,
! sheep or horses, but the best of each kind ; for the
| best consumed no more than the worst. My friend
| became a new man in his old age, and died rich.
Farming.—The Christian Banner,Fredericks
burg, Va.f is an excellent religious and miscellane
ous newspaper. We copy the annexed beautiful
sketch from its columns. It contains both poetry
and truth •—“The Lord‘planted a garden,’ that is,
he enclosed a nortion of ground in the East, in
which he placet/ the mati he had formed, and com
manded him to dress it, and keep it. Hence, we
discover that the Lord intended man to work inside
of an enclosure, and not in the wild woods. One of
the great secrets in prosecuting the science orAgri
culture, is good enclosures. Inferior fences hare
made more mischievous cattle—created a greater
number of disturbances between neighbors and fel
low-citizens—caused the destruction of more pro
duce, perhaps, than any other evil connected with
the whole system of farming. There are particu
larly, three important items connected with th#
science of farming. The first is, good land ; the
second, good enclosures, and the third, good work
ing; these will secure an abundant harvest if ths
good i.ora send an abundance of rain, l nis is tnt
season of the year to attend to the repairing and
building of fences, and getting ready for a good b*
ginning fora heavy crop. Don’t forget it.
Ejects or Camphor on the Teeth.—Froirt
attentive observations of the teeth for several years*
it has been ascertained that the use of dentifrices*
containing camphor, renders them brittle. Teeth
allowed to remain in chalk impregnated with the
camphor, for a few days, had the enamel very much
altered; placed in camphorated spirit they become
very brittle; and if exposed to the fumes of camphor*
a morbid condition to a still greater extent super
vened. A writer in the London Lancet states, that
seven-tenths of the dentifrices now used contain
more or less of this destroying agent.
Fire Wood.—As this Is the season to lay in
fire wood. I would ««.v ,K“* e~-~ CA'
poiience, green wood taken as fresh from the stump
as it can be had,and dried under eover*ii worth one
third more than wood dried in thfe ordinary way,
exposed to the weather. The difference is so much
in favor of the cover-dried, that two cords are equal
to three of the other. I find the worst swamp wood
cut green and dried in good wood sheds, farsapsri.
or to the best hickory seasoned in the open air.
To Silver Clock Faces.—Take one part of
chloride of silver (the white precipitate which falls
when a solution of common salt is poured into a so
lution of nitrate of silver or lunar caustic,) thres
parts of pearlash, one of whiting, and one and a
half of curamon salt, or one part chloride of silver,
and ten parts of cream of tartar, and rub the brass
with a moistened piece pf cork, dipped in the jk>w
Something New.—For the first time in tine
country, says the Co/ombos (Ohio) Statesman, of
the 25ih ult.. one hundred head of ftit cattle belong
ing to Mr. Seymour Renick, have been shod with
iron shoes, f«r the purpose of travelling over ih*
mountains. If ihe experiment proves good, ilia
the intention of Mr. Renick to shoe eleven hundred
CO- A Roston Medical writer says that it pro
duces chilblains, chapped skin, inflamed eyes, and
colds, to go to the fire suddenly when you are very
cold. Accustom youself to the warmth by degree*.
(jry- The blood of the cow is an excellent manure
for fruit trees. It also forms the basis ®f Prussia*
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