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Staunton spectator. [volume] (Staunton, Va.) 1849-1896, March 27, 1850, Image 2

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THE STAUNTON SPECTATOR.
WEDNESDAY, MARCH 27, 1850.
SPRING CAMPAIGN.
(vy. We arc authorized to announce John L. Pey
ton, E»q-, a* a candidate to represent the County of
Augusta in the next House of Delegates of Virginia.
{£>• We are authorized tone jounce John ‘D. ImBo
ben. Esq., as a'candidate to represent the County cf
Augusta in the next House of Delegates ol Virginia.
$5* We are authorized to aim ouuce Maj Jas. TV Aet
na, as a candidate to represent the County of Augusta
in the next House of Detonates of Virginia
£>- Wo are authorized to announce Alaj. J- M. Mc
*Cpn, as a candidate to represent tin* County of Augusta
in the next House of Delegates ol Virginia.
9T Wo are authorized to announce Chapman John
■ON, Esq , as a candidate to represent the County of Au
gusta in the next House of Delegates of Virginia.
JUDICIAL TESIRK.
We shall continue to bring forward, from time
to time, the opinions and arguments of distinguished
jurists and statesmen,“upon this grave question, by
way of contrast with 'Other opinions founded more
upon desire than reason, and looking rather to
change and chance than to principles tested by time
and experience.
The age in which we live is one of impulse and
•xpeiiment, and in some respects, of progress in the
proper sense of the term. A rushing, reckless spi
rit sometimes reaches high attainments, and oflener
bitter disappointments. Upon the smooth surface
of a quiet lake, a bay may set the sails and guide
the helm of his craft, because he reaches land upon
any tack. When, however, capes are to be doubled
ijpo* the heaving ocean, cool and skillful pilots,
•oundings and log books, charts and compasses be
come the only means of safety. As in physical, so
iu things political.
Some persons think, conscientiously no donbt,
and others with an eye single to the “loaves and
fishes,” that the perfection of the Judiciary con
sists in periodical elections of the Judges; and that,
retaining thetenureofgood behaviour,nothing would
be gained by a direct vote and choice of the people.
Upon the first point and in pursuance of the inti
mation in the outset, we give at present some ex
tracts from the elaborate arguments of Judges Wil
•on and Story,-and the authors of the Federalist,
Yix: Madison, Jay and Hamilton. Such names
need no commendation from us. History has as
signed them a place among the wisest and ablest
defenders of hnman liberty and the rights of the
people; and wo be the day when such authority
shall go for naught.
"Clear heads and honest hearts are essential to good
Judges. As all controversies in the community respect
ing life, liberty .reputation, and property, must be influ
enced by their judgments; and as their judgments ought
to be calculated not only to do justice, but also to give
general satisfaction, to inspire general confidence, and
to take even from disappointed suitors (for in every
cause disappointment must fall on ouc side) the slight
est pretence of complaint; they ought to be placed in
such a situation, as not only to be, but likewise to ap
pear superior to every extrinsic circumstance, which
•an be supposed to hare the smallest operation upon their
understandings or tbeir inclinations. In their salaries,
and in their offices, they ought to be completely inde
pendent : in other words, they should bo removed from
the most distant apprehension of being affected in their
judicial character and capacity, by any thing, except
tbeir own behaviour and its consequences.”—Wilson's
Law Lectures.
"The standard of good behaviour, for the continuance
m office of the Judicial Magistracy, is certainly one of
the most valuable of the modern improvements in the
practice of government. * * * As Irom the natural
feebleness of the Judiciary, it is in continual jeopardy
•f being overpowered, awed, or influenced by its co-or
dinate branches; that as nothing can contribute so much
to its firmness and independence, as permanency in of
fice. this quality may, therefore, bo justly regarded as
aa indispensable ingredient in its constitution ; and, in a
great measure, as the citadel of the public justice and
the public security.”—Federalist.
"The independence of the Judges is equally requisite
to guard the Constitution and the rights of individuals
from tho effects of those ill-humours, which the arts of (
designing men, or the influence of particular conjunc
tures, sometimes disseminate among the people them
selves “, an-I which, though they speedily eivt; place to
better information, and more deliberate reflection, have
a tendency, in the meantime, to occasion dangerous in
novations in the government, and serious oppressions of
the minor party in the community.”—Story on the
Constitution of U. S.
"That inflexible and uniform adherence to the rights
ef the Constiti tion, and of individuals, which wo per
ceive to be indispensable in the Courts of Justice, can
certainly not be expected from Judges who hold their
offices by a temporary commission. Periodical appoint
ments, however regulated, or by whomsoever made,
would, In some way or other, be fatal to their necessa
ry independence.”—Story.
Justice has been represented in paintings aa blind,
with scales in her hands, indicating thereby that in
Judicial administration it is expedient to "know no
man after the flesh.” A profound knowledge of
human nature first conceived the idea, and a prac
tical acquaintance with human affairs lod to the
picture. Ultraista may Tant as they please, but
these periodical elections of all Judicial officers,
give both eyes and years quick in discerning the
most potent influences at the polls, whether these
influences may tell in wealth and power, as seek
ing to contiol, or in the force of numbers as oppos
ed to such control. In either case, from the known
weakness and imperfection of man’s nature, justice
would be endangered, and more probably resemble
C-CSAk than Cesar’s wife.
Upon the other point—that no benefits could re
sult from an election of their Judges by the people,
if the existing tenure remains as it is, we likewise
dissent, and for the following reasons :
1st.—Because the Legislature having manifestly
Ailed in repeated instances to make proper selec
tions, and the people of the Districts having just
grounds of complaint therefrom, the appointing pow
er ought to be changed, if a belter can be had.
2.—Believing that none is safer tnan the people
themselves, this change will effectually secure the
appointment of each Judge within his intended ju
risdictional limits, and one esteemed by the people
t« honest, capable and firm. Having every induce
ment to good selections, when attainable, we may
Airly conclude that 6uch will be made; and incase
failure, the blame is their own.
3d,_Should failures, however, occur, the people
have the remedy in their own hands under the pre- |
MOt tenure, as we shall proceed to show ; and in
doing so, flatter ourselves, that full security for the
people will bo made to appear on the one hand, and
^■needful responsibility of the Judges on the other.
The tenure of good behaviour, as securing* the >
independence of the Judiciary, would not havebeen j
assailed, we presume, in Virginia, but for the'belief j
that the existing constitutional provisions for im- I
peachtnent and removal from office by a two-thirds j
vote of the Legislature, for cause shown, had prov- ,
i ed ineffectual. Ardent reformers takeHhis ground
at any rate, and assuming it as true, we trace the
cause to that provision of the Constitution which
makes the appointing and removing :[*>wer the
same body. This we take to be a theoretical de
fect, and one which may become, if it has not al
ready, the source of practical judicial grievances.—
There rs in small bodies having the power of con
ferring office, a sympathy between the appointer
anil appointee, besides a pride of consistency in
Sticking up to;its own action and an unwillingness
'to admit error of action ; all which would naturally .
chedk a resort to the pToper remedies in case of judi
dicial malfeasance. Separate the appointing from ^
the removing power, anJ the alleged evils willdi3_ |
appear, while the independence of the Judiciary j
will be preserved. Let the people elect, and com- |
plain, as they will, when things go wrong, and the
power of removal may then be safely committed to
the Legislative body as a disinterested tribunal.
The process of the remedy will be such as fol
lows : Whenever a Judge, from causes justi
fying a removal from office, shall have rendered
! himself obnoxious to the people of his district gen
| erally, they have nothing to do but elect such del
egates to the General Assembly from the several
| counties of the district, as will carryout their views
I asd wishes. Should difiVrencesof opinion exist trp
i on the necessity or propriety of the contemplated a
! motion from office, growing out of the sufficiency
i of the causes and state of the facts, opposing candi
dates for the Legislature, for and against removal,
| would very soon test .public sentiment upon the
questions in issue.
Arriving at the proper Forum.the dolegates from
the disaffected district would lead off upon the ques
tion of removing the offending Judge, and from their
: position and knowledge of facts, woitfd carry a
| weight decisive of any proper case of removal.
4th.—The filling of vacancies from death, resig
nation, Temoval from the district, or amotion from
office, would as a matter of course belong to the
people, as consequent upon their ipoWer of appoint
ment. We submit it then, whether, by transfer
ring this poWer of appointment from the Legisla
ture to the people, positive good will not result—
[ and thus by a single provision, spcnre both the re
sponsibility and independence of the Judges.
I OCh We xre pleased to find that the papers in the
Valley, and indeed in the State generally, aTeeonr
ing out in favor of a reform advocated by us more
than a year ago. Instead «f writing anything new
on the subject, we give the following from the
Spectator of February 28lli, 1849c
“Biennial Sessions of the Legislature.—The
propriety of so changing the Scssious ofour Legislature
as to require it to meet once in two years instead of an
nually, has been repeatedly suggested and is *.6W Arged
I by some of our exchanges. Several States have adopt- i
| ed this plan, and we think it might be introduced in
Virginia with great advantage. Under the present sys- j
! tem, the members of the Legislature assemble at Rich- j
1 mood on the first Monday in December each year, and 1
1 seem to feci iu duty bound to spend at least the winter
1 there. Their time must be occupied in some way. and
! consequently there is a great deal of meddling with
what they properly have nothing to do, and much leg
j islation that is worse than useless. Ami not only so,
but all this time money is flowing out of the treusury of
the Commonwealth iuto.the pockets of the members at
the rate of about seven hundred dollars a day, or nearly
sixty thousand dollars a session, supposing the session
to continue ninety days. By having the sessions bien
nial, every other year the State would save this amount,
which, as no one doubts, could be most usefully expen
ded in constructing roads of various kinds,and promoting
other public improvements.”
Foreign.—The condition of France is exciting
much speculation at present among foreign journal
ists. M. Lons Bonaparte, vain, frivolous, fickle,
luxurious and extravagant—dazzled by a name and
longing for a crown, is nut the inan to cherish re
publican simplicity or to bqild up republican insti
tutions. Socialism and Red-Republicanism nro rap
idly advancing—great meetings are about to be
held, and the President hesitates whether to pre
vent or connive. The influence of such men as
Cavaigkac, Lamokicjere and Changarnisr,
whose intelleciual force far exceeds that of the Pre
sident, and whose decision of character and firm
ness of purpose are so well established in France,
forms probably the chief safeguard against revolu
tion and blood shed. A short time may decide :
whether conservatism or socialism, intellect or pas
sion, the spirit of freedom or that of the mob, shall
settle the destinies of this strange people.
Richmond Whjg.—The editors of this paper
are sustaining that point of Constitutional reform
which looks to the election of Slain Judges by the
people, but are not prepared, as we infer from their
editorial of March 20th, to change the tenure of
good behaviour, unless for a term of years equiva- j
lent thereto. We should be pleased to find so able
a journal entering fully into the discussion now com- |
menced. We have been prompted to this notice by
a short article in the Enquirer (March 22d) under
the head “Elective Judiciary,” in which this Ian j
guage is used :—“We are glad that the Whig co- ,
operates with us in favor of this reform.” This, in
view of the context, might lead to a construction !
which the Whig might not sanction. We should
like to know if the Whig favor3 the Judicial Sys
tem of Mississippi, as advocated by the Enquirer, j
CO- Mr. Thomas Butler Kino is now engaged
in preparing a Report on the resources of Califor
nia and th6 legislation she needs. The rpport will
embrace the question of a proper disposition of the
mineral lands belonging to the U. States, as the
most of them do. Whether these lands shall be
sold, or leased, or retained by the government as a
source of revenue, are matters of grave considers- j
tion. In Russia, the gold minesof the Ural Moun- ■
tains have been committed to individual enterprise, 1
embracing the serfs of the mineral provinces, and
the operation has proved highly advantageous to
tfie government and the laborers. The Report of
Mr. King will be looked for with great interest.
Ohio and VrnGfim.-—•Some time ago, a free ne
gro charged with crime in this State, escaped into
Ohio. The Governor of Ohio1 refused to surrender
him on the requisition of our Executive, und Gov.
Floyd has recommended a system of non-inter
course by way of bringing the fanatical inters and
people of that State to a sense of right and jastice.
This is an extreme measure which should only
be resorted to when all other remedies fail. The
thing complained of, however, is a growing evil,;
and some remedy must be provided.
(WThe I.ogislature adjourned mi Friday last.*
MARCH COURT.
An unusually large number of the citizens of the
i County met together on the 1st day of the term,
! not only to commune with their Representatives just
j returned from the Legislature, and to receive the
announcements of candidates for the spring elec
tion} but also to consider the recommendation of
J the last Legislature to send Delegates to the Nash
| ville Convention. It may be needless to add that
] the meeting was highly intelligent and respectable.
As will be seen" by reference to the proceedings
in another Column, the meeting declined, by an
overwhelming majority, to have part or ldt in said
Nashville Convention and for reasons net forth in
| the preamble and resolutions.
During the absence of the committee in prepar
| ing the Resolutions, Speeches were made by the
’ Senator from the district, VVm. Kinney, Escj., and
‘ fromthe county delegatee, Messrs. Shkffey and
McCur, the'former of whoa, declined offering for
re-election.
The committee of hine having resumed their
| places in the meeting, majority and minority report*
were presented of-five to four, the former sustained
by Messrs. Stuart and Michik, and the latter by
Messsrs. Skinner and IIarman,all uffhecommitiee,
and the result was as above stated.
After this special business 'had been disposed of
■ in addition to Maj. 3. M. McCtJE.who had announ
ced himself in the fore .port of the day, four other
candidates, all Whigs, announced themselves, viz:
Major Jas. Walker, Jno. L. Peyton, John D.
Im-do-ncn and •Chapman Johnson, EsqrB. *Py
thin ‘time fhe day had b^en nearly cbrfsumed, and
the assembly, which was still considerable, quietly
separated.
Convention Question in the West.—Oppo
sition to the Convention bill in the Western part of
the Stale seems to lie assuming a most determined
form. The Parkersburg Gazette, Weston (Lewis
Co.) Sentinel, and Kanawha Republican, have ta
ken decided ground against it. At a public meet
ing of the people of Kanawha County, recently
held to consider the subject, t'he following resolu
tions wero adopted :
I. That the people of Wcitern Virgiuia did not aslc
or desire, at the hands of the present General Assembly
any law for the call of a Convention ; preferring to post
pone any movement forlhat purpose, until after the cen
sus directed by law to be taken dirring the present year
has been completed ; and that this call for a Convcntiou
comes from those who are hostile to equal representa
tion, and who seek to harry it forward in advance of
the arguments and demonstrations which that census
will bring with it.
II. That no basis of representation enn be consistent
with the trae principle of u republican government,
which docs not recognize « perfect equality of political
rights in each and i-Yety member of the body politic,
irrespective of the differences which way exist, in their
individual fortunes.
III. That in the construction of a state government we
cannot consent to confer upon individual* a right of suf
frage in proportion to their wealth, nor cun We re Cog
nize and adopt the same principle, by yielding to the
people of a particular district of the State a representa
tion proportioned to their aggregate wealth.
1 ¥•. That the people of Western Virginia cannot vote
for a Convention, as the same is to be constructed and
organized under the Act of Assembly before referred to,
without acknowledging their own political inferiority,
and agreeing that tho money and property of one sec
tion of the State shall be weighed against the freemen
of the other.
V'. That we will vote against the Convention provi
ded for by the Act of Assembly aforesaid, and Will u*e
all honorable means to defeat the same.
Pot>ur ation of California.—The Address of
the Senators and Representatives elect from the
State of California to Congress, contains some inter
esting items. It slates that the population of Cal
ifornia. exclusive of Indians and Africans, is sup
posed to have been, on the first day of January,
1849, as follows, viz :—Californians, 13,000; A
merieans, 8.000; Foreigners, 5,000; Total, 20,000.
From that time to the 11 th of April, the arrivals by
sea at the different ports are believed to have ex
ceeded 0,000, and the arrivals by I,and through
Mexico are estimated at 2,000. The records of the
Harbor-Master^ Office at San Francisco, show that
from the 12th of April to the 31st December, the
number of arrivals at that port were 29,009. In
addition to these, it is believed that no less than 1 ,
000 persons landed at oilier ports. Adding to these
amounts the 3,000 sailors who have deserted from
ships arriving in the country, and computing the
whole overland immigration at 40,000, the follow
ing totals result as the population of Calfurnia on
the first day of January, I860, vi*; Americans,
76,069; Californians, 13,000; Foreigners 13,000;
Total 107,069. Of the 36,269 persons who arriv
ed at San Francisco from April 12th to December
31st, only 800 were females.
Baltimore Weekly American.—This is one
of the most valuable compendiums of news and
prices current we have ever had the pleasure to re
ceive. The editorial department is unsurpassed by
any in point of interest, and the general arrange
ment of the paper proves the efficiency of its wor
thy proprietors for the arduous task of catering for
the public taste.— Winchester Republican.
We take pleasure in adding our testimony to the
excellence of the American. As a political, com
mercial and general news paper it is not surpassed
by any journal In the Country. The editorials are
always written with judgment and taste, and the
sound moral influence of the paper is not the least
of its merits. The weekly American is published
at $2 per annum, the tri weekly $5.
After the above was put in type wc received the
prospectus published in another column. 1 he
Weekly American may be seen at this office.
Young Doctors.—The commencement exer
cises of the Ilichmortd Medical ColJpge came offon
Tuesday evening the 19th inst. The degree of
Doctor of Medicine was conferred on twenty four
young gentlemen—among the number, Messrs.
Robert H. Robertson and Samuel Kenner
ly, or., of this county. The latter received the
prize of a gold medal awarded by the Faculty, for
the best essay on a given medical subject, which
was contended for by nearly one third of the grad
uating class.
Among the fate graduates of the Jefferson Med
ical College of Philadelphia, are Messrs. S. M
Dold, Edward L. GraWam, S. T. Chandler,
John H. Hyde and George P. Ktle, of Rock
bridge, and Samuel M. I'Ie^dren, of Augusta.
03* The trial of Prof. Webster, indicted for the
imrrder of Dr. Geo. Parkman, was Commenced
before the Supreme Court of Massachusetts, at Bos
ton, on Tuesday, the 19th lust. The evidence so
far as given in, is published at length in the Bal
timore American. It is altogether of a ciTcumspn
tial character, but unless explained by subsequent
testimony, most fead to theeonviction ofthe unhap
py prisoner. »
Scientific Lectures.—We are rfqnested to
state that Professor B. H. Benton will lecture on
scientific subjects in this place, on next Monday and
Tuesday nights. A friend who has had the pleas
ure of hearing him, represents him to us as an affa.
blc and intelligent gentleman, and his Lectures as
well worth attending.
' " r '•< '• . . ..
CONGRESS.
Monday, March 18.— The Senate.—After the
• presentation of petitions, the Senate resumed the
Consideration of Mr. Clay’s resolutions, and Mr.
Badger addiessed the Senate on the subject. He
argued that a dissolution of the Union was possible
in certain ‘contingencies, and therefore great care
should be taken to guard agaitrst such contingencies.
If the sentiments of the Senator from New York
(Mr. Seward) were those of the Northern people,
or any large portion of them,‘this Uriibn could not
stand.
House of Representatives.—Mr. Boyd, of Ky.,
presented the memorial and credentials of-the dele
gates elect from California, and the Constitution of
that State; which were ordered to lie on the table
nnd be printed. The House then resolved itself
into Committee of the Whole and resumed the con
sideratioirof the bill to admit California as a Stale
into the Union. Mr. Williams, of Term., spoke
for an hour in discussion of the questions involved in
the admission of California. Mr. Ca6ey fill lowed,
and spoke, his hour. Mr. Giddings next obtained the
floor, and made a personal reply to the recent speech
of Mr. Winthrop.
Tuesday.— The Senate.—Petitions were pre- I
sented, embracing one by Mr. Clay for the exten
sion of a patent right fur an improvement in biscuit
baking. Mr. Badger continued and concluded his
remarks. He was willing to withdraw objections
to the admission of California, and that was a great
concession. But he insisted upon an entire fulfil
ment of Nothern obligation as to recapture of slaves,
and the utter abandonment of the V\ ilmot proviso.
Mr. Hale vindicated the North, and especially his
own peculiar party, from ihe charge of agitation.
House if RepresenhAives.—The Whitney rail
road bill came up. Mr. Bowlin occupied the floor
for an hour m opposition to the whole project of ce
ding the lands to Mr. Whitney. He denounced
the project as a magnificent scheme, demoralizing
in its character—that it was brought before Congress
in a spirit of reckless speculation. The House re
solved itself into Committee of the Whole and took
up the bill to supply deficiencies in the app'ropria- i
tions for the service of the fiscal year ending 30th
June, 1850, which was debated till the time of ad
journment.
Wednesday.— The Senate.—Mr. Hale contin
ued Ins remarks in vindication of the North, after ;
which the Senate resumed^the consideration of the i
census bill, which was again discussed.
House rf Representatives.—The House proceed ,
ed to the consideration of the resolution proposing to i
print 5000 Copies extra of the Report in favor ui the
bill granting land to Asa Whitney to construct a ;
railroad to the Pacific. Mr. Robinson ofla.> re
plied to the speech of Mr. Bowlm. He denred that !
this was a great demoralizing, speculating scheme,
notwithstanding the denunciations ut that gentle
man, and that he saw in it a “woolly horse” afiair.
He concluded by saying that Mt. Whitney sought
to effect a great National road to the Pacific, tor the
great public good more than his personal advantage.
Alter he concluded, the motion to print was laid on
table, ayes 84 noes 53. The Deficiency Bill was
further disc used in Committee of the Whole.
Thursday.— The Semite.—Mr. Miller and Mr. |
Seward presented petitions in favor of granting a |
trial by jury to fflgitive slaves, The h^enftte re
sumed the consideration of tho resolution offered by J
Mr. Bradsbury, calling on the President for ehargps I
against office-holders since the 4th of Marcli last.
Mr. Smith addressed tho Senate at length in reply tn \
the speech made some time ago by Mr. Bradbury. ;
and vindicated the President from the charge that he
had procured his election by pledges which he had
not regarded.
House of Representatives.—The Deficiency Bill
was vatiinisly amended in Committee of the W h^le.
The Committee rose, at 4 o’clock, and the bjll to
carry into eflVc ithe Convention between the United
States and the Emperor of Brazil, was then read
the third time and passed.
Friday.— The Senate.—The bill granting a
pension of $50 to the widow of General Worth was
passed.
Mr. Foote’s motion for a compromise Committee
was taken tip. Mr. Dayton, of N. J., advocated |
the admission of California, and agreed with Mr. j
Webster alxint the construction of the’Texas reso- j
lotions of Annexation.
House of Representatives—The Deficiency ap- |
propriatioii Bill was passed and the House adjourn
ed to Monday.
The Spring Elections.—The approach of (lie t
Spring Elections admonishes the Whigs of Virgin- ;
ia of the necessity of preparing themselves to vin- ;
dirate their principles at the ballot-lxix. We go ;
into the contest under the most cheering auspices.
So far as federal affairs are concerned* the history
of tho past year has been fruitful ot events to satis
fy us of the wisdom and goodness of the whig cause
and the priceless value of that spirit of conservatism
hy which it is eminently distinguished. In the af
fairs of our State, the course of the dominant party
has taught us the necessity of Whig ascendency to |
the preservation of the ancient republican principles '
of Virginia. A system of proscription has been com- !
menced at the capital, which cannot receive the \
sanction of the people of this commonwealth. Tho
system is not only in violation of their ancient usa- j
ges. but the interests of the State, which cannot but;
i suffer by the practice of changing auditors, treasur- i
ers. Sic, with every change of power front one par-;
ty to ihp other.
We fnmiy believe that by proper unity and eXer- \
tion on the part of the Whigs, we can carry the '
State in the Spring. Butevery thing depends on the j
Whigs themselves. If personal ambition be allow
ed to interfere with devotion to the cause, we must !
again lose the State, and tho Democracy will claim |
their triumph as a popular sanction of the system
of proscription. Let the Whigs of Virginia hear
this in mind. Let them adopt it as a motto, “Prin- j
ciples, not men.” Let ttlf be discarded from this
contest, and the only rivalry be which shall go far
thest in making sacrifices for tho common cause.—
No man deserves to be considered a Whig, who can
i for a moment permit private considerations to con- ;
; flict with public duly. Whigs of Virginia, in un
I ion is your strength. Unite and Triumph ! Divide ,
and be Defeated ! The choice is in your hands.— |
Richmond Republican.
For the Bovs.—Every day or two a party of
urchins come into ouroflice to beg for old papers to S
make kites. For their special benefit we insert the
following from the New York Tribune :
Kile*.—These being the days of high winds and
high kites, we suirsest toour young friends the idea |
of trying their artistic skill in making their kites
into the form of living things. It is rather too bad
that our boys should be behind the Heathenish
| Chineso in this respect: hut they are, nevertheless.
■ A missionary in that country says, “The sky is a
! universal flutter of kites. I counted this afternoon
from my window ninety-three, which were flown
at various heights with great skill. Some repre- '■
sented hawks, and admirably imitated their manten- ,
vres in the air, poisiiio themselves, and sailing ar.d ,
darting;gaudy butterflies floated around and drag
ons formed of a long succession of circular kites,
With a fierce head, flew around the sky. The ma
jority were of merely faneifol shapes. Loud noises
like a wind instrument could be heard from them.
The most amusing form was that of a huge fish, as
k swam through the blue above, moving its tail
and fins with a ludicrously natural effect. Those
like animals, are also flown in pairs and made to
fight.” Now boys try your Yankee ingenuity, and
let the celestials know that you are up to the age
with something in the wind worth looking at.
Increase op real Estate.—The Vicksburg
Whig estimates the increased value of real estate in
| the counties bordering on the Vicks! nrg and Jackson
Railroad, in round numbers from $700,000 to $9,
008,000, in ten years—and the increase of mer
! ehandise sold, from $000,000, to $2,300,000, and
: the amount of money loaned at interest rising from
; $19,000 to $1,600,000.
These estimates, says the Whig, are rfi'nstly ta
ken from the Auditors report, and are published to
6how the value of Railroads (a the country through
: which they pass.
ANTI-POLYGAMY PROVISO l'
We suggest whether the facts contained in the
Chicago Democrat do not afford a chance for some
aspiring Congressmen to outshine Wilmot:
“Do the Mormons allow Polygamy?—The
reports circulating in the newspapers that the Mor
mons at Deseret allow polygamy, and permit the
most liceniiuuspractices, is announced by the Wash
; ington Union as totally false and without the slight
est foundation. 'It may be a story gotten up to prej
1 udice the chances of Deseret for admission to the
! Union.”—BuJJ'alo Courier.
j ‘4l is nevertheless true, although the Union de
nies it. They do not openly avow the doctrine of
i a plurality of wives but men of influence have the
; privilege of what is called ‘ensealing,’ by which
! they have as many spiritual wives as they want.—
: One of Smith’s brothers (George, we think,) while
at Council Bluff, boasted that he had thirty, and
referred to the records of ilte church as evidence.
“Though the wives are spiritual, it nevertheless
turns out, hy some accident or other, they have
children.”— Chicago Democrat.
We have no doubt the Democrat i6 right. A
vnrv respectable gentleman of V irginia, wno visited
Njuvoo in its palmy days, told us that the illustri
ous Joe offered him a dozen wives if hewduW take
up his abode among ihe Saints. Our triend Was a
modest and moderate man, although a bacheldr, and
positively declined the proposal. Polygamy, we
think, therefore, is a “fixed fact” of Mormonism.
Now, we submit that, instead ot applying the
Wilmot Proviso, or any such nonsensical abstrac
tion, to Dpseret, Congress should adopt the prac
tical measure of an Anti-Polygamy Proviso. Even
the most fanatical of the nonslavehulding States
treat Polygamy as a greater crime than slavery.—
They send a man to the Penitentiary, in every
State of the Union, who has more than one wife.
Shall we permit Deseret to sustain this abominable
“domestic institution?” This is not an abstraction
—this is not a mere spiritual thing, as the cunning
dogs pretend. On the contrary it is a real, Sub
stantial, flesh and blood affair. We commend this
subject to those aged members of tire Senate who
became so frolicsome and facetious when discussing
the question of the Grand Turk’s Seraglio. T hey
need not cross the waters to find a harem. Amer
ican Mahometanism, with its houri of all colors, is
in full blast upjn our shores.
We therefore propose that an Anti-Polygamy
Proviso be applied to Deseret. The South and the
North should unite in putting down this “peculiar (
institution” of the Mormons.— Rich. Republican, j
Legislative Clothing.—It is well known that
in attctent limes, salaries, rations, &.C., were man
aged somewhat differently than at present. YY e
recollect seeing in the records of Bridgewater, that
it was made the interesting question of a town meet
ing—“whether the schoolmaster should be provid
ed with ft new suit of clothes.” The following]
scrap is going the rounds relative to Marblehead,in ]
this State. It appears that many years ago, when
it was smaller than at present, a member was elec
ted to the General court. “His circumstances,how
ever, beifig Slender, like those of his townsmen, it
was resolved lliat the lou-n should furnish him with
a suit of clothes. Accordingly he w ent to ‘Busting,’
rigged out in complete long logs, making a great j
sensation as may he supposed. But unfrrtunalely |
the member died before another election, and con
sequently the ‘legislative stuff,’ reverted nearly new
to the town. To save expense, it was then resolved
that the new candidate, in addition to his other quali
fications, should he capable of filling the ‘town suit’
of clothesjand that the ceremony should he preced
ed by a‘trying on’of the long togs. But the wags
of Boston got wtml of this proceeding, and it Itecame
a standing joke in theSta'e House, when Marble
head was announced, to cry out: ‘Here cnines tlm
Marblehead suit of clothes—wonder w bo’s in cm!”
— Cld Colony Reporter.
MEtHOirist Conference.—We extract the
following from the list of ap|>oiniment8 made at the
late annual Conference of the M. R. Church. The
next Conference Vvill l>e Yield in Winchester :
Rockingham District.—A. A. Reese, P. F..—
Staunton, Thomas M. Reese ; Rockingham. Sam’l
Register. C. C. Cronin ; F.ast Rockingham-, John
W. Kelly. Isaac Gibson ; Augusta, Thomas Hil
debrand, YV. F. Speake; Churchvillp. Philip Res
corl; Highland, Jacob Montgomery ; Deerfield. J.
Lloyd, H. J. Bland ; Franklin, James M. Clark,
M. L. Hawley; Moorfield. T. H. Bnsey, James
Hunter ; South Branch, Maybury Golieen, S. R.
Griffith ; YY’oodstork, Robert Smith, G. \\\ Bouse;
Front Royal, J. McK. Reiley, Elijah Merchant;
North River, to he supplied;J. YV. Hedges. Agent.
Lcwishlirg District.—F,. R. Veitch, P. E.—
Lewisburg Station, Fielder Israel; LewieborgCir
cuit, YVm. M. Metninger, J.N. Davis. Greenbri
er, Jas. N. Eakin. Monroe, Thos. F. McClure.
Covington, Jos. T. Phelps, \\r. G. Steele. Lex
ington, YV. L.Spoiiswood, J. YV. YVofie. Fimastle,
John L. Gilbert. Mason L. YV’. Chesney, Joseph
Spriggs, sup. New Castle, John YV. Start. Salem,
j. H. YVaugh. Christianshurg, Joshua M. Gran
din, Jacksonville, Noah Schlosser. S weet Springs,
Adam Bland—Huntersville, E. G. Jamieson.
The Charleston papers slate that the sea-monster
recently seen in Port Rnyil Sound, near that city,
has appeared in the neighborhood of Beaufort, S. C.,
and that an expedition tocapture him has been fitt
ed out at that place. This expedition consisted of
a flat.mounting a six pounder,furnished with twelve
rounds of grape, canister and fixed shot, with three
boats, well manned, and ns many more as a reserve.
A letter to the Courier says that the monster had
made his way up Whale creek to within a few miles
of Beaufort, and had been pursued for several miles ;
along the banks of the stream, the party in pursuit
at times corning very near to him. ’1 he report ofj
Capt. Blakenshipof the steamer William Seabrook,
and his passengers, is folly confirmed as to the;
length, color and “humps” of the leviathan.
A letter of later date to the Charleston Courier,!
states that the supposed sea serpent was snbsequer.t- j
|y found to be a school of four whales—one large
and three small. _
Southern Colony in California.—The fol-1
lowing appears in the advertising columns of the
Mississipnian, and we copy it as a matter of gener
al interest.
California.— The Southern Slave Co/ont/—Citi
zens ot the Slaves States desirous of emigrating to
California with their slave property, are requested
to send their names, number of slaves, and period of
contemplated departure to the address of “Southern
Slave Colony,” Jackson, Mississippi.
All letters, to meet with attention, must be post
paid.
It is the desire of the friends of this enterpise to
settle in the richest mining and agricultural portions
of California, and to secure uninterrupted enjoy
ment of slave properly. It is estimated that by the
first of May next, the members of the Slave Colony
will amount t,o about five thousand, and the Slaves
to about ten thousand. The mode of affecting or
ganization, &.c., will be privately transmitted to ac
tual members._
(JO A Washington letter in the Philadelphia In
quirer says—
The rumors as to the contemplated movement
upon Cuba, are merely a rehash of those stated some
months ago. There is no doubt but what active pre
parations have been going on during the whole win
ter. and I know that leading Southern men have
been in communication with Gen. Lopez and Other
Cuban patriots. The information in the possession
of the Government is to the effect, that the men
who are to take part in the insurrection, intend fo
ship from the different ports of the United States as
laborers on the contemplated Nicaragua Canal and
rendezvous somewhere in the Gulf of Mexico. The
arms, See., to be smuggled out of the country in
other vessels.
CO The President has issued ah order to the
Secretary of War, directing that the foil uniform
now worn in the army, a blue dress c'oAt with <vhft6
buff linings, band-box hat, &c.,8tc., stialf thrown
aside, and the nndress frock now wofh shall be the
! full uniform, with the addition’ of epauleNs* sash,
&c., &.c., the removal of whtefr rtrmliwan andress
' uniform. The coat worn by fhe privates is substi
i tnled by a sack.
Agricultural College—The Report of the
Commissioner* appointed by the Governor of the
i State of New York to mature a plan for an agri
cultural college and experimental farm In that State
Contains some valuable information in regard to that
institution, iis objects and management. The cost
of the first establishment of the college, including
the purchase of a farm ofSOO acres, is computed at
! $93,000, and the annual expenses of the institution,
i itTs estimated, would he 'about $13,000—the form
i to be cultivated Hy ftlelxbor of the scholars, whe
are to be employed four hotfrs a day in practical ag
riculture, in 311 its varimls branchy.
Among the studies enumerated in the Report a/fc
the laying out the farm and garden in various modes,
adapted n> circumstances; the setting out of plants
j and trees; grafting, budding, printing, 'transplant- ’
| ingbrtd rearing of fruit trees'; thedffferent manners
of fencing grounds ; 'with the relative advantages
and cost of each; the variousrjnalitidsof forest trees,
in reference to fencing and building purposes; the
best mode df breeding fcnd feeding stock; the com
parative advantages of the various breeds; how to
discover defects, and the way to remedy or eradi
1 cate them; the proper time to sell produce; and
how to put it in market; the manner of keeping
farm accounts; and, in short, a lull course of in
struction as to the management of a farm.
The branches df education to be pursued at the
school are natural philosophy, practical chemistry,
particularly as ‘applicable to the analysis of soilfc
and manures; geology arid mineralogy, botany ana
horticulture, mathematics, engineering and practi
cal surveying, the principles of rural legislation1,
and the veterinary aVt.
The annual expense fur each scholar admitted 16
lie one hundred dollars, which will include tuition',
hoard, washing, fuel and lights.
A bill has been reported in fhe State Legislature
to carry the plan into effect, and the board of trus
tees are to meet at Albany, in June next, to take
measures for the purchase of the land.—'B. Amer.
An Invention—Tlte Cincinnati Times men
tions that a M r. Sellers of that city, formerly of Phil
adelphia, has completed an invention which “wifi
simplify and revoluiionize the whole science of en
gineering/’ The following is the only account df
the invention yet pu’bltehed-:
The machine, we believe, has no name yet, hut
we learn combmes fhe operation of the perambulatot
with that of the pentagraph, giving profile lines of
plats, surveys, and measuring distances. By trund
ling it over a tract of country, a more accurate sur
vey for a rail road can be made rhan by any other
method ; and at least fifteen miles per day mapped
with correctness— altitudes, depression, and space.
It can also be used on out streets’, thus dispensing
with the service of an engibee’r.
Tiie Mexican Boundary.—The treaty with
Mexico provides that from the junction of the riveV
Gila with the Colorado, the boundary shall be a
straight line extending to a point on the Pacific, on*
marine league doe South from the southernmost
point of the port of San Diego. As the general
course of the Colorado is southerly-, ft \vafc natural
ly supposed that below said junction it would fall en
tirely within Mexican territory. But the surveyf
recently made by the Joint Commission appointed
to run the Treaty line, show that for nearly seven
miles below the junction, both banks of the rivet
fall within American territory, including the best
military position in-the vicinity. A fair specimeTi
of Mexican luck.—JY*. Y.Jour. Com.
The New Orleans Bulletin of the 1 lilt inst.,has
the following paragraph—
Our readers will recollect that in the account df
the recent dreadful catastrophe on the Mobile river,
in the bunting of the Orlitre St. John-, it was staled
that the carpenter of the boat, who had on board
three negroes belonging to himself and liis brother
jumped with the negroes into the yawl boot and
cut htf adrift, thus depriving the passengers and
crew- of the only means of escape; and causing- the
terrible loss of life that followed. This wretch
wln.se name was Robert McCaw, was met a few
days afterwards nt Cahawha.and immediately kill
ed by the pilot nf tlie Orline St. John. We havfc
nut learned the particulars.
fit}- A recent letter from Jamaica slates that the
poverty and industrial prostration of that island arc
almost incredible. It says that since 1832, out of
the six hundred and fifty-three sugar estates then
in cultivation, more than one hundred and fifty have
been abandoned and the works broken up. This
has thrown out of cultivation over 200,000 acres of
rich land, which, in 1832, gave employment to a
bout 30,000 laborers, and yielded over 15,000 hogs
heads of sugar, and over 6,000 puncheons of rum.
During the same period over five coffee planta
tions have been abandoned and thfeir works broken
up. This threw out of cultivation over 200,000
acres more of land, which in 1832, required the la
bor of over 30,000 men.
Distressing Occurrence.—We are pained to
announce that on yesterday morning about 10 o’
clock, a horse attached to a butcher’s wagon at tbe
Old Market, became frightened, broke aft ay from
the boy who was driving, and dashing wildly up
Main street, bolted upon the pavement near Market
Bridge, and ran over Mrs. Fiances Regnauit of
this city, and a servant woman, who were both in
stantly killed, ( ,, . „ ,
By this sad and sudden death of Mrs. Regnaplt,
a large family is deprived of a fond and attentive
parent, and the community of a worthy and charit
able lady.—R. Whig.
0t>-The N. Y. Journal of Commerce mentions
that a chain of gold, of a value exceeding $400,purd
as it came from the mines, is about to be presented
to the Hon. Daniel Webster, having been forward
ed for that purpose by Mr. George W. Eggleston,
of San Francisco, at which place it was manufac^
lured. It is intended as an acknowledgment of Mr;
Webster’s eminent success in the cause of the Un
ion of the States. The Journal says of it:
It is, indeed, emblematic of that strong chain,
forged by our ancestors, which Mr. Webster has
done more than any other man living to rivet and
strengthen, which binds together this grea^confed
eracy of States into one united republic,—so solid
it is, so strong, so massive.
Among the memorials recently presented to Utd
U. S. Senate, is one from Dr. J. H. Pultfe, of Cin
cinnati, who proposes the construction of a telegraph
to connect the old world with the new, and asW
such action by Congress as may contribute to the
realisation of his project. The route proposed is a-'
cross'the continent tosomfe point in California; thenctf
along the coast to Bhering’s straits ; thence arros*
those straits, and through Northern Asia and Eu^
rope, to St. Petersburgh, and the western cities or
Europe.
New mouth for the Mississippi.—’Phi peo-'
pie of Louisiana are thinking seriously of opfenitlg*
month to the Mississippi into Lake Ponchhrtain,haclc
of New Orleans. It is believed that it would relieve
the river of its floods, and prevent any euch imibltf
overflows as that of last year. In a commercial poinf
of view the point is also commended. R would o-'
pen a direct comitiounicalion with the Gulf and At-'
lantic States, and render the troublesome, lealoufl/
and expensive navigation of the Mississippi use
less. _
Admission ot California.—1 he N. O.fJulle
tin says, that of the members who formed the Con'
vention which lately adopted the constitution of
California, seventy-one from the slave States, antf
forty-eight from the rest of the world. 1 he exclu
sion of slavery having been by an urranttnoas vote/
savs the Bulletin, is pretty convincingevidence tha»
even fhode from slave-holding States considor th*
country entirely tin3ttitable for the institution.
A letter in the New Orleans Picayune Stales that
many of the public records of Louisian* have beert
materially damaged, and rendered perfectly useles*
in case of reference, by the TaTavre Vi* a
Sect, the same as that described by Humboldt an J
other travellers in S<»mh Amer.ca and Mexico. Th®
Recorder of the Parish of Carroll, Louisiana,write*
fhat the entire acts of 1837, 1838, 1839 and up «</
1841, are destroyed.

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