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L f * v. - CONSTANS ET LBNIS, UT RES EXPOSTULET, ESTO. [Published Weekly-** per Abbbbs. LYTTELTON WADDELL, Editors & Proprietors. _ JOS. A. WADDELL. >_ .. .. ■ .. - ■ - ■ " ..■ ■ - --- VOL. xxm ' ” *' STAUNTON, YA., WEDNESDAY, APRIL 10, 1850. NO. XXI. STAUNTON SPECTATOR. TER MS. JO- The "SPECTATOR'’i* publishedoncea tdeek, mtTufo D Mats a year, if paid in advance, or Two Dollars and Fifty Cents if delayed beyond the erptrct' Hon of the year. So subscription will be discontinued, but attheoption of the Editots, until allarrearages are * ;jff. All communications to the Editors by mailmusl be post-paid. or they willnot be attended to. ADI'ERTlSEME VI'S of thirteen lines (or less.) inserted three times for one dollar, and twenty- . Aoe cents for each subsequent continuance | wfilaments in the same proportion. Ahberaldiscount ■ mde to advertiser eby the year. JOII> B. WATTS, attorney at law. TESROM C>»« liberal support heretofore exteuded to me as E a member of the Bar, in the Courts ot Augusta to., I feel encouraged tootferiuy prok-suoual service* to the eitizenvof Rockingham, Highland, and Pocahontas. To the first two, in their respective Quarterly and Circuit Superior Courts; aud to the other, in their Circuit bu perior Court only- Office iu the Bi ick-range accornl room from the North end, outlie Last of the Court house square, in Staunton. Staunton, F*eb 6, IS50. _ HEXDE.USOX .M. ^ attorney at SAW STAUNTON, VIRGINIA. PRACTISES i» the various Courts of Augusta, Rockbridge, Bath and Highland. Prompt at tention will be given to all business entrusted to ^ Office* in the white bnitHine npponite the Court House, next door toJnhn tN. Henjren-where he may always be found during business haurs, except when professionally absent. May 2, 1849.—tf- _ _ JAMES II. SKINNER, STAUNTON, VIRGINIA. PR\CTISES in the Su|>eriorand Inferior Courts of Augusta, the Superior Courts of R^h'ng Ham, Rockbridge, and Albemarle, and in the U. b. Diatrict Court for Western V trgtnin. OFFICE, next door to the Court House, in the Brick Row. May 2, 1849.___ B- THOMAS ALBERTSON* attorney at law, irAY'SESBORO', VA., ThRAC TICES inthe Courts of Augusta, Albe U ‘ , , v- .i_ miino in the room lately ■ mano auu iToiw... .. occupied by Col. George Baylor, where he may be found at alltimes, unless when absent on pro fessional business. Nov. 29, 1848._ uoiiwtn rmusri.i.v, ATTORNEY AT LAW, STAUNTON, VA., WILL attend the Court* o^CAugusta, Rockbridge and the adjacent Countie*. Staunton, Nov. 14,1949.—tf. __^ JOHN LER BS COCHRAN, ATTORNEY AT LAW, WILT, attend the Superior and Inferior Courts of Albemarle, Augusta, Nelson and Louisa. OfFICR 15 Ch VRLOTYESV1LLE. September 5,1849.—tf. _ DR. A. T. LAIRE, At the Virginia Hotel, STAUNTON, VA January 30, 1850.—tf. __ JOHN COMPTON.J [PATIO B. TCUSEB. COMPTON fit TURNER, IMPORTERS AND WHOLESALE DEALERS 15 8TAPLE AND FANCY DRY GOODS, No 35 Nassau Street, (Opposite the Tost Office,) NEW YORK. Dec. 26, 1819.—6ra._ _ CLARK A WEST, IMPORTERS or, AND JOBBERS IS CLOTHS, CASS1MERES. VESTINGS AND TAI LORS’ TRIMMINGS, 158, BROADWAY, NEW YORK. THE Merchants of Virginia are particularly invited to call and examine their stock. December 26, 1949.—6oi. ______ REMOVAL. SILK WAREHOUSE. OHESEBROUGH. STEARNS 8c 00., IMPORTERS* AND JOBBERS 0T SILK GOODS, Having removed to the Spacious ami Elegant Store jVo. 162, Broadway, (Opposite Rathbun's Hotel.) ARE now prepared to exhibit a choice stock of Silk and Fancy Goods, selected with great care from the latest importations, which, for variety and elegance, they are determined shall not be surpassed by any house in the trade. . . . . . . They invite special attention to tlieir extensive Shawl Room, which they have fitted up in superb style, and in which may be found the most brilliant attractions of the New York Market. Straw Goods and Bonnets, Umbrellas and Parasols in treat variety and complete assortment, are also to be found iu their establishment,—all of-which arc offered Upon the roost favorable terms. New York, March 20, 1850.—3m._ JVEW YORK PRINT WAREHOUSE. 1850—SPRING STYLES. LEE 8c BREWSTER OFTER FOR SALE AT THE ABOVE ESTABLISHMENT, 44 Cedar Street, New York. AN extensive assortment of American aud Foreign Printed Calicoes, unsurpassed in variety and beau ty of execution „ L. & B. exhibit about 1,000 Cases New Prints,com prising all doirable sty les of domestic production, and large recent importations of British and French. The Goods now offered are printed on Cloths purchas ed before the l*te advance in prices, and are offered at lest than manufacturers' present pricet,—for Cash or the usual credit. Orders, for Prints, can bo executed to great advan tage, and will repay Mcrchauts uot visiting New York, : to make the trial. March 20, 1850.—3m. 'Wanking redttcotl to a Science. S. CRANE’S -IMPROVED WASH MIXTURE. THE subscribers have purchased of S. Crane, the pat ent Right for the Counties of Rockingham and Au gusta, for h.s Improved Wash Mixture, ol which they J will sell family rights. This mixture is warranted to give entire satisfaction, and i* destined to effect an entire revolution in the bus iness of the laundress— being an improved preparation for washing clothes perfectly, with astonishing facility and despatch, and without injury to texture or color.— Every family, of whatever size, can do all their washing in let* than one hour, without the labor ot nibbing,pound- j ing, or friction of Machine, thus saving expense and la- | bor, while clothing will be saved from the wear and tear i of the washboard and friction, and last much longer. PETER 1R1CK, S. \V. COFFMAN. March 16,1350.—3m._______ GTtANO GUANO.— l Ton of Guano for sale bT WOOD & DANNER. Winchester Depot, Feb. 0, 1850. LXPPXNOOTT, TAYLOR 8c 00. WHOLESALE AND RETAIL Clothing Warehouses. (The largest assortment in t/ie United States,) New Warehouse, South-west corner of Fourth and j Market Streets. Old Stand, 193 and 200 Market Street, above Sixth,1 Philadelphia, TTTHERE the largest assortment ofREADY-MADE W CLOTHING can be found in this market. Their stock is always full and complete, and they ure there fore always prepared, cither iu “Summer’s heat or Winter’s cold” to supply every demand upon them. Their motto is SuperiorGoods, at fair prides, and they would therefore respectfully solicit the Merchants of the Valley of Virginia to give them a call on their next trip to Philadelphia. December 19,1849.—6m. JO*fN MACINTOSH. >VM. F. WHXXJC 1 MACINTOSH A WHITE, Wholesale Ladies’ Boot and Shoe Manufacturers, No. 13, South Fourth Street, Philadelphia. M& \V. arc extensively engaged in the Manu . fact ure of LADIES, MISSES, AND CHIL DREN’S BOOTS AND SHOES in all their varie ties, and keep always on hand a full supply to answer the demands oftrade. They invite the attention of Country Merchants to their extensive stock, satisfied that at "no other establishment of the kind in Philadel phia, cau they suit themselves better, either as it re gards the quality of their Goods, or the terms upon I which they are prepared and determined to sell them. | Call and see them at their Old Stand, No. 18, South Fourth Street, Philadelphia. December 19, 1849.—6m. (Su <3Jo Mo. 3, South Fifth Street. Philadelphia, Importer anti Dealer, Wholsale «fc Retail, in Wines, JLiquors and Segars. CONSTANTLY on hand, a large and well assorted stock, which is offered in any quantities on moder | ate terms, comprising ! Mcderia, Sherry. Port, Lisbon, Sicily, TcnerifT. Mal : aga, Champagne, Claret, Hock, Sauteme and Barsac : Wines. ! Old Pale and Dark Cognac Brandies; Jamaica and St. Croix Rum ; Holland Gin ; Irish, Scotch and Monon gahela Whiskies; Wine Bitters, (of very superior quality;) London Brown Stout, and Scotch Ale; Li quors, 4”C., and the finest brands of choice Havaua Se gars. All orders promptly and carefully executed. December 19, 1949.—6m. JAMES E BROWN, | Wholesale and lletuil Saddle and 3Vtink Maher, 1 No. 30, South Fourth Street, between Market & Chest nut Streets, Philadelphia. THE attention of dealers and others is invited to his assortment of Saddles, Bridles, Saddleba§9, Col I |ar«, Whips, &c.—Also to his superior article of ! TRUNKS, viz: Sole Leather Trunks, Solid Lcalher j Steel Spring Trunks, of lightweight; Riveted Iron • Frame Trunks, Lady’s Dress Trunks. Bonnet Boxes, ) _it_l.. nuuliti.x * V u I ire « of vnr i - ows style and prices; Velvet Tapestry and Brussels Carpet Bags, Enamelled Leallier Bags, Lady’s '1 rav elling Bags, Satchels, &c., &c , all of which he ofTers at low prices for Cash, or approved paper. Order* thankfully received, and promptly executed. December 29, 1849 —Cm. WEIGHT & KING. Clothing Rooms, No. 13fi, Market st., above 4th, Philadelphia. ■\TT.HEREai all times can he found a complete and VY extensive assortment of Ready-Made Clothing. They specially invite ihe Merchants of the Valley of Virginia to give them a call, promising to furnish the I best articles in their line upon such terms as must com mand and secure their patronage. T hey manufacture CLOTHING to order upon the shortest notice, and will be happy to respond to all suitable calls from the coun try to that effect. December 19, 1849. Hats, Caps, Ladies’ Rich Furs, Beaver Bonnets. &e. WILLIAM IL BEEBE <fc CO., 138 Chesnut St., Philadelphia HAVE on hand a large and superior assortmentof FINE GOODS, in the greatest variety in their line of trade, and offer them to Merchants and Dealers generally, at fair and moderate prices. They espccial I ly solicit the attention of the Merchant* of the V alley of Virginia to their splendid Stock, and trust that on their visit to Philadelphia they will not fail to give them a call. Wm. H. Gardner, late of Richmond, V a., ■ is associated in the firm of W. H. Beebe & Co. and wi.l take "rcat pleasure in waiting on his V irgima friends. December 19, 1849. Pliila. Dry Goods Emporium" ECU EL, RAIGITEL <fc Co., IMPORTERS & WHOLESALE DEALERS IN Foreign & Domestic Dry Goods, [ .Vo. 128 and 130 JY. 3d St., above West Side. KEEP at all seasons a complete assortment of FOR EIGN & DOMESTIC DRY GOODS on hand.a dapted to the trade of all sections of the country, and adequate to any demand that may be made upon them. They invite the attention of Southern dealers, and es pecially the Merchants of the Valley of Virginia, to an examination ol their Stock, satisfied that they will find it to their interest to deal with them. Decembei 19,1849. Wwi. r. JVo. 28s North Third Street, Philadelphia, Wholesale Importer, Manufacturer and Dealer in Saddlers’ Hardware, Carriage and Harness Fur niture, Saddle and Carriage Trimmings, &e-, KEEPS constantly on hand, a rich nnd extensive as soitment of SADDLERY HARDWARE, and through ihe medium of their own home journal, invites the Merchants of the Valley of Virginia to call and sec him before purchasing elsewhere. lie oilers his Goods at such prices as will not fail to please hi* cu**<lnl£,rS-T' Remember, his place of business is No. 28 1-2 North Third Street, Philadelphia. December 19, 1849.—6ui. To Southern and Western Merchants, «fcc. SILVER Ware.—Forks—Table, Medium, Dessert, Tea,0) ster, and Pickle. Spoons—Table, Dessert, Tea Gravy, Mustard and Salt. Ladles—Soup, Oys ter, Sauce, Sugar and Cream. Knives—Ice Cream, Fish, Cake, Butter, Fruit, Dessert. .... , Tea Sets, of various patterns, plain to richly chased, and of every variety of form. Odd pieces made to match, and broken sets completed. Silver warranted standard. _ ,, Plated and Britannia W arc, of latest patterns, con stantly on hand and for sale at WILSON’S Silver Ware Manufactory, S. W. corner 5thand Cherry sts., Philadelphia. December 19, lt49.—6m. __ ERASMUS D. WOLFE. JESSE E. PEYTON. Wolfe Peyton, Wholesale Dealers in Foreign & Domestic Dry Goods, No. 89, Market Street, Philadelphia. i WE would respectfully call the attention of South ern Dealers to our well selected stock of Fo reign and Domestic Dry Goods. They have been pur chased for cash, and will be run off to customers upon the cheapest terms. We extend a special invitation to the Merchants of Virginia topay us a visit at our house, No. 89 Market St., Philadelphia. Dec. 19, 1849— 6m. CONGRESS HALL. dTo OTOT&iWAHSfo No. 83 Cuesnut St., k 27 South Third St., PHILADELPHIA. Dec. 19, 1849.—6m. LANDREWS Fresh Garden Seeds, just re-: ceived and for sale bv E. BERKELEY. 1 February 20, 1850. POETRY. roa THE SPECTATOR. FANNIE. "It was a dream, and yet it told No more than the reality." 0 ! I have had a weary dream ! Me thought my footsteps rauged Near Fannie’s quiet home again. But all was sadly changed. f saw her mothar’a Litter tear, Her sister’s curb ot wo! «r And when 1 aslced if she wa» ttinr*. Me thought they told me no. They said her eye waxed dim one day, Her heart grew cold and still; And then they bore her far away, To yonder church-yard, chill. And now. they said, sho softly slept Low in the dark, damp tomb; Then told me how her lover wept His Fannie’s early doom. But then me thought I left the cot, And to the church-yard strayed, And wept beside the mournful spot Where Fannie’s form was laid. Her fitful dreams of life were o’er; Well might I say, ’twas sad, and weep ; For heart more true and kind and pure, Was never hushed in dreamless sleep. O ! then an Angel came to me, And pointing to the sky, Exclaimed, from earth-born sorrows free, The loved one reigns on high. Go bid her mother smile again ! Go bid her lover weep no more I For in a land exempt from pain, She praises Him whom Saints adore O! tell me—did I dream aright? Has Fannie left her home, And gone to dwell with Angels bright, Jn realms beyond the tomb? If so, wc all had best prepare To take that journey dread ! And pray that wc may meet her there, When weary life is fled ! S. E. MISCELLANY. IIO, FOR CALIFORNIA. We went down to the North Iliver, last Friday, to witness the sailing of two splendid 6tearaers— a mass of gold seekers, of all age*, sexes and de ' scriptions. The day was mild and fine—bright, ; indeed, as tho sun and pure air could make it,— ; Thousands of all sorts and conditions of people were gathered on the piers, the surrounding vessels, the I wharves, the barges, and even in little wherries, i that swam around in the sluggish ebb tide, like ducks on a shell-fishing campaign. Elbowing, with much difficulty, our way through the living mass, dodging horses’ heads, and springing one side and the other to keep clear of the carl wheels, that per sovcringly endeavored to crush the toes of>«ttne bo dy, we arrived opposite the wheel-house of the Empire City, just as a carriage made its appearance through the clustered humanity. It contained two men and a woman ; one of the men was bound for the gold rpgion, and the lady was his wife. He sprang from tho carriage, as it stopped, glided up the aft gangway, and was soon out of sight. The lady sat silently looking after him. We looked in her face. She was quite young, pretty, but pale; and her eyes, that tried to force up a shadow of a smile, were encircled by an unmistakable vermilion, and the glances of the tell-tale orbs struggled thro’ tears that the sun shone on at the same instant, and changed into rainbow brilliants. Presently the young husbandappeared—his hand clasped hers a second—and, with a chnaked good : bye, he vanished again, and was lost among the throng that crowded the deck as thickly as bees in | a hive. She spoke no good bye, but drew down her veil, and sat as silently and as comfortless as Niobe, until the vessel steamed away down the harbor. Seated in the maintop, was a man io the garb of a mechanic; he had climbed up thereto hold a con versation with himself. His feet dangled against the mast, and his face rested upon his hands.— Whether he was shutting his eyes, and fancying ; hinisell in California, or calculating the chances of his new and perilous enterprise, or whether ‘'His eyes with bis heart, and that was far away,” we, of course, could not guess; but he moved not a limb, nor did he even look up when the steamer sailed out of the slip, amid tho cheers of ten thou sand stout lungs afloat and ashore. On tho wheel-house were some dozen young men, who were intent on making the moat of their tarry ell uitf wiian. j ui uirm nriu uuiuus in men hands, from which they frequently drank the health of their friends on the pier. “Give my love to Sally Gove, Bill,” exclaimed one. “Aye, aye,” responded the other, “and a smack over itie mouih in the bargain.” “Ef yer do-o—I’ll lam yer when f come back from Californy,” answered the rnan on the wheel house—whereat there was much laughter. The boys on shore collected all the oranges they could find, which they threw at their friends on board, who caught them with the certainty and ad dress of old cricketers. [Mem.—Oranges *nd bad whiskey are dangerous commodities to stow away in one’s bread-basket, when going out to sea. Have tried it.] Half-way up the mnin ratlins was a Vermont built and equipped Yankee, with a bell-crowned hat, grev hnme-spun trowsers, cowhide shoes, and but teriiutcolored coat, that had been made “tu hum,” also—and an umbrella. That man will make a for tune, if he lives. Probably there was not another umbrella on board, and when that party of adven turers come to walk acnes the Isthmus, with the sun pitching down upon them, at the rale of one hundred and twenty Fahrenheit, he will bestriding along under that cotton umbrella, as comfortable and as calm as a summer’s morning. He will see others droop and stew beneath the tropical glare, and when asked the loan of his shade, will reply : “You tarnal fool, why didn’t you bring an ura berel yourself?” We saw on board, pacing the forward deck un easily, a man who leaves for the new world of the west, because he cannot 9tay at home! A noble, liberal-hearted fellow, whose obligations, at the shrine of the convivial god, have impaired his health, and expensive endeavors, to keep rank and pee with his more prosperous and fashionable neighbors, have reduced him to the verge of bank ruptcy. A small sum has been secured for those he leaves behind, he has three ounces over his pas sage money, and, with a heavy heart, bids adieu to his home, his sweet wife, and chubby little ones, with the hop of retrieving his fortunes. There are a great many of these among the California-bound, and they will, like him, succeed, or lay their bones in the placers. At length the Empire City moved away, and passed a cannon how are you ? with the Cherokee, which soon followed, and both walked down the river like beings of life—and so they were,if a thou sand living beings on board could make them so.— I A health to them all—and particularly to the boys who 8te the oranges and guzzled the whiskey, on the larboard wheel-house, on that pleasant spring afternoon.— Wilson 4' Co.’a Weekly Dispatch. HON. J. C. FREMONT. The history of this young man is highly inter esting. A fe<v years ago he was Lieutenant in the army, and an attache to the corps of Topographical Engineers. His businesstalled him much to Wash ington where he became acquainted with the second daughter of the Hon. Thomas H. Benton. Yonng, vivacious and ambitious this stripling in epaulettes had the temerity to ask the yonng lady’s hand in marriage_notwithstanding he knew men much higher in authority had solicited the same in vain. Miss Benton most readily consented, so far as she , Jim concerned, but intimated that she had a fhth | e»- who had mangled «>me degree of interest in her welfare, and wight Vant to Se consulted in the matter. She ldid the “proposal” before the old gentleman. He objected to the proposition intoto. “His daughter educated for a Prince was not going to mary a Corporal.” Fremont was forbidden to enter his domicil, and Miss Benton was put under guard. “Ola Tom” had overacted the matter. He did not then know the young Lieutenant. His daughter, too, took that occasion to show her Benton, and as “Old Tom” had stuck to the “Ex punging Resolutions” she was bound toslick to her young lover against all the world. The next the anxious father knew of his once devoted daughter, she had escaped her keepers, and in a private parlor at Gadsby’s Hotel was interchanging vows before a magistrate with the banished Lieutenant. At first the old man raged, but soon was made acquainted with the metal of his npw son-in-law, a reconciliation took place, and in Old Tom, Fre mont has not only had a friend, but an admirer ev er since. His travels, researches, scientific explorations and feats of valor and suffering in the Far West, are events known to the world, and we may say without a parallel. His collision with Kearney in California brought him before the country in a new light, lie was accused of disobeying the commands of his superior and technically was so convicted on trial by a Court Marsha! demanded by himself. But the country acquitted him, and although reprimanded by the President, he was applauded by the people. We saw him oonfront the witness of the Government in the most frank and gallant style. “Old Torn” sat by him as counsel, and “solitary and alone” he encountered the craft of Kearney and the contume ly of a Naval and Military Court,prejudiced against the aspiring young Lieutanant, then luxuriating with the rank of Colonel. Dismissed from the ar my, he scorned to be reinstated but he recommenc ed his explorations on his own account. He raised a company of men and started for California by a new route with “Kit Carson,” his famous guide at their head. Ten of his men ho lost in the moun tains by being imbeded in snow and literally starv ing and freezing to death. With the remnant he reach San Francisco, and has been spending the summer in the mines. In the meantime a commis sion reaches him snperceeding Col. Weller as Boun dary Commissioner under the late treaty with Mex ico. This he declines, and the next we hear of him he is elected a United State Senator from the New State of California, and [rrobahly set sail in the Jan uary steamer for Panama, on his way to Washing ton. Mr. Fremont is hardly of medium size,«ipare and light, with dark hair and eyes. His temperament is nervous, his countenance is highly intellectual and pleasant, and his manners agreeable. He will be the youngest member of the Senate, his age being less than forty. With the exception of Sam Houston, no Senator in that body can boast of so eventful a life. The dying words of an old Editor.—My son, I shall soon begone, and you will have the man agement of the concern. Never expect to sustain your paper upon any other foundation than its merits. Be prudent, temperate and upright. Work hard. Be civil to every body, and particularly to your cus tomers. If they call themselves your patrons, I wouldn’t mind it Billy; let them call themselves nabobs, if they please,so long as they pay for the pa per; never exhibit that aristocracy which is a part of the original sin that is in us all, in such way, for it will do”you no good, my son. Above all things never put it in the power of any man to say, “that is your paper, we subscribe $20 to keep it up;” for sure as you live, Billy, sooner or later something will be printed that somebody wont like; and then somebody will drophissubscription to get your paper down. One man will withdraw, or become a little water gruelly towards you becauseyou are too severe upon sinners and upon sin; and another because you are not half ‘severe enough.’ Another will give ..... k.ir cnmviri tint in mnrp ininrinns than no supprt at all,and if your paper is heartily praised by some old fashioned, honest hearted man, he will reply in prudent and well-balanced phrase ology ; that he does not know but it is so, and he does not know as it is so. Every morning read the fable of the Old Man, Jack Ass and the little boy. Never omit it Billy, as long as you live. You will have many things to encounter that are not agreea ble. Anonymous letters of an imprudent character burn at once; never mention them to any body not even to your wife. Where a customer stops the paper, do not betray your displeasure by any extra ordinary appearance; lie civil when you meet him again. Never run about to pick up crumbs of com fort, nor ask any man what he thinks of this,that, or the oilier article in your paper, which you wrote yourself, Billy. Be cautious in putting in your ad vertisements. I lost a good advertising customer by placing another mairs advertisement of molasaes before his own. With your good common sense you will do well enough. The public respect you for your independence ; hilt you must remember that there is the same difference between real and acted independence, as between the real nutmegs and the articles manufactured at home. In a word, fear God and shame the Devil.—Exchangt. The Ottoman Army and Navy.—Physical power rather than social amelioration is the prime end of the present Government. The army and navy are its great pride and constant attention. The reg ular army consists of about 100,000 men, but it is now rapidly increasing by large conscriptions made all over the country to resist the threatened aggres sions of Russia. The pay of the soldier is about ninety cents per month ; their uniform is no longer Turkish but consists of a red Fez cap, blue jacket, and blue or white pantaloons. The men are gener ally older than other European soldiers, but yet ap pear like stout, hardy fellows. Though they have many European officers their field discipline is very imperfect, and their march any thing but soldierly. They are well clothed, well equipped, and particu larly well lodged ; better barracks I have 6een no where. The artillery is exceedingly well appointed; its stock of field-pieces is immense, and constantly increasing, The very day of my arrival every shore was ringing with the first trials of one hundred and fifty new brass cannon. The Turkish navy con tains the finest and largest three deckers in tha world ; and its strength is at every short interval reinforced by the launching of some splendid war steamer. But the vessels are poorly manned ; their crews are made up chiefly of raw conscripts from the country, who hardly know a rudder from a plough-tail.—Sctnsa i/i the East. i j * FROM THE LEXINGTON GAZETTE. Below we publish a kind and sympathizing let ter from Mr. J. W. Paine, to the fttfjnofMr. Jas F. Moffett, communicating the meJnnchoilj intelli gence of the death of his son in California. In con nection with the publication of this letter, wo art requested by Mr. Moffett, to state, the.' the kind at tention of Mr. Paine, and other friends, to his son has placed him under the most lasting obligation! to them, and that his kind letter has aided much in alleviating the grief of a bereaved family. Stockton, Upper California, ? Sunday Evening, Dee. 9, *49. J Dear Sir:—A solemn and painful duty*is im posed upon me, in being the instrument commu nicating such sad intelligence as the death of ; your son : . James T. Moffett is no more :—B* departed this liii* \2C?th of N^rcmho'’, at l '..-flock, A. M. I will give you all the information lean'h» regutu to his sickness. I was living in San Francisco when he arrived in California, at which time he was per fectly hearty and well, indeed, i never saw him looking in better health in my life. A few days af ter this, I came to Stockton, and heard nothing more from James, till about ten days after, when ne and John B. Richeson, arrived here on their way to the ! mines. But being offered a piece of land by Mr. j Weber in the neighborhood of the town, they furm ' eda partnershipand concluded to go into the business of farming, it being almost impossible to get to the mines this winter. When Jame9 got here he had a slight attack of Diarrhoea, but that being 60 com mon it was considered of littfe consequence. They | pitched their tent on a beautiful plot of ground on the Calavera about two miles from Stockton, and in a few days would havo commenced operations Ii3d not James unfortunately taken sick; for several days he continued quite un well,bnt thought it would soon wear off, being occassioned, perhaps, from the use of the water. But in a few days I received a note from Mr. Richeson, staling that James wished me to go out and see him; this was my first infor mation of his being confined to his bed. I accord ingly procured the assistance of Dr. Reins,of Rich mond, Va., and immediately hastened out to see him, and fonnd him very ill indeed with an attack of Dysentery. I remained with him from this time .until his death, and did everything in my power to render him comfortable; and rest assured that noth ing was wanting which was necessary for him to have. But alas! how feeble are the means of man. He lived two days longer, miring wmcn ume me Doctor was with him pretty constantly. 1 Ie often spoke of his home and his dear friends so far away from him. And as each cherished remembrance of childhood’s sepnes, and loved associations of those sunny hours, came rushing up from the past-, ■and stole into his throbbing bosom, the intrusive tear would moisted bis eyes, as early fancies passed be fore him. for he keenly felt that all the lies of his earthly affections were about to be riven. Oh how often did he speak of his parents when neaT his end and charged me to write home a full account of all the circumstances attending his death. He died on Thursday, 29th of November, at 11 o’clock. About five minutes before he died, he asked me to raise him up, which I did, and he expired in my arms. It was the calmest death I ever beheld ; but he oft expressed his willingness to die. And Mr. Riche son, never did a father watch ovct a son with more tenderness and solicitude than he did over James.— Day after day, and night after night, was he con stantly by his side, administering to all his wants with all the tenderness of a devoted mother. I had the body interred in a respectable and decent manner in our public burial ground, and intend to have a suitable board erected to his memory. Enclosed is a lock of his hair, also a small ring which lie wore; these are the only tokens I can send you. He left no papers of any consequence. He had a trunk stored on board a vessel at San F rancisco, which I will attend to when I go down in a short time. I shall act as Administrator upon his property and write to you again by next Steam er—And now in closing allow me to assure you of my sympathy with your family in their deep be reavement. Present my best regards to all your family and believe me to be Yours very respectfully, JOHN W. PAINE, Jr. Beginning of the year in Various Nations. —The Chaldeans’ and Egyptians’ year was dated from the autumnal equinox. The ecclesiastical year of the Jews began in the spring ; but in civil affairs they retain the epoch of the Egyptian year. The year of Romulus commenced in March, and that of Numa in January. The Turks and Arabs I... iL. .. ...... ikn #»f Tiilir Hromcnh i IH or Gemschild, King of Persia, observed on the day of his public entry into Persepolis, that the suo en tered into Aries; and in commemoration of this for tunate event he ordained the beginning of the year to be removed from the autumnal to the vernal e quinox. The Mexicans commence in February, when the leaves begin to grow green. Their year consists of eighteen months, having twenty days in each ; the last five are spent in mirth, and no busi ness is suffered to be done, nor even any service in the lemple9. The Abyssians have five idle days at the end of their year, which commences on the 2Gth of August. The American Indians reckon from the first appearance of the moon at the vernal equinox. The Mahommedans begin their year the minute in which the sun enters Aries. The Venitians, Flor entines and Pisans in Italy begin the year at the vernal equinox. The French year, during the reign of the Merovingian race, began on the day on which the troops were reviewed, which was the 1st of March. Under the Carlovingians, it began on ■ Christinas day, and under the Capelianson Easier day. Charles IX, appointed in 1504. that the civil I year should commence on the 1st of January. — Pairing Oft in a Fight.—“A Washington cor ! respondent” thus relates a capital anecdote, now | floating in Washington circles: | “You will remember to have read a debate of this ; session, in which the gallant Davis, of Mississippi, [ in speaking of the possible conflict of arms between the North'and the South, said, in substance, “that if such a thing must come, let it commence in the halls of Congress.” This remark was the subject of conversation in a merry company a few evenings since, and someone turned to Mr. Winthrop, who was present, and said: ‘Well, Winthrop, what will you do in such a case7 You come from Boston, and can’t fight!’ Oh! said the witty Bostonian, ‘I can arrange that without any difficulty ! I’ll pairoff with Hilliard!’” Pairing off in a fight is a rich idea. We ore in favor of it, decidedly.—JV. O. Bulletin. 0c5~ “Where is the hoe, Sambo ?” “Widde rake, massa.” “Well, where is de rake?” Why, wid de Hoe!” “Well* well—where are they both ?”— “Why both together, massa—you ’pears to be ber ry ’ticular dis morntn !” 03* There is no eloquence so powerful 39 the ad dress of a holy and consistent life. It charms the accusing. It puts to silence the ignorance of fool ish men. It constrains all to admire. C3* Opinions may be considered as the shadows of knowledge. 1/ our knowledge be accurate, our opinions will be just. It is very important, then, that tve do not adopt an opinion too hastily. j AGRICULTURAL—SCIENTIFIC PRESERVATION OP WOOD. At the National exhibition in Paris, I had the pleasure of conversing with Dr. Boocberle, and at' seeing specimens of wood impregnated with a eola tion of sulphate of copper, by this method. Hecoo fines the application of it to soft woods generally, and exhibited, among other articles, a work box and secretary, made of a tree within three months after it was cut, which prove the wood well seasoned.—* The color given by the sulphate of copper is qiile pretty and peculiar; being in reddish and brows streaks, unlike the effect of painting. After var nishing, the appearance is rich, and he says will be • permanent. He shows a clock, sawed in three sec tions, but not disconnected, which had been buried six years in a fungus pit. It is of pine; and imroe j diatcly after being filled, the two side sections were l impregnated, (bv mesne of the natural action of the sap vessels of the woe?*,) :he one with the desto chloride of mercury, (corrosive sublimate, as recom mended by Kyan,) 800 grammes, of 1-5 per cent, strength; the other with 300 grammes of sulphate of copper, of 1 -6 per cent. The centre section was left in the natural state, and that impregnated with the corrosive sublimate, equally and completely rotten, tl|g fibre destroyed, and the wood crumbling into dust, while the section marked as Impregnated with the Sulphate is perfectly 6ound and good. Ths Doctor says that he has placed traverses and sleep ers upon several lines of railway, and posts opos one line of electric telegraph for the government, j and that all are still sound, though some have bees • in ure six years. He receives constantly orders for 1 such work. For railroad traverses, the price is from ten to twelve francs per metre, (cube,) con taining about ten traverses, two and six-tenths me tres long. The solution costs about eight sous the traverse and handiwoods, the logs laid side by side, (the large ends cut square by the saw,) and arrang ed in the boundary lines of a square, inclining from butt to branches. A trough, communicating with the reservoir, is carried all round the square, abov* the butts, and small lubes run from this to each butt, and In long trees to hides about the centre of th» trees, thus expediting the impregnation. The junc tion of the tube is carefully packed with a piece of cloth. The liquid advances through thetreeatths rale of about one metre in 20 hours, the railroad traverses requiring 48 hours. The drip, after pas sing through the wood, is nearly colorless. A saw ! cut round the tree, to the depth of the sap wood, • with a piece of cotton tied in it, carries off the drip i from any part above it. Inis Is led back to the 1 reservo'ir, and pumped up in it, to be used agaia | with new material.—Maj. Hagntr,i report 1o the \ Secretary of War. QCf- Extracts from a letter to the Editor of iVm Southern Planter, dated Albemarle, December 31at> 1849: “1 send you a few names for the Planter, wish ing you the fullest success. The zeal and spirit of your late numbers are quite cheering. The good resulting from a well conducted work of this sort is incalculable. “The guano seemsalmost the universal topic—as the cholera was a few months since—and sugars well of the interest generally felt in agriculture.— Certainly there must be a strong desire for improve ment, to cause suchan extensive demand for as costly an article. Never before waa there so tnuoh of intellect and energy devoted to agriculture, and their amount is increased with each new discovery. This has attracted public attention just at a time when we may hope for a steady supply on the beat ; terms. With our possessions on the Pacific, and, I especially, the gold of California—some twenty or ! fifty ships go in that direction now where one went ! two years ago, and guano will afford them return cargoes. This incidental benefit may equal or sur pass the gold trade—as, indeed, it has often hap pened before; this whole Continent almost having been colonized by persons in search of gold. “The above hint as to return cargoes of guana may be worthy of the public notice. I have not seen it mentioned, but admit it has been a leading inducement with me to try it, and to hope for its full supply and continued use. Lieut. Maury states that $25 per ton is a fair freight to California.— One-third less would seem to be so from Peru.— We pay, then, for guano about three times the cost of its transportation, which would be still less if brought in the way I have supposed. The demand must be very great, and the competition wifi, I hope, reduce it to a fair price.” The Sun-Flower.—For fattening purpose*, this is one of the cheapest and best plants that ca* be raised. The yield is about fifty bushels per a ere, which will yield fifty gallons of oil, and fifteen hundred pounds of oil cake. 1 hey are especially adapted for'fattening beeves, hogs, fowls, &.c. Planting.—The ground should be well plough ed and harrowed, and laid off in rows twelve inch es each way, the seed being dropped in the angles. The necessary quantity of seed is from four to fiv* pounds per acre. They should be planted in April. The plants require no after culture. So soon as il» seed turn black, the heads should be removed, whe* the whole are gathered ; the seed are easily flailed out. The stalks of an acre of ground will yield on* thousand pounds ofpotush, for which purpose they can be burnt, and used in making compost. If pos sible, they should be grown upon swamp land well drained ; this is necessary, as they rapidly exhaust the land of potash. The seed can be bruised in ■ common cider-mill, and it the oil be wanted, prew* cd in the cider-press. The til burns with a fragrant odor. Most farmers will find this to afford the cheapest and best light. The leaves while green, afford most excellent food for stock.—Jlmer. Farm. How ro Enlarge Vegetables.—A Vast in crease of food may be obtained by managing judi ciously, and systematically carrying out for a tim* • the principle of increase. Take for instance a pc*. ■ Plant it in a very rich ground. Allow it to bear the first year, say half a dozen pods only. Re I move all others. Save the largest single pea of ! these. Sow it the next year, and retain of the pro* | duce three pods only. Sow the largest one the f*J I lowing year, and retain one pod. Again select th* j largest, and the next year the sort will by this time ! have trebled its size and weight. Ever afterward* sow the largest aesd. By these means you will j get peas (or anything else,) of a bulk of which w* I at present have no conception.—Exdutnge paper. ! Otto or Roses.—Uttr,and not Otto,is the prop. I er term. The rose leaves carefully nicked an4 I fresh, are boiled in a large copper vessel with a lit tle water. The steam arising is condensed tn a ' still ■ this forms the rose water. It is distilled thre# I times, and then placed in an earthen vessel during | ,he night in a stream nf running water. It t«k«* 1 five hundred weight of rose leaves to produce on* ; drachm by weight of tha best uttr. It Is, howev er seldom procurable unadulterated, and that *o|4 | jn\he bazaars in India owes its sepnt mainly to s«n-» dal wood, from which a cheap oil Is easily procor i ed. The best tittr is preserved in small bottle# made of fock crystal.—Literary Gazette. I 03- Those crops which arrive at maturity In it* ! shortest time require the most perfect preparation *f the soil. __ («- The blood of the cow is an excellent Inane* 1 for fruit trees. It also forms the basis P«»*# , bluv.