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W^IMESU.VY, M.VRCII 1, 1834. Hu .Missouri Compromise. The editors of the National Inteltigencer, in compliance with the request of a subscriber, have prepared and published a detailed account of the action of Congress at the time Missouri applied I t admission into tho Union as a State. I' rom this narrative it appears that the people of the United States have for the last thirty years la bored under a great mistake as to the real import of the Missouri Compromise. The general im pression has l>een that the Compromise consisted merely in the mutual agreement entered into by the North and the South to observe the latitude ‘Jfp 30' as the boundary line between free- and slave territory, in consideration ot which Missou ri was to be admitted without any clause in her c institution prohibiting slavery. The idea has. prevailed, furthcrmoxc, that Mr. Clay was the contriver of this arrangement, and all the credit and all the odium of the plan have been heaped upon him. Dut it turns out that he had no more agency in the measure than any other member who voted for it. He was Speaker of the House of Representatives at the time, and his vote is not I recorded ; but in his speech of February 6th. j ISoO, he said that he had “very little doubt” that he voted, “in a spirit of compromise,” for the a doption of the line. It seems that instead of one, there were two compromises. On the 8th day of December, 1819, memorials were presented in the House ol Representatives from the people of Maine and ot Missouri asking to be admitted into the Union.— The people of Maine had already prepared a State constitution, and the people of Missouri asked per mission at this time to take that step. The House pasaed a bill for the admission of Maine, but the Senate amended it by attaching a provision for the admission of Missouri also. The House re fused to concur in this amendment, and on the * 28th of February, 1820, passed the Missouri bill ... __Kv Mr 'I’avlnr. ol ...... ... — |-1-- ^ Now York, prohibiting slavery in the State. In the meantime the Senate had,on the 17thofFeb ruarv, adopted an amendment moved by Mr. Thomas, of Illinois, prohibiting slavery in territo ry North of 36° 30'. The House refused to con cur in this amendment also, and there was a total disagreement between the two bodies. Finally, each House appointed a committee of conference, and the result was that, the two bills being sepa rated, both Houses agreed, on the 6th of March, t.i strike out the slavery restriction in Missouri and insert in lieu thereof the clause inhibiting s avory in the territory north of the prescribed line. Of the twenty-two Senators and seventy six Representatives from slaveholdingStates,four teen of the former and thirty-nine of the latter voted for th3 substitute proposition. The two Senators from Virginia, Messrs. Barbour and Pleasants, and eighteen of the twenty-two Virgin ia Representatives voted against it. The whole difficulty was now supposed to be settled. But nut so. The constitution of Mis souri was laid before Congress in November, 1820, and was found to contain a clause requiring the ^ Legislature to pass laws prohibiting the emigra tion of free negroes into the State. This clause in duced Northern men again to oppose the admis sion of Missouri into the Union, notwithstanding the recent Compromise. Mr. Clay at this point took an active part in the proceedings, and exert ed himself to the utmost to allay excitement. He brought forward his Compromise, which provided that Missouri should agree as a condition prece dent to her admission to pass no law by which a citizen of either of the States should be excluded from the enjoyment of any of the privileges to which he was entitled under the constitution of the United States. This was adopted by Con gress, Missouri accepted the terms, and the con troversy ended. Although a majority of the Southern members of Congress voted for the first Compromise, they no doubt did so under tho stress of circumstances. The people of the South, nevertheless, have al ways been willing to abide by it, and if the North had consented to apply it to the new territory in I860, another Compromise would not have been required. But the North refused to do this, and hence the Compromise of 1850 was passed, which is based upon different principles from the Mis souri Compromise. And now, when Northern men propose to declare the latter superseded, we can perceive no breach of faith in Southern Rep- < . .• • . n*__ rcseniaiives ruling iu vuc ami lai a iii • e. gavlngi’ Bank*. At a late meeting of ths Directors of the Au gusta Savings Bank, Win. M. Tate, Esq., was elected President of the Institution, in place of B. Crawford, Esq., resigned, and Mr. James W. Hudson was elected to fill the vacancy in the Board. In connection with this item of news, we take occasion to say a few words on the general sub ject of Savings’ Banks. There are two institu tions of the kind in Staunton—the Augusta and the Central, of which Robert Cowan and 'Thom as Bledsoe are, respectively. Treasurers. These Banks receive deposits on which they pay inter est varying from two to'five per cent.,' according to the length of time they have the use of the money. When the depositor wishes to withdraw his money, all he has to do is to notify the Treas urer, and in fifteen days at farthest it will be forthcoming. The whole capital stock of the Bank being liable as security for the deposits,they are as safe as it is possible for them to be. ’The advantages of this system to a large class of per sons is apparent. Many farmers, for instance, havo saved money to buy land.—They arc un willing to loan it to individuals, because it is al ways more or loss doubtful whether they can re cover it on the precise day it will be needed ; and if they deposit it in one of the regular Banks, it may lie thoro for months without bringing in a cent of interest. Under these circumstances the Savings Bank is very useful—the depositor re ceives something for the loan of his money, and 13 sure of getting it whenever he calls for it.— Persons of small means, also, who are able to save a little money occasionally will find it very ad vantageous to deposit from time to time in the Savings’ Banks, where it will gradually accumu late to a respectable sum. We have thought this inoeh on the subject might be useful.as we lately Jrarucd tliat some of our larmers were not a ware of the facts stated. py \V. P. Tunstall, Esq., President of the Richmond and Danville Railroad and for some , ears a prominent member of the Legislature .died at his residence in Pittsylvania county, week be fore last, after a lingering illness. tThe foreign news by the Baltic, several in. wetting communications, aud a variety of miscel laneous reading will be f und on the first page of ibis* paper. War In Europe. Thu last ad vices from Europe arc more deci dedly warlike than any betetoS»re received. Fk« British Government is vigorously preparing for the struggle, and even the. Tiuxr* newspaper, which until recently inclined to the side of Rus sia, now asserts that war islhc host policy. I.ord John Russell said in his pkicc in ParliamenVhat the Emjieror of Russia was ready to add to an unjust and unprincipled aggression something that he did not hesitate to characterize as fraudulent. He felt confident that the British Governmci-t were not disposed to let the Czar take advantage of time in appearing to negotiate, while he was really making warlike preparations. Such is evi dently the sentiment of ihe nation, ar*! the next steamer,probably, will twiirg news of tire declara tion of war. The Emperor of Russia lately despatched Count Orluff to Vienna to endeavor to bring about an alliance with Austria arid Prussia. The prop ositions which the minister was instructed to make were, under the circumstances, very extra ordinary. Among other conditions of peace with Turkey, they required the Sultan to enter into an engagement not to give an asvlnm to political ref ugees, and to recognise the Russian protectorate of the Greek Church. Turkey refused less than this before she commenced fighting, and it is by no mentis probable that she would accede to any such terms after the recent brilliant achievements of her soldiers. The Emperor proposed also to take Austria and Prussia under his protection, re quiring from them a guaranty of neutrality, and promising aid to them when needed and a share of the spoils whp.n he had subdued Turkey. It is stated that the Emperor of Austria and the King of Prussia promptly declined the overture and in dicated their determination to make common cau*® with the other Powers against a common eecmy. These singular proceedings of the Emperor Nicholas have revived the suspicion that he is af-’ dieted with insanity, a malady which is heredita ry in his family. The idea was first suggested in this country, we believe, by the editor of Lit tell’a Living Age, some six months ago, and is now rapidly gaining ground. Nicholas is certain ly under the influence of some infatuation mote ungovernable than mere ambition. This.howev jr, may be merely religious fanaticism. In the [jliurcli of Russia, the Czar is “vicegerent ofGod >n earth,” and as such is the object of faith and worship. Herein lies the secret of his influence >ver his subjects, who profess the Greek religion. fanaticism and ambition combined nave prooaoiy insettled the Emperor’s intellect. But all Eu rope is against him, and if he is not confined in a itraight jacket and shut up in a lunatic asylum, ie is in a fair way of being driven back to his own Yozen regions and kept there. In the approaching war, the respective combat mts will be anxious to secure the alliance of the L'nited States, and it will be extremely difficult or us to keep out of the strife. The North Brit• sh Rcoicw for February imagines that we are wanting to measure arms with Russia. Speaking >f the American, it says: “As a people they are essentially ambitious, jropagandist, and vain glorious; military fame, it ias long been seen, is the road to high office and o public estimation ; and the admiral, the gene ■al, aye, or the private individual who should plant he national flag on the batteries of Sebastapol, or Irive the Russians out of Bucharest, would, be yond all question, find the Presidential chair rea ly cushioned far him when he returned home.— Nor could their success be very doubtful. The writer undoubtedly mistakes the senti ments of the people of this country. They of jourse sympathize with Turkey, but still have no ivish at present to take up armsagainst Russia.— \n«l, moreover, Jonathan understands his own in ;erest well enough to know that in a general Eu ropean war we shall derive a rich trade with all parties by remaining neutral. But just here our lauger lies, and if we are involved in the war at ill, it will probably be on the side of Russia, not withstanding the popular sympathies are the other tray. The temptation will be very strong to sup_ ply contraband articles to the belligerents—we shall at least be suspected of doing so—and Eng land and France, taking all they need themselves, will be in a position to call us to account for deal ing with Russia. Wisdom and forbearance on j ihe part of our Government can alone carry us j safely through the war. It will be better for us , to endure some evils from the jealousy of the mar time Powers of Europe, than hastily to resent them^and thus lose all the benefits we may de rive from legitimate trade. Since the above was put in type, the news brought by the Europa has arrived. The most important item of information is that changes fa vorable to a compromise with Russia hare taken place in the Turkish Cabinet. But the truth of this is doubted. Dealings In BreadstnlTs, The New York Express says,a dealer in bread stuffs in that city, purchased in September last, 21,000 barrels of flour at the average price then current, $5.25, and sold it a few weeks ago at $9 nmliti! tfi7 QFtO i On the other hand n an? ; -r-’ ’ 7 ~ \ speculators have lost largely by the late deal * in prices. Tbe stock of flour on hand in New York at a recent date was estimated at 100,000 to 150,000 barrels, and in Boston at about 150,000. The whole export of breadstuff's in 1846-7,the famine year, was 25,400,000 bushels. We have already exported this year two-thirds as much wheat as for that entire year, and if.the exports continue for the balance of the year only in the same proportion as in 1847, tbe export of wheat will be 30,000,000 bushel* from New York alone. Flour did not reach its maximum price in 1847 till May, and notwithstanding the larger amount exported this year, prices in England and France are higher than they wore at the corresponding season in that year. A further rise, therefore, may be expected, notwithstanding the late de pression. But'farmers who have flour to sell had better be contented with fair prices and run no risk. The news by the steamer Baltic has caused a decline in flour of 50 to 75 cents per barrel— Every body is at a loss to account for the fact that breadstuff's have fallen in Europe just as war has become almost certain. We have seen no satis factory explanation. CO* Mr. Goo. Heiser, a stage driver in the em ployment of Messrs Farish &. Co., received an injury a few weeks ago, while attending to his duties at the stage yard in this place, which caus ed his death. We learn from the Vindicator that the Company have determined to grant half pay to his widow. This liberality is highly com mendable. Pemity Command. An officer arrived in Staunton on Monday night last, whh authority from Governor Johnson to remove Wilson to the State Penitentiary, and returned the next morning with the prisoner.— The term of confinement has been fixed at eigh teen years. Friday next is the day previously appointed for Wilson’s execution. fcj- The 22nd of February was celebrated at Churchville by tbe Sons of Temperance and the advocates uf a prohibitory liquor law. R. P, Kinney, Esq., and the Rev. Mr. Davis delivered addresses, and tbs company then partook of a free dinner. (■ CumipomUnt'e of tlie Spectator. , Richmond, Feb. 25, 1854. The constitutional gate shuts down upon Mi Legislature on the approaching filth of March The ninety days are now so nearly out that w can see through; but in that prospect is nothin that looks like the passage of an appropriation ft the Covington and Ohio or the Central Railroai An imputation is thus put upon the policy of th preceding Legislatures which made such liberr expenditures towards constructing a great rail wa route from our Eastern lines to tap the leomin I valley of the Ohio. And the thousands alread appropriated to that great design are, so far as th | present Legislature is concerned, wrapped in l napkin and hur'ed forever in the earth. . But this letter has no space for general reflec lions. Suffice it to say that sectional spirit am selfish considerations have triumphed, at least fo the time. Sections of the State heretofore votiuj ty tunnel the Blue Ridge at a cost justifiable ii view of opening a way through it to the grea West, and thereby pledging their faith to tha end, have nevertheless, at this session, seen fit t abandon that faith* and the heavy appropriation ! already made for that id j/jet, because of a peculia prospect of advantage recently opened out to thei own sections on another plan. The thinly dtsgoistd scheme is but too appn rent which is to make the Virginia and Tennes see Railroad, and not the Central, the^reatp"' rier of the Western traffic from the Ohio V* e) to the East. By means of the connect*" ®l«n8 New River, and that from Clifton 0H* sack’s, the distance from the Ohio**’ 1l. ®.wa ter at Petersburgor Norfolk iv1'",^ ’’lrF than by Staunton ami ^■"ond M that U wanting it to make the theComngloix and Ohio road < the and Tennessee rocs'’ and V* Vllin ?• P^fected;— 'Fhe Centralr^ then gets the go-by eftectua ly. Indeed it i8<*ndidly contended by some, that the Central nut ^ allowed t(» taP ‘t16 Covin2 ton nmd a‘ *H! That all of the, Western traffic whi*ii passes over the Central will lie liable to be carried off at Staunton or Gerdonsville to Balti more. hence nothing should be allowed to get upon that road! And this affected fear of Balti more brings out the same old stalking ghost, which has been so efficient against the Valley in terests heretofore ; the difference is that this pe culiar machinery of Richmond |s to be used a gainst herself this time. The Central road,how ever. it is manifest, will find its only salvation, against the untiring opposition of its rival, by speedily effecting a connection with the Coving ton road, and on a uniform gauge of any other width than five feet. But the legislature of this session towards the Central road may have had the effect to disgrun tle your readers quite as much as it did your hum ble correspondent And the latter, recently re flecting on the subject, anticipated through his fears the day when this deep^ laid plan was to be consummated, and the. Virginia and Tennessee Railroad had become the thoroughfare from West to East, and the Central stopped at Staunton, or a vast saw log fastened by Legislative enactment a _1. nonr Pot archil rnr liar] ---- - e\ t become the jreat Commercial harbor of Virginia, and Richmond was wondering what was to be come of her prosperity and what had become of the $100,000 she once voted to the Virginia and Ten nessee Railroad &c. &c. Brooding over such re flections, he generously turned to seek out some resource for Richmond against this coming day of her disasier: and fondly hopes that he lias discov ered it in her unrivalled facilities for becoming a great manufacturing emporium ; an illustration id which it is now proposed to give yonr readers, if space permit, in this and succeeding letters. On the banks of James River and the Canal is already established a flourishing factory named the Tredegar Iron Works, and owned by Joseph R. Anderson Esq., at one time a resident of Staunton. This is an enterprise .of unusual magnitude for Virginia. The whole establishment employs from 600 ito 700 hands. The value of its annual pro ducts when operated to its full capacity is estima ted at over $1,000,000 annually. Its present op erations amount to about $800,000 per annum.— The expenses are over $2,000 daily. I he ma chinery operating the establishment gives one somewhat enlarged ideas of mechanical power, which seems utterly irresistable, or rather seems capable of anything. , \ The works are divided into distinct departments. The Rolling Mill produces bar iron of every de scription, also Railroad axles, rail-spikes, chairs &c., and consumes about 6000 tons of pig metal, and about 250,000 bushels ofcoal per annum. The Foundry and Stationary machine shops produces castings of every variety, cannon, shot, and shells; railroad works, machinery of every kind, including engines for saw-mills, grist mills, sugar grinding, and marine purposes, &.C., &.C. The Locomotive works are subdivided into fhe various departments, as the Locomotive shops, the boiler and tender shops, the brass and copper shops and the smitheries. Locomotive engines of every size are now manufactured here, and the capacity of this branch of the business is equal to one Locomotive each week. 1 he price of a Lo comotive varies from $7,000 to $10,000. The new and immense Locomotive for the tem porary track ai the Bine Ridge was made here, and is just finished. Its weight is about 33 tons, and it is constructed with a portable water tank over the engine. It is about double the size of the oil er Locomotives used on the Central road. En gines are now constructing here for many of the Southern Railroads. , , D The Armory Iron Works, owned by Messrs R. Archer &. Co., are operated at present by the pro prietor of the Tredegar Works in manufacturing Railroad iron, of which they are capable of pro ducing about 6000 tons ;>cr about 8000 tons of pig metal, ana 3U0.000 bush els of coal annually, and employ about 300 hands. But the limits of this letter will not alluvv any thing more at present. __ llovrdjtim. The noise in our streets at night is beceming really intolerable. At almost any hour of the night from 10 o’clock on, parties oi arumwu dy men and half grown boys, some of whom past for “genteel” during the day, may be found roam ing the streets and disturbing the peace of the community by their vociferous swearing and sing ing low and vulger songs. Not very long since a party of these rowdies congregated in the viem ity of a private residence and one of them for thr amusement of himself and companions, threw quite a large stone through the second story win dow into *n apartment where were several younf ladies. How long will it be before bur town au thorities can be induced to put forth 6ome exer tions to at least check this spirit of rowdyism s< rife in our midst ? We are credibly informed that the sons of somi of our most respectable citizens-may be fnand a mong these street walkers. We would advus parents as they regard their own peace and com fort and the future welfare of their sons, to in spect their conduct a little more closely* Som fond mothers might be surprised to find how oftei their little pets arc seen with a “brick in tliei hats.” Verbum sal sapienti. C3-The North ernand Eastern papers generall have noticed the snow storm of the 20th as one c unusual violence. The snow drifted in th streets of Baltimore to the depth of six or eigf feet, and the transmission of the mails from the city by Railroad was interrupted fur several day; The cars from Philadelphia were arrested by th snow at the Susquehannah river, and the passer gers had to spend the night there without fire t tood. _ 03- Messrs. Kyle & Bro. are now occupyin their new store-house, on New Street, nearly u| posite the Virginia Hotel. The internal arrangi ments of the store-room are elegant and complet and reflect great credit upon the enterprise young firm under whose supervision it was coi strocted. We have never seen a handsomer sto anywhere. We hope to «ee a few more of tl same sort before long. 03- The beard reform is said to be rapidly pr grossing in England. Razors are going out of us i and literary men and even some of the clergy m: j be seen “bearded like the pard.” j GO* We are indebted to Mr. Skinnerr for 8 par I phlet copy of his remarks delivered in the Hou j of Delegatea-Jr*"^* ' r *“■l'" - —— - . .. ■ £ Tlie Battle of Citntc# A private lefteo to the Londun Times,gives tli p follow ing account of the desperate battle be.wee _ the Turks and Russians at Citato: e On Friday, the Gth of January, the Turkis T troops, under the orders of ishmail Pacha and Al r i tned Pacha, marched to attack the Russians, w 1: j had fortified themselves at live village of Citati R j which is about five hours’1 march from KaTafat. j :Tne force of Ishmaif Pajha was composed of thro ,, | regiments of regular cavalry and one regiment c T ! Rashi-'Rozuuks, with six guns. Ahmed Pacha wa stationed at some disiance from the village, wit 3 nime reserve troops, consisting of five battalions j and also six guns. The Russian force in the lage consisted of three battalions of infantry, com manded by Colonel IJonnegarde, three squadron: I <4 huS&rs, and tw’o squadrons of Cossacks, wit! r i six guns. r | I tu* Turkish troops were, as it will be seen, su J : porior in number; but the position of the Russians t ; who were distributed in all the house-* of the v l , i lage, which is ol gu-at extent, and which is sur j ! rounded by a double diteh, Tendered the attacl. 5extremely perilous, as the enemy, well sheltered ’ 1 were enabled to direct a murderous lire ti|>on tin Turks, without the latter being able to reply to it Jn spite of this evident disadvantage, lslimai! IVtia gave orders for the attack, and threw him ’ Leif into the village under a shower of balls fired from ail the windows. At first the Turks received very serious injury; but, although this circum stance somewhat disorganized their attack, their impetuosity was by no means checked. The great er portion of the soldiers, who had never before been exposed to musketry, nevertheless displayed indomitable courage. After a desperate struggle they attacked the j house, and fought hand to hand with sword and bayonet. The massacre was frightful. The Rus sians in Vain bpgged for quarter. In the fever of the fight the Turks listened to nothing, and slaugh tered, without pity, all w ho fell under tneir hands. The Mussulmans of the Crimea, incorporated with the Russian army, in vain appealed to their character of Mussulmans. No quarter was given to them. Gutters of blood ran down the streets from the wholesale human slaughter. To add to the horrors of the scene, it may lie stated that a number of pigs which had been let loose were seen eating the dead bodies. All who could escape the slaughter took refuge in a redoubt at the head of the village, and thence recommenced a murderous fire upon the Turks, who leturned it vigorously, but not without re ceiving considerable injury from the Russian guns. At fast the enemy, incapable of any further struggle,decided on abandoning theentrenchments. A nu:nber of Russian troops had already evacua ted tire place, when a colonel of Turkish cavalry conceived the unfortunate idea of endeavoring to oppose their passage. The Russians, finding themselves surrounded, and having no outlet for escape, and no resource hut the terrible energy de rived from despair, no other alternative but to con quer o' die, recommenced the fight with despera tion, and in a vigorous sorlit they succeeded in capturing two guns. It should be stated that the lurns, upon menrsisuccess m uicoimciiuumniw, committed the incredible fault of not destroying the enemy’s guns. While the battle was thus going on in the vil lage, twelve battalions of infantry of the Russian arn.y and a squadron of cavalry, with sixteen pecei of cannon, were "brought to the assistance of the b isiegpd, and attempted to place the Turks between two fires. Information of this was given to Ahmed Pacha, who, by a skilful manoeuvre, di rected his soldiers to t le point, in order to prevent the junction with the besieged troops. For this movement, he made use of three of his reserved battalions. The advantage of the position was now on the side of the Turks, who were on ground which sloped towards the Russians; but the latter were in three times greater number than the Turks.— In spite of this inequality, however, the Russians were entirely beaten, and fled in the greatest dis order. They were completely routed—a fact con stituting a feat of arms on the part of the Turks which does great honor to them, and establishes another important truth—that the Russians cannot cope with Turkish troops in equal numbers to themselves in open field, and that they can only hope for any success when they have a much more powerful fore* than their enemy. Their losses in these two simultaneous affairsamount to nearly 4, 000 men, among whom are included 50 superior officers. The Turks had about 300 killed and 396 wounded, who were sent to the hospitals at Wid din, and of whom, it is hoped, the greater part may be saved. According to the opinion of some European offi cers, now at Widdin. tins affair is a most glorious one for the Turks, and, if not productive of any ' material result, will at least prove of great moral advantage to them. Thornroic Cemetery. The Trustees of Thornrose Cemetery make a i call in this paper upon the lot owners to pay up the amounts due from them. It is desirable that every one should promptly respond to this call, that improvements in progress or in contemplation may be carried out immediately. In the course 'of a few weeks a house for the Superintendent, or Sexton, will lie erected, and other improvements, commenced. The Trustees have had a large number of young trees planted in the Cemetery 1 grounds, and invite lot owners to plant shrubery ! in their respective plats, and otherwise improve ! them as their taste may dictate." Spring is rapid ly advancing, and it will soon be time to begin. We hope the matter will not be neglected. Let us spare no pains to beautify the ground and make it a fit place to bury the dead and attract the liv ing. It is good for men to resort to such places occasionally. Every one must depart from them in some respects a better man—with pride sub j dued, and more ready to bear and forbear, remem bering that all of us aiet mortals and will all lie I together before long on the same level. Many of I our readers will be surprised to learn that there have been two hundred interments in the Ceme tery already. __ Russian Privateers. For the last two months, several officers of the Russian military and naval service have been in New York city. People naturally wondered what their business was, and at last a report got out that one of them—a Brigadier General—came to enlist men for the Russian army. A F rench pa per published in New York says the report is nearer the truth than most persons believed.— These officers, it says, are engaged in several o' our ports fitting out privateers, which are to sail under the Russian flag and attack Englrah anc French merchantmen, as soon as the news of ac tual war arrives. The National Intelligencer however, contradicts the story, by authority.— That paper speaks of only two officers, and says they’ left Russia before the troubles with Turkey commenced, and that their business in New Yorl is to attend to the fulfillment of a contract with ai eminent ship-builder for the construction of ; steamer, entered into more than a year ago. S' there is another good story spoiled. e 03- Gen. Robert Armstrong, editor and propri t etorofthe Washington Union, died Thursda t evening at his residence in Washington, after a 1.1 illness of ten or twelve days. His disease wa e congestion of the brain. Gen. Armstrong wa - born at Abingdon, Virginia, hut removed toil, r neighborhood of Knoxville. Tennesse, at an earl ige° lie served in the Creek war under Genen Jackson, and during the Seminole war, in 183( S held the office of Brigadier General ol volunteer ' He was Postmaster at Nashville for many year; ’’ and subsequently United States Consul at Live ’ : pool. _ ,g 03- It is reported at Washington that M e Buchanan is about to return home in consequent e of the refusal of the British Government to alio him to attend the opening of Parliament withoi a court dress.___ ** 03- It is stated that there are twQ hundred ar 9‘ twenty-two congregations ofMormons in Lnghn 7 and Wales. fov The Whigs of North Carolina, at a sta J- Convention held on Wednesday, nominated ll «e ; Hon. Alfred Dockery as their candidate for Go 7 ' e"—• Virginia Legislature. e Monday. Feb. 20.—Senate. A eommunics 11 tion was received from the -Treasurer, in reply i a call, suiting that 118ft?00 had been paid to th 11 Military Institute at ffexingtan from its establish ' ! ment to the close e'^'C last fiscal }Rar. _ 0 i A bill to con?',‘ucl a branch (if the Covingtoi i, j and Ohio B-Oroad from Scary creek to Poin - j Pleasant^)' the Board ol Public Works, and ap e ; prUpria^bl?"$l^«^ f°r tliat PurPr<!e UP 01 f I jlg j^age. After a long discussion the bill tvai s ]()/t by a vote of 18 to 18. ) The bill providing for the revision and comple tion of the Geological Map Survey of the State • and for the publication of the same— appropriating • $24,000 thereto, was passed—ayes 35, noes 7. ! i The bill for the erection of a statue of Thomas 1 Jefferson at the University of Virginia, by Mr. Galt and appropriating $10,000 for that purpose was passed—ayes 31. noes 7. J-Iousc.—The whole day, with the exception of ; about half an hour in the morning, was occupied J in the discussion of a bill to incorporate the Mo njngahola and Itavenswood Railroad Company, i Tiie bill merely asked for a right of way through i seven of the Northwestern counties, lying between j the Monongahela river and Ravenswood, on the ! Ohio river.both of which points are to he the ter I mini of the proposed road. Passed 84 to 24. Tuesday.—Senate.—The bill authorizing a loan to the Manassas Cap Railroad was passed— ayes 27, noes 7. An act was passed increasing the pay of the Clerk to $125 per week. The vote rejecting the bill to construct a branch of the Covington and Othk> Railroad from Scary to Point Pleasant was reconsidered. Mr Hull offer ed a substitute for the original bill, granting a na ked charter to a company to construct said raid, which was ordered to be engrossed. House.—A communication was received from the Senate, announcing the passage of several bills, among them the bill providing lor the revis ion and completion of the Geological Map and Survey of the State. The bill was so amended as to limit the salary of the geologist to $1,200 per annum, for four years.and after furthereonsid eration and debate, it was laid un the table. The Senate bill authorizing the construction of a statue to Jefferson was passed—ayes 82. noes 19. The Covington and Ohio Railroad bill was ta ken up and considered the remainder of the day and at the night session. Several amendments were ottered, but no conclusion was reached. VVed.vesiuy.—Senate.—A resolution was pass ed, after some debate—ayes 21. noes 2U—to hold night sessions after Thursday the 23d. The Logan, Raleigh StcTurnpike bill was ta ken up and lost. House.—The House commenced its morning business, and had proceeded with the considera tion of the bills communicated from the Senate but a little way, when the rolling of the drums gave token of the assembling of troops on the Square, to celebrate the day ; and, on motion of Mr. Mallory, on this account and in respect to the memory ot v> ashmgton, the House adjourned by a vote of ninety-two to twenty-eight. Thursday.—Senate.—The bill concerning the Northwest Virginia Railroad Company was pass ed. Also, the hill increasing the capital stock of the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Rail road. 'I’his bill authorizes a Stale’s subscription of three-fifths of $500,000 fur extending the road from some convenient point on their present line between Fredericksburg and Aquia Creek to the city of Alexandria, ot to some point on the line of the Orange and Alexandria Ruilr .aJ, between Al 1 eXandriaand Manassas station on said mad. Mr. Harris called op a joint resoliui* n offered by him on Wednesday, allowing the Sheriff of Angus's connty the further time of *:xty days be yond the period fixed by he law for paying into the Treasury the revenue of said county for the current ypar. The resolution was passed. The bill to incorporate the .Medical College was taken op. An amendmen. authorizing the Gov ernor to fill vacancies in tlie Board of Trustees was adopted. A dir- ussi'm ensued upon the mer its of the whole subject, which lasted till the .d journment. House.—The bill repealing thp charter of the Old Dominion Bank at Alexandria, was indefi nitely postponed, aficr a long discussion. Friday.—Senate.—The bill amending the21st section of chapter 8! of the Code so as to increase the maximum rate of tuition for indigent children, (to six cents a day,) was considered and passed —ayes 26. noes 4. The bill to incorporate the Medical College was taken up, and after debate passed—ayes 54 noes 8. House.—After a variety of business, the Cov ington and Ohio bill was taken up, but the House being very thin it was laid on thp table. Saturday.—Nothingofinterest in either house. From California.—The steamship Northern j Light, at New York on the 23d ult., brings San I Francisco dates to the 31st January. The winter was unusually severe in California, j In Grass Valley and other places the snow was two feet deep. In the mountains near Stockton, the rains had been violent. The gulches were filled and the miners were busy. Later intelligence from Captain \N alker’s ex pedition states that matters were apparently going: on prosperously. President Walker had issued a| decree dividing the Republic into two States,1 named respectively the State of Lower California, j and the State of Sonora Another decree changes j the name of the Republic Irom Lower California to that of Sonora. The sloop of war Portsmouth, and the Govern ment mail steamer were to sail from San Francis co for Lower California, to look after ( aptain Walker and his party. The efforts of Major Oliver T. Baird. Quarter-1 master of Walker’s expeditionary party, to raise an ' excitement in the town of Sonora in favor ot the i new republic, seem to have been crowned with success. A large, and it is said, quite an entltu : siastic meeting of the citizens was held on the 17th I January in response to a call by Baird. Mr. Wil liam Williamson was called upon to preside, and George S. Evans appointed secretary. The meet ing was addressed by Major Baird, Col. B. F. Moore and H. G. Worthington. On motion. Col. Wood .Thomas M’Nalib, and Willi m Allen, were I appointed a committee “to receive the signatures | of those desirous of embarking in the cause of hu | manity. that of liberating tlie poor and oppressed citizens of the State of Sonora from the yoke of I tyranny under which they are now laboring.”— The place of meeting proved too small to contain all who were anxious to participate in ihe pro ceeding*. The meeting was in consequence ad journed to Thursday evening, when it was to be held in the large cuuri house Capt. Harry C- Powell arrived in Stockton on I the 18th ult He gives, sins the Republican, a j very flatteriny account of the prospects of ilie new republic. Thy expedition is being organized with all possible despatch, and it is expected ihaf three hundred men wi\] |pave this Si.te for President Walker’s headquarters in a few days. We have ' seen the muster roll, of his company, and must i admit that it present* quite a formidable appear auce. __ II Political Degenshacy.—The Hon. John Wheeler, one of the Hardshell Democrats from . York, said in his reynl speech in Congress, that “there tens a time in the history of this G >v 1 eminent, when, to insure lyp siiccpss of a great 1 public measure, it was ;i t nWssarv to ask. ‘Does j the President approve of it^ -How does Mr. i Guthrie feel on this subject ?’ -Won’t Jefferson • Davis take offence ?’ ’Will (\tleh Cushing, in - dependi nt in nothing but p diiic<vsanction it?’ I . sayt sir. there was a tim® whert such question® would have been an insult to gentlemen on tbi> 1 floor. That was the golden age y principle — 5 when it was not nece«ary < iriv to\lefine one’s s pugition; when men’s p-iaeoiles we.\ embodied b in all their ae's when then was tmVnan-wor shipping or tim serving—no gettin tetride of , the line waiting the issue of the contegt.\nd then leaping to tlie side -ftlievi -t r. and claiiWng the b sptvls.” f' ri.-s of, ••Good. Good,”etc., inWhich >. we cordially join.) \ ’’ The Valour the Turks.-The .rat-\ir the British Parliament are very profuse in inWi ! compliments to the valour nd heroism >f tfb ■Turkish people. In the oiurse of his speech r‘ Lord Malmesbury said : e “With respect to the barbarous massacre i if Sinope, he must say that lie had never r. nd i anything equalling the devotion displayed by tli Turks on that occasion. He saw the other da a letter from an eye-witness of tlie action, wh d stated, that a Turkish frigate, while sinking, ar j iually fired her last broadside upon the Russia fleet when the muzzles of her guns were only si I inches from the water. There was no record i te ' ancient history—not even Thermopylae and Mai ie athnn. not in modern history either—of brave tr and devotion surpassing that which had been e> j hibited by the Turkish nation iu-^ir defence. 1 Thirty third Congreas, 1st. Session. Monday, Feb. 20.—Senate.—A large numbei } of petitions from various States, against the Ne 9 braska biH, were presented. - Mr. Johnson, of Arkansas, introduced a bill which proposes to establish three Indian Tprrito i ries, under the titles, respectively, of “Chahlah t kee,” “Muscogee,” and “Cbahta.” Thedesign of this bill is to facilitate the civilisation of certain i i Indian tribes by giving them a regular government The Nebraska bill was then taken up, and Mr. Pettit spoke in favor of it. Mr. Cass made some remarks of a personal bearing. Mr. Sumner got the floor and the Senate adjourned. House.—The Conimitteeon Public tyandsmade a report adverse to the bill extending the provis ions of the bounty land acts to the officers and sol diers of the war of 1812. In Committee of the Whole, Mf. Noble, of Michigan, spoke against the proposition for laying tonnage duties to aid work; of public improve ments, and Mr. Ewing, of Kentucky, made a speech in support of the Nebraska bill. Tuesday.—Senate.—Mr. Foot spoke in favor of his bill granting land to tbn several States for the benefit of the indigent insane. The Nebraska bill was then taken up. Mr. Cass made an additional reply to the personal ob servations of Mr. Pettit and further defined his position that Congress had no political sovereign ty over the territories. Mr. Sumner followed till half past four in opposition lo the hill, and the Senate then adjourned till Thursday, Wednesday being the 22d of February. House —Mr. Warren explained that the Com mittee on Public Lands were not opposed to any modification of the pension laws. The bill which was referred to them proposed to give ICO acres to all soldiers serving in the'war of 1812, and the Indian wars subsequent to 1790, whether the ser vice was ten days or as many months. It was ascertained that Uti« bill would take one-half of the public lands and occupy at least ten years to carry its provisions into effect. The House then went into Committee on the Homestead bill, and. strange to say, the discus sions were confined to that measure. Messrs. Dent and Smith,of Virginia,spoke against the bill, and Messrs. Grow ami Smith, of New York, spoke in favor of it. The House then adjourned till Thursday. ( Thuusday.—Senate.—Mr. Fessenden.the new ' Senator from Maine, appeared and was sworn. Another hatch of petitions against the repeal of the Missouri Compromise was presented. Mr. Cass presented a petition asking the inter position of this Government with foreign powers to secure to American citizens abroad the enjoy ment of religious worship and a place of sepulture, and spoke in favor of the movement. The Nebraska bill was taken up, and Mr. Toombs spoke at length in support of the bill. House.— Mr. Disney, from the committee on public lands, rpportpd hack the Senate bill granting two millions and a half acres of land to ensued, and then no quorum being present the House adjourned. Friday.—Senate—Mr. Everett presented the resolutions of the Legislature of Massachusetts a gainst the repeal of the Missouri Compromise— Mr. Sumner presented the remonstrance of Harri et Bepcher Stowe and eleven hun Ired women of Andover, Massachusetts, and also of eleven hun dred men of the same place, again <t the rep-al of the Missouri Compromise. Several similar peti tions from Indiana and Ohio were also pres- nted. Mr. Walker reported a bill extending the r ghu> of pre emption to actual settlers. He said this bill would probably take the place of the Home stead bill, and it came nearer than any other measure to securing homesteads to actual settlers. The Nebraska bill was taken op. Mr. Doug las said that the friends of the bill soppo eJ that all discussion proposed bj its opponents had taken place and had considered when would be the pro per time to vote upon it. They had come to the conclusion to continue the debate till Tuesday.— ' On Wednesday he would close the dehateand the Senate cm id vole on the bill. Mr. Chare said as he had previously given noticp he had numerous amendments to offer. He would at the proper time offer them but would not throw obstacles in the way of getting the question. Mr. Hunter then spoke in support of the bill. Without con cluding, he gave way for a motion to postpone. House.—Mr. Stratton presented resolutions of , the legislature of New Jprsey, and Mr. Faulk ner. resolutions of the Legislature of Virginia, ask- , ing for additional grants of lands to soldiers of the . war of 1812. Referred to the Military commit- - • pe. Mr. Stanton, of Kentucky, made a unanimous , rpport from the committee on Elections, conclu ding with a resolution that Jose Gallegos is ent’ tled to his seat as z delegate from New Mexico, over William Catr Lane, the contestant, the for mer receiving a majority of7U8 votes Resolu tion adopted. Mr. Taylor, of Ohio, asked leave to offer a res- ! olutiun instructing the S-lect Committee appoint- : ed to enquire into the expediency ofainending the 1 constitution relative to the election of President j and Vice President, further to inquire into the ex- | pediency of limiting the service of the President , to one term, and making him thereafter ineligible. * Objected to. A bill was reported from the Committecon Pub lie Lands, in reference to Schools. Mr. Lptcher' objected strenuously to its passage and it was re ferred. Mr. Church well announced the death of Robert | Armstrong, printer to the House, passing a high | eulogy on his character for honesty, bravery and | virtue, and moved when the House adjourn it be to Monday, to enable members to attend his fune ral. Agreed to. Saturday.—Senate.—Mr. Cass called atten tion to some remarks of Lord Clarendon in the British Parliament, in reference to the close alli ance between England and France, which he thought conveyed the idea that those countries , Anoirrno o rro i naf f lio United .States.— i Messrs. Mason and Weller objected to thp Gene ral’s “abstractions,” and the matter was dropped. The Nebraska bill was taken up, and Messrs. Butler, Brown, and Dodge, of Iowa, spoke in fa vor of it. Spain.—The papers for several weeks past have been talking a good deal of a coup d' etat, w hich was about to take pla*te»in Spain—by which the Duke of Alba, brother in-law to Louis Napo- j leon was to be elpvated to the throne. We learn from the London Times that a coup d’ etat i9 meditated ; but its object is very different from that represented. The scheme is to unite spain and Portugal, and make Pedro, tlie young King of Portugal, the ruler of both e luntries under the title of "Emperor. The Times’ correspondent whites that the shameless pr .fltgaev ol the Queen j has excited an intent and universal disgust among the Spanish masses—sand that circulars are scattered throughout the country railing upon the people to rise and throw off the yoke ot their in I famous Qupen and her profligate and imbecile I favourite. The Portuguese connexion is openly I avowed. The Spanish people are said to be i w-.ary of the Bourbons—they are also very jeal | ous of French influence—aud the present union between England and France excites great un easiness among them. It is suppled that some decided movement, looking to the dethronement of the Queen and the elevation of Pedro, cannot be long deferred. The Trvns Allegany Bank.—Some expla nations were recently made in the V irginia Legis lature in relation to the suspicious character of this bank. It was stated that by the law under which it is organized, a scheme of this kiud rnay be practised. The proprietors of a bank bring, say, Jock to the amount of$l00,000 to the treasurer, ind obtain his signature to notes to that amoiint, ond with the notes thus signed, another $100,UUU of stock is purchased, that again is brought to the treasurer and the same operation is repeated. In this way the bank is a self expanding machine —and with reaily only $100,000 capital, appears to have the full amount allowed bv the charter. The treasurer retains the stock for the security of the State. The matter has been referred to a committee of investigation. J The French Spoliation Bill.—This bill Vas already passed the Senat*, and its chance for f \assing the Hmtse is considered a good one. It f tLides for the payment of claims ar.s.ng Iron. b| FKnch Spoliations on American commerce prior f to ) 1. It will require about live millions of - *' 'febill passed Congress during the Adminis tration ,f Mr Polk, and was vetoed by him. - c i Thore isa large lobby force m NN ashmgton trying n j to get it through, and perhaps they may succeed •- WhetherGen. Pierce will veto It, as Mr. Polk y did. is a doubtful .question- "l"8 antecedents fur - j nishing no teliable guide to his course in the e ”! vent of its p^age. \ \ MISCELLANEOUS items. fch The Empress of France having been recom mended by her physicians to exercise, has a pair of skates arranged with wheels, and on them she #kims about on the polished floors of the Tuileries. The Southern Weekly Post.—The Ra leigh Weekly Post has been enlarged so as to contain about onp fourth more matter than before. It is a large and handome sheet, and very well conducted.—Richmond Dispatch. Diplomacy and Clothes.—Senator Smith it is said will soon call for information relative to the retirement of Mr. Sandford from Paris, which will probably bring Up the whole subject of am bassadorial dress. &?• The newspaper proprietors of Boston have resolved to increase the rates of advertising in their papers twenty-five per cent. The high price of paper and the accumulating expense of newspa per publishing are the reasons given. (JtJ- Gen Houston says that of three hundred members of Congress in attendance whpn the Mis souri Compromise was passed, thirty-three year# , ago. only three rernaio-»-Bcnton,Everett,and hiln self. Tammany Hall and the Nebraska Bill.— The Sachems of Tammany Hall, (Softs,) have adopted resolutions declaring their cordial appro bation of the Nebraska Bill and their undiminish ed confidence in the administration of Franklin Pierce. OO* The silverquarter-dollar now issued from the U. S. Mint, is ttnlike the emission of 1853, being without the rays around the eagle; but the arrow head on each side of the date is retained, which was adopted at the same time with the rays, to mark the distinction between the present and the previous legal standard of purity. Southern Pacific Railroad.—The New Orleans papers state that Col. W. R. D. Ward, agent of a New York Company to build a railroad across Texas by the El Paso route to California has commenced operations at Shreveport, Louisi ana, with about one hundred men under his orders, to be augmented at an early day to a much larger force. Purchase of Mount Vernon.—A movement has been originated ann ng the ladies of Virginia, Georgia, and herhaps one or two of the other Southern States for the purchase of Mount Vernon hy contributions raised through the agency of the ladies. At Savannah the ladies held a meeting at which committees were appointed to present the subject to the people of that'State. Crops in Europe.—The Lbodon correspond ent of the New York Tribune trt;27th inst. says, it is pretty well ascertained, that the deficiency in the wheat crop in Western Europe and England, will amouut to one hundred and seventy-six mil lions of bushels—sixty-four millions in France, mm i) iiiiinuiia in i^iiw1*11111, uiiu me uaiaiice la Prussia, Holland, the Rhenish Provinces and Italy.* CO- The N. York “Times” gives an account of a gang termed Returreclionists, in that city, who make their living and their money by stealing dead bodies. They supply not only the anato mists of the city of New York and the State, but many public and private dissecting rooms else where. A regular trafic is carried on, and hun dreds of dead bodies are stolen and shipped every year. Temperance in Martland;—The House of Delegates of Maryland on Saturday before last, passed a prohibitory “Liquor Bill,” which, if it shall receive the sanction of the Senate, is to be submitted to a vole of thp People of that Stats, at s special election to be held on the first Wednes lay in November next. The hill, as it passed the House of Delegates, appears to be very strin gent in its provisions. 4 CO Mr. Badger, the distinguished North Car dins Sentaor, is a zealous member of tho Episcopal Church, ami a few years since engaged in a the dogical discussion w ith the Bishop of his diocese. Senator Everett, who sits next, to Mr. Badger, was, when only nineteen years of age, pastor of the wealthiest Unitarian church in Boston, and, when only about twenty years of age, wrote a earned volume in defence of Christianity. Suicide or a Minister.—By private letter ad lr>ssed to the rditor of this paper, we learn that Mr. Wm. Tabb, of York county, committed sui ride a few days since, by cutting his throat with » razor. He was an estimable and worthy citi sen. and has for a long time been a Reformed llapust preacher. He lost recently his two only •luldren, and the depression consequent thereon \% ihe only cause assigned for the act.—Pet. Dan. A Young Bigamist.—Wm. Forrest, aged 19? Im been arrested in Brooklyn, for bigamy. He married his first wife two years ago ; his second, Margaret Me Elm y, on the gilt of January last, »nd the third. Mary Stevens, one month thete it'ter. When bronght before the court all thtee w ives were present, and the charge being sustain • sd by the most convincing evidence he was fully 4 -mnmitted to await the action of the Grand Jury. (fcf- The recent opening of the British Parlia ment was attended by all the Foreign Minister in London except Mr. Buchanan. A London paper says : “Neither the minister or any mem ber of the legation was present, information hav ing been sent hy the Master of the Ceremouie* that members of the diplomatic corps must appear in court dress, which cannot be worn by the American legation without disregarding instruc tions.” Women’aRights -There Is was lately In srfelon atAlbany.N. Y.pi Women’s Rights Convention of which Elizabeth Cady Stanton is President. On Tuesday afternoon last, the Reverend Miss Brown introducted a series of resolutions, laying down a sort of platform for the hen-pecked, and declaring that women ought to have exclusive control over their business, and the right-to vote, act as jurors, &.c., &.c. They also prepared an address to thn Legislature. The Widow or Alexander Hamilton lias reached the great age of ninety-five, and retain*, in an astonishing degree, her faculties; and con verses with much of that ease and brilliancy which lent so peculiar a charm to her younger days.— And then the old lady, after passing the compli ments and congratulations of the day, insists npon her visiters taking a mprry glass from General Washington’s punch bowl, which, with other portions of his table set, she retains in her pos session.— Utica [»Y Y. ] Telegraph. Convention of Tobacconists.—The Con vention ol'cigar makers from different States, tor the purpose of getting up an expression against in creasing the importation of foregin cigars, met in Albany. February 16th. The businesscommilteft reported the following resolution: That we ask Congress, in behalf of the Undo, to impose a spe cific duty of 40 cents per«pouno on all cigar* imported. That a committee of one from each Congressional district represented, be appointed to circulate petitions, to be presented to Congress. A Weenty Tef.nty Baby.—About a week ago the wife of a gentleman living in the eastern part of the city, presented, him with a baby which is regarded as a “perfect little wonder.” It is a boy, still living,apparently in good health, and when born just weighed one pound. Its first bed was made on a common sized dinner plate. The parents are very proud of the little fellow; and have had his daguerreotype taken. Half the* women in town have been, to see him, and the other halfare getting ready logo.—L)ayton(Ohio) Gaz. Intermarriage of Blood Relations.—The Fredericksburg News -ays: In the county in which we were raised, for twenty generations back; a certain family of wealth and respectability have intermarried, until there cannot be found in three of them a sound man or woman. One has sore eyes, another scrof ula, a third is idiotic, a fourth is blind, a fifth bandy legged, a sixth with a head about the size of a turnip, with not one out of the number exr empt from physical or mental defects of some kind. Yet this family perseveres to intermarry with eio'h other, with these living monuments con stantly before them. Another Pacific Railroad Project.—The ' N'-w York papers state that VV. H. GrinneM, &> s suated with Messrs. Corning Richmond, Gov ernor Hunt. J. L. Schoolcraft. J. S. Wadsworth, A. C. Flagg, Peter Cooper, and other* of New York State, Corcoran of Washington, Vinton of Olii■!. McLane of Baltimore, ai d other capitalist*, are making application to the Wisconsin Legisla ture for the charter of ihe Atlantic and Pacific Railroad Company, witbn capitalof fifty millions, to build a railroad from any point on the valley of the lakes, the Mississippi or Gulf of Mexico, to the Pacific Ocean. The bill gives the company I authority to double its capital stock.