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PUBLISHED EVERY TUESDAY KORITif- BY Richard MauzyjfcjCcu_ m SUtfoCiUfllOJN KAi_o. For 1 yr. $3 in currency or equivalent in specie. For 6 mo. 1.50 " " " „ For 3 mo. 85 " Read This ! ijfc. To any one who will send us two new sub scribers and six dollars, we will send the Specta tor for one year a rati*. , To such as may send us »ivb or.more advance paying subscribers, we will -How » commission of'2s per caat. on the subscriptions obtained, which may be retained by the persons sending J__r* Subscriptions will not be discontinued, except at tho option of the Editor, till all arrear ages be paid. ADVERTISING RATES. Advertisements will be inserted at the rate of One Dollar per Square of Eight Lines or less, 'or the first and 50 cents for each subsequent m _*rtion. Unless the number of insertions be maked upon the manuscript it will be publish ed until forbid and charged accordingly. #__»- Obituaries, Announcements of Candida** for Office, Communications calling upon. Advoca ting or Opposing Candidates, and all Communi cations or Notices of a Personal or Private char itcier, or intended or calculated to promote mny iPri*ate Enterprise or Interest, will be charged jor us advertisements. ~ Special Notices will be inserted at double t_e advertising rates. Address—"Staunton Sp.cta.or," Staunton, juagnrta Coanty, V*. __________________________ Professional. T>irectory. MEDICAL NOTI€E.-Doctors C. R Harris and B. P- Reese havinr formed a copartnership in the practice of Medicine, very respect* vI ly tender their professional services to the public. . . Eighteen years' experience qualities the.unior partner for the general practice of medicine, and will enable the senior partner to devo c especial attention to the diseases of females and children. Calls in the country promptly attended to. Office—Main street, _ doors East of Dr. Chap enan's, D. D. S. __.•■■ _!____ \\\ letters .trictly on professional business, should be addressed to " __, j„r,H fim I>rs. HARRIS A REESE. " J M HANGER. M 1>- J H FULTZ, M. D. * 4 HS. Jl •_ SGKSC * I'ULTI having form __P ed a co-patthership in the practice of medi cine, offer their professional services to the __ Zens of Staunton and vicinity When not pro fessionally engaged they will be found at their office on August, street, two doors North of the Spectator office ____ ~ tf JOHN R. R -LDWLK OKo M COCHRAN, JR. lIALDWi* A COIBHAS, 15 ATTOKNEY> AT LA\V, .Staunton, Va.., WiH practice in all the Courts holden in Augus ta county , j"-"-* " tf BR. JAMES JOHXSTOI., DENTIST. Main Street. Staunton, Va. Office:—Over Cease's Confectionery Store. dec-2l—tf A CABD.-JAMES H. CA LLISON, j\_ Practical survkyor, Notary Public and Licensed Auctioneer, will continue to attend to all calls on moderate terms. Address Middlebrook, Va. nov2—tf BOLIVAR CHRISTIAN. J W. GREEN SMITH. ClflClSTE AH A SMITH, ATTORNEYS AT LAW, Staunton, Va., Practice in Augusta, Rockingham and Rock bridge counties. Office on Court House Alley. petty 6— STRAVERS PHILLIPS, . ATTORNEY AT LAW, Staunton, Virginia, Will practice in all the Courts of Augusta and Allegheny, and in the Circuit Courts of Rock bridge and Nelson. Special attention given to collecting. .luglO—ly WM. m. McAllister, Attorney at Law, Warm Springs, Virginia. Will practice in all the Courts of the counties of Augusta and Alleghany, and as a partner with the distinguished William H. Terrill in Bath county. Prompt attention given to the collec tion of claims exceeding $10 each, or $20 in the aggregate. Attention given to business in any county in the State if specially employed. jtrl\_7—l2m ________ A B. ARTHUR, D. D. »., (office one door .____• fr° m corner of Beverly and New streets, Staunton, Va. Artificial Teeth mounted on Gold, Silver, Platina, and Vulcanite. tlip greatest.improvement yet introduced .nto Dental Science is conceded to b» -he Vulcanite process j it being four times lighter than gold, and much cheaper, embracing superi or cleanliness, nicer adaptation, and many other advantages. All tbe various operations of Den ial Surgery performed with strict reference to permanency. March 20—tf JOHN KCHOLS, R. H. CATLETT, Monroe connty. Lexington. h. m. bell, Staunton. B< .HOLS, BELL A CATLETT, 4 ATTORNEYS AT LAW, Staunton, Va., Will practice in tbe State and Federal Courts at St.'.niton, and in the Circuit and County Courts p' Rockbridge, Rockingham and Alleghany.— _hey will also attend to special business in any part of Va. and West. Virginia. [Sept 12 —tl Foundries. XTALLEY' MILLS* FOUNDRY AND f -tl;-4_l_ii_c Kliop. The undersigned having leased of P. O. Poi nter the above named establishment, arid being practical workmen, with an experience of over _50 years in the business, are prepared to furnish in the very best style and shortest possible time all work usually done in similar establishments. This being the oldest Foundry, and ihe only one in tins part of the State, that was not burnt du ring the war w»- have a great STOCK OF PAT TURNH on hand tor mill, saw mill and all kinds ol machinery Having a superior Lathe for turning Iron, we can execute in the most work manlike mariner, al kinds of turning and fitting up ol We manufacture a CIRCU LAR -s.v vV «JHA F I' __ BOXES on an improved plan, much superior and ch*_|w.r than the old at (I warranted to give satisfaction We abo manufacture very -up-rior plow-of the Livings ton Virginia and Kerr Patterns. We call vp.eial attention to our 10-plate Stove, and Franklin fire-place; aho, Uollow Ware of all kind-. We will deliver all work at Swoope's D»pot free ol charge, and attend bo shipping the same, if de-ired. We. are determined to do our work in a style and at figures that will defy competi tion, terms cash or its equivalent jaklß-3m S 'HOPPERT & KELLER. Swoope's Depot, Augusta county, Va. BIRKE'S IKOX WORKS, Staunton, Va. A BURKE, Proprietor, JsO. ICE—Persons having Threshing Machines, Reapers. Mowers, Drills, &c , needing repairs, can have them done in the very best style and workmanship, at Burkes Iron Works at short notice. I keep constantly on hand repairs for all the leading machines in the country at manufac turer s prices. I have a supply of sections for the following machines: Buckeye Reaper and Mower, McCormick " " " "Wood » " Union " " »• _. also all the repairs for Pitts and Sweepstakes' Threshing Machine. and Bickford and Huffman's Grain and Guano Drill Terms Cash. W. A. BURKK ' ___f\». £_-r_" P u i «P the best LIVINGS TON PLOVV& made in the State. iu_te 16—tf WM. A. BURKE. Saddles, Harness, &c. LATEST y t:\Vfil War Declared 1 ! ANNEXATION OF CUBA ! ! _, ?S_i_r a _^ r " l8 *« or any other man, who wants SADDLES, BRIDLES, HARNESS— new or second-hand— WHIPS, BITS, &c, must go to Ed. Hall's, where he will find the best assortment of the kind this side of New York, all of which can be bought cheap for cash. .. ■ ED. HALL. ©n opposite South & J_j_ij_r'g law «____e. . JgWfWttl-lI) Schools. \\ J A SIII NG TO \ *GOLLE6E, Lexington, Virginia. FACULTY: G_n_R-IK. E. LEE President. Carter J. Harris, A. ML, Prof, of Latin. James J. Whitk, A. M., Professor of Greek. Edw. S. Joysis, A. M., Prof. Mod. Languages. * Prof. English Rev. J. L. Kirkpatrick, D. D., Prof. Moral Philosophy. W_. Preston Johnston", A. M., Prof. History and English Literature. Alex L. Nelson, A. M., Prof. Mathematics. Wm. Allan, A. M., Prof. Applied Matlumatics RICHAKD S. McCULLOCH, A. M., Prof. Natural Philosophy. John L. Campbell, A. M., Prof. Chemistry. t + Prof. Applied Chemistry. Hon J. W. Bbockenbkouoh, L.L.D., Pr. Law. M. W. Humphreys, A. M., Asst Prof. Latin and Greek. Rodes Massie, A. M., .__,.• Ass't Prof. Modern Languages. Duncan C Lyle, A. M., Ass't Prof. Mathematics. Chables A. Gbaves, A. M., - Ass't Prof. English. Joseph B. Walker, Ass't Prof. (,hemi*try and Principal of Business School. •For the present, the instruction in English is divided among the Professors ol Moral Philoso phy, Modern Languages, and History, with the aid of an Assistant Professor. f-he duties ol this Chair are discharged by the Professors of Chemistry and Natural Philosophy. I. ACADEMIC COURSE. j The College is divided into distinct Schools — each fully organized and complete in itself—scf as to afford the best facilities for rendering the in struction in the several branches of education extensive and thorough. The student selects his own course of stud v, under the direction of his parent or of the Faculty ; but that no motive may be wanting to a complete and systematic course of education, the separate Schools _ r. so arranged that they may be combined into the following departments: 1. Dkpabi'Mexi of Abts.—This embraces the subjects of Latin, Greek, English, Moral Philo sophy, Mathematics, with two others to b. elec ted, one from the Literary and one from tin. Sci entific Schools. The Degree ol Bachelor of Arts is conferred on the student whosuecessluily com pletes this course. 2. Department of Science —This embraces Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, French, with one other to be elected from the Literary Schojis. To this course is attached tne Degree of Bachelor of .Sci ence. 3. Department of Philosophy.—This em braces English, Modern Languages, Moral Phi losophy. History and English Literature, with two others to be eieeLed, one from the Literary and one from the :?oi« ntiric -schools. Tv this course is attached the Degree of Bachelor of t'hiUisophy. The Degree of Mast pa of Abts is conferred on Students who have completed the course of study in nine of the school*, and have taken dis tinctions in seven of these. 11. PKDKt-SSIuNAL COURSE. The Departments of Engineering were organ ized after the war to meet a want long fe!t in the South of the highest grade of scientific instruc tion in these important professions. They are now in full and successful operation. 1. Dkpartment of Civil Engineering.— This embraces Mathematics, Applied Mathemat ics, Physics, Mechanics, Chemistry, French, En glish, .Drawing and Astronomy. Students who successfully complete this course, receive the di ploma of Civil Engineer. 2 DEPARTMKi'T OF li INING EUGINBERING. — This embraces Mathematics, Applied Mathemat ics, Physics, Chemistry, Mineralogy and Geolo gy, Metallurgy, Mining, German and English. To this course is attached the diploma of Mining Engineer. It is proposed still further to extend the Prac tical and Scientific Departments in ta. direction of 1. Mechanical Engineering. _ Applied Chemistry. 3. Agriculture. 4. Commerce 3. Department of Lavt. —This embraces the School of Law and Equity, and to it is attached "the Degree of Bachelor of Law. 111. PREPARATORY DEPARTMENT. This has been organized temporarily, for tha benefit of young men. who have been prevented by the war from obtaining proper Academic pre paration for College. It embraces the subjects of Latin, Greek. Mathematics, and English. MODE OF INSTRTCTION AND EXAMINATION. To secure constant and thorough drilling, the Classes are divided into sections of from twenty to thirty, which are taught separately. In the lower Classes the instruction is mainly given by Text-books and Exercises; in tho Higher classes Lectures are combined with these. Ihe Exami nations are both oral and written, and those for proficiency and distinctions very thorough and ngl HONORS AND SCHOLARSHIPS. As special inducements to diligence, three Gold Medals and Five Honorary Scholarships, the latter covering tuition and College fees, are annually awarded. Three Masters of Arts are annunlly appointed as "Resident Masters," with valuable privileges and emoluments. The College educates, free of charge, all can didates for the Ministry, properly recommended. It appoints to free v-scholarships twenty-five young men intending to make Journalism their profession. It gives a long credit to meritorious young men without means who wish an educa tion. DISCIPLINE. The discipline of tlie College, under the con trol of the President, tends to develope honor, manliness and self-respect. Necessary expenses are not more than $325 per annum. The College fees and three months board, amounting to about $175, are required in advance. Parents are advised to deposit the funds for their sons with the Treasurer, experience having shown the benefits of this course o the Students. The session opens the 3rd Thursday of Sept. and closi-s the 4th Thursday of June. _2S_~For Catalogues or other particulars apply to J. M. LEECH, Cl'_ of Faculty, Lexington, Va. August 31 tf Pivtnre Gftlleries. tiLL\E_>_.VNT-S UALLLKY OF PHOTOGRAPHY, Bunnell Building Comer Mai.n and New Streets, I would inform the public that I have just re turned front the city and have refiited and fur nished my Gallery vvitn all the latest improve ments known to our art. and with every conve nienee for Lite aecomtno'iation of my customer. The -uccess which ha> heretofore attended my effort, in the ait, has induced me to improve and enlarge the business in every department. PHOTOGRAPHIC RUSTIC >CENEKY. Having, after much labor and expen.-e, finished my arrangements for the production of Photo graphic Portraitures in real rustic style, I re spectfully invite the public to examine the won derful and pleasing effects. I would call attention to the specimens on ex hibition at my rooms—especially a very fine life size Pastel Portrait—& style ol picture that has never before been exhibited in Staunton. I will also make the Porcelain Picture, a very beauti ful photograph resembling an Ivory Miniature, colored in every style. Particular attention will be given to copying old Daguerreotypes, Ambrotypes, &c, and en larging from them to any size Ladies and Gentlemen residing in or visiting Staunton, are respecttully invited to call and see the improvements we are making in ttte art. Very respectfully, octs-tf B. M. CLINEDINST. Gloves. HW. DO_.NAI.LY, • Cilove Maunfactarer, Neau Lew is burg, West Va. The public will bear in mind, that I am still engaged in the business of manufacturing the CELEBRATED DONNALLY GLOVES, and that I am prepared to execute all orders for ladies' and gentlemen's Buckskin Riding Gaunt lets, Half Hands, and Gloves of all descriptions. Orders from a distance; are solicited. A i ac assortment can be found at the store o Messrs. Roane _ Alby and at D. A. Kayser's. _dgp_l - \y _ Marble Works. \.f AKO.ITIS * KELLY, ItJL VALLEY OF VIRGINIA MARBLE ■ WORKS, STAUNTON, LEXINGTON, HARRISONBURG, & CHARLOTTES VILLE. STAUNTON, VA., TUESDAY, MARCH 29, 1870. Groceries and Produce. EARLY GOODRICH POTATOES, Early Rose Potatoes, Northern Monitor Potatoes, Peach-lllow Potatoes, also, Ground Plaster, Lump Plaster, Clover Seed J. VV. TODD & CO., marls Burwell corner. Staunton, Va. S~ EED POTATOES.-Extra Early Good rich, extra early White Mercers, extra early Rose, for sale by CLEVELAND & SEARS, mar 15—tf r C~LEVELAN» A SEARS, Grocers ! Just received Clipped Herrings, Scotch Herrings, Smoked Herrings, No. 1 Mackerel, No. 2 Mackerel, ' Cod Fish, Halibut, Salmon, Yarmouth Bloaters, &c. Call on CLEVELAND &SKARS. f>KI_SII KOOA CRACKERS, 1 " Cream " Ginger " " Ginger Nuts, Just received by marß CLEVELAND & SEAR 3. HERRING! HERRING! tor sale at BAKEri BROS. ijURE WINES AND LIQUORS.— In addition to my select stock of GROCERIES, I have now on hand a large supply of pure Wines and Liquors, embracing OLD SHERRY, SCUP PERNONG OF THE FINEST QUALITY, APPLE AND GINGER BRANDIES, OLD W3ISKEYS, &o. New brick store, opposite C. H. Square, Staunton. fehß GEO C. JACKSON. OLD FIKM ! NEW norsE! NEW GOODS! H. KER & BRO., having moved into their new room on Augusta street, nearly oppo site the Po.ro/77ce, will be glad to see their friends and the pub'ie generally. We have on hand a fine assortment of Family Groceries, con sisting in part of Brown t-ugars, Coffee Sugars. Granulated, Crushed, and Powdered Sugars. Rio, Layguara and old Government Java Coffee. BICE, MEAL, SALT, MOLASSES, FLOUR & BACON, Woodenware of all sorts, Brooms, Baskets, Tubs, Ac. ■2_5~ WE WARRANT OCR TEAS THE BEST SOLD. Young America and Cutting Cheese. Italian Maccarmi, Canned Vegetables and Fruits. Our goods have been bought low. and we will srll as cheap as the cheapest. Don't forget the place. New House on Augusta street. J__T- Country Produce bought and sold. j_nll-tf H. KER & BRO. Vindicator copy HAT NICE FISH ! Yes. Bloaters, from KER & BRO, janlß— opp< si eP- O. ALL. and see our cheap goods which we are J determined to sell cheap. H. KER & BRO.. opposite P. O. ANTSD.-GROCERIES exchanged for Greenbacks, and great bargains given. H. KER & BRO- opposite P O. (_ ABBED Corn and Tomatoes at small J advance on Baltimore prices by Drf. and case. H. KER & BRO., opposite P. 0. | tLOVEK „_i;U ! i'LOVEK SEED ! \j We have a prime lot on hand. W« desire all persons who neVd this article to give us a call. Remember the place. dec.2B RICHARDSON & WHEAT. OICHABD. ON A WHEAT, Grocers and Prodnce Dealers, Corner of Main and Augusta Street,, STAUNTON, VA. A large and well selected assortment of Family Groceries : SUGARS, COFFEES, SYRUPS, MOLASSES, SPICES. RICE. CHEESE, COTTON YARN, T TOBACCOS, E CRACKERS, A SALT S FISH. FLOUR. BACON, BUT'ER, EG(iS,&c. B___ We are offering our goods at the lowest CASH PRICES, and we are determined to give satisfaction to all who may need anything in our line of business. We solicit the citizens and Farmers gener ally who have not tried us to do so We thank all our frienis lor their past liberal patronage, and respectfully request a continuance of the same. Do not forget the place. Be sure to call on RICHARDSON & WHEAT. octs—tf 1) B. iIOUE A BRO.. (successors to Hoge & Mason,) Wholesale and Ketail Dealers in Groceries, Produce aud Fertilizers. Highest market price in CASn paid for FLOUR, WHEAT, RYE, OATS, CORN, &c. aug4— Aijricaltural Impletnents. SI'BTM.E. A UTLEY, DKALERS IN Agricultural Implements, Machinery FARMING AND GARDEN TOOLS. HARDWARE, WOODEN WARE, FERTIL IZERS, FIELD SEEDS. #c, are now receiving and opening a large arid well selected assortment of Goods at their warehouse, At Brace's old stand, Staunton, Va. Their agricultural implements consist in part of Reapers and Mowers, Threshing Machines, Hay, Straw and Fodder Cutters, Corn Shellers, Hay and Grain Rakes, Hay Forks, Cider Mills, Drills, Corn Planters, Cultivators, Plows and Harrows, Farm Bells, Grindstones. &c. Their large and well selected stock of Hardware is new and direct from manufacturers and im porters, which they are offering at prices which cannot fail to please, embraces, in part, Nails, Horse Shoes, Shovels and Spades, Grain Scoops, Hoes, Mattocks and Picks, Forks, Gar den Rakes, Locks, Bolts, and Hinges, and Build ing Material of every description, Carpenter Tools, &c, &c. Also a fine assortment of CUTLERY, such as knives and forks, pocket knives, pruning and budding knives. They also have cooking stoves, and a tine as sortment of iron and steeh They have wooden ware of every description, such as buckets, tubs, water kegs, field cans, churns, &c. The public are invited to give them a call, and see their good-, as they are guaranteed in every respect, and are offered at very low prices, as they were bought, for cash and can be sold low. They are determined to build up a trade and all whoare in want of goods in their line—especially parties who are building, cannot do better in the State than to buy of SPITLER & UTLEY, at Bruee's old stand, Staunton, Va. mnr9-tf r it.v __it_». | We will pay the highest CASH PRICE for WHEAT and CORN. Apply to our Agen W- H. Watts—-o_.ee near the Depot. may ltt tf L. HARMAN & CO. __^*^_pr"3_j_k (£$- The circulation of the "Spectator" is about as great as the combined circula tion of both, the other papers published in this place, and has as many subscribers in this county alone as are contained in the whole list of either of the other papers. Poetry. From the Picayune. For t_e Love of Lady May. BY PEARL RIVERS. The reign of Winter is over, And 1 see Lord March to-day With a magic compass in, his hands Surveying all the rightful land. Of his love, the Lady May. Gladly I watch him running His golden lin« this way ; Of North and South, and* East and West, He will chum tho farest and the best In the name of Lady May. Quickly each line he measures, Ttien dropping the magic chart, All for love of the L :, 4.v May, He toils by ni_;ht and he toils by day, Proudly and light of heart. From her Court she sent him, saying, "Go till my I-md for me; And when I come, if I find it fair, Budding and blossoming every where, My bridegroom you shall be. ' And for love of his Lady, Hi. strong white arm disbands Each wild-eyed tribe, and lawless clan, Of weeds and brambles that o'er ran And tented upon her lands. Briars, and burs, and thistles, He clears them all away ; They pierce tint sting, hut he does not feel, His feet sir« brass ami his hands are steel, For tbe love of Lady May. Oh. on the rugged hill topa, Down in the plains below, Hi.- royal plow, the Sunshine, now He guides with flushed and heated brow, Carefully and slow. "Hard little hearts, grow tender, And throb for my Lady fair" — And he gives the earth the earthly kind. But the winged seed he gives to the wind To sow in the fields of air. "Trie land must be smooth and mellow, Or hard little hearts will cheat," And over his Lady's wide domain He runs with his shining harrow, Rain, Till he feels them stir and beat. "Ho March !'' I call from my window, ''You are wearing grace aw<iy, You are growing old, you are growing gruff, Your hick is bent, and your face is rough, For the love of Lady May !" "Willing'y I grow double— Willingly I grow gray ; There is nothing that I would not bear, There is nothing that I would not dare, For the love of L idy May." "But what of the young Lord April You left, and the Court with May, He will kiss her cheek, ho will kiss her hand While your Lordship tills the Lady's land Full a thousand league* uway." "Ho Poet!" he answers sharply, '"Tis a bold faisc thing you say, Tho' the young Lord April press his suit, I will stake my life against your late, On the truth of Lady May. New Orleans, March 10. CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN GOV. WALKER AND GEM. CANBY. "Commonwealth of Virginia, 1 "Executive Department. > "Richmond, Va., March, 19, 1870 ) Major General Canby commanding &c. : "Sir—From the morning press and from oth er sources I learn that a military force under your command has been in erpo.-.d to prevent the Mayor of this city, elected, qualified, aud acting under the laws of the State, from the proper dischartre of his duties, and wiih the seeming intention of enabling another person, a mere pertender *o that office, to discharge the "current business" ot the office. As there has been no request by the Legislature or any of the civil authorities ol'the State for military aid, I cannot, understand how or why the military of ficer of the Uniied Sates should be employed in such a case, or why the military force of the United Sates should di-criminate against a re cognized civil officer in favor of one not recogniz ed as an officer by the laws, or the constituted authorities of the Siate. "As Governor of ihe Commonwealth, [ ask by what law or authority you have taken such action? "Very respectfully, your obedient servant, U. C. Walker, "Governor of the State of Virginia." general canby*s reply. "Headquarters Department ) of Virginia, \ "Richmond, Va , March IU, 1.70 ] "To His Excellency ' "The Governor of Virginia: "Sir,—l have the honor to acknowledge the receipt this moruing at lU.c-5 o'clock ot jour communication of this dale, staling that y«u learn "from ihe moriimg pies>s aud other sources a miinasy fuice under your (my) command has been interposed u> prevent the Major of this cuy, duly elected, qualified, and aciing under the laws ot the State, trout the proper discharge ot his duties, aud with ihe seeming intention of enabling another person, a mete pretender to that office, to discharge the curreut business of thai office,'' and to state that the interposition ut the military toice letert.d to iv your com munication was lakeu under ihe circumstances and tor the purpose indicated in the letter to Mr Ellyson of yesteruaj, a copy of which 1 understand was at the time communicated to jour ExceiieiK-y with this protest. L have not disci militated Mi lavor or against either of the contestant iv ibis case. The iegai questions in volved in this controversj are proptr subjects tor judicial determination ly ihe civil couits, and iho actio- taken by ito. had no oilier object ihan to aid in the preservation of the city until that determination can be icached oi the proper civil coup's, cau take jurisdiction of ihe matters iv question. "The warrant for that action is the instruc tions ut the .President ot the United Siates and the Secretary of War to district ihe departmeui commanders, and the precedents established heretofore, taken under iho authority of such instructions iv precisely similar cases, some ol which I have already had the honor to cite to your Excellency. Tnese instructions are sub stantially that, until the legal questions involv ed in any controversy ot this kind are solved, there can be no actiou bj the military except by such interposition between the contesting parties as may be uecessary to prevent breaches of the peace and hostile collisions between citi zens, and to the end that in any event the peace may be preserved. _ 'The course 1 have is, I believe, pre cisely ihat which at the end ot our conference on ttie night ot ttie 17th m.tant v was conclud ed that it would be proper tq take, except thai I was obliged to do myself what I hoped would have been done by the mutual agreement ol the parties to tbis contest ; and in my judgment it was ab-t lutely necessaiy that it should have been taken at ttie lime it was, in order to pre vent more serious disorders than had already occurred. "1 think it proper to add to this that from several conferences with Mr. Edyson, and one wiih Mr. Chahoon, 1 had reason to infer thai thi- action would be coiicuired in by both, and that both would abstain from aciion ot force that would be likely to product a hostle collision unnl the couits could settle the questions in volved iv the controversy. "Your obedient servant, "E. It. S. Canby. "Brevet Maj x-G-aeral cowatauding." fffrWtJfL THE GOVERNOR'S REJOINDER. At about half-past 1 o'clock on ihe 20th (Sunday morning,) Colonel o*en, the Govern or s aid, dehvered the following rejoinder of the Governor to General Oanby's letter: 'Commonwealth of Virginia, ) , * Lxkcutive Department, L . 'Illchmoud, Va., March 19, 1870. ) "Brevet Major General Canby, commanding Department of Virginia: "Sir,—l have the honor to acknowledge the receipt ot your communication of this date in response to mine of the .-same date. The only authority for the interference of the military authorities ol the United States io the abhors ot a Sta'e is found in the Constitution and laws of the United States. The only clause of the Federal Constitution upon this subject is found in section 4 of article 4, and is in these words : '"The United Stales shad guarantee to every State iv this Union a republican torui of gov ernment, and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of thelj.gisUtuie, or ot the Executive (when the Leui_iaiure can out be convened,) ayainst domestic violeuce." "The law_ of the United States in pursuance of this section of the Constitution are the fol lowing: "Act of Congress approved February 28th, 1.95, section 1 : * * 'And in case of an in -uirectiou in any State against the Government thereof it shall be lawful for the President oft he United States, on application of the ot such State, oi ol the Executive (when the Legi.-lature cannot be convened,) to call forth such number of the militia of any other State or States as may be applied for as he may judge etheieot to suppress such lu-mrection.' "And section 3. 'Erovided, always, and be it further enacted, That whenever it may be neces sary in the judgmeut of the President to use •he military force hereby directed to be called forth, the President shall forthwith, by pro clamation command such insurgents to disptr.se and re he peaceably to their respective ab.des within a limited time.' "Act of Congress approved Maieh 3, 1807 ! " 'Be tt cacted dec , That iv all cases ol in surrection or obstruction of the laws either of the United States or of any individual State or ferriiory, where it is lawful for the President of the United States to call forth the militia tor i he purposeof suppressing such insurrection, or ot causing the laws to be duly executed, it shall be lawful for him to employ for the same purposes such part of the land or naval forces of the Untied States as shall be judged neces sary ; having first observed all the prerequisites of ihe law in that respect.' "It is to be presumed that all orders emanat ing treat the President or War Department up on this subject are unwarranted by this section ot the Con.-tiiution and these laws of the Uni ted States, aud must be construed in the light wf the authority thus coulerred. • The Legi.lature and the Executive are the departments ot the State to take care of the peace, and the organs to invoke Federal aid in its matntainauce. When disorder and violence become great and serious, involving ihe peace and jeopardizing the tranquility or existence of the such a degree that the Legislature or the Executive may regard Federal aid as de-irable or essential, that aid may be iuvoked by the State, and should be granted. It is manifest that the military interposition by the United States in case of obstruction to S_te iaws depends on th.. call of the State through the Legislature or the Executive to aid the consti tuted authorities as rtcogriiz d by such Legisla ture or Executive to resist and suppress violence or ob-truetion to such authorities. In short, the Fed- ral power is only exerted tn uphold and su-tain ihe laws and authorises of the State upon its call ioca-eol violence, and not to sustain or encourage tebels against such authority. The power is to be used to preserve the State and its laws, as known and recognized by the con slituied authorities; to prevent violence and anarchy. It is the right of each State and equally ihe obligation of the United States uu der the Constitution, that this rule of action should be carefully observed Oherwi.se, and if the Federal could side with malcontents, the State authorises might be overthrown, and the State itself revolutionized at the pleasure ol a military commander And if one Stare is liable to this calamity, all the States of the Union are liable to it Indeed, the question is obviously reduced to this: "Is Virginia now subject to a military government?" ifsheisa State of the Union coequal with others since her admis .-ion, she can no more be Kttbjec'ed to military interference or control than New York, Pennsyl vania, or any other Siate. And is it po>sible that any officer of the United Sates army would • nterpose his military foice in any way to im pede or obstruct a civil officer in New York in the execution of bis office, or to aid or encourage a preiender to th.it office, despite the well known fact that both the Lgi>la ; ure and Ex ecutive of the State recognize the former and disown the laiter? It m»y be difficult for a military officer, long accustomed to rule a State under the re.oiistructon laws of Congress, at once and in the same place, to realize the mighty change effected by the admission of that State into the Union, and the restoiati m of the su premacy of the Constitution, the revival ol civil government and law and the consequent sub ordination ol the military power. But this mighty chance, under the Constitution and laws of the United States, has been accomplish ed in this State, and has justly been the subject of national gratulaiion. ''After a careful examination of the cases and the orders from the President and the War De partment, comprised in the report of the Secre tary of War for 1808, from page nineteen to lorry inclusive, to which you reler nic, I have not been a'>le to discover any authority or in srruction inconsistent with the principles I maintain, or even tending to question or modify them P "My conviction is that if this State is in full fellowship with her co-equals in the Union, no military power ol'the U. S. can lawfully be employed in a controversy between an officer of the Sia'o fully recognized by the Legislature and the Executive aud a, claimant of that office who is publicly disowned by the same Legisla ture and Executive; and ihat in no case can .such military tone be used unless requested by one of these two departments of ihe State gov ernment. Much more emphatically do I hold that such military authority cannot rightfully aid, or a-sist, or eourpenanee, a claimant iv such a controversy aat.in.st the will ot the Legislature and Executive of ihe State. I will add that 1 d » not find in any of your references, viewed in the light of the Constitution and laws above quoted, either instruction or permi-sion to war taut your late action ia thisci'y If any instruc tions not known to me direct or permit such action, they are, in my opinion, incontravernion ot the Constitution and laws of ihe United Slates. Your letter of the 18th inst., to Mr. Chahoon, (and which I did not see until after its publication in a city newspaper,) clearly in dicated to my mind your purpose to protect himinexerci.-itiathefuncuonsof an office which, by the laws of this Sia'e, he did not and could not hold, and I consider such interference nn necessary and unauthorized. As the chief Ex ecutive of the Mate, it is my duty to see that the laws are faithfully executed - a duty which I shall, -Otter all circumstances, perform. It in the discharge of ihis duty I find ihe power of the Sta'c itiadequa'e (which I do not antiei pate,) I shall prunpily invoke the aid of the United Spates in the manner pre-cribed by the Constitution and laws thereof. It is proper lor me to say relative to the con ference of the 17th inst., io which you allude, as in some sense justifying your course, that I expres-!y declined to interfere, by advice or oth erwise, with the steps takeo by Mayor Ellyson to vindicate his authoriy, never for mo ment doubting his ability to do so, and to sup press any acts of violence or lawlessness that might be incif'ed by those who were attempting to sei at defiance the lawful authorities of .his city and till he failed to do this or call upon me as the chief Executive of the State for assis tance, I did not deem it my duty to interfere, and I so expressed myself to him and to you. My recollection of the determination at the conference between yourself and Mayor Ellyson as to the proper course to be pursued, is entire ly different from'yours Mayor Eil> son's re collection upon that subject is expressed by him in a note to me of this date, a copy ol which is herewith enclosed. Very Respectfully, Your obedient eery <mt, _ _»_.'__ Gilbert C. Walker, Governor of the Conmouwealth of Virginia. MAYOR ELLYSON'S LETTER. The following is the letter of Mayor Ellyson referred to above: Mayor's Office, 1 Richmond. Match 19, 1870. j Gov. Gilbert C. Walker ; Slß—My recollection of ,fche suggestion of General Canby, made just before he left your residence on the night of the 17th in_t., is that he said in substance as follows: "I wiil consult some ot the friends of Mr. Chahoon and get them to advi-e him to with draw his men from ihe sta'ion-house, you to discharge all your special police and take pos session of the station. I think I can luduce them 10 get him to agree to this." This I immediately accepted, and made an appointment to meet him at 1.45 same night to learn the result of the ieg tiaiion I waited at his headquarters Q_H.13.30 A. M. and the friends of Mr. Chahoon not returning. I left. The, other suggestions made by General Can by did not meet my approval. Respectfully, your obedient servant, H. K. Ellyson, Mayor. The following reply from Genet al Canby was received by Governor Waiker: liEADQ as. Department of Va., \ Richmond, March 20. h, 1870. \ To His Excellency Gilbert C. Walker, Governor of Vivginia : Sir—l have the honor to acknowledge the receipt, this morniiig, of your coiuaiunication of yesterday. I concur fully in your statement of the con stitutional and statute laws in relation to the employment of the military arm of Govern ment against invasion and domestic violence.— The rules in that respect and in relation to the aid that may be given to the civil authorities in the service of the process, or in the enforce ment of the decree of the civil court, are clear ly laid down ; but the instructions of the Pres ident and of the Secretary of War, referred to in my communication ot yesterday, relate more particularly to different and exceptional cases, where one or the other of the parties to a con test disregard the usual legal remedies and seek to establish or to maintain their rights by other means. Cases of this kind have not been in frequent in the States that were engaged in the rebellion, and your own observation has no doubt shown you that they have occurred in other Slates, although the instructions referred to relate specially to the former. The duty imposed upon niilirary commanders in cases of this kind, is to make timely dispo sition of troops when there is reason to appre hend a necessity for their uso, and by their pas sive interposition between hos'iie parties avert the dangers of collision. "Department com manders, and in cases of necessity, their sub ordinates, are expected in this regard to exer cise upon their own responsibility a wise dis cretion, to the end that in any event the peace may be preserved"—leaving all le>_al questions in the controversy to be settled by the appropriate civil tribunals. I am unable to see the distinction which your Excellency makes. The coudi ion of tlie city was the subject of two conferences—on the evening and night of the 17th—and at the sec ond of these conferences you referred the con sideration of the sulj-er to Mr. Ellyson and myself, and, by reas on of this reference, sever al references were had with Mr. Ellyson and one with Mr. Chahoon, in the endeavor to cf feet an arrangement by which the question, at issue should be submitted to the courts, and all occasion for collision should be avoided while thai question was pending. Failing to effect an agreement as to the mode in which ihe question should be submi ted to the courts, and as to the j lint occupancy of the Market Hall, the responsibility rested on me of taking "ail legitimate steps necessary ami proper to pre vent breaches of the peace or hostile collisions between ciiz'-ns." I recognize fully the delicacy of the question and the responsibility that I have assumed; but I should have incurred a far greater re sponsibility if I had tailed to inti roose, and thus prevent a collision which, with the tacs before me, was inevitable, unless ihat action had been taken at the lime it was; and as the action of the miliiaiy iv _____ and in similar cases is for ihe purpose only of preventing hos tile collisions, I am utterly unable to see how it can be attended with any other result than the preservation of peace and order. A copy of this correspondence will be sub mitted tor the information of the Secretary ot War aud the Pre-ident. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, Sigued E. R. S. Canby, Brevet Maj. Gen Commanding. governor walker's surrfjulndkr. Commonwealth op Virginia, ) Executive Department. > Richmond, March 21, 1870. ) Brevet Major-General Canby, Commanding Department of Va : Sir—l have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your favor of the 20th instant, and while I do not desire to prolong this corres pondence, there are a few observations which 1 think it proper for me to make in concluding the same. If I understand you correctly you fully agree to my statement of the law, by vir tue of which alone the military forces of the United States can be lawfully interposed in the administration of the affairs of a State in the Union. You thus rightly and conscientiously concede that there is no warrant or authority to be found in the Constitution and laws of the Uni ted States for your action on Friday last, to which I took exception in my note of that date. But you shield yourself behind "orders and instructions" from the President and Secretary of War, and some precedents in some ol the Southern States. 1 have a'ready said io sub stance that such orders and instructions should be construed in the light of the laws, funda mental and statutory, which it is to be pre sumed authorize their issuance, and that by the application of this test you wouid find that even these did not justify your action. Aud you will permit me to say that no number of precedents can justify a wrong. 11 your construction of your orders and in structions be conect they ought, at once, to be modified and plactd in haruiotiy with the Con stitution and laws of our country. The posi tion which \ou seem, iof.reotially, to assume, that ihe peculiar character of' the controversy between Mayor Etlyson at,d Mr. Chahoon •_- -fords some justification tor your interposition, is entirely amenable. 1 do not U_d any author ity for it in the Coustituiion and laws, astothe proper construe!ion oi which, it appears, we are both agreed. It can oniy be found, il found at all, in the latitudinous construe ion ot your "orders and instructions." which, you maintain, and which, it pursued to its logical sequence, will reduce the Doited S aies army to a mere police force eventually superseding the State aud municipal conservators of the peace throughout the country. As matter ol fact I __.._„ utterly disagree with you that there was any 0..a-ion or necessity whatever for any interference by any extra aeons authority in <hu municipal affairs <jl tt_i_.il); but ou ttie cou traiy, it is my confident belief, as heretofore txpressed to you, ibar but tor the hoped-for interference ot ihe Federal military the dis gracful rebellion against the lawfully Consti tuted authorities ot this city on '-tie part ot au ex Mayor and a. Yaw ignorant and deluded fol lowers would not have lasted one hour. 1 am exceedingly gratified that >ou have de- Number XVIII. cided to lay this correspondence before the President and Secretary of War. My personal knowledge of and confidence in the ht_h sol dierly and statesmanlike abilities of both of these exalted public fonctiortaries forbid that I should for one moment doubt that they will promptly relieve you Irom the execuiion of or ders, which, if your construction obtains, are not warranted by and cannot be executed wi.h out a violaiion of the fundamental and statu tory laws of the United States. With sentiments of high esteem. lam, Gen eral, very respectfully, your obcdieirr servant, Signed Gilbert C Walker, Governor of the Commonwealth of general canby s reply to gov walker. "Headquarters Department ) LLn OF VlßutNlA. } 'Richmond. Va , March _i. j_7o ) "His Excelle-.cy G'lltert C Waiker, Governor of the Comnionwialtk of Virginia, litcii mond, Va. : "Sir—l have the honor to acknowledge the receipt ot your communication of this dare — While I concur fully that your statement of the law in the cases to which it applied was correct, I do not concede that the instructions referred to in this cerrespondence arc wiihout the authority of law, err that an interpo«.irk»n, which has for its olject the preservation of peace until the legal question involved in the controversy c_i he settled, is without uecessiiy. Very respectfully, "Your obedient servant, "E R S. Canby, "Brevet Major-Genenl, conimaijuihg." For the Spectator. Hallsville, Harrison Co , Texas, ) March 11th, 1800. j Editor of the Staunton Spectator: Thinking that, perhaps, some of the readers of your most valuable paper would like to pe ruse ihe contents of a letter from one of Vir ginia's sons, who now for the first time at tempts to address his lordships through the columns of a newspaper, I now presume to trespass upon your patience for a short timo. Your correspondent left the glorious old "Dominion" but a lew weeks since, with a view of coming South to try the country and learn something ot the manners and customs of the people, and sec in what respects they resemble Virginians. Weli, my first point was Selma, Alabama, a beautiful little city situated on the Western bank of the river of that name, reaching there on Tuesday evening about 8 o'clock P. M., per "Steamer Leo," from Mont gomery. I found Selma a very flourishing lit tle city and the people as a general thing com pletely absorbed in their business, and very lit tle concerned as to the course of politics iv their State, though they complain very much of the uncertain labor they have at present, as the negroes seem, as in Virginia, disposed to flock around the villages iv wanton idleness; and from the great want of labor you can see whole farms of the finest cotton lauds lying idle and growing up in timber of its original and natural growth. Coming then from Selma to Meridian, Mississippi, via the Selma, Meridian & Vicksburg Rail Road, we pass through the finest couiiiry I ever saw, from Sohna to De mopolis, Alabama, pas-ing through Dallas and Perry counties, the land being of a rich black loam, and I am told that it is oue oi the finest scciionsot the State. We now arrive at Me ridian, where 1 find a veiy thriving iittie town, thouyh situated in the most barren pine sec tion of country imaginable. I remained here one day and then came to Vicksburg, Missis sippi, where I only remained a few hours, re suming my march down that princely stream, the Mis.i-sippi, theFailierof Waters, on the Sieamcr Columbian, to the mouth ot IteJ Riv er, whete we arrived sately on Friday night, Match 4eh. Hero there i- no Hotel kept, ex cept ihe 'Mammoth Whait-boai Hotel," by Messrs. Kingsbury __ J-tnith, and in these gen tlemen we find those princes of Landlords, all attention to their guests, having ever, thing comfortable you could wish. We remained at tins place until Saturday morning, Match orb, when we got aboard the new and elegant Bed Kiver Steamer Texas, for Shreveport, Louis iana. We really had an elegant time on the Texas, the officers being all gentlemen of tho best style, 1 should think, for their bu.-ine.ss — In them we find the ac.umpli.hed gentleman, Capt. T. C. Siirnle, who was always pleasant, affabie and agreeable to his crew; then, we must not fail to allude to that 'Prince" of Cieik-, Mr. F (J. Findren, who w_s always sekiug the wants and comforts of hi. cr.w — We had the pleasure on our trip, through the kindness of Mr. Pindr.u, ol perusing tho col umns of the New Orleans Eiciyune, which con tained a long and interesting account of the re cent celebration in that city of tho Krewo ot (Jomus," all of which, as Mr. Eicay kjm said, passed off pleasantly and agreeaUy to all parties. We arrive tu.w on Monday night March 7ih, at Shreveport, Louisiana, having travtl-ed a distance ot 4.U mies from tho mouth of Red River, and by land it is only 220 miles, and on ibis beauulu! stream your cor respondent saw his firs: Ahigator, seeing Sat urday, the s(h, seven large ones lying on the bauks quietly sunning themselves, and, by the way, I think, instead of Red, it should have been named crooked Biver, as we passed oue point coming up whtiv passengers could stand on the upper deck and throw a stone across a narrow strip ot laud into the river above them, and yet it is ten miles by the Riter to that point. I only remained one day at Shreveport, when I again resumed my journey towards Marshall, Texas, which is a very pretty little city in the Eastern portion of the State, and to-day finds me at Hall-ville, which is at pres ent the western terminus of the Southern Pa cific Rail Road. The road has only been com pleted to this point within the last year, and the town, of course, is just emerging, as it were, from a dense pine forest, the building, all going up of rough material, scarcely any of the lumber beiDg dressed at all. The Hotel at this point is known as the "Holland House," and is kept by Mr. N. Holland, who is a very pleasant gentleman and keeps a very good ta ble at $2 per day in specie, though the house is very rudely constructed, as guests can indulge in "tete-a-tetes' with each other through the open crevices between the rooms. Thi_ seems to be a very flourishing little town and is build ing up very rapidly, and wages are good, as or dinary carpenters get from 2 to 4 per day in gold and Master- work men Irom 4 to $6. Well, I feel that I have already tresspassed too long on your patience and will ask your pardon therefor, and if you deem this commu nication worthy of being placed in your col umns, you can give it space as being the first attempt of your correspondent to write for a newspaper, and, in future, I wiil give you such information as 1 can gather in ihis country. 1 am respectfully, yours, QUID NUNC. When the fatal colli-ion took place between •he Bombay and the Oneida, the . iek on board ttie Oneida were brought on deck; guns were fi--ed un'il the yes-el lurched so heavily, pre paratory to her final plunge, that the gun and carriage slipped and went down the hatchway, carrying Ensign Adams with it, and crushing Inm to death ; officers remained at their posts; ihe commander would not desert the ship from which he had no means of rescuing officers or crew ; and thus, in order and hon .-, with dis cipline and seif control maioiaiiad to the end, the unfortunate vesset settled beneath the wa ters. • Gen. Sheridan not only "b».ki up" Colonel Biker for his late foray upon the F'ngan tribe, but congratulates the people of Montana, upon the fearful paai»bfl_e-i inflced upon the In dians, and recommends Col. !i. for promotion, fhe Washington Chronicle, on tho other hand, declares that the Pit-gap affair was 'an infa mous siaugh'er" —an "a n.ions crime'—and affirm-* tha' the "murdered Indians were iiot the same bauds wliich have given any pretext fbr reprisals; andiftat tlievictims were not slain in op"ti war hut by treacherous .urpnsc; and that they w.:iu chiefly women and uhdiii.-. '