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ilauttton I jierfaist
WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 24 I*Bo. Christmas and Santa Clans. This great festival in commemoration of the birth of the Saviour will be celebrated to-inorrow throughout all christian lands in all parts of the earth. It is not usually celebrated in the manner it should be. It should be observed in a christian manner, with deoency and order, and in consistence with the event it commemorates, and not with horrid noises and Bacchanalian revel ries. We hope it will be appropriately celebrated, and that it will be an occasion of pure enjoyment and exquisite delight, particularly to the young who have been anticipating the arrival of Christmas and the visit and presents of good old Santa Claus with such eager anxiety. We hope he will not fail to arrive on time, and that he will dispense his benefactions with a liberal hand, and not overlook any child who has been expecting to be a recipient of his generous bounty. The term Christmas is derived from the Latin word Christi Masse, the mass of Christ. The feast was instituted by Pope Telephorus, who died A. D. 138. At first the day was often oonfounded with the Epiphany, and cele brated by the Eaetern churches in the months of April and May. In the fourth century there was a formal investigation, which resulted in fixing as the appropriate day the 25th of December. Although this day was not deemed by some of the fathers as conclusively authenticated by the proofs upon which the deoision was made, it was uniformly adopted throughout the Churcbt and has continued from that time to be the day of the solemnities and festivities. The day has always been regarded in that two fold character of a holy commemoration of the birth of our Blessed Lord, and at the same time as a festivity of relaxation from labor and care, of merriment and joy. In the middle ages the day was celebrated by the gay, fantastic dramatic spectacles of that period, the scenery representing an infant attended by the Virgin Mary, St. Joseph, the wise men, and surrounded by cherubs, bull's head?, and other grotesque decorations. It is the tradition that Christ was born about the middle of the night, and the Catbolio custom of QBbering in the day with the celebration of three masses—one at midnight, a second at early dawn, and another in the morning—originated in the sixth century. In former times the cele bration of Christmas began in the latter part of the previous day—"Christmas Eve." The house was first decked with holly, ivy, and other evergreens, and il luminated with candles of an uncommon size, oalled Christmas candles. The custom of singing carols, recalling the song of the shepherds at the birth of Christ, arose when the common people ceased to under stand Latin. In these songs the clergy, high and low, parents and children, joined, combining In the meriment the strains of the organ, tambour, guitar, and violin, each participant, if in the night, bearing in the hand a torch. The yule-log or Christ mas block was laid upon the fire, while people sat around regailing themselves with beer. In the course of the night small parties went about from house to house chatting simply popular ditties, full of joyful allusion to the Redeemer; and it is still the custom, during the last days preoeeding Christmas, for the Calabrian minstrels to descend from the mountains to Rome, saluting the shrines of the Virgin Mother with their wild songs, under the poetical notion of cheering her until the birth-time so near. Rapbatl, in allusion to this custom, introduced into his picture of "The Nativity" a shepherd playing on a sort of bag-pipe. Throughout England and the Continent, and in some parts of this country, the bells at midnight are rung to usher in the day. Santa Claus, whose traditional budget of all good things, his journey through the air and descent down all the chimney?, are the visons of early childhood, which follow us into manhood and age, is St. Nicholas, one of the most popular saints of Catholic Europe, being invoked as the patron of sailors, travelers, captives, and the guardian of unmarried girls and children. The _ Dutch call him Santa Claus, and from them we take the name. The earliest legend of bis appearance is derived fiom the Italians. Giraldi, a shoemaker of Ferrari, was very poor, and could not give his three pretty daughters even the smallest dowry and thus, though each bad an admirer, they were left un married. The father prayed to his patron Saint, St. Nicholas, that he would inter pose with a miracle. A neighbor, a rich merchant, one day overhearing his simple petition ridiculed the idea that St. Nicholas would thus interpose for his daughters, and told him that his Saint was Buonajuta the Jew who lent money at two per cent, a mouth. "He is not so deaf as St. Nicholas," the merchant added, "and if you know how to manage you can make four per cent." The poor shoemaker however, maintained his integrity, and daily prayed. Christmas meanwhile came, and the Jew, finding a balance of three hundred docats on the yearly account due the merchant, thought to make him a sur prise in sending him a fattened and roasted duck with the three hundred gold pieces sewed up in the body. The merchant's wife, however, sharing in the prevailing prejudices against the Jews, refused to re ceive a pressnS from one of the race. The merchant therefore sold the duck for a dollar to the poor, praying shoemaker, who took it home for his Christmas dinner, and when, on opening the fowl with the carver, the gold fell out, his exclamation was, "Praise to St. Nicholas 1" and divided the sum between his two eldest daughters.— The merchant discovering the result of the experiment of sewing up gold in the carcas of a duck, brought an action against Giraldi, but the magistrate, a devoted man, on hearing the case, and learning how the poor man bad been ridiculed for his devo tien, not only ordered Giraldi to retain the ducats, but sentenced the Jew and the merchant for their usurious dealings to pay a fine of ons hundred and fifty ducats for the dowry for the poor shoemaker's youngest daughter. The meaning of this legend is, that a benificent Providence watches over and takes care of the poor who are honest, religious and truthful. The tradition runß that since that time St. Nicholas pays a Visit every Christmas night to all whom be thinks worthy of bis favors. He is known altogether by the name—Santa Claus. Arthur Hoyt Day, who murdtired his wile by pushing her over a cliff at Niagara Falls in July last, was hanged at Welland, Ontario, Thursday morninp. TLe con demned man walked to the scaffold firmly Hod with a smile on his face. His death was eat-}' —STAUNTON SPECTATOR AND GENERAL ADVERTISER.— Oor Milling Interests. Upon the principle that it is wise econo my to manufacture our raw material when ever practicable, Jbe wheat-producers of this section of the Valley will probably be favored to a degree in marketing their wheat above any other in the State. — There are more merchant-millers and a larger number of the best grade of mills, where there are maikets for wheat, in Augusta county, including StauntoD, than anywhere else in the State, except at Rich mond. Not only are the millers and the mills to the extent stated, but the capital invested is equally so. Not second to these facts, which have a strong bearing upon the present situation, there is another which may be regarded as even more po. tential for good in the future as it has been in the past—we allude to the reputation of the flour which is manufactured hero, and the ready and growing demand there is far it. In the new and enlarged progress going on in varied developments, in which tha citizens of Staunton and Augusta county are among the leading contributors, it should be a welcome reflection to our farmers that a chief part of their interests is receiving such valuable recognition. We are of that class of persons who see in our past history much to be proud of, and much that deserves to be emulated, and believe that like results will follow the ap plication of the same degree of effort that gave success in no small degree to those who have gone befoie us. To put actively to work all the elements which create profitable commerce, is one of the great studies which belong to political economy. It may not have occurred to the merchant millers of our section to consider the im portance of their forward movements to the extent it deserves. They are chief factors in oor commerce, and that truth should be fully known and appreciated.— Merchant-milling requires clear and acute judgment, far-reaching observation and discernment, and much equanimity in men tal composition. The trade- or toll-mills —the producer of the wheat taking the flour product to market—have been rapidly succeeded by the merchant class, with commerce quickened and all parties inter ested benefitted in the changes. A mer chant-mill in these days is a small affair if it does not turn out more flour in a given time than a dozen or more of their old burr predecessors. The transition has been rapid, and localizes the wheat market in some respectß whilst it expands it in other ways. To be within the raidius of a local market—the farmer transporting his crop, through his own facilities—is to have an advantage which all cannot possess, and it is one which should be highly prized by all who have it. We are passing through an experience which has much to do with the commerce of our own section of country. Our pro duction would be in vain without a market. There are the leading, the intermediate, and the local markets, as the demand may exist for our products. Commerce and trade are moved by steamships and rail roads, and electricity communicatee the notes of values. The merchant-mills must be reached, and as tbey cannot exist every where, the communities producing wheat which have them, are more fortunate than others that have them not. The farmers of Augusta county are signally favored in this respect, and from present prospects such advantages will contiuue to increase. A flour-manufi.cturing center is one of the most desirable classes of industrial growth. The larger the growth, the greater its value becomes. Of all the products of the soil none dispenses the blessings wh'ch flow from wheat, and its culture should realize in proportion to its importance. Recurring to our expressed desire to follow the wise counsel and to practice the methods as developed in the past which signally promoted prosperity—building up a new and valuable commerce—the thought was in connection with the manufacture of flour at Richmond and its export to South America during the fifteen or twenty years before 1861. The returning cargoes were principally coffee, and if the international trade had not been disturbed, Richmond to-day, if not the largest in exporting flour, would have been the largest coflee market in the United States. The lessons and ex perience of that prosperity will never be effaced from the memories of those who still live that witnessed them. Toe appli cation is not made to indece an effort at a liko trade on our part, but to maintain the point that there is great wealth in that kind of progress which diffuses general prosperity around its centers, and to none in less degree in values invested than to wheat-producers. Wheat-culture is the basis in.tha rotation system which brings about the highest grades of tilth to the soil. From that fol lows the practice of the other economies that reach all through the mixed industries as they are so advantageously nurtured on our Valley farms. There are nearly enough roller-process mills here, all of which are run under the merchant system, to grind the entire crop of wheat of Augusta county. These establishments, however, are increasing, and we may ex pect to see additional interest in cur wheat market, and that valued cereal coming in from many distant fields. There is this fact which may be again stated, as it has often been before in our remarks upcii local trade, that to the producer near by— and for that matter farther away than some might suppose—our merchant-millers pay better prices than can be realized in distant markets. It is often the case that our quotations of prices here are higher than at the larger and distant markets without reference to tne cost of transpor tation, which would be that much less in realization of net gain. The price of wheat during the present marketing season has been much better than in former years, and the probabilities are that it will not only maintain that standard but will reach a higher one. Our farmers should take fresh courage and realize a full sense of duty as it devolves upon them in contributing to the general prosperity. In no way can they better nnet the obligation than in efforts to excel in their pursuit, amang the noblest and the oldest, and the first to receive the blessings of the Creator of all things. "I wish," remarked a young man of At lanta, —"I wish that every time a man asks me to take a drink of whiskey he would just drop fifteen cents in the slot for the poor of Atlanta. I don : t drink, you see, ard am asked to do so on an average of four times a day every month in the year. If they would just drop fifteen cents in the slot every time, at the end of a year I would have about. $240 to bestow upon charity. 8o you sea the liquor I don't drink would nuke many a needy scnl happy for at least a little while.*' * * 1 Sixteen persons were killed a.id twenty six injured by railroad accidents in Maine during the present year. The Financial Strain. Republicans Responsible Thebefob The finanoial strain, which is now gi7ing bo much trouble and creating such alarm in money matters, instead of being relieved, is being aggravated, by the course of the Republicans in their disregard of the wishes and interests of the people. Whilst the people have tha right to look to Can gross for relief and an icoreasa of currcncy so much needed, that body is consuming time in its efforts to pass lha Force Bill which would make matters worse. Like Nero, they fiddle while Rome burns. As the New York Herald says, the bottom fact is that republican near sightedness and folly are chiefly responsible for our suffer ings. The McKinley bill is an intrepid piece of audacity whioh makes the conservative economist hold his breath. It not merely enhances our cost of liviDg, for no earthly purpose, but it tingles our commercial re lations with countries between which and ourselves there is large interdependence. The markets of the world are practically closed to us, and a magnificent field of competition is thus shut out. With our brains, daring, quick wit, inventive genius, we can hold our own in the great centres ot Europe and undersell their manufactur ers in spite of fate. And the Force bill, the most arrant piece of impudence which hatred of the South ever conceived, is being seriously discussed. It is an incitement to revolution, probably intended to bo such, and, if passed, would create the old animosities and eet us back a full generation. These are disturbing elements, and their effect cn the money market is immeasura bly grave. Money is always skittish, shy, timorous, aid runs to cover at the slightest provocation. Such legislation as the re publicans have given us unsettles every thing by sapping confidence, and here we are. Appropriate Prayer by the Blind Chaplain of the House of Representatives. We are indebted to Hon. H. St. Geo. Tucker for a copy of the prayer delivered Dec. 21st in the House of Representatives by Rev. W. H. Milburn, the blind chaplain of that body, which we publish as follows : Glory be to God oa high, and on earth peace and good will to men. We praise Thee, O Eternal Father, that Thou hast brought us to the beginning of this week, so sacred and so dear to all of Christendom, in which childhood is enthroned, and the little people rule cur hearts. Let the blessed influence of the 'ttabe of Bethlehem enter into evety soul; and may we learn the lesson that whosoever shall not receive the Kingdom cf Heaven even as a little child shall have no part therein. Upon' all the homes of the members of this House, npon all the members of their families, grant that thy blessing may abide; and the grace cf our Lord Jesus Christ, the love of God, and the fellowship of the Holy Ghost. Amen. ♦ ♦ ♦ A Fast of 45 Days. The Italian faster, Signor Succi, who essayed (o fast for 45 days in New York City, where ho his been carcfally watched every moment to see that be should not take any nourishment, completed that time at 11 minutes past 8 o'clock last Saturday night. Tho Index-Appeal says that "while the Italian's feat is not likely to ba produc tive cf any important scientific results, it demonstrates in a moat striking manner the enormous force of will-power. This, and this alone, has carried Sacci through Lis ordeal, for during all these six weeks his nourishment —if such it can be called—haß consisted only of Croton water, miners water, cracked ice and, nnw and the?',some drops of an "elixir" which was chemic ally analjzad and certfisd to posses no nutri tive ingredients. That the fast was a bona fide one is guaranteed by the continuous watch exercised over the faster by reputa ble physicians and keen eyed and keen witted reporters," Was Sitting Bull Murdered? —A dispatch from Bismarcb, N. D., says it is now claimed that Sitting Bull was mur dered in cald blood. A corporal who was there is authority for the statement that it was nothing short of a deliberate assassi nation by Indian police. The reports, guarded by military authority, say that Bull, taken unawares whilo still in bed, grabbed a revolver, which was wrenched from his hand, and a fearful encounter en sued between the hostiles and the police.— Corporal Gunn denies this statement. Sit ting Bull was not in bed whan the police called. He came to tho door to hear the warrant of arrest read, and Bull Headi lieutenant of the police, shot him down be.oie any resistance could be offered.— Corporal Gunn belongs to the Eighth cavalry, and was with the troops that went out in support of the Indiar police. Oj account of indisposition shown by friendly Indians to bury Sitting Bull's body, a box supposed to contain his re mains wes dumped into an isolated grave by some soldiers, who set a guard upon the box as a blind, and the remains of the Indian Chief are now on the dissecting table of the military hospital. The skele ton will turn up shortly in some Govern merit or other museum. Republican Senators and the Fobce Bill.—The Washington correspondent of the Alex. G zette, under date of the 19tb inst, says: '•The republicans in the Senate are as much at soa on the Force bill now as they ever were. Tney do not want to lay that bill aside until tbey have their finance bill ready to take its ylacs, and they do not want to introduce the latter until they have previously adopted a gag law so as to pre vent the silver men frotu moving an amend ment providing fer free coinage. The sil ver men among them hesitate about voting for the gag rule lest by it they be shut oft from proposing such an amendment. And so there is no agreement among them, not withstanding their caucusas, and the Fo ce bill is as far frcm its passage now as it was at the commencement of the session." » ♦—♦ Object of the Force Bill—ln speak ing of the action of the Republican Sena tors in reference to the Force Bill, the Richmond Dispatch says:— "All we can do is to hope for the best.— We cannot pretend to foretell what the_Re publicans will dare to do in oarrying out their determination to rule the country or ruin it. Of one thing we may now feel as sured, and that is that they meau to pass a law under the operation of which it will be impossible for the Democrats ever aeaio to secure the control of the House of Repre sentatives. Th ; s is the sole purpose of the foice bill. It never was intended to be anything else than a law establishing in all the southern States returning boards such as Sherman and Chandler and their associ ates in the crime of stealing the presidency found so "handy" in 1877. The Republi can leaders are in a word bent upon mie chief. We await v,ith solicitude further development." ♦ <> ♦ Charles Stader, a farmer, who owns 40 acres in Jennings ounty, Ind., has found two stones on bis farm which are said to be diamonds. Thepjweigh three carets each. II s firt'-icra tract of land, which iia* hitherto been unsalable, is nuw;au o' j>ct of speculation. Senator Kenna of W. Va., on the Force Bill. Io the Senate on Tuesday, the 16tb, Sena tor Kenna of W. Va., discussed the Force Bill:— The country was about to witness, he said, the final act in the great political drama in 'which the republican party bad been playing the role of star for a quarter of a century. The play had been long. It. had paid well. Its receipts had been enor moua. The last preceding scene had closed in mutterings of universal disgust. Wheth er the performance should end in comedy or tragedy remained to be seen. Awaiting patiently the final culmination of tho play, the interval might be devoted, he said, not without profit, to a somewhat casual review of the general plot and the general per formance. Mr. Kenna proceeded to sketch the his tory of the republican party, beginniug with the reconstruction period. Those, he said, were the days of "the biyooet and the bal lot," (to use the phrase of Mr. Frye last week,) when the fields of the South were surrendered to the bramble under the prac tice of carpet bag and negro domination. It was through the demooracy that the hand of the destroyer had been stayed. Tbere was a voice which had said to the South, as to the patriarch of old, "Take up thy bed and go into thine house." THE OLD SOUTH OF THE FATHERS. The South was not dead. Avsd there was no "new South." The old Sout.b was therr, thank God —the old South of the fathers, the old South of the colonies, the old South of the days of '76, the old South of the con stitution, the old South of yesterday, to-day and forever. It was the same South which had given to the country her Madison, her Jefferson and her Waehington. It was not the new South, not the young sister in her Sunday attire, not the bride being led to the altar, but rather the venerable mother robed in the garments of purity, veneration and honor. He wished it to be understood, now and always, that tbere conid be no concession made that would deprive the fu ture generations of tho grandeur of that heritage which belongeJ, not to the new S ■u'h, but the old South of the United State;. REPUBLICAN POLICY DENOUNCED. Mr. Kenna went ou to deoounce the poli cy of the republican party in regard to the Mormons, the public lands, the tariff, the navy and the Indians. Under the latter head he spoke of the reported killing yes terday of Sitting Bull aud other Indians, and referred all the lodian wars for the last quarter of a century to tha maltreatment oj the Indians. Oa the subejet of the tariff he quoted Mr. Morrill as declaring in 1867 that the tariff bill which he then reported was a war measure; that the manufactures did not need higher duties, bat that the government needed revenue; and he said that since then taxes had been repealed on banks and corporations and incomes, while taxes ou wearing apparel, on farming im plements and ou all things that entered in to the cultivation of the soil were maintain ed and increased. The accumulated legis lative iniquities of a quarter cf a century had been piled up under the shadow and within the folds of the "b'.oody shirt." A BAYONET BEHIND EVERY BALLOT. For a hundred years, except in New York, Cincinnati and three or four other cities withia reoent years, the full control of elec tions was to be placed in the federal power. It has not been found necessary until now to put a bayonet behind every ballot. That suggestion involved a comparison to which ho would direct tbe attention of the Sena tor from Maine, (Mr. Frye). No democrat, of course, oould have a bayonet. He was a thing of evil. No man who joined the democratic party could be, iccording to the Senator from Maine, trusted in elections But the returns of tbe election day showed that tbero would be 600,000 or 700 000 bal lots in tbe hands of democrats behind which there would be no bayonet, Mr. Frye.—The colored people will carry them. Mr. Kenna.—Even with the addition of colored people theie will bo still a scarcity of bayonets for the ballots. a cunning contrivance. After quoting a sentence from the Presi dent's message to the effect that election laws and methods are sometimes cunning ly contrived to secure to the minority con trol, while violence completes the short comings of fraud, Mr. Kenna said that there was no mistake about what the pend ing bill meant. There was no mis'ako that it was a cunning contrivance to place in the hands of a minority the control of the insti tutions of the people with a bayonet for ev ery ballot. The Senator from Massachu setts (Mr. Hoar) hid told the Senate that no time should be wasted in the debate, as no oDe's judgment would be affected by it. He (Mr. Hoar) had desired to have the bill passed without ditcussion. And there was, perhaps, evidence th»t that desire was c in curred in by the other side cf the chamber All that had a teodenoy to impress oa his mind, at least, the idea that for some good reason it was considered wise for party rea sons to smuggle the bill through C ingress —wise to have it invade the statute book silently as the tread of the thief by night. Mr. Spooner, who, in the absence of Mr. Hoar, had charge of the bill, expressed bis consent to the suggestion. On the next day— Wednesday —Mr. Kenna then took the floor and resumed his argument against the e'ectiou bill. He denounced John I. Davenport as a man who had haunted the Capitol for weeks and months by day and by night, and whose presence had poisoned the atmosphare which surrounded the Senatn. And yet, he said, the declared and acknowledged policy of the bill was to bestow a life office on the man who. by a stroke of his pen, could arrest 10,000 freemen, or the man who, by his single will, could turn half of the citv of New York into bastiles. Mr Kenna argued that under the deci sion of she court in the case of the marshal who she'- and killed Terry in the defense of Justice Field, the minion Davenport and h:8 horde might, under the bill, oommit murder ft the polls without at.y responsi bility ex r or, to their God. And yet that was the bnl brought into the Senate to promote purity and honesty of elections. He put the supposabie case of Mr. Harii sou desiring re-election, and showed how, under the pending bill, coupled with the bill passed by the Senate last session to ap point nine cirouic judges, Mr. Harrison oould put at work what he called in his message "cunning contrivances" to pro mote that result. THE BILL A DISGUISE AND A CRIME. Iu the appointment of these judges the Presideut mieht try to find John I. Daven ports; aud they, in selecting chief supervi sors for the seventy-nine districts of the country, would look out to see how they could bes' carry out the wishes of the pow er to which they owed their appointment. He said he would offer an amendment plac ing the appointment of election officers un der the civil service rules. The bill, he declared, was a shame in the face of honest decency. It was an offense to honest man hood in every State of the Union. It was a disgrace, if disgrace could be added,to its inventor. It was a crime against the liber ties of a manly and honest and a free people. There was nothing in the condition of the oountry to invite it. IT SOUNDS LIKE DAVENPORT. Was the bill, he asked, tbe product of a felon or of a lunatic, of a Solomon or of a fool? Its terms and provisions were before the Senate. Irs objects and its purpose were canied on its face. It was under stood that Mr. John I. Davarport was its author. It sounded like bitn, it looked like him, it read like him; every section, ever clause, every line aod every letter of it from one end to the o'ber showed Daven port. Its chief promoter in the Senate was distinguished Senator from Massa chusetts, (Mr. Hoar,) and t l ;e second in ommand seemed to be tbe equally disting uished Senator from Ne*? York, (Mr. Evarts.) It seemed to be meet and proper that those two distinguished gentlemen should be selected, either by others or by themselves, to take charge of the bill. Oae of them had made part of the electoral commission aud the ot.er h;;d been the ohief repubiicau counsel before that tribu nal. ELECTORAL COMMISSION SCENE DESCRIBED. Mr Keuna gave a highly graphic descrip- j tion of the scenes before the eieotoral com mission and in the House of Represent?- ] tivfg. and refprred to Mrs. Fasßetf's paint- ' iug, v which Mr. Evarts was the central fig. ure, addressing the tribunal, anrt in wbijh Mr. Hoar appears as a member of the com. mission. That picture, he said, ought cot to go down to posterity solitary and alone. There should be a companion picture paint ed for it, showing the extemporized bastile in which some of the 0,300 American citiz ens for whom Mr. Davenport had issued warrants were packed, crowding each other to look out through the bars, and showing John I. Davenport as the central figure. If an honest man (as Mr. D.ivenport was represented on the other side to be) could 6natcb the liberties of ten thousand Ameri can citizens by a s'croke of his pan, what was to be the fate of the voters when there was to be a bayonet behind every ballot and a uavenport behind every bayonet? [ Applause io the galleries.] If the scan niDg of the bill, from the title pajje to the conclusion, afforded no objeotion on which to cast a vote against it, its authorship and its source would condemn and damn its every line and letter forever. It bad never been intended to promote honesty of elec tions It bad never bad associated with it auy design to promote the honesty or the purity or the freedom of the ballot. After occupying some three hours, Mr. Kenna said that there were other features of the bill whioh he would like to discuss, bat ne did not feel, in view cf his health, that it would be safe for him to continue his speech, and would prefer to finish it to morrow. The Fight on the Force Bill. The view we have unifoimiy heVd and maintained, that the leaders of the Re publican party bave no regard fcr public opinion, and would use every effort and device to pass the Foroe Bill notwithstanding its emphatic condemnation by the people as ex pressed at the polls laßt November, has been proved to be correct by the course they bave pursued since the first day of the present session of Congress. They bave clearly demonstrated that their real sentiment is— "The public be d—d; vie will rule in spite and in dofiance of public coudemnation.'' The action of the Republican caucus on Wednesday night of list week, says the Lynchburg Virginian, removes all donbt, if any really existed, as to the pnrpose of the majority in the Senate to force the Force bill to a vote. The cabal of revolutionists in that body has either silenced or overrid den the objections of the more conservative element, and the flit has gone forth that the bill must be brought to a final test as speedily as possible. Ia order to do this, and to exhaust the endurance of the Demo cratic opposition as well, the caucus decid ed to dispense with the usual Christmas re cess and proceed without interruption to the consummation of this desperate scheme of electoral fraud and coercion. The opposition in the caucus to tbe plan of giving the Force bill precedence over all other legislation was sufficiently strong, it seems, to bricg about a compromise by which the bill may be temporarily laid aside for the consideration of a financial scheme formulated by the committee appointed for that purpose, the idea evidently being that this measure can be rushed through iu short order and gotten out of the way of the Federal election law, which can then be pushed to its passage. The Democratic Senators know, there fore, what is before them and will shape their plau of action accordingly. Their duty is plain, and they will not hesitate to act up to it to the best of their ability. The all-importint question now is whether their physical strength is equal to the arduous and exacting task that devolves upon them, for it is clear that the fight will resolve it self into a mere question of endurance. The Republican programme will be first to adopt an amendment to the existing rules providing for shutting off debate by the "previous question" procedure which Reed has established in the House of Represen tatives .Tbe success or failure of this prop osition to change the rules will decide the fate of the Election bill, and hence the con test will ba practically fought to a finish over this radical innovation upon the parlia mentaiy methods of the Senate. Aro the Democratic Senators equal to the demands of tbe trying ordeal? Can they, outnumbered as they are and with the whole £nrden of the debate thrown upon them, wage this unequal contest for weeks togeth er, it may be, or untii the Republican mar plots despair of the success of their scheme of revolution? We hope that they mayjgood people in the South pray that they may; for solely upon their en deavor the peace, wel fare and prosperity of this section for years to come dapend. If they weaken or go down in the fight, then good-byo to politi cal liberty, to home rnle, to fair and free elections, to true representative govern ment, to the rule of right and intelligence, until the people once more rise in their might and reassert their sovereignty in the Government. Federal control of elections once legalized, and it will only be a question of time, and a very short time, when Frye's fanatical theory of "a bayonet behind every ballot" will be fully realized. Jay Gould's Views of the flfegro Problem. This able and most successful financier, who has recently visited the South and made careful observations, has recently ?isen expression to his views, which are worthy ot consideration, particularly by Northern persons who have not had the same opportunity to judge properly in re ference to the policy which should ba pur sued. * In a recent interview with a representa tive of the New York Sun, Mr. Gould said, among other things:— "Let the Southern States alone for the shite man there to handle the African prob lem. I have been a good deal in the South, and have mingled with its business and busy class considerably. I hardly ever sea a respectable white man in the South who is a Republican; and I think it comes from the Republican party having been In the hsb.t of pushing the African to the front too much aud too long. We all shonld be better off if we stopped playing the Africin against the Anglo Saxon. The great issue on which the Republican party was founded was that of white labor, freedom in the Territories, and freedom generally; but it never was intended by those who took charge of the destinies of the Republican party a third of a century ago that the Afri cau should ba the chief or only representa tive of that party anywhere. This is the main mistako. I have very little confidence in the great body of the Africans as our political rulers." Such Bays the Richmond Times is the opinion of a man whose business sagacity and practical icsight are be yond dispute. In this opinion many thousand other North era capitalists, who exercise a far-reaching influence in their different communities, warmly and unreservedly unite, because, like Mr. Gould, their investments in tha S>utii have directed their attention to a careful examination of Southern conditions. The future of the South, with the negro problem left to her people alone for settle ment, is fully assured. With the c»pi al of the North p >uring into her borders, and the leading men of the Northern States ex erting themselves to place her general policy towards the negro in the correct light before the world, she has nothing more to ask. Bent upon the fulfilment of the great destinies which Providence has marked out for he', she renews her devoted loyalty to t ! ie LV •and addresses herself with misjtit, en gy and in profound confidence toUie magniicaut task of development which nmure in the goodness of Gud bag set for ber. S V Ntw York Letter. [Regular Correspondence ] BUCCI'S LONG PAST—RAPID TRANSIT AGAIN —MODERN IMPROVEMENTS. New York, Dec. 22, 1890. Faster Sncoi has at last concluded his re markable achievement of going without food of any kind for a period of 45 days. This is the first time on record that anyoce in a state of health has lived more than six weeks without taking any food, and as the faster has been carefully watched eveiy minute of the time, he is fairly entitled to the rather empty honor of Champion Faster of the world. Since the fast begun on Nov. sth until it ended on Saturday night last a committee of physicians and newspaper men have been in constant attend ince and have made accurate records from day to day concerning decrease of weight, change of temperature and everything else connect ed with the undertaking. Succi's weight dwindled from 147 pounds at the start to 104 pounds at the finish, and his looks changed so completely that he would not be taken for the Bame man. Water, air and ice are all that he has bad to live on and yet his bodily health has been good and his mind clear all the time. On Saturday night he broke his long fast by very easy stages, beginning with only a teaspoonful of cocoa. On Sunday he ate a good dinner, and start ed for Boston to exhibit himself in a muse um at $1,500 a week. RELIEF FOR THE CROWDS The question of a rapid transit i»aga.n looming up, and a determined effort will be mada at the coming session of the Legisla ture to pass some measure which will meet the unmistakable demand in one way or another. Every one of our city's represen tatives at Albany, has promised to work for the project and many of them look upon it as the most important business of the ses sion. No plan to accomplish the object desired has yet been agreed to, but the viaduct plao will perhaps rcceive attention first. This provides for a viaduct from City Hall through Elm street, Center street, and Fourth avenue to 43 street. Facilities will be afforded for running heavy locomotives and trains from outside the city direct to the City Hall and the Brooklyn Bridge. This plan may not be the best, but it is certainly better than nothing, and the pub lic demand some relief without delay. The frightful incapacity of the "L" roads is be coming more apparent every day. A BUILDING EXPERIMENT. The latest improvement in ' French flits" in this city is the lurnisbiDg by the landlord of a billiard room and a bowling alley for the free use of tenants. A wealthy real estate owner has just broken ground for a flat house of this kind which he is go ing to build as an experiment. The build ing will be six stories bigh, the top floor to be used for the billiard room, and the base ment to be fitted as a bowling alley. The latter will extend the full length of the lot, which is 100 feet deep, the pins to be in a vault at the further end so that the noise ot knocking tbern over will not disturb the tenants. The billiard room on the top floor will be a fine affair and will have accommo dations fur other games besides billiards. Eoch tenant will be given a separate night each week in which he will have full use of these "modern improvements" for him self and friends and the rent will be the same whether tenants avail themselves of the privilege or not. Edwin Arlington. Db. Koch At vises not to go to Ber lin.—Professor Koch baa iuformed fte United States minister to Germany that it is useless for American doctors to go to Berlin, as he is too busy to see any one personally. His lymph, he said, will be assigned to American hospitals that are properly vouched for. He advises s : ck Americans to stay at home, because Berlin is already too full of patients. The Pro fessor wants the German government to manufacture the lymph, which, he says, requires both science and conscience. A crisis threatened in Germany.—A serious political crisis is threatened in Ger many by the discontent of a section of the conservative members of the Landtag over the government's communal bill, which, it is charged, will, if passed, ba ruinous to the aristocracy of the country, which the conservatives hold is the backbone of the monarchy. A number of amendments have been proposed, which, if adopted, will lead to a dissolution of the Landtag, so the min ister of the interior has informed the con servatives. Prince Bismarck will be asked to lead the opposition to the government. Our worthy townsman, Ben. Long. Esq came near freezing to death right here in the heart of 'he town Wednesday morning. He was comiug around the Court House Square on his way to his business when bis hat blew off. lie went after it and got stuck in a drift. As he is lame aud was then walking with a crutch he could not get out and it being very early in the morn ing few people were about. Ho was, how ever, at last discovered and rescued by friendly hands, but was very cold and com pletely exhausted.—Spirit of the Valley. Benjamin Harrison's Craft.—Benj. Harrison is as crafty as a fox, and as he wants to have the Force Bill passed, and as he knows how anxious the Democrats are that he should be a candidate for re-elec tion, to effect a relaxation of their deter mined opposition to the Force Bill, he an nounces that be will not be a candidate un less the Force Bill be passed. Sat? Despite the warning of his physicians that exposuie may cause an increase in the inflammation, thereby resulting In tbe loss of his right eye,Mr, Parnell took the Btump again Thursday in the contest of his candi date in Kilkenny for Parliament. At Hardingsbarg, Ky., Thursday after neen, Samuel Harrison killed Ed. Thomp son, town marshal. Thompson had arrest ed Harrison for drunkenness, and Harris on, in making his escape, shot Thompson. A dispatch from Dublin, Ireland, of Dec. 19oh, says that Canon Cody asserts that it was mud that was thrown in Par neli's face and eyes, and not lime, as is said by bis supporters. Antonio Guenero, alias Chalcquerot, the "Jack the Ripper" of Mexico, who was charged with committing eight murders and fourteen felonious assaults, has been sentenced to death. Tbe B' uth-boucd passenger train on the B. and O. Road was wrecked near HariiE onburg, Wednesday evening and six men, all railroad employes, were injured. Sir Pope Hennessy, who is nosv playing a prominent part in Irish politics, is the original of Anthony Trollope's character of "Phineas Finn," the Irish member. Dr. Koch is the fourth citizen upon whom Berl n has conferred the freedom of the city. The others are Prince Bismarck, Count von Moltke and Dr. Sohliemann. A train on the Intercolonial railway of Canada, filled with Canadians bound f.;t the holidays, went through a trestle and five perso s were killed aud forty injured. John Greecleaf Whittier, the poet, was e'ghty-three jears of age Dec 17th. He passed the day quietly at his winter home at "Oak Knoll," Danvers, Mass. Tests of small caliber rifl-s and smoke less powder is soon to be made by a board appointed by tbß Secretary of war. ♦ ♦ ♦ Mrs. Jefferson Davis is now atjthe home of an old family friend, Dr. J. Harvie Dew, New York. CONGRESS. In the United States Senate, Tuesday, Deo. 16th, the debate on the election bi 1 was continued by Senators Morgan and Kenna in opposition, and Mr. Dolph in favor of the bill. In the House, Mr. Walker introduced a bill providing for a new bankicg law. The session was spent in debate on the new congressional apportionment bill, but a vole was not reached. The election bill was further discussed in the United States Senate, Wednesday, by Senators Kenna, Reagan, Butler and Dolph. . The House passed the congressional ap portionment bill. The United States Senate Thursday passed a bill to terminate the reduction in numbers of the engineer corps of the navy. Mr. bherman reported from the finance committee the financial bill adopted by the republican caucus, and it was recommitted to the finance committee. The election bill was fnrther discussed by Senators Coke and Bate in opposition, and by Senator CHllom in favor. The House, after considerable skiimisb ing, took up the bill to place the American mi rine engaged in foreign trade on equality with that of other cations, and Mr. Farqubar, of New York, spoke in favor of the bill. In the United States Senate, Friday, Mr. Gray introduced a reciprocity resolution.— Mr. Bate concluded his speech on the elecion bill, and Mr. Stewart, republican, of Nevada, also made a strong speed against <he bill. The House adopted the conference report on the bill conferring certain powers on the Baltimore and Potomac Riiiroad Company in the District of Columbia. In the United States Senate, Saturday, Mr. Paddock, republican, of Nebraska, gave notice that after the consideration ol the election bill, and before it should bf concluded, if its debate was to be protraoted to any great extent, he would ask tht Senate to take up the pnre food bill, which was demanded by the farmers from on<- end of the country to the other. Mr Spooncr, republican, of Wisconsin, spoke for five hours in advocacy of the passage of the election bill. He defended John I. Davenport from the attacks made upoi him, and contended that the federal election law, instead of being offensive tc the democrats of the North, had been pu' into operation at their request in many it stances. Mr. Spooner then discussed and defended the provisions Of the bill, ano replied to the strictures npon them made by Senators Gray and Daniel. Mr. In galls also spoke. He criticised the con stitution recently formulated by the Missis sippi Constitutional Convention. Address ing his remarks to Southern Senators, Mr Ingalls said that their peoplo had retained representation in the House of Representa tives and in the electoral college while they had suppressed the colored vote. They hao violated the contract. They had retained the representation which had given them for fourteen years supremacy in the Houst of Representatives, and had on two occa sions thwarted the will of the people by placing on one of those occasions in the presidential chair a man who had never beon elected to the office in any fair or jusi sense any more than the Khan of Tartary or the Czar of Russia. The Il iuse, after a lengthy debate, in which finance and politics figured, passed the urgent deficiency bill. In the United States Senate Monday, » bill was passed authorizing the cODstruc tion of a public building at Norfolk, Va — Mr. Higgins, of Delaware, spoke iu favor of the election hill, and Mr. Voorhees, of Indiana, against it, after which Mr. Hoar called for a vote for an evening session, which resulted, yeas 20, nays 5, (no quorum,) and the Senate adjourned. In the House Mr. Blanchard ottered a resolution ot inquiry into the circumstances attending the killing of Sitting Bull. The iemainder of the session was spent on District of Columbia matters. Constructing Engineer George D. Blakey, in the employ of the Norfolk aQd Western Railroad, was killed at Sylvester, in South western Virginia, by Samuel Sayres. »_<>.,» It is reported in Berlin that Prince Wil liam of N iesau, the heir to the throne of Luxemburg, aud Princoss Margarethe, sif ter of the Eoaparor of Germany,are betroth ed. No further progress in the Virginia debt settlement has been made since the indorse ment by the advisory board of the propos ed plau of settlement. A dispatch from Mount Pleasant, Pi., aays "the recent shut down in the ooke re gions has been especially hard on the sin gle men, they being laid off instead of mar ried men. All the single men employed at the S'andard works of tbe H. C. Frick oal company met at Mount Pleasant and passed a resolution to marry before the rew scale is presented. Several engagements have alread been announced. A Republican Senator Speaks. Tfce speech of Sena'or Stewart, of Ne vada, Friday, against the passage of the force bill, is, says the Bait. Sun, "of speoial interest aa being the first public expression on the p*rt of a rep lbliaan Sena'or of cp position to tho odious measure. Tho Sena tor went straight t.o the heart of the mat ter. If the situation in the South was as bad for the cilored republican voter as rep resented by Mr. Hoar, force, he held, would have to be ÜB3d to correct it, if corrected at all, by federal authority. Bit if the negro is protected by force, the exercise of that force, to be effective, must go to the length of destroying his oppressor. In other words, the whites of the South must be en slaved or exterminated. Resort to force could have no other result thaa the de struction of one or other race. Has tbe count r> made up its mind to the employ ment of force? Docs the republican party actually propose to send troops into the South to pat down violence oaused by the belief on the part of the whites that color ed supremacy at the polls would be ruinous to all their interests? These questions Senator Stewart answers in the negative. Ilis conclusions are, therefore, that the bill ought not to be passed, "because it never would be enforced,because it would consol idate the Southern whites,because it would bring further misery on the Southern blacks, and because it would increase sec tion. 1 animosity and kindle anew the dis cords ot the past." The Senator would not, he eaid, be a party to any act " which might seem to justify the white man in making war upon a defenseless race." The rerasdy for the alleged injustice to colored voters of the South must come from the "voluntary action of the people of that sec tion." The proposed law oould not, Mr. Stewart contended, be enforced. If it could be,then existing law waa ample for tho sup pression of all the frauds complained of. "Instead of protecti"H the colored man, the new law," said the Senator, "would bring upon him persecutijn and misery, if Dot death." The fifty petitioners by whose act the law would become operative would, he said, become "marked men,"as would also the federal supervisors. The failure of vio lent methods under Gen. Grant made it oleir that they could not be successful dow. A severe biow was administered to Mr. Hoar by quotations from his speeches in 1875 against the force bill of that day. Tbe Virginians in the House voted es follows on tbe reappoitionment bill which passed the House Wednesday evening: Ayes, Messrs. Bowden, Browne,Buchanan, Edmunds, Lings'on, Lee and O'Ferrall; noes, Messrs. Tucker ai d Waddill; absent, Mr. Lester, who was home on leave of ab sence. A man who has practiced medicine for 40 years, ought to know salt from sugar; read what he says: Toledo, 0., Jan. 10, 1887. Messrs. F. J. Cheuey & Co.—Gentlemen; —I have been in the general practice of medicine for most 40 y6ars, and would say that in all my practice and experience have never seep a preparation that I could prf scribe with as much confidence of success as I can Hall's Catarrh Cure, manufactur ed by you. Have prescribed it a great ma ny times and its effect is wonderful, and would say iu conclusion that I have yet to find a case of Catarrh that it would not cure, if they would take it according to di rections. Yours truly, L. L. GORSUCH, M. D., Office, 215 Summit St. We will give $200 for auy case of Catarrh -hat cannot be cured with Hall's Catarrh Cure. Taken intern illy. F. J. CHENEY & CO., Props., Toledo, O. B@=.Sold by Druggists, 75c. "THE OLD PIOKEEU." (ESTABLISHED 1819.) TITHE MEBICM FiRHERfj Nearly Haifa Century Under the Sa me Management. Devoted to Farming, Stock Raising,. Fruit Growing. Market Gardening, the .Dairy, ine Poultry Yard, etc . etc* . Special attention is paid to Fertilizers and Manure*, including those of commerce ana the farm. _ , . Reports of Representative Farmers CIuDS are a notable feature of Its issues. Its Home Department is filled with charm •Dg reading and rracticai suggestions tor the ladies of the farm household. The most competent, successful and experi enced men and women have charge of the sev eral departments. No Farmer In the Attantlc States, from Del aware to Georgia, can afford to be without this o i aud reliable auviser and guide on farm work. The American Farmer Is published twice •very month, (on the Ist and 15th.) It is beau •fnily Tvtnten "n pn '? white p. per. In clear type." 81,00 a year. To any one seuoiug a club o. five, nit extra copy will be sent free. SAMUEL SANDS & SONS, Publishers, December 24,'90. Baltimore, Md. 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