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Staunton spectator, and general advertiser. [volume] (Staunton, Va.) 183?-1849, January 14, 1847, Image 2

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rio&l THE N. O. riCAVVRE, DEC. 27.
Tli« annexed criticism upon tho operations of the •
Army in Mexico is from ilie pen of a genflloman *
who is every inch a soldier. Its temper is unexcep- 1
•tionable, and its reasoning is deserving of the most
serious consideration.—Whatever opinions may lx;
entertained nsqxscting the conclusions to which the
writer has arrived, it will bo conceded that he seru |
tinhses the |«st with a military eye and predicts the
future with the boldness of a mind convinced of the 1
accuracy of its deductions.
In regard to the advance of Gen. Wool upon Chi
huahua, the views of the writer are in accordance
with opinions wo have time and again expressed.
Tho uselessness or impracticability of that expedi
tion became apparent to Gen. Wool himself, as he
abandoned it without accomplishing any thing_
Tho consequences of this military mistake are dis
cussed by our correspondent. Whether all the re
sults contended for would have been attained had
the disposition suggested by him been made of Gett.
Woolfs army, is in some measure a matter of spec
ulating; but ho gives good reasons for his opinions,
whilst the failure of Gen. Wool to achieve the ub
jects contemplated in the formation of that armv
shown that its destination was a military error. "
It is very probable that the opinions of our corres
pondent as to tho future lregin to prevail in high
quarters.—His views as to what should be done are
given with that same distinctness as his observa
tions upon what has already transpired. It is to be
hoped that the Government will not be deterred, by
a tear of the cost, from putting the next campaign
upon the most ample basis in regard to all the ap
pointments necessary to its efficiency. Whatever
is required in this behalf will be conceded by Con
gress and the country with alacrity. The earping
ot those, who “count the cost only” in considering
military events, should not lx; berth'd, as they
would make the same ado if the war cost fifty cents
or fifty millions. In nothing is it so true as in mil
itary operations, that parsimony is the worst kind
of extravagance.
Hut enough of introductory. We again invite
attention to the subjoined letter, which deserves the
more consideration as it is firm and candid in tone,
without a particle of the complaining irritability
which too often imparts to writings upon this sub
ject the character of fault-finding strictures against
the Government.
Montkkkv, Mexico, Dec. 0, 1816.
In writing of (lie operations of the Campaign, I
beg that I may not Ire classed among the “scribblers
•from the Army,” who write only to trumpet forth
their own fame and that of their corps—doing jus
tice to none, injustice to many, and blinding the
people as to the o|>erations of the Army. Such let
ters arc read with deep regret, for they are dispar
aging to the reputation and good name of the A
meriean soldiery, I suppose the peoplo are, and
indeed ought to he, satisfied with the achievements
of the Army. We have accomplished a great deal
under many difficulties and trammels, and having
done so much we must claim the privilege of point”
ing out those difficulties and trammels, of showing
cause why they should never have existed, and pro
ving that had they not oxisted we should be much
further advanced in attaining our object—an advan
tageous peace.
The fundamental principle in war is “toojKjrate,
with sujierior threes, a combined movement on u de
cisive point,” and no plan of campaign can be
promptly successful unless framed on this principle,
particularly where it is the intention to act entirely
on the offensive. Unfortunately lor our Govern
ment this principle did not enter as an element in
the present plan of campaign, and all operations
growing out of it are necessarily directly opposed to
it.—Had we met an enterprising enemy, this defect
in the present plan of campaign would have been
rendered much more apparent, and its failure much
more signal by defeat in detail. Suppose General
W od, with his force and enormous supply of trans
portation and suljsistence, had been concentrated on
Gen. Taylor, would the latter have marched on
Monterey with only 61HH) men, not having more
than enough transportation to carry subsistence for
that number, and having to leave behind him fits
battery train on that account ? Gen. Taylor had
not sufficient transportation, with a depot as near as
Ccrralvo in his rear, to transport with his army of
6000 men a supply to subsist it longer than two
days after the tilth, (the day of capitulation,) and
had during the engagement to despatch his train
back t; Ccrralvo. Had this concentration been ef
fected, Gen. Taylor would have had with his army'
betora Monterey one month’s supplies, when he
could have enforced an unconditional surrender of
the town and forces, or followed on their rear in re
treat and eventually have captured or massacred
Ampudia’s entire army.
Had not the Chihuahua expedition been planned,
and had the force and supplies of that army bc-en
promptly concentrated on Gen. Taylor, we would
have been before Monterey eight weeks sooner,
when it might have hern taken without firing a
guiu And why was this Chihuahua expedition a
portion of the plan of campaign ? Was it not rea
sonable to suppose that after our victories before
Matamoras, our enemy would occupy and bold, as
strategic points. Monterey and Saltillo, covering
the strongest passes in the Sierra Madre and having
San Luis Potosi as a base of operations I San Lu
is should then have been, in (lie plan of campaign,
llte objective point, and all of our energies should
have Ixten exerted on this line. As it turns out,
(ion. Kearney Likes New Mexico without firing a
gun, Chihuahua is taken by a small detachment
lrom Ins command without firing a gun, and after
the battle of Monterey Gen. Wool arrives at Mon
clova, and reports his advance on Chihuahua as
useless, whilst our enemy, whipped at Monterey,
abandons Saltillo and concentrates at San Luis,
which ho could never have done had Gen. Wool’s
army been promptly united with Gen. Taylor’s.—
Owing to this error in the plan of campaign our
enemy not only gained time to fortify and fight at
Monterey,hut asa natural conscrjuciice from it, heal
so gained time again to concentrate, at Sun Luis.—
W ith the combined material of the two amies the
objective point, San Luis, might have been gained,
and, by a decisive action with Arnpudia’s forces a
lone, at that point, the campaign might have l>ecn :
ended, and probably the war.—These are some of,
the difficulties under which we have labored, and
but for which our Army could have done much more
for the country. By these Gen. 'Laylor has been
trammelled in bis operations, and has e. >t had .an
opportunity to display to the world what lie could !
have done, had the plan of campaign been framed ]
on military principles.
But let us look a little further into the diflieul 1
ties growing out of and caused by the present plan i
of campaign. What is the relative position of our
own and the enemy’s forces at this time? Santa
Anna lias f»eyond a doubt concent rated at San Luis
d7,(XW) men; he holds a central p<>siiion which,
with his force, cannot bo approached from this di
rcclion oven by superior forces, owing to the scar
city of water, which, ori a large |>ortion of the route,
is held in tanks, and entirely at the disposal of the
enemy. He holds himself invincibloat that point. |
relying on the strength of Vera Cruz to resist at
tack, which must be taken before we can approach
him by gaining his rear.
The number of Gen. Tay lor's army is very far
overrated, even by the Union, which seems to es
timate it at the actual volunteer force sent into the
field and the regular force prescribed by law, with
out any allowance for the diminution of his force 1
from casualties and sickness, which has far exceed
ed wlnt might have been reasonably anticipated un
der the most unfavorable circumstances. Whatev
er may lie thought of the strength of our force in
Mexico at this date. I assort, and without fear of
contradiction, that not more than fourteen Ihrmmnfl!
effective men could be brought into action to-morrow
morning out of the whole army in tin; field. Now. j
what disposition of this inferior force necessarily
results from the plan of the campaign ? San I Alia
cannot be approached from this direction, and to
get at our enemy we. must approach him on another
lino. But the all- impoThtnt passes in the Sierr*
Madre must ho held, to prevent our enemy from
gaining our rear; #i)d our forces, although inferior
“ - .. 1 ... >■
| to the enemy in numbers, are ..ecossarily scattered, !
whilst Santa Anna can operate en masse on any
point. Thus we find ourselves compelled to ope
i Klto on multiple lines, on an extended front, with |
I *** inferior force, whilst our enemy holds a single j
| line of operations, and an interior one. This un
I mouse advantage to the enemy rvsults entirely
from the defective plan-; of campaign,and the only
remedy is to form n new one, by which an increas
ed force of ,50,UtX) men must be concentrated on
some decisive point. \ era Cruz and San Juan dc
Ulua must bo taken; then, ami not till then, will
Mexican generals and soldiers begin to think that
their arms are not invincible, and not till then will |
the Mexican people mistrust the prowess of their '
army. 1 he tall of \ era Cruz and San Juan dc |
Ulua may be a strong inducement to cause them to
sue for peace, but I confidently believe that we will
even then have to advance and fight the enemy at
whatever point he may select. The Mexicans have
no idea of making peace—oven the private families
: i» this town teach their children to hale Americans, 1
and to lisp the name of Santa Anna as the saviour
of their country, who is to whip the Amcricaiyrj
whenever he meets them.—It is absurd to think of i
jH-acc unless our Government will take prompt and i
efficient measures to strike some divisive blow._
Our force must be increased, the necessary subordi
' nation of military operations to the measure of sup
plies must be better considered, and the plans of
campaign must be in strict accordance with inilita
1 ry science. Then will our general in the field show
' j to the world that he is not the man to win a battle
‘ 1 and lose its advantages.
Yours truly, Ps\
1 lie triends of the “Great Commoner,” and par
i ticulariy the Ladies of V irginia, who have eontri
r billed, as a mark of their gratitude for his public
- . services and their admiration of his character, to
; i the erection of his Statue, in “enduring marble,”
. *■> Rte metropolis of his native State, will be glad to
| learn that Mr. Hart, the artist selected lor that pur
■ j |x»se, has completed .Mr. Clay’s bust, and is about
to embark lbr Italy, to complete the work. Mr.
| Clay will be represented in the appropriate costume
1 of a Senator, and in the aet of addressing a dclibc
j rativc assembly.
' j In answer to many enquiries on the subject, wo
: are enabled to state that the amount received from
contributors, by the Treasurer, is alxmt six thousand
j dollars. This sum will not be sufficient to effect
1 the purchase of the site and pedestal, after the com
j plot ion of the Statue. The Vice President and
I Collectors in many of the Counties, however, have
not yet made returns to the Treasurer, although it
is thought that there arc funds in the bands of some
ot them yet to be paid in. As the affairs of the So
ciety will lie closed at an early day, it is important
that all who have heretofore neglected to do so,
should promptly make tliotr reports, by transmit
j l*"g sums that may remain in their lands, and
j the names of the contributors, to Miss Eliza Hm
: i)i.k, the Treasurer of the Society, in this City,
who is authorized to receive all funds collected lor
this purpose.—Rich. Whig.
Some strangi' developments have been made in
the Iowa Legislature, which are thus stated in the
St. Louis Republican, on the authority of a letter
1 from Iowa city, where the Legislature holds its
j sessions:
j On the 8th instant., immediately on the cslals
I 1 railing of the House after dinner of that day, Mr.
; King, mcnilx'r from Keokuk county, (a Whig, but
representing a Iocofoco county,) rose in his place
, and asked leave to make a statement, which was
I granted. lie then informed the House that Mr.
I .Marshall, a lawyer from Ivc county, bail been nc
j gotiating with him, from the second day of thcscs
: sion up to that time, to vote tor General Dodge for
i j the U. S. Senate; that bis first idler was a suit of
\ cltithcs and ^ 100 in east), which was increased, as
i |,e h°ld oir tor higher wages, to the promise of a
j “fat olfico” and as “much money as he wished.”
J le statiil also that Marshall told him “there
. were $(j.()00 there to secure Doilgc’selection,” and
i i nil 1 uesday Marshall gave him fifteen dollars
i bind the bargain,” which he (King) by thead
I vice of triends took. These are the leading facts.
• j W hen King took h;s seat, Clifton and Conlee, Lo
i ( cobvo “possoins,” rose and stated that they too,
j could “a tale untold” whenever interrogated.
; I The House at once raised a committee to inves
■1 tigate the facts, and the sergeant at-arms took Mar
, shall into custody.
To give Mr. King an excuse for voting for
Dodge, a set of instructions were procured, direct
| mg him to vote for Democratic Senators. Mr. King
made allusion to these instructions in his speech ;
said that every man who signed them “voted a
• gainst him;” that he “received his instructions at
the ballot-box ;” that he was “elected as a Whig,”
and should vote with his party.
Wednesday, January 6.
On motion of Mr. Dorman, the hill to provide for
the completion of the James River and Kanawha
Canal, from tide water, at Richmond, to the town
of Buchanan, and for other purposes, was taken up.
On motion of Mr. Shelley, the riqxirt of the vis
itors of the Institution for llio Education of the
Deaf, Dumb and Bliml, was referred to the Com
| mitlce on Schools and Colleges.
Thursday, January 7.
J On motion of Mr. lluntcr—Resolved, That the
Committee tor Courts of Justice enquire into the ex
j pcdiency of so amending the law on the subject
•of proceedings against nonresident debtors, as to
provide for a direct levy by the she rift' upon the pro
perty of such non-resident debtor, whether found in
tii(' bands of a home defendant or otherwise.
“And that they further enquire into the expedi
ency of defining by law more distinctly the period
at which the proceedings by foreign attachment
shall Income a lien upon the. property of, or the
; debts due to the absent debtor.”
W brn the House adjourned yesterday, the bill
I “'to incorporate the Potomac and Ohio Railroad
company,” was under consideration, Mr. Edgington
having intimated his desire to oiler an amendment
to if. Tim House now resumed its consideration,
j and Mr. Kdgington moved to make it the order of
the day for Tuesday next.
Mr. Dorman had no objection to making the bill
the order for Tuesday, if it did not interfere with
the arrangement which had been had upon it here
and elvewhero^eoncernirig the inprovemenlhills. He
j apprehended that Tuesday was too eariy for action
|on the James River bill, which was on docket.—
j He would move Thursday, as that would probably
' the better enable the House to act in good faith ac
| cording to the understanding he alluded to.
Air. I.ee informed the gentleman from Roekbridge
that the bill was only on its second reading, lie
was perfect!} willing to give it the order agreed on
when upon its third reading.
Mr. Dorman being thus assured that the arrange
ment. to which he had referred would not lie dis
tu rbed, would withdraw any oppsition to the fixino
i of the day.
I The hill was then made the order of the day for
Tuesday next.
On motion of Mr. I lorncr.thc hill for the construc
tion of the Sistcrville and Salem Turnpike Road
was then taken up.
Mr. Ilorner said that in consequence of the num
ber of applications for appropriations to works of im
provement before the present session, the Commit
tee had fixed the amount in this hill at .f'UXXf; f„r
the same reason, lie proposed now further to reduce
the sum to V’lJKXf.
This motion was agreed to, and the hill was
j without opposition ordered to )»• engrossed.
The inauguration of Governor Graham took place
, at Raleigh, on the 1st instant, in the presence of the
j members of Assembly, the Judges of the Supreme
Court, and a large crowd of spectators. The cor
ernony is stated to have l»een imposing and impres
sivr, and the Governor’s Address quite a happy
i one.
\ hill has been reported in the House of Dele
i gates providing for the divorce of Win. R Myers,
esq., from his wife Virginia.
;-—SJ -- i
(^“Lawcastkr's” second communication, on
the subject of the District School Taw, will appear
in our next paper.
I -•Jt
0Several articles prepared for this pajrcr liavc
; been unavoidably omitted.
The duns of newspaper editors are generally
considered by their readers as rather offensive_or,
to say the least, in very bad taste. If such are
i farmers, we would liko to know what would Ire
their course, il, after carefully ploughing their
ground and sowing their seeds, not tor one or two
; years only, but for four, five, and even six and
j eight years, they should gather no crop ? Would
they utter no murmur of complaint? Let them'
ask themselves the question, and remember the
Divine injunction to do unto others as thev would
he dealt by themselves.
Our readers will have seen from our Congrc.ssion
nul summary that a most momentous question has
been broached in Congress, in regard to the territo
ry which we may acquire from Mexico. Wo al
lude to the proviso of Mr. Wilmot to Mr. Preston
King’s $’2,000,000 bill. Mr. King is a New York
Democrat, and the immediate representative of
Silas \N right.—Mr. Wilmot is a Pennsylvanian of
the same school. Foreseeing that wc shall proba
bly acquire a large territory from Mexico when wc
come to make peace with her, they an* fur provid
ing in advance, that there shall be a stipulation in
the treaty of cession that Slavery shall never exist
in the ceded territory. Mr. Grover, another dis
tinguished Northern Democrat, avows that ho is
for conquest, and that he is for making a cordon of
Free States out of the conquered territory which
shall rival New England. The Southern Dcmo
cracy,on the other hand, proclaim that they wrll dis
solve the Union rather than submit to such a state
of things ; and thus the question stands. How it
will end I leaven only knows!
Wc must confess we regard this as the most
alarming question which has been agitated in our
National councils since the celebrated debate on the
Missouri restriction.—It is the same question, in a
different shape, which then shook the Union to its
very centre, and which required all the patriotism
and wisdom of the great men of that day to settle.
We have contemplated this fearful issue with
the most painlul interest, and we do not perceive
! how it can well be avoided, or how it can l»e ad
justed, if our Government shall insist u]>on the ac- j
quisition of any portion of the territory of Mexico. I
; If a treaty should be negotiated giving us Califor
) or parts of New Mexico, or Chihuahua, orTa
i maulipas, or any other Mexican territory, it must
be sanctioned by two-thirds of the Senate before it
can become a consummated and obligatory act. If
the proviso of Mr. Wilmot is embraced in the trea
. ty. the Southern men. wtw. wimiuK^. one-half of »!•»
Senate, will vote' against and defeat it. On the
other hand, if the proviso is omitted, the Northern
| nsen will reject the treaty. What is then to be
j done time alone ean make known.
It is still the old question of the spoils.—The
! quarrel is over the division of the plunder. They
: mean to despoil Mexico of her provinces, and the
dispute is now whether the North or the South
i shall have the spoils! Already the two wings of
; the Democracy are growling over them like hun- •
> gry mastiffs over a bone ! And if the evil could be
made to stop there, we should care but little about
j it. Unfortunately, however,it is one of those ques- *
tions which must embroil the whole Country, and
call forth all the angry passions of both sections of
the Union. Interest and a fierce spirit of fanati
cism are alike involved in it; and we look forward
to a convulsion which may overwhelm us with ruin.
Wc.well remember how the people were warned
in 1844 of this danger as likely to ensue from the
! election of Mr. Polk. But alas, all the admonitions
of the calm and clear-sighted Whigs were scorned.
Their predictions of war and taxation were derided .
i and the Democracy, with that recklessness of spirit
which too often characterizes them, rushed madly
on to the very verge of the gulf which now yawns
i before them !
\V e await the issue with fear and trembling,
trusting but little in the wisdom of our rulers, but
with a devout reliance in the over ruling guardian
ship of that Groat Being, who has thus far watched
over the destinies of our Country, and made them ,
the object of His especial care !
The unanimity of the House of Representatives,
on Tuesday the 5th instant, in adopting the Keso- !
lution of the Committee on Military Affairs, asking
to he discharged from so much of the late Message
of the President as relate to tbe appointment of a
Lieutenant General of the Army and to lay it upon
the table, it appears, was intended mote to show
Mr. Poi.k that lie does not possess the confidence 1
of that branch of Congress, than as an expression of
opinion upon the merits of the pm|>osition which he '
had presented for their consideration. Accordingly
a motion was made on the following day to recon- |
sidor the vote , which was agreed to—and the whole
subject referred to the Committee of the Whole.
There is but little probability, however, of the pro
posed measure, so full of injustice towards Gens, j
Taylor and Scott, passing cither branch of the Na
lional legislature.
GO- Presley See r a Rce, esq., (Whig,) has been
chetrd by the legislature of Delaware, U. S Se
nator, in place of the Hon. Thomas Clayton, whose
term of service expires on the 4th of March next.
w a see it stated that the Secretary of the Trea
sury is prejwring a scheme of taxation, bv which
some three or four millions of dollars ean Ihj raised,
and which will be proposed as a substitute for the
duty on tea and coffee. lie will propose a tax upon
plate, jewelry, watches, &c.
0O' We have received the first No. of the
“Seottaville Times,” edited by Mr. Peter C,
Hogg, formerly of this County. Judging from the
specimen before us the Times will be ably conduct
ed and highly useful in the section of country in
which if is located.
Richmond, Jan. 7, 1847.
Itaar Sir,—I writ© you in great haste to say to
you that the Augusta Volunteers were to-day regu
•if M,U8,<?red into the U. S. service, and that they
will leave in the morning for Fortress Monroe. It
is not known at present how long the troops will
remain there—|>erlm}*> not longer than will be ac- j
tuaily necessary to collect and uniform them, which
ought nut now to exceed two weeks. The vessels I
for their transportation to Mexico, it is understood, !
nave boon engaged at Baltimore, and will be round !
in a few days. I have heard it suggested that Point
Isabel is the point at which the troops are to be
landed, but Ido not oredit it.—Tampico is doubt
less their destination.
I bis evening, the ceremony of presenting the
r lag, ordered by the County Court of Augusta,
j took place at the Powhatan Ilouse, instead of the j
! Capitol Square, as previously arranged, ow ing to
the inclemency of the weather. The rain was fall
mg briskly all the time, but still a considerable con- I
, course ot citizens bad assembled to witness it.
I Judge Baldw in’s address was feeling and appropri- !
ate, and ho was responded to by Capt. liar- ■
per. The papers of tho oily, however, will mi
doubt give you a full account of it. Tho Flag is a
very splendid one—the coat of arms of Virgiina on
one side and of the United .States on the other.
The men are in fine spirits, and generally in ex
cellent health. An influenza has been prevalent in
the city, with which sutue of them arc slightly in
disposed, but a change of air, I hope, w ill bring
them all right again.
I shall write you again, in a few days, from For
tress Monroe.
Subjoined is a Roll of the Company ns it has
j been mustered into service to-day :
: Capt. Kenton Harper, Samuel Johnson,
I.ieut. R. H. Kinney, > Jacob llliqk, ■+
Lieut. V. E. (ieigor, Richard Johnson,
Lieut. W. 11. Ilnrinau, lsaa<* W. Johnson,
Sergeant Allen, Isaac Kufts.
Sergeant Ball, John Knowles,
Sergeant Dunlap, Jacob Long,
Sergeant Blackburn, ‘ Henry Lambert,
Corporal Bickle, ' - J. J. Logan,
Corporal L. H. Clarke, William Long,
Corporal Owen Lave He* Christian G. Morrelt,-f
Corporal B. F. linlioden, William Miller, -C
George Alexander, y Alexander C."Mellon,
John Bowles, ' Hugh D. Noon,
James B. Brown. John Peer, •* as*
George W. Britt, John S. Parent, 4 •
Preston Brow n, James Powers,
Able I). Chase, Alplieus W. Poago,
Win. Carrol, Israel Peek,
Richard Cole, /• W m. C. Robertson,
A. II. Crist, William E. Skeen,
John Dubecquc, A. G. Shackleford, ■ i
James M. Eyres, T R. L. Snead,
Win. G. Eyres, D. A. Slofer,
John Emberson, Jonathan Smith,
I A. K. Fisher, William Sly,
j Win. G. Furgeson, John H. Sleelc,
I Alexander Grove, Wm. G. Taylor,
Arch’d A. Gordon, Abraham Tar,
, Valentine Glad well, Lewis Terrel,
Alexander Gregory, Samuel II. Wilson,
James S. Graham, Cyrus White,
William Gocn, S. P. Wade,
James Goen, Miles Sims,
Samuel Helms, -4* James Pelter,
George Harlan, 4- John Grove,
Carrington Huffman, Greenbury Terrill,
George H. llulvey, : James Bishop,
Win. H. Hull, Samuel Searl. y
Morgau G. Harrow, X
It lias been understood here for the last six months
that it was the purpose of the Directors of the Val
ley Bank to tnlfil their moral and legal obligations,
by establishing a Branch of that institution in Staun
ton. Indeed, we were informed that so soon as
some small legal obstacles, which, it was supposed,
lt*t. Lc^tclnluti mvlil ronAily w.mnuoJ ivr-ro out of I
the way, the Bank would commence its operations, j
Belying upon those assurances, our citizens have
waited patiently for the action of the Legislature on
the subject. To our great surprise, however, we
have found that no measures whatever have been
adopted to procure tho necessary legislation, or in
any manner, to redeem, what, we think, we had a
right to regard as the pledge of the Bank to give i
us a Branch.
Under these circumstances, we think our citi- !
zons ought not to consent to be put oft' with delusive !
promises any longer. Let us at once dissolve our
connection with the \ alley Bank, and turn our eyes
in another direction. We arc persuaded that the
Farmers’ Bank would cheerfully give us a Branch
of that institution, and from its larger amount of
capital and more extensive credit, it would be more
beneficial to us than a Branch of the Valley Bank.
Wo hope our Delegates will, therefore, at once j
take hold of the measure, and try ami get us a
Branch of the Farmer’s Bank, ’l’lio extensive j
business which is now done in Staunton, and the
large amounts of public money which would aunu- i
ally lie deposited in a Bank here, make it a verj :
desirable situation lor such an institution ; and we
hazard nothing in saying that it would be very pro
fitable to the stockholders, and advantageous to the
When Winchester shall begin to find her trade
crippled, and the circulation of her Bank promptly
interceptcd and returned upon her, she may sec roa- '
son to deplore the narrow and miserable policy j
| which has forced us into an attitude of opposition. ■
We iiave always been disposed to be friends, but
wo cannot consent to be treated as dependents.
00- Christopher C. Scott, carp, has been e
looted .Judge of the 8tli Judicial District of Arkan
sas. comprising the counties of Union, Ouachita,
Dal las, Clark and Hot Springs’. Mr. Scott was
a momljcr of Judge Bai.dwih’s Law School some
1 years ago.
j 00*Two young “Mexican Whigs,” Calvin
and William Smith, sons of Abram Smith, esq.,
of Rockingham county, have volunteered their
services for the Mexican war, and joined the com !
pOnyofCapt. Archer, of Richmond.
W hat has become of those two comj»aiiie3 of
which the Register made some mention ?
The Martinsbtirg Gazette suggests that the edi- '
tor of the Rockingham Register be appointed Lieut. :
General of Volunteers—and the editor of the Sen 1
tinel of the \ alley the Professor and Unraveller of
F.niginas. Good suggestion. We second the mo- '
tion, and hope their claims will not be overlook
ed.—Jlusrvxla Democrat.
, The office of I .tent. General not yet ’ooing created,
wc would respectfully suggest that our friend of
the Register be appointed Brng-adier General of the j
PoMr-bcrry stained heroes of the “Tenth I#egion.” j
Tho Senate of Pennsylvania will have for
| its Speaker the Hon. Charles Gibbons, a leading '
Whig, and the House will choose the Hon. Jas.
Cooper for its presiding officer—also a prominent
O0~ No mails were received at this place on
Tuesday last in consequence, we suppose, of the
! In the Senate, on Monday Jan. 4, a Message from
the President of the United States recommending
the passage of the “ten regiment bill,” and the ap
pointment of a Superior Officer to take the com
mand of all the forces, was received and referred to
the Military Committee. A Message was also ro
i oeived in answer to a Resolution recommending le
j gislation for the transportation of the mail to the
Army. The bill to reduce ami graduate the price
of the public lands was made the special order for
Monday next.
In the House. Mr. Preston King, (Loco,) of N.
Y., asked permission to offer a bill for procuring
|M*acc with Mexico. The day, however, having
been set apart for a sjKxinl order, the House refus
ed to receive it by the close vote of 88 to 89. The
| Message ol*the President recommending the pas
sage of the bill to increase the army, and the appoint
ment of n Superior Officer, was read, and referred ,
to the Committee of the Whole on the state of the I
Union. The House then went into Committee up
on the bill for the increase of the army. This bill
adds ten regiments to the Regular Army, (one of
j Dragoons and nine of Infantry,) to Ik: enlisted for i
live years or during the war, at their option. Mr.
I louston was calk'd to the Chair, and tho delate
was continued during the day in a discussion of
i great interest by Messrs. McGaughey and Owen, of
la., and by Mr. Hamlin, of Mo.
On 1 uosday, Mr. Cameron, of Pa., submitted a
Resolution directing the Secretary of the Treasury
to report to the Senate on what articles embraced
in the Tariff act of 1846, the duties can be increas- i
! beyond the present rates so as to augment the
revenue, and to what extent said duties can be in
j creased, mid what additional revenue would accrue
: therefrom. The resolution was laid over until
Thursday. The Resolution of the late Mr. Barrow, I
calling for information respecting the return of San
ta Anna to Mexico, which was the special order
lor to-day, was, on motion of Mr. I’lieljis, laid upon
the table.
In the House, Mr. Haralson, of Ga., asked leave
to make a report from the Committee on Military
Affairs.— Leave having been granted him, to the
surprise of many, he stated that he had been in
structed to ask that the Committee be discharged
from so much of the President's .Message as relates
to the appointment of a General Officer, and that
j it he hiitl upon the table.—The report was unani- ’
! niously agreed to. The debate on the bill for the |
j increase ol the army was then resumed and contin
ued to the hour of adjournment.
On Wednesday, in the Senate, but little busi
ness of general interest was transacted. A num
ber of petitions for indemnity for French spoliations
prior to 1SUU, were presented and referred to the
! Select Committee.
In riie House, Air. Hamlin, of Ale., moved to re
; consider the vote of yesterday by which so sum
mary a quietus was put upon the Lt. General,
j and the recommendation of the Executive to secure
j such an officer to take control of the militaiy forces j
; the country. The yeas and nays were ordered ,
l and the vote stood, after man)'' changes, much '
J dodging and some drumming up of voters, yeas 86!
j na>'s 84 !! This vote created quite a sensation in
: the Hall, as the Tesult was brought about by a
change of votes on the part of Mr. Pillsbury, of'
Texas, and Preston King of New Y'ork. Mr.
Houston was anxious that Mr. Haralson, of Ga.,
should change his motion, which had been to lay i
: ujioii .iiv, mt/io, out me ienjmii.se from Mr. Haralson
, was that he was acting under instructions from the
i Committee. The vote was then taken upon that mo
! '‘on and resulted—yeas92, nays 97! The rtqiort of j
the Military Committee was then referred to the
Committee of the Whole.
j On Thursday, in the Senate, the Resolution of!
Mr. Cameron, directing the Secretary of Treasury to
report to the Senate upon what articles in the Ta
i riff of’46, the duties can be increased, Ike., came
| up for consideration, and after being amended so as
j to ask also upon what articles in the free list duties
1 shall be laid for revenue—upon what articles duties
can be reduced, to produce revenue, and whether
the imposition of duties upon articles now free, will
increase their cost to the consumer, and how much ?
was adopted. Mr. Benton reported a bill to en
courage enlistments in the Regular army, which
provides that the term of enlistment shall I* for the
war, or live years, at the option of the recruit, anil
also that he shall receive a bounty of $12—one-half
on enlistment and the other half upon joining his
i regiment.—'I his bill was passed through all its
; stages and sent to the House, from which it was af
j terwards returned w ith a slight amendment which
i was concurred in. It therefore only wants the Pre
sident's signature to become a law.
Iii tin; House, the Army bill was tinder discus
sion nearly the whole day, and in connexion with
it, the question of Slavery.
! On Friday, the Senate did not sit.
j In the H oust, the Army bill was the eniy subject
under discussion.
The difficulty between these gentlemen, as we
anticipated, has l*cen settled by mutual oxplarta
: lions on the floor of the House of Representatives.
! Mr. Bayly disclaimed any thing jiersonal or disre
spectful in his invitations to Mr. Davis to explain
| elsewhere. Hi* said he did not have Mr. Davis in
j his mind, when ho spoke of those “affording aid to
j Mexico.” He considered Mr. Davis’ argument
, did not warrant such, a reference.—Hi* alluded to
‘ other persons. Mr. Davis said, that, had he un
' derstood Mr. Bayly as he now explained himself,
! he should not have ti3ed the words “false refer
• once,” and consequently withdrew them. Mr. B.,
! thereupon, withdrew the words “it is a lie” used
; by him. And tlius the matter was satisfactorily
; adjusted, through the instrumentality of Messrs.
Reverdy Johnson and Archer of the Senate, and
' the Rev. Mr. Tinsley of Washington.
Only eight of the Virginia delegation were in
their seat* when the vote upon the resolution of Mr.
Wentworth, declaring it “inexpedient to levy any
tax u|ton tea and coffee,” was taken. #f these,
Me ssrs. Brow n. Hubard, Hunter, Leake and Tred
way voted in the negative, and Messrs. McDowell
(of the “Tenth Legion”) and Johnson of the liar
rison district, voted in the affirmative._R. Whig.
The National Intelligencer says that the Ro
: tundo of the ( apitol is adorned with a very large
and beautiful Fainting, which attracts all eyes and
receives general admiration. The subject is Ruth
, and her daughters, Naomi and Orpah. at the time
| d.jscribed in the 1st chanter of Ruth, 14th and 15th
verses. The artist is Mr. llosstTER.of New York,
, from Connecticut, who had pnssisl some time in
Italy. 'I'hc rxiintimr belongs to Mr. Barker, of
New York.
fry Senator Peskyracker, we regret to learn,
is Iving dangerously ill at AVa«htngfon.
7*' 1 ... -Me
o briefly noticed yesterday the interesting cer
emony of the previous afternoon—the presentation
by Judge B. G. Baldwin, at thc request of thc
County Court of Augusta, of a Flag to the fine
company of Volunteers which she has given to the
service of her country.
Every spectator was struck with the beauty of
the Flag, both the design and execution of which
attest thc genius and skill of the artist. On one
I side is our national emblem, the Eagle, with the
words, “E Phtribtu Unum —on the other the
V irginia coat of arms, with its appropriate and glo
rious motto : “Sic Semper 'Pyrunnis!”
Notwithstanding the inclemency of the w'eathcr,
quite a crowd assembled to witness the interesting
Wc have the pleasure of laying before our rea
ders this morning the admirable address of Judge
Baldwin and the not less felicitous reply of Capt.
i *•' «• * '** * v
Volunteers ok Augusta At the call of your
country, you have left the courier is of civil life anj
the endearments of domestic ties, to devote your
w hole energies to her service, and peril your livdB
j in her cause. You have witnessed the deep feel
ing occasioned by this movement in the community
from which you come. You have observed the
generous sympathy in your behalf which pervaded
• the county of Augusta, during your brief prepara
I fur an enterprize of such thrilling interest.
You could not mistake the manifestations of kind
regard, which attended your departure. You can
not forget the affecting evidences of anxiety for
jour welfare, exhibited by the associates and fel
low-citizens from whom you have separated.
I speak of no casual and transient excitement—no
sudden and momentary burst of emotion. The best
w ishes, the anxious care ol Augusta, follow you
still, cuncc you left us, the public sentiment has
, a uuucontrated by the constituted authorities,
| who have resolved that you shall bear with you a
mark ot her attachment, best suited to the occasion,
and most grateful to the hearts of citizen-soldiers.
I Behold, then, the gift of Augusta to her sons •_
who go forth to sustain her ancient honor and re
nown—to meet the enemies of our country, and do
batrie in her cause! It is intended as a memorial
of affectionate regard—of intense solicitude—of
abiding trust. It is intended as an emblem of what
she expects, and of what you have resolved. It is
intended to stimulate you in times of difficulty, and
cheer you in moments of glootn. It is intended as
a Iwnd of inseparable union between your hearts
ami your home. It is intended to remind you, at
every step of your advance,of your duty to your
selves, your country, und your friends.
I have no commission to urge you to courage in
the held—to deeds of daring in the assault—to un
yielding firmness in defence. No! Soldiers of Au
gusta, no! We leave such topics to your own
] thoughts—we hold them needless and unprofitable
m sjieech, to the descendants of the sturdy and
J dauntless settlers ol our land, the pioneers of tlm
" ilderness, the conquerors of the merciless savage
t,ie grandsons of the men who fought at
Guilford, at King’s Mountain, at the Cowpens, at
, York—to die sons of the men who drew hack from
no duty in our last conflict with a mighty foe—to
| the men who were lately represented at Palo Alto,
' at Resaea de la Palma, on the heights and steeps of
bloody Monterey. We address no excitement of
words to the spirit which swells in the bosoms, and
i burns in the veins, ot our bold and hardy mounlain
j cers!
Let me turn from what we know, to what we
! hope and believe—that this banner will never be
degraded by those over w hom it is to wave, by any
t s)a‘» °f cruelty, of disorder, of rapine, of devasta
IK? that you will return it to i}s donor, however
stained w,lh blood, however torn in battle, unsullied
by any crime—to be received with joyful acclama
tions, and placed amongst the archives of our coun
ty, as a proud monument of your worth, as a pre
j cions legacy to ftiture generations. And here you
will not deem it presumptuous in an early friend of
; your fathers, one who has known them long and
well, who has been honored by their confidence,
who retains a grateful recollection of their kindness
i and encouragement, that he should suggest to you
a tew hints for your guidance, amidst the difficulties
and dangers of the new career upon which you aro
| about to enter.
I^earn, then, what you cannot know without ex
perience, that the first duty of a soldier is perfect
subordination ; a cheerful obedience to the com
mands of his superiors ; a fathful observance of the
martial law. \\ ithout this subjection, there can be
no safety, no honor, no glory. Let not your pride
he hurt by this inevitable necessity—deem it no
degradation—consider it no hardship: it is the
common lot of all who leave the mild and gentle
pursuits ot civic life for the stern and rigid profession
of arms. A military authority is essentially despo
tic, whatever may be the form of government from
which it springs. Its iron sway is as indisprnsiblc
t'*r the citizens of a Republic as for the subjects of a
Prince. Nay more; the armies of the freest na
tions that ever existed have been most distinguish
ed for a rigid discipline ; and it is the very subjec
tion of a proud and independent spirit to the uncom
promising authority ot 'military command, which
has covered them with glory and immortalized their
But liear in mind that, though your duties ns sol
diers are stern, and arduous, and rigid, they are not
to divest you of the virtues which adorn the civic
life. Far from it. On the contrary, they’ often
call forth the noblest feelings of the heart, and give
scope to the highest qualities of the soul.—But, I
: can only glance at this fruitful theme. A single
example must suffice. The enemy is to be sub
dued, not to be torn to pieces, or trampled in the
dust. So soon as resistance ceases, forbearance and
mercy should resume their sway. At that moment
the fierceness of the Christian soldier is disarmed_
he binds up the wounds of his prostrate foe, extends
to him a helping hand, relieves his distress, contri
butes to his w ants, consoles him in his grief and
'To the non-combatant of the hostile nation all
unnecessary violence is a crime ; anti if it goes un
punished amidst the din of arms, an appeal still lies
to a high and mighty Judge. And what shall l
say, if that violence Ik; offered to the weaker sex?
Oh. deep disgrace! Oh, burning shame! Oh,
damning thought ! Is there a man amongst you,
w ho deserves the name, that could he tempted to
such a deed 7 None, not one 1 If he could, one
cry for mercy, one shriek of despair, would send
back his thoughts to his native land, and summon
his memory to the mother who bore and nursed him
—to the sister who loved and cheered him.
But the topics of admonition and counsel spring
j up around me as I progress, and warn me not to ad
vance too far. 1 must compress what I may vet
venture to say into a few brief words.
! Look again upon your flag ! Does it stir, as it
waves, your inmost hearts—does it fan the fire o»
your veins—does It swell your souls with thoughts
of gallant deeds 7—I tell you it is nothing—worse
than nothing—if it only moves your passion*, and
subjects your reason to their sway. Know, that
the first victory you have to gain is over yourselves
—that you must acquire self control—that yon must
temper enthusiasm with discretion—that you must
seek the guidance of a calm and sober judgment.
I Siam that you have much to learn. Bear in mind
that von have to gain the art of war—the discipline
: of the soldier—the dexterous use of arms—the
wakeful vigilance of the veteran, his care of his sup
plies, his rapacity to bear fatigues, his sagacious
forecast of his wants. Aral remember, never to
forget, that the same industry anil prudence, sobrie
ty and frugality, patience and skill, that crown with
success the pursuits of civil life, are quite as essen
tial—nay, still more cfncntinl-—to encounter and
overcome tho fir greater difficulties of a earner in

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