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AGRICULTURAL I’VI'KRS—S*. 2.
(Published by the Agricultural Society of Virginia.) (Iloi* strongly dors tbt patient perxeverener, display fit in the follow in* Narrative, coutmilril with thr short ruts ami wilt) spronlations, of which we have seen too many examples in ibis over-banking age. Editor.) A Narrative af the course of improvements adapted hy l)r, William Meriwether, on a little farm in the county of Amelia. In the winter of tlit* year 1788—9, F came in possession of the little farm, the subject of this narrative. The tract confaiiis300 acres, which, when in a state of nature, was of a medium quality, being neither as poor as some adjoining, nor as rich as others ; anti though cornering within 100 yards of Flat creek, yet there is not one square acre of Hat laud together on the tiact. It is extremely we’l watered with several little branches, which have never been drv, since | have been in possession of it. 'I'he soil is generally a light grev one.; the growth of which is pine, oak and hickory ; rattier broken than other wise ; if is not a light sandy loam, but a coarse, gritty, spungy loam, rather thin, on a substratum of coarse tenacious clay, of various colors, front a fiery red to'a light yellow and even while: this clay is as coarse as th»* superstratum, and in some places passes into soft rock : it is very hard to he penetrated bv water, which I believe is the principal cause of its spon giness, though thereare a few springs, in places, rising to the top of the ground._ The top of the ridges has a good deal of post and black oak. The soil is such as is generally found on the ridges between tide water and the mountains, and is ra tlier unfriendly to improvement. There was about one-half cut down, ant! almost exhausted, being more gullied than any plantation of its size in the county. Some of the gullies were 25 feet deep. Part of the open laud was in c ultivalion, part turned out in pine*, and several hill sides 111 gullies, with the whole of the original soil washed off. The reason this laud ...1. . . ... . .** .MMiir iiinii iiit.* Hi*. joining plantations, was the great differ ence between the super and sub-stra tum ; though both were coarse,the upper was very porous, and under much more tenacious than any land adjoining, with the exception of a little. When 1 first set lied on this land, | could not walk i;i the wheat field through the greater part of • the winter, without being ni ired. The inode of cultivation adopted at that time aided much in making ||,e differenre greater, while the trowel hors(tlie ploughs in general u«e at that day) scratched tip and rendered the surface more porous.— They were unable to break the basis, and ofcourse the surface was carried off, more by the winter than by the summer rains. The first year I settled on this land, H^re was a crop of tobacco cultivated which turned out tolerably well. Consid ering that one half of the land was cut down and exhausted, and that if I cut down more annually, and made tobacco, ♦ that the whole land might he cut down*, and the tobacco crop permitting no h is ure for improvement, and that while I was opening the land for tobacco, I should he compelled to buy corn ; these circum stances together with others, and having hat w few laborers, (viz. only three) indu e«d me to attempt the cultivation of small giaiu (as it is called) alone, and to im prove my land, so that it might support stock sufficient for domestic use and con sumption, o| which there was then no . prospect. The land was also as deficient in fences as in fertility. The common mode of cultivation in ti;e neighborhood I considered as most miserable, there not bring a good folding plough, within my knowledge, in the county, to he drawn ei ther by one or two or more horses My profession giving me much opportunity of riding about and observing the state of agriculture, I made enquiries everywhere about improvement. I could meet with no information to aid me—consequently, in this attempt, I found that I was com pletely isolated; that every lliing would depend on my own exertion ; for all my neighbors considered it as a fit of madness. I found tiiat i should lie compelled to he even my own carpenter, though perfectly unacquainted with the use of tools; y*-| under all these disadvantageous circum stances, l was determined to trv the ex periment. In doing this, the first circum stance that arrested my attention, was to gel y|| (lit- kiHil open, that was In he clear ed. as miicli ««iti.tiuii.l.. .... a third and a fourth in woods, never to hr cleared by me, to arrange it into four fields under good fences: the next, to1 deepen the staple of the soil gradually, taking care that at the lime of ploughing »t up, that the new soil -lionlrf be as much exposed to the atmosphere and tin* winter liosls as possible ; this phenomenon be ing so new and so con Iran to all the ideas «*( my neighbors, they pronounced it a complete destruction of the land. In order to execute this business, I had to make my own plough*, and (lien teach the laborers the n.p of them. In the ear ls commencement. I found the obstacles gr*-iii and numerous ; hilt a Milling mind "’ll remove almost it r:eil<bil:t «•-. At thr time of clearing, whether «d I field or woods, I varied IIIV h.uxh at I. as! where vi r it was convenient, into »|ie gullies, and the trash on the galled spot* ; -,md w here the gullies were not loo deep, their sides were cut in, to cover I lie brn.fi, and tended across them. In executing this plan of clearing, it took me six or s.xen years ; mi that time | had cleared up of piney old f>t hi and woods, upwards of one hundred acres, which procured me lour fields, a little over filly acre-* m each, and reserved eighty acres of woods round the outline of tlie plantation ; a plan which I have found since extr-midy beneficial. Now I have a ring fence round the whole line, with th" wood land lying adjoining it Howards of three fourths the way . I ch ared the Wood land also in a manner as to have part in each field. During flic lime of my clearing, I paid as much attention as I r nil i i<> the raising of manure, hut did not cart in mv corn sinks, and during tins lime I c du vated as much corn as I did alter I pro cured the four fit Ids, which whs done bv trespassing rather loo much on my fresh binds; flic average of my crops (luring these years w»* from two to three barrels of corn per acre, nod from three to four bushels of wheat per cere, fbiving pm enretf four fields, f then began to pav all attention to the raising manure -uperma * nent farm yard was made convenient to lilt* dwelling house, ami to water; here every building necessary for the farm ua<> constructed; before I commenced by improvements, I was satisfied in my miiid that Indian corn was not an exhauster of flic soil, in tliecomuion acceptation ol that term ; hence, I had no objections to the cultivation of that vegetable, except on some of my steepest lull sides, the soil ol which had been entirely swept oil', as be fore related. I will now relate my rotation of crops, and afterwards the manner of cultivation. I'lie rotation was corn, wheat, clover un pastured, but a sufficiency ot it cut to soil my horses, and for seed ; the next year it was pastured: licuce, out ot four years rotation there was from the middle of April till lilt* middle of October only in which it was pastured; a period of .nix months, before my settlement on this tract, I was impressed sufficiently with the injury arable land sustained in this arid climate by the grazing of stock ; he ice, this plan was approximating as near to the enclosing system without giazing, as I at that time could flunk of. Now lor the mode of cultivation : I at that time considered that as the land was grazed, and that it was also necessary to deepen it, I ploughed as much of ii up before winter as I could, always grubbing up any grubs, picking up atones and trash, carting them into the gullies, and removing every obstacle to the plough as I possibly could, even cutting in the sides ol the gullies, and poling them across, to prevent the earth's washing out, instead ot having a turn row oil their si tes, which in a few years would occupy more time in turning, than it would in stopping them altogether; by going on regularly in this plan ; all gullies are now cross able by tliepl ugh except the two 25 feet ones, and they at this time do not exceed ten fert deep. My manure was carted out on the galled spots, and immediately ploughed in, as car ed nut. My method of manuring wastocart it out oil the gall ed and weakest spots in the field, and not making a few rich lots at the expense of the remainder, fu manuring, 1 always had an eye to the whole field, marking out, with sticks stuck up, the spots where the loads were to he dropped ; my ini pressioi) was, that the laud ought to im ' * ..MOWUillT. I mamireci only sufficiently lo put the weak laud in good heart, to enable -it to produce good crops of weeds, «.Vc. con cluding that it the weak part could tie brought up even with the better part of the old fields, that good crops would be the result without making any part very rich ; resources tor manure in this purl nl the world being very limited; that the old est tuun would not be aide to manure Ins farm all over ia his lifetime, without the aid of an extensive meadow ; a rircunt stance that I consider as extremely un economical, except in certain situations ; the practice adopted, consequently,should always have a view lo tin* land improving itself. This has been my leading prin ciple, and justified by experience. Every time I (dough my fields I endeavor toget them one inch deeper till I plough them from six lo seven inches deep with a pair of good horses and fair measurement, measured after die ground has had time (to consolidate itself, and not measured at the time of breaking up, when the land is bunowed up by flic winter's frost,) aided by the heelofthe plough and the point in the tmrow. There is nothing in which agriculturalists are more apt to deceive I hems* lyes in than in measuring the depth of their ploughing. 1 find if much easier for a pair of horses now to plough m\ ground from 6 to 7 inches deep than yo years ago to plough it from three to four. I generally plough now in the months of February and Match twoacres per day. 1 have made this digression, wliieli I am afraid I shall b<-tooufien led into, but shall return lo mv spring breaking of coin ground ; hssooii as i have broken up mv corn ground, I list it, ami at the peri od before the hessian tt v made its appear ance, the corn whs planted one wa v niucli i wider than the other, for the benefit ofseed mg wheat, apractice I still continue (or all the uUeat sown on corn ground before tm* 20th of Oct. a period, before which it would lie unsafe to cut lip the corn, in this ueighorliood. I generally begin to j my corn the first week in April, and alter planting I cultivate it with the trowel hoc followed by a one horse triangular harrow, made three feet wide, aud^fhir te.ii leeth init, with a pair of handles; this in my humble opinion is one of the best instruments used in a corn-field, I while the trowel hoc by itsniode ofactiwu run-as deep as the ground has before been broken, it burrows un the soil light, permuting llm air to enter freely, but baves a considerable (arrow open, and does not break tile clods, which are sure to be plentiful and large in all stiff ground broken up deep by a folding j plongb. Though (here may iiot any ap j P nr at the lime n| breaking up, yet the ' March winds and hot sun with hard -bow ers soon consolidates enough logetli • r, »be harrow breaks these clods, (ills up •be lurrows, ami so pulverizes the surface Unit no matter bow rough the laud at first * before the crop is finished, the surface will lotik like a well raked garden; iff lie season i < wet and the corn-field should get gras sy, the rake following the trowel hoe will tear up such grass as (lie plough leaves, <>r il any of it is partially covered so that it Is likely to grow again ; the harrow sep arates it Iroiii the earth, leaves it exposed •o the sun and air to wither and die, and by ke> pmg the surface constantly level it p<-i iui!* hard rains Inglide ntf, like, on a |i dish'd sin 'ace, instead ol u« * mining down the follows carrying off ttie soil wi'b it. | find rather have one Ita.row than halt a dozen hand hors Where the barrow i< used, then is very little uccex* S"V of hand hoes ; a saving id much man ual labor, -and Irom my experience, att< r Jbe corn is wed the fust lime, I do not know a he!her they are m-cessary at allot ""t ; il my corn field happens to get grassy, I put no reliance on the hand lines : I put no hill to my corn, but as •b**% thin the corn they generally fake some, artii away (mm it at thrlime of the b’st weeding, and the pi, mg I is a Iso raise a little eHrih tiro mil the s'alks leaving them g owing m a hole. I wider as much earth pul to them as will keep the ground level. M> broken loll -ides that were washed bv former culiivation I fallow sometime ai t,-i 1 have laid by my corn, folding in all 'be 1 lover nod weeds a* well as I can, and seed it in wirra! at tin- lime the rest of (lie fi- I i is cited ; Ire lore the appearance of tie- hessian fly. 1 generally sowed mv wheal t om the 20Mi of August to the -hib of October, about three pecks of seed to tlir acre, ploughed in with the tro hoc and harrowed it. Thu plan T continue*! till the year I80£will» the exception «»t the last three or fou* \ears later seeding on a count ol the lies Mao tly ; and having tried the effect ol gypsum paitiallv tor two or three years, during this period, mv cr»q s r>t wheat en creased mi each field annoallv upwards of one hiiinlred bushel*. so that my aver age crop in the year I7i>'. that \i IH**d two hundred bushels, I a,* i ncreased in the year I8U5 In 5 and >' n nlred or an average from to lo 12 • Is per a--re. •\l this time, IHitO, |» v .\* anxious to keep my slock oft is much a possible, and tne » »> m the neighborhood belli . r t • .'Of fieilig comp lint lo mak gcniciil* lor the keeping ot nlit\ ot stock ; hence I m ..t- menl ol tnv tii lds ; one tie «• 1 ■' », *o,ii lots, laid it down in p i. • . r Is of grasses mixed togeli..», \ -.! , t- or trdoliuiii, timothy oi nhfiM.n dense, bav grass, orchard grass o: . 'icl.vlis glo uierata, tall meadow oa , Egyptian uat oi ave a r a w i , s ft n-eat i:w giass, white top or hoh u laiibtus, huruel or poterium ^amjn sorba. M mixing tog* iher all llie.-c gas-cs, umm*s Iitun a circumstance wliici. I ought to hate mention* <1 before, which i» the remarkable variegated uual itv ol the soil ; there being no putt of the farm where Iher*- i^ 100 yards siprare ol the same kind ol soil. The lots being sown down hi these grasses, one ot them vv s lalloweti up eveiy y**ar with a Hum mer tallow, and the stock penned on the poorer part: there was also as much ad ditional manure put on them as 1 suppos ed Hie win at straw carted oft' would pro duce ; my fields alter taking this out away three only remained. The divid ing fences were removed from these, consideimg that as they were not to begi red and lobe aided also bv the useol gypsum, winch I bad discovered to be rernarkablv hwnefirial to some parts....,| thought I bad now got the most complete arrangement lor impmvt iiit*ul that could lie devised, viz ; thr*-e liehls tinder a ring fence without di viding ones, the rotation corn, wheat anrl clover, aided by a liberal use of g\p sum. I concluded that the soil under this management would • nercase in fer .J ium, wmium 1114* a hi of Ilia nuro; In tilts was added «nr ot the lots fallowed for wheat, winch was an addi ; imnul piece ol giountl, and out of lout lots, there being one only tallowed, ol course they produced onlv a single cr >p oner in four years, miner this manage ment. I had not a flotihl of the rapid increase ol fertility, but all was delusive theory. I have forgot to incut ion, that l»y deep ening tlie soil and ploughing up so nun h <>l »lie red clay ,(\ iz.4 niche*) t bough clone gia 1 ually, ban changed the color of the laud, and together its consistence, and tioiu a light grey one it was converted in to a r»-d nr mulatto, stiff, baky and thirsty s- i!t running togetiier alter e\er\ ham rain so as to make it veiy hard to plough uilerwards. ft u was suddenly dried, it also was changed from springy to thirsty land ; hence there became a great necits sity tor the introduction of as much ve getable matter as posstbh, to open u again ; npon the first rotation of lliit plan my crops w ere considerably encrea* e<l per acre, as well as by the addition ol t he l.i liowed lot; the wheat crop rose tip to twelve and filleeu bushel* per acre, ac cording to (he season ; my corn crop to six and eight barrels. During this rota tion ill* iw Was a liberal use of gypsum, which on some part of the land enriched it much faster than manure did the other parts, ami is now the richest part of the plantation, though there has never been pul any manure on it, oilier than the gypsum, clover and weeds ; and ha* been cleared near forty years ; this effect of the gypsum does not extend farther lhan20 out of 2*21* acres ! the balance lias receiv ed but little apparent benefit fi»m it. In the next year's rotation, I found the impioveineut was stationary, and tlial fhe lots were declining in their products, tho* there was an evident appearance of flic soil improving, by the increased quanti ty cd grass and its colours. The decline I suspected to ari.*e from I lie long tram tiling of the soil ami tlielate period of fnl lowing, the soil being not sufficiently created ; to remedy this, I adopt* d spring fallowings, ami gave tin* sail four plough ings with as many l«n row mgs, including Hie seed ploughing. This lias not reme died the nijuiy ot grazing, and this year I have put on one ot the lots upward* of 200 cart loads of manure, being about two thirds the manure made on tin*farm, exclusive «l penning the stock, and have cultivated it in corn. Manuring, aided bv good cultivation, will he the <>uU r. •n**ily against the severe grazing, anil the consequence will In* that Hie fields will In* robbed of half the manure raised Iroin them to pul on the lots, and yet Hie fields increase faster in fertility. Here is a fair experiment between the grazing and en closing system, and the benefit i. so much more in favor ot the latter, that I would not k*ep slock could I procure meat, milk, Ac. on reasonable terms. However, It is probable lime may point out a better remedy than we now possess. I have bad in conieniplatioti for some lime a plan of tins kind, and should have put il in trial before this lime, had not my attention of late years been so much ta ken up with mv profession. I have a few years ago made a little ad ddiou to my farm, of 60 acie«, one half woods, one half worn out gnliied old nine thicket ; this land lying adjoining mv lots, I have cleared up the old part and added’ it to (lie lots, so that I now have 20 acres in each lot ; on which! mean 1o put an nually two thirds of the manure I make, till I can execute a heifer plan. I now return to my eii'losed fields, w hicli from Hu* year IfclOo fill 1814 I bar! divided into three, as before staled ; and dj.cn vering their deterioration, I was deter mined to divide them into four, which w as commenced on this year, viz, 1811. The appearance ot a popular woik on agricul ture induced a great many agriculturists to commence ridging high land this year. I was among the number. My t orn be ing planted on ridges seven feet wide was d.nlhd on the top of the ridge god Hu* Stalks left from two feet to eighteen in. dies, il grew oil in a most astoni.hiug manner; i* attracted the attention of tin* whole neighborhood, and people from a distance came to srr it,all declaring they never "aw a field equal to jt on high I uni, il they had on low grorliidv, I myself saw this year a good deal ot James lliver low grounds, hut none equal to my field. If continued ifs extraordinary growth, till il came to tassel and shoot, then it began to decline, an I as tin* heat ot Hie •tiiumcr increased, it declined more and mme, and intimately did not vteld as goo I a crop, as the same jj,e h,«f it was in corn, planted in file unfuxl way ! Die crop was cultivated \w‘l|, with sin gle horse harsharrs followed by the har row, and the furrows kept open l»v a fur »•*« plough ; this ground was seeded xxith wheat and tin* furrows opened xxell alter ploughing »t in and raking. The prn ••'c was Mom this ti Id ctiutaiHing<tiacr<‘8 2011 bushels, or about one third id what it ought to hstx e urnduced ; it was soxx ed in clover, and it pmdlieed much heller clover in tlie naked furrows, than on the top of the ridges. On the top ol the ridges it generally died. The next year the ridging was continued will* the same result ; tin* third y ear also with the differ ence f<u the xvlieat crop <-f*ploughing down the ridges as well as I would while the cos* was s'auditig, Inil they were still left high, and the same result ; the fouth year being still unwilling to give up the tidging plan altogether, I ploughed my land into 11 feet beds, and put two rows of corn on them, cultivated them with the trowel hoe and harrow, and kept open the fur rows ; on this plan the crop was much belter, but still not equal to plaiu and cross ploughing. When I seeded it in wlkeat, I levelled the furrows as well as I could. I'lie present crop of wheat grew on this laud ; some of my neiglibois saw it a little lime before it was cut, and tln-ir opinion w;is 1 should lose bv the ridging one third of x\ hat the ground would other wise have produced. I'lie crop has been got out and carried to market, and the produce was an average a little over 8 bushels per acie, verify mg the observa tions of toy neighbors; thesaon* held tli time before, when it xxas in wheat, ave raged 12 bushels ; so that the experiment of ridging luocost me a loss ot 300 bush els of xx heat on an average tor four > ear>, or 1200 bushels of w In at and at least o(H) barrels of corn on J little farm of I«>.i acres, nr 1 fields of 40acres: the lots are not included. A dear bought expet uneni ; many others were equal |u*ers xxifii my st II, furthe ringing mama was Hielix gene ral m tins county, though I believe there i- ii 1 more t an lliree farms on xTii li di Contiuued now. i'lie fertility of the fields has now ext denliy increased, though the crops haxe illMl l*!\ ItPPII (llitittilwlioii uni I I lio lmixei.4.. won i, aite oil tny mind i , tl»at any gi\eu quantils ol laud di\ided into (our tic Ms will make more produce alter the first ro tation, than I lie same quantify in three heMs, each being managed equally alike. I speak with respect to the common state ol the land in the greater part ol Virginia, and more especially such lands as the plaster does not produce its wonderful • fleets on,lmt must he iuiproxed hy tlieaid of manure. Now I have mentioned plas ter, I shall state that since tin year 1813 or perhaps before, the plaster lias pro'lu eed no vi<ibh‘ effect not even on tfi.it pari ol tlie plantation where its effects ha t been so evident. 1 still continue using it partially by way of exp- runeot, bul can discover no < fleet on the soil, though I think llie crops of corn grow somewhat better by the-eed being rolled in it, and that insects do not injure plas tered u- lane ■ as unplastered corn. Before this period in the course of 8 years, l had put at least (J bushels ol plaster per acre on ihe land. I will now relate my inode of raising manure,&e. I keep my horses op altogi tin r winter and summer in the rtaldr, except a brood mare and colts, w iiicli are kept through t e summer in the lots ; the stable is without a plank floor on account of saving tlteir mine, though the kuiiinier clover is cut for them, and given to them in racks. It is cut nuedav hefbre it is used; they are littered daily with clean straw, and the soiled straw with their manure moved out ol the sta ble and piled in a corner of tin ir yard. All the offal of the crop is brought o * to the farm yard where all the slock is kept through the winter, except hogs ; and with I hr m I have tried a variety of expe riments hot none satisfactory, except one lately adopted with fattening hogs, which I shall presently relate. B fore I adopt ed the plan of keeping the stock in lots, I used try heap manure in the farm yard in consequen c ol the corn stalks being got in late, they were not sufficiently hr ^etn pieces ami rotted ; so that I kept the nu iiur# made with them with a mixture of straw, slim ks Ac. iiil the next year and were iieape.i in the followingmaoner: the heaps were made20feetsquare, first a lay er of manure of this dimension is put one loot deep, and where the manure is moved from,i|ie >artii is hoed up aud a layer of it is put on the manure one inch deep regularly ov er, then a lay er of manure one foot, then the earth one inch, and s» on alternately till the heap was <; feel lug. ; the last layer was ol earth, and the sides some earth was put round Hie base In confine lire moisture, in Ibis manner wa* • lie whole manure made from the ca lie heaped ami kept till breaking up of corn ground, when il was carted mil as it was wauled to be ploughed in. Alter I had determined on removing Hie slock from my corn fields, I aili red my plan ol eai ling mil my manor a* "i ll as plough mg. believing that Hu soil would be more bene filled by being covered well with a good coat o| clov j- and weeds through Ihe winter than by being plough* ed up a it «f exposed (o the atmosphere, and that pari <d these weeds and cl ver would he rolled licinre the crop na« introduced lllfo llie tarlii; of course, all Hu* g.is-rs that escaped hy thi> rolling or decuiupo sition w ool t be entirely lost, win* h would he ab'Oibed by a growing crop, I adopt* < d the plan ol breaking up im corn ground as laic a.; possible so as to finish it only lime enongb for planting. I aba carted •*ul my immurt the winter if was made; the Idleness of the wheat seed/ig enabled me to get in niy corn stalks caily, for all Hie corn ground I seeded alter llie 2Wli «f<) . tober, which was generally I wo Hurds, I cm up I lie corn. There being no divi ding fem es I slacked a much of my com on poles on the adjoining ground Hs lav convenient to be carried off, and even carted some where they lay convenient, without going too far to occupy too much •ime ; toy stuck heing upin the farm vard by this time two or three Joal* of Hie stalks with lie.* corn on was carted every morning. They wereslrippcdof the corn al night, and given In llie slock the next ni inuig. |l\ beginning fhns early I fre quently finished gelling them in by Christmas, by which they got well tram pled and in a good alafe for carlmg them on* in Hie spring. Mv bogi.en for fm tcning lings in,is made in Hu billowing manner; l chi a quantity of pine poles‘jo l«ug and suihc*ent to cover the groom I twenty 2<>, but if pine poll's cannot !vo prrfcured, two courses of rails will answer Ihe same purpose; tho* Hie room! pole* injure 1 hen feet leu* than eiiC" rails, I li* pohm a re baik-d aid carlo'i to the opol where the pen is intended to be 1 made; wltirli fnrtlif tCflvmtfnff of wn- ' I'er I place somewhere along ihe spring branch. 'Ihe spot where ihe poles an to he laid, i< fiist covered one foot deep,! ■ rod well down, with straw ; weeds, new ground trash or othei vegetables may an swer tiie same purpose where there is not ! plenty of straw. On this the poles me to he laid, and .1 straight lenee pul "lion their emlsand side- sufficiently high to k< » p in itu hogs, a long hough is fixed >n ■heir pen, in lids slate it is ready to | receive them, and is sufficiently large ■ o latfen 25 or 31) lings, nod if more an to faiteu, Ihe p.Mi ought to be prop* rtion •*bl> larger, or more pens mud*-. This is about the quantity fattened on this farm yearly. Ihe pen being ready prepared when I put up my hogs, I pul into the pen a ca<t load of straw, and add a fresh earl load every week as long as flu v are kept op. When the hog* are killed out, the pen is taken down, the pules taken out of Ihe manure and placed away for another yeai—for they will last several— and a square pen of rails is made, one vail square, ami sufficiently high to hold IliOmanuie which is placet! in this pen.— The earth underneath the old pen is fiord up and pul on lop of ihe manure, where it lies till Ill-caking up corn ground. Thus ail their urine, duug. &c. is completely saved, and b or to loads of excellent uia nure made. ] have a square low pen made of fence rails, or any thing else, before each negro quarter door, where tile hearth ashes and sweepings of their houses are put, and carted out every year, together with that of the dwelling house, kite'll 11, &c, and the wood pile manure is removed every third o fourth year. For the ten last years I have kept G indifferent labourers on this farm, and this year 1 made upwards of 400 carl loads of manure as much as can b<* draw 11 by two good yokes of oxen, and m few veats l ex peel to make GOO loads and this without Ihe resort to the woods for trash or meadows for hay. I£l*ewliere of the crop above staled. I cultivate other lit j ih* auxiliary crops, such as an acre of cotton, the same of pumpkins and of tur nip*. half an acre of potatoes, the quanti ty of com field pea* and of flax. POLITICAL ECO SO 02 Y. for the enquirer. The Present Time (again) reflected from the Putt. The Edinbuig Review of DemuU'r contains a Review ol Kicanlo’s “ 1*r*jp<» salv for an Economua! ami Secure Cwr renej, ' wliiclipresents a sketch pecnliar ■> appropriate to our presrni silualiou.— A ter 'tli'CMissing and approving .Mr. Ri cardo’* plan, (viz. delivering I ream the Bank of England uncoined bullion m place ot com,) the Reviewer thug concludes his remarks on tin* Bank ot England : Rut lli«: niihctiii I occasioned by tlie sodden i esti ietion ot t lip paper rurrenry and i Iip con sequent rapid augmentation ol' its value, lias been still greater llim vvliai what was previ ously caused by it* increase. 11 is to this that • In* late unprecedented destruction ofagricttl iiiral capital, and tint wide-spread misery lit winch tbc fanning < las* lias been nearly over whelm! d. is chicly to he asrtihed ’* fThis part of file picture i* not yet tiilhlled in Ame rica. I pray to (jmf 1 ii may never be Rot ■be prudence ot our taunt rs ean-alone prevent it.] ** I be fivM tall in dm price ot agricultural produce, in the autumn of ISIS, and in the ehilv part ot ltd 1 was cpi laiiily owing to iui poitatious from the continent Rut its fall, in the laltPi part of IM I and |S4I.>, was not so much ovving to this circumstance, as to tlien nivi r>al reduction ol the is-ues of tlie country hank*. and to the failure of an immense niini , her (about ^ 10} of these establishments That support on which many ot the agriculturists rested, was loin away at the tune it was most necessary. Credit fell to the ground inutual confidence entirely ceased, and the tall of the price of raw produce, a- it was chiefly occa sioned by *i ri«e in the value ot* money, was ac companied by a proportionable increase of rent.” (This i>* badly expressed ; it ought to have been increase or’ the value, not the rule of lent. 'I hr ini tel, of course, untnitrilly tails in Ihis st a to of thing*.] “ It was then that the defect- of the fictitious system, on which we had been proceeding, became apparent.— I lious.mds. who but a twelvemonth before consider! d themselves wealthy, at once sunk, as it hy enchantment, ami without any fault of thrirnwn, into tlie abyss of povei ty ! “ R ith the exception of the misery occa sioned by the destruction of the assignats in France, we do not think that the misery ami subversion of private fortune* occasioned by the late sudden i(duelion of li.-mk paju r in this country, lias uvir been paralleled. Not v*a* this misery of a temporary or evanescent character Its pernicious . fleets v» i I long con finite to be felt,not only by iudividouIk, but by the nation at large. During the period in which the depri ciation was gicutest the Man tun raw ed several hundred tmdtims. Anil it will now have this motley, which was borrow ed vvtien a bank note v.as not wot til tic>ri* than I Is. or las., to pay. when its vatuc is at par.— A'l I host* taxes, loo, which w re imposed when the riirienry was tints reduced, must li .lv . tllillii’ll (Sot Iminin.illv belt nils incri.):.. il Xml it Mi.iv l)** que*ttout'll, whether, making allowance lbi the difference in the value ot money, the country w.»< not Iras heavily bur dened in ISI2 and 1*13, Ilian it is at this mo ment, notwithstanding we have now got lid ot the liiiniu -lax ami war malt duty. *’ On every account, therefore, it is of infi nite importance liiat the value of the currency should be rendered a* little Hurt oaf mg as possible ; or, in other words that toe Bank should be oldijeil to give cash t.r bullion in exchange lot it* note*. XVlicu a public ilebl Inis been contracted, a depi ecial tun ot papn iednees vtliat is ically equivalent to a national bankruptcy. N >w sim-ty it is too mticli lo in 11 ii-.| a.i \ corporate Ind». ImxTevur respectable, with the power ol reducing the national cre tlit to nothing and ol ruining all those l.vmg o tixe a Pie- me*. Bill it is still more dangci cm to mil nsi tlieui w nb the puw• r of eurico iii" at i n tat isc.nd stackholdi isat I lie expense ot tin- pr ductile classes,—or to arm ilirm wpl, tot oleiogalivc ot ; .* >o4(/" imhfinite tar“ e.<; I oi llrey exeicise that power no <-t t tiec tiialty. vs lien, by dimini siting their j>aper, and, const tpieiii ly , ialsn.g its value, they ieduce the nn iivy pure ol roumindilie-, and oblige a tanner to st 11 I wo q on t •• t s of »v lieu t, or a m.i uiilacturcr I wo yard* of cloth, to pis those taxes tor which one hub formerly sufficed.— •Sttcli a powt • vested iii the hands ol' a hotly unknown to the ('ongiiior joti,and acting un tie r no i espoii'iitility, i < pi i lect Iy an>>iiMloiies|iti a tree coimti y . anil i* a.together subversive ot the sol only tit properly. ** Xi hile ii i*in the power of the Directors i of the Bank of England to increase or ditnj- I nisti the ct.rirncy ot the country at tlisir plea- j sure, no person tail lorin any probable t-ti- | mate of the value ol Ins property at any pena l | hut a little remote. 'I lie rat ale liiat is pm elms. J etl to-day, and reckoned a gouti bai train, may , 1 hy the Bank’s limiting its discounts, or with draw ing its ntift s from eirctllution, be rt ndt f | ed, in a very short time, not worth half tlie | sum paid lor it : And, on the contrary, if tliv Dnectors were more lih.;,i| ia granting di*- [ cotinls, and increased Hie iftinibrr ot their i uoft % in circulation, either by lending lo the | Stale or lo mdi> 'Inals, the estate might spre* tidy become worth d aihie the money, that is, ! dauble file paper il had lieen sold for, I bis | artificial x imcatmal system,renders the niom j Trim oi all the properly in tin rmpne dept nil cut on the v n w*.\ opinion*—the whim* and ca piir »—of <«< ffty/‘/>uruidtvidiinls I r is their ti it alone which makes one f rtio-acf tail good, and another bad. *1 hey hold 'lie scale ot value, j a. <1 Change il* gi adli iliOu as the y judge pro per." Sttcf:, w;flt some exceptions, me the “ evil lime* oil which .vc have IaJIcii.” Il i- rvv;, v* if was than, that I lie. money «<• h.a.os c I in 4'jukI Him'nlw »|x tiso mticii in 1 ilu(* that wo 1:bvr to return a trreat rwrrr for if; :t*iil 1 }ir vr-rv pr>»p rtv, lop "Itifli weliait paid two »mh of three m«tai tneiiis, will in many case-* not fie *utfici fill to pay tlie very liM instalment. icoNOMirrs. h^*It: inyh-i-Nf I sh.tl I a ns w .-t 11««- (I i |.pau t sen>» ot tin- \uior.t Its i ditcr i» a u .-i*- i o. tend* i t'* I’- '.:t e.» * roiii .•»- . . : t! . . .1 iiri*la;id (t»»- most simple pi-uc.ples ol i:,e \ri« elice.— 1 shall xci/e tin- -Him- <-| |.-.Hue-tv of tdnuthiti|> on tm n^tlioiitv ilc.tt <li itivcn if. speel—tin- List k'linUnt i; ifcvicvv on the priur eipi«k ol llie“ tiilui* ol money.’’ Epitaph on the if.it, „f the Spanish Cura!', r. “ l »« Wi-U— 1 vvtshfi lu Of bttlsr— 1 look pin sit —and here i am !’ .Snell is tlie in-criptinn that *ni'- |lt> country in tucse limes—The Hank paper is the gilded pill that lius brought uh where we ate. A. 'I h- gen tie m.in, w i.o brought tlie iutorumtinn from Not tli Carolina. v Inch was given m some ot tlie fn si impreskiuiis ol our Iasi paper, is now intlusciiy. It appear that the Norih Caro lina slaie Hank at Kaleigh refined In »ivi the broker from this city spt cie lot utiom £ lo.irOb ot Its papei ; Imt tendeied him a draft on the North—that the branch at Fayr tleville declar 'd it would be piotexted sootier than pay him specie tor about r>innt, but tendered him a draft on New Yoik, which lie accepted. I Le Noil li Caroliiiu news pup* |S have since come to hand, from w hu h vve Irani that tlie Castiieis ot the ditiei• nt bauks have conn- In the foliow. in? resolution: K vi.Eii.it June -f.—A meeting at Favettsvdlc on the 31*1 ult ot delegates liom the State Hank ot Not lit Carolina, the Hank of Cape Fear and Hie Hank of Newhern. charged by tlie respective institutions, to take into consi deration the present state of the country «.* it effects the business of the Hanks, a-d to n port whether any iiieasuics are proper on Mie part of the Hanks. The committee having cvnsidered that the repeated heavy runs for specie made try Bro kers and others, v\ lio liv disingenuous means depreciate the notes of the Hanks of the .Stale, then purchase them and present them for p«v inent in specie which was held bv the Banks seeing no reason to hope that such hum wilt be disronlinut d while the call* are met Lv specie payments, and tlie advance price of" aperie added to the discount of the purchase, tenders the operations profitable : Behoving that the reduced value of the sgncuitiir.il pro duce nt the country, ami the losses of then er chants ol this state, consci|ueni on the tit.ex pected and great fall 111 value of produce and the failures of inrreliant* in oilier suies, iet. der it impv-sible fur the citizens of this Hate ftl r aV lilt'll' flpltfk to ll.n •>» it... ... period : And convinced that attempts tu in force llie collection of the debts due the banks by suit and execution, would resit!! oul\ in Ike sacriliceuf estates and in the min ot" thou sands: The Committee are compelled lour* elude that tlir Banks ol this statenpi-r i boose between the alternatives of rnlorciHg the col lection of the debtsdue tliem, legardlosx of the ruin and «1 i*• 11 es< that Course must ncciisti u j ot contiiiiitug to pay specie to specnh.ora un til llieir emptied vauttssh ill compel thorn to dishonour the notes; or t<> refuse to ivh*.m w i lit specie, llieir note* presented by specula tors. The choice between tliesu alternatives i» painful; The tine course ma\ efw t t'ie credit of the Banks—the other will ccttamly ove n ln/ltn a community with misery and min. The committee anxiously weigh iig thet'ilfi cii'ties of either course, believing that a »ns pvtisioM of payment of spvric to those who have obtained their notes for speculation, will be piodiictive of much ns* gruetal injury than the other alternative, agree to the follow ing resolution. That the Mate Bank of Not tit f'aiobna, the Bunk ot Cape Fear and the Bank ot New hern, (while the pre*a ot state of things continues) ielu.se to pay specie to Bri>. kers, or to others who they believe have ob tained their notes by purchase at a di-count for the purpose of obtaining specie from the Banks. We learn that the dele gates have agreed to lecoinmend to tlieir respective Banks io permit debtors to renew notes on llu* pavtnent of only the interest, which we presume will ho adopted. IMAGINARY LAW CASE. V e were Hinn**eii some r. i eks ago, by read ing in liie \\ iliiiington paper the statement of a law ease bet ween a Bank and one ol its ilelit ms Contrary to our expectation, howc*v**r, we find that bv many the derision there ttti.v pined is actually supposed to have been had. it is. therefore enr duty to sav,that the c»su* published was merely hypothetical. That Bank notes, payable to bearer, on demand but never presented at the Bank for payment, should be considered as an offset,in a suit, and thereby throw the cost on the Bank would ne ver unit i into the mind -f any mail in the least versed in law. common mercantile inteimn liou or common sense. Not is it to be suppo sed that any one would be willing to let his Mote rent tin upon intereM and bold the tnuiiev that would pay it oil, losing the interest Uiere 011 Not In g but inerrinient could have been intended by the writer or publisher. |[.S"tur.. • t . .. . [COM*yn,NIC\TKD. MARRIED]—Oa the 13tb ult. In the Itsv. Tbmuxs M. 1 It iiU) of Essex, llie liev. IlIPkINS PEI W tv, of Csroliiir. aged 74 >ear», |H Mrs. PHtl.BE. AL) Ills’ ol suit k tJueen.OfeH 72 tears. The mother of this lad) ii yet living, xml cnj»ytii: •o.tst excellent lirmih, itanr of her faculties hn-titn fatU et: bur—She xu milled in the solemn tie* of *tilln>:k I' u* ir Jatitet km# a: Queen county, .nliout • t-r >*ar 17*25—ftudihe lias uiwahouiHO Jiving <l<«i «*uc1arr ♦. rl*,fcN HOLLARS RbW irMiif tijr H ® i-tks in Richmond, WlMiAYJ WILSON, ;i et r. “Mb* Public (Marti, Vi ho is from llie cinuiy ot Norfo k Mate of Virginia, a^ptl 40 yearn, .% fret ?j *,C IS* ^a*r blur eyes, li^til iiair.kiii ft JMiaicr by profesM n. |r |m probable be ' *•' loiNofiom, V lure ?•+ Iia; st*rv»*U pome lime m llif !< . Army, or lo fist* ficigjitioihood of r«,itin I'oiiif, wneie lie married a MmS. Stephens. Tbes.bmr r«. ward Mil. he paid for lire ai»|irrlien$lni| and drlnvrv of llie raid Her. mr l» am oHirer of ihr I’nlrlic Guaid, or for the coniniiiuient of iiim t-i am fail wiilrm ilit- n.ne ol \ iicinia, trpon lieiriff notified Hi rn f. IlLAlil BOl.l.iMi, r a,,l. e.nu'g I’nb’ic Guard. narnnh», Richmond, June s. U..lt Liifiinrrr’s HJfict ,Uht /'amt ( ami art Mai/ ti J, ls( >. j )it«»l‘ObAL)> Hill hr received until tin tfi.li of J„i,e »*M b lie Aliitlllil Coil.o.irrai) ol MiliMn trin e tin,. Jrtmrs IKr«/\. r . h *q. 11,1-111,.f lori.Vatt o'-. V i folk, or at llie Lit; neer’s Oil:,:* at Hits pUf, for einpln. rd nt I Ills po»l, wiig HU.SII BI.h lion, H r II ,1 of l ,|j rt.-vt, lo ;>p dr'.IV rr,’'' !'*u - u w e r k, in Ml li ;ns:iitji,rt as ,o a. hr'if Aon. e"' . , , «• »I IKil fM.LAI Ii J,[i, i. I . .V. A. re>/>«•«rv, mill .l.iitmt C*i'.*tis*i:i u Jline n. !). .Uillr <y wrVmirwrr, ? V'-'lff- M. I AIM -innnur a7 TTvT - 1 ^ /.ei7»':fon, l A.' J - H .11 iinmd lilt-nrciiif <1 i i * "••He. » -l llllllc mill VI nod*..ifl Collllllrs liU(j ,, e cni.rl oi aoiitil. and gem r;il c nr I ,,i fiailkf ri t. ml also tinder lake pm nmi t '• ti ij" collect midi. iiiiiiiic.il.) to pirsion r •■•ili-12 , ; innond.Ia, -Mu ..litre is kepi VH,m aireei, in l.rkinti.iu. ’ 3/1V imLL.ut 51-7 7*'*uT» ~ri‘77,7,T,.oi,.,;7r*.M » the con.Ho.to i,i 11,r rll< ofRn liniond. a Hria.'l l. *.y Kuithh, «nii a math inaiir ami hoi. nil, hia-id.*) on Hie ||,|,| •lionIdei Him lice Idler 3, hut rd|iii:r> , |, <•;, • s.Hli.nalioii to see It. i lie r«i ... nil ,u| ,.r ., x OKI —Till alinve rrnard fur Mr I,or*. o, i n ;■ V i t)M|.|, ifis for ih. lliirf, if a,ji n. | ,v„|, me horse delivered lo mr in Hid itnnid. I wish in lure hr the rm r*ili, *>o 1 iinrinz M RiV— and I Hill |.I|I III tllnitr) n.orilliljf. I he hands r , to «ork on tin* C.ipllol Hqnmr, and o;i ||ir lit*I)(Uh< * near .I'mofid. All) person liar,mu i ••. n i„ hue, m. r IJi d me, oi Ui> owiio..Iter, oil Hit ( u;||nl SiIi.'im r ""> "'"e* JOIIV If. slllkUis. »•__ a,v * Hl KK.ny forewarn all perrons fr< n i din, Mr mr M two notes executed I,y me m Mtrha Barnet, moii for Ma>fi IK,Hark f.fiil. Holes dated 3lf* of Any -i I mv -Hi. one for •inn. pa a l • *n Hr.- rjili M- , ..her’ 1MA and ihr Ollier for jtj'lOh paiah'e the u’, |, |r... , ’ Hill —which notes I have paid, and have Ma.ec r V. lark’s re«cl|,I for Hie same. MvLSuN Alvliils nrlilund , l„,ieH. h.,»,f S' .M M.r.. - aii p-,v,n» oivin i ... iua.iMt"T‘rT esisle *>f the I at o william HU r.yii ,)c „ .* r..,|',f«i»d to pieseni them for adjustment ; and rh« s Indebted lo said r-nie :,<e ie>]Me,fri1 to make ti.lined,, air p: ygieiii, of Mills will lie indismitiimnely iusiHui "!• InVII, It BRANCH, Adm'r.dr bonis lion, of Win. Furhd. dec. _1 *■____a,, '»i » null. »,i* iai-.vv a it II.—Xir*)«d or 'leienWo.Ti I tr,e riiy ill ftn hinond, I WO IIOKKfS, on AVeil* hr*d»* »he «la of Ao. l I: —(me nf.oiM «K V(n year* old, four ter| eleven fltrLes fclelt, his ears crupl Shi ft. hl« fift f r* f -i p ,• in have hefn hurt |u*t above the h. 1 -f ; hs- t: «', .dl r hire spot oil hit hit fi'llUM k, *n ' a *i -'1 r'ent i f I II Aide of hh ne. k ; 1 < I • f , IW'r' o- -| i e* one or Irfo tur'.-v h'fll, x'ioii- if*rsrs. ’d: oi ' o d U rt ji» >*ai I? .-e a* if * A ( I . , .e -AIn.I e I ..lull Of . aid for M U d»HA’»ry i f • le l„r . 1 M Hc.f r *! *1 „a coiintior. citnmod. «>r for >■ t" luforniitivb as vri'l rtii Me .ms M fei ver mol h r<« « .oared. If,.ft WILLIAM CT’oT-LT.