I espedivt writings am! discoveries.'' If an honest
jviJs might be ind ulged in the reflection, that on
llie records of that office ore already found inven
tion*, the usefulness of which h»* ararcely been
bonscended in the annals of human ingenuity,
Ivo'tld not its exultation be allayed by the enquiry,
Whether the laws have effectively insured to the
inventor* tlie reward destined to them by the. con
ftiiution, even a limited term of exclusive right to
their discoveries }
On ihe 24th of December, 1799, it wa* resolv
ed by Congress that a marble tnonment *botild be
erected by the United State*, in the Capitol,at the
city of Washington; that the family of General
Washington should be requested to permit his body
•o be deposited under it ; and that the monument
(be so de-igned a* to commemorate the great event*,
of hi* military ahd political life. In leraiudiiig
Congre-s ol this resolution, and that tiie mouutueut
contemplated by it remains yet without execution,
I shall indulge onlythe remark*, that theworksin
the Capitol are approaching to completion ; that
the consent of the family, desired by ttie resolution,
wa* requested and obtained ; that a monument lias
been recently erected in this city, et the expense of
the Nation, over the remain* of another distin
guished patriot of the Revolution ; and that a
spot h i* bepsi reserved within the walls where you
are deliberating fur tlic benclit of this and future
ages, in which the mortal remains maybe deposited
of linn wlio*« spirit hover* over you, and listen*
with delight to every act of the Representative* of
his Nation which can tend to exalt ami adorn his
and their country.
•The' ‘onsti'unon under which you are assembled
is a charter of limited powers. Alter full and solemn
deliberation upon all or any of the objects, which
urged by an irresistible sense of my own dutv, I have
recommended to jour atiention, should you come
to the conclusion, tliat, how aver desirable tu them
selves, the enactment of law* for effecting them
would transcend the power* committed to you by
that venerable instrument which we are all bound to
support; let no consideration imbu e you to assume
the exercise of power* not granted’ to you by the
people. But*if the power to exercise exclusive
legislation in'all c.ises whatsoever over the Dis
trict of t 'olumbia; if the power to lay and collect
tax’**, duties, imposts, and excise*, to payilie debts,
and provide lor»ti-.e common defence and general
wtlf.ire of the United States; if the power to re
gulate commerce with foreign nations and among
the several States, and withtlic Indian tribes; to fix
the stand.ud of w eights Ac measures;'to establish post
office* and post-loads; to declare war; to raise and
sup; oit armies; to provide andmainta in a navy;to
dispose ol and make all needful rules and regulation*
respecting the territory or odier property belong
ing to the United States; and to make all law*
which shall be necessary and proper for carrying
■ these powers into execution: If these powers, anti
Ioiners euumeraicu in me v-ons'.itution, may oe et
fectually brought imo action by laws piomoiing the
improvement of Agriculture, Commerce, and Manu
fai-tures, the cultivation and encouragement of the
Mechanic and of the elegant Arts, the advance
ment of Literature, and the progress of the Sciences,
ornamental nnd profound,—to refrain from exer
cisingthem for ihe benefit ofthe People themselves,
would be to hide in the earth the talent committed
to our charge—would be treachery to the most
sacred of trusts.
The spirit of improvement is abroad uprdl the
earth. It stimulates the heart, and sharpens the
faculties, not of our fellow citizens alone, but of
the nations of Europe, ami of their rulers. While
dwelling with pleasing satisfaction upon the supe
rior excellence of our political institutions, let us
not be immindlu! tha Liberty is Power; tliat the
nation blessed with the largest portion of liberty,
iiiu-t, in pro; ortion to its numbers, be tlje most
powerful nation upon earth; nnd that the tenure of
power by man, is, in the moral purpo-es of his Crea
tor, upon condition that it shall be exercised to ends
ot beneficence, to improve the condition of himself
and his fellow men. While foreign nations, les*
blessed with that freedom which is power, than
om selves, are advancing with gigantic strides in
the career of public improvement; were we to
slumber in indolence, or fold up our arms and pro
claim to the world tha- we are palsied by the will
ot our constituents, would it not be to cast away
the bounties of Providence, and doom ourselves to I
perpeiual inferiority? In the course ot the year now
drawing to its clo*e, we ha ve beheld, under the
au-pti os, and at the expense of one Slate of this ■
Union, a new University unfolding its portals to
the sons of science, and holding up the torch of hu
man improvement to eyes that seek the light. We
have seen, under the persevering and enlightened
enterprise of another State, the waters of our Wes
tern Lake.- mingled with those of the ocean. If
undertakings like these hare been accomplished in
tl eiompsss of a few years, by the authority of
single members of our Confederation, can we/ the
Representative Authorities of the whole Union,
fall behind our fellow-servants in the exercise of the
trust committed to us for the benefit of our common
Sovereign, by the accomplishment of works im
portant to the whole, and to which neither the au
thority nor the resources of anyone State can be
Finally, fellow-citizens, I shall await with cheer
ingh"P«t and faithful co-operation, the result ot
vour deliberations; assured^!hat, without encroach
ing upon the powers reserved to the authorities of
the respective State*, or to the People, you will,
with a due sense of your obligation!! to youreoun
try, and of the high responsibilities weighing upon
yourselves, give efficacy to the means committed
to you for the common good. And may He who
searches the hearts of the children of men, prosper
your exertions to secure the blessings of peace, and
promote the highest welfare of our country.
JOHN QUINCY ADAMS.
H'atfiin%ton, Drr. t>, 1823.
I In consequence of several psmgnpln having ap
peared in the New Vork papers, on the subject of I
General Hamilton’s private papers, which seemed
to warrant a supposition that the General had com
posed some of the most celebrated public addresses
of General \\ ashington, a correspondent personally
and intimately acquainted with both, has handed us
the following remark of Gen. Hamilton, on a
former occasion, when a similar suggestion was
made:— [JVat. Int.
'■ What an idea! What nonsense!” observed
Hamilton to the pre«ent Gen. Macomb, then Aid
de-Camp to the Al jor and Inspector General,
” that 1 or any other should be supposed to have
written the public papers of Gen. Washington_
How little does tlie world know of that won
derful man! So far, my dear Sir, is such at>
surdity from fact, that tot, the Aid-de-Camp* could
not wri’e the most unimportant note, but it must be
submitted to hi* correction, inletlineation, &c. In
deed I have often been at a loss to determine in my
own mind whether his services was most pre
eminent in the Cabinet or the Field.”
UfiOilr inland Election.— Extract of a letter ,
from our correspondent, dated Providence, Sunday ,
morning, Nov. 27.
" ^,a c-ec'ion which took place on Friday last,
has resulted in the choice of IfuteeJ. Peirce, K-q. (
Ihe regular nominated Caucus Candidate, by »
handsome majority. This is the second time with- ,
*»» three iVeekS, that the Democratic Caucus can
di t itcs for Congress have succeeded in Hu'ode 1*1
4,,J ” [Hostun Statesman. ,
Commerce of Cake Erie.—Sixteen sail of J
vessels, with full cargoes, left Buffalo on the 2l«t
>nst. lor the different parts of Pennsylvania, Ohio
■ iwmaj0 / —TBifnnm m uimii. nomr
31 u‘:r^NrM„8- <:uj’4,AS,w »''• ewt.nne herBrh'ol in the
T1^ Ksi ■
ISn ii. ** 1
i"e‘wr„1 \XZnll7' Ti"' f*®' ’,,,H f"V *"•' nI* « wiX
v .nr., thMnnM,; rf ft, Jjl % }&£%»■ h' ^ *“ «•* '
I hr r,r.,." 1 nit' 1',!'|, 1'^,''„^’Y" ,k! ""Y *•* "’V’"er« 1
Uauevcr cooufj, lift ,P .*^5, |t
r.ICHIYTOrC'D, BSO. 8.
Monday, Dec. 5.—On Air. H.irvic’s motion n
resolution was adopted admitting editors of news
papers to seats within the bar of the House for the
purpose of taking notes of the proceedings.
f I’KsuAY, 1>kc. G.—The Speaker proceeded
lo appoint the following Standing Committees
of the House:
Committee for Courts of Justice.—Messrs.
Gordon, Watkins of P. E. Blackburn, l'vler, L’p
sltur, Dromgoole. Alason of Southampton, May,
Cabell, Lelfler, NVinston, Biigg*, Morris ol Wood,
Crawford, Bryce, Powell, McRae ol Cltestetfield.
Edgingion, Kimbrough, Goode of Mecklenburg,
Smith of Greenbrier, Wilson, Page of Gloucester,
Bnsye, Branch, AlcRae ol Pr. Witt. Jackson, Chris
tian, Woodville, Dophat, Miller of Botetourt,
Williams, Davis of llauover, Wood, (>:ltnour,
PaUeson of Augusta, ai.d Afoot e ot Rockbridge,
Of Propositions and Grieeinees.—Messrs.
\\ instoti, Hill, Vass, Marteney, Davis of Orange,
ii.ire, George, Thompson, Bland, .Stephenson,
tarwood, AlcWItorier, Aloore of Fairfax, Wynn,
Anderson ol Shenandoah, AlcComa-, Neville,
Watkins of Powhatan. MuuJaugli, Cline, Fink-,
McCullough, Pa\ tie, Street, Gilliland, Segar,
Sloane, Macon, Kiger, Amiss, Harvey of Nor
’ liumberland, Anderson ot Nottoway, Ward of P.
*kime, Niidoiv, 1 liner, Hairston, Bdlingsly, Shep
P l|-d of Alatthews, Givius, E-lill, Porterfield, and
Of Claims.-Messrs. Blackburn, Everett,
Crump of Surry, Saunders of Wythe, Watkins of
Powhatan, Pollard of K. and Q., Stillman,Towles,
rtirner, Campbell, Pcrsinger, Fletcher, Pleasants,
Goode of Berkeley, Hunter of Campbell, Diggs,
oleinnn, Curd, B»ulding, Boisseau, Pitts, Lane,
James, Grear, Smith of Logan, Alderson, McFar
iane, Jones, Sheppard of Middlesex, Berner, Par
sons, Sigler, Jellers, Reed, Gravelly, Lundy, and
la examine the Penitentiary.— Messrs. Patte
son o> Buckingham, Bo«ers, Wood. Shetrard.
•*C‘ om^, Collier, Enrly, Ship, Mortem, 1 J.uibo i,
*'Icf rutnb, Monoure, Je**e, ami Cowan.
lo examine Executive Fxpenilitures.—Messrs.
Harvic ot the city of Richmond, Ambler, Macon,
.Mason of King George, 1 haiiners, Saunders of iN.
Kent, Cook, Dillard, Ward of Tazewell, Martin,
Preston, and l ununins.
lo examine the Armory—Messrs. Morgan,
Hungerford, George, McMahon, Dtlhid. N.e,
Keller, Curtis, Kilgore, Russell, Blair, and Fallen.
(\t Hotuls anti Internal _Vuvigation.— Messrs, t
Tyler, \\ hite, Drontgooie, Cramp of Powtwaii,
braig. liarvie ot Richmond, Berkeley’, Curd, Mil-:
ier of Rotet >nrt, Goggin, i arrirgton, Portcilield, J
Smith ot Greenbrier, R AT ei, Reynolds, Walt*,
Williams, Moncure, Morton, Du pity, Miller of
ilardy. May, Neville, .laekson, Leffler, Wycher,
Mcllhaney, Pallet* >n ol Nelson, E-lill, Met oy,
D.ivis ot Alleghany, GofT & McMahon.
To examine the Itv^ister's Office.— M I
Patteson of Augusta, ( ook, Shield, Ambler, Ward
ot Nottoway, Poltaid ot K. \Vm. t o.vls-, Ev erett, ■
ilatrston, Nve, Hunter of Njiisentoml, D.ivis ol i
Orange, and Gnsiin,
To examine Ihe Clerk's Office. —Messrs. T im- !
or, Scgar, Pollard of K. U m , Roane, Branch, |
Wynn, Collier, Dunlon, Crump of Surry, Chap
man, Noel;’ Voary and Hinges.
OJ Finance.—Messrs. Garland, Crump of Cum
berland, Tyler, Doyall, Wa kins of P Edward,!
Gcodon, Bla. kburn, < -arfer of Richmon 1 t o. Moore
of Rockbridge, Bramhatn, Cabell, Hromgoole,
liarvie of Richmond, Patteson ot B Briggs Mor
ris of W. Bryce, Morton, Ship, Woodville, and
McR te of P. Wm.
To examine Enrolled Hills. —Messrs. Vetvin,
Hollen.an, George, Penn, Woodhouse, Niel, Ward ;
of Nottowav, McMahon, Anderson of Shenandoah,
Moncure, Jeter, VIcEiuley, King, Jones, Cowan,
Berner, Jetfers, a.;d MeCrumb.
Of Schools ami Colleges.—Messrs. Ixtyall,
Wa’kins of P. Edward, Tyler, While, Wood,
Bryce, Garland, Booker, Rives, Gholson, Mason
of Southampton, Upshur, Hill, Mmtsie Harvey
of Richmond, Brigs-, Hunter of Nanscniond, Page
of 'Williamsburg, Morris# of Gloucester.
Joint Committee to examine the Treasui er's
Account*.— \ie-srs Briggs, Bayse, Turner, Wo«d
iiousc, Alderson, Ward of P. Anne, James, Hun
ter of Campbell, R issell, Henley vlorris of W.
Crump of Powhatan, Dunlap, and Edgiuginn.
To examine the Auditor's Office.—.Messrs.
Carter of Richmond co. Kimbrough, Christian,
Bouldin, Gaines, Witcher, Carter of P W. McRae
of Chesterfield, (.'oilier, Pitts, H-JI, and Gilmour.
To examine the Bonds of Public Officers —
Messrs. Burton, Hunter of Campbell, Crump of
Suiry, Macon, Saunders of Se \ Kent, Poll rd of
K. Wm. Great, Marteney, Payne, Marshall, Kiger,
Finks, ar.d Hereford
On the .Militia. — Me-srs Pryor, Hungerford,
r?<j.a.it w.n #>...i» v0. ai. m;ii'„, ii .... it.
shur, AmJer-On of No.toway, Cra a ford, Jones
McCoims, Walls, Batter. M.1-011 of K. George,
Tarry, Christian, Euly. Kiger. McCoy, Smith ol
Sussex, Carter of P. Win. and Fletcher.
( onimunication# were received from the Auditor,
the President of the Literary Ft/nd, and from the
(lovenmr enclosing a .Report fiom he Rector and
Visitor# of the University of Virginia. They were
all ordered to be printed.
Mr. Ship obtained leave to bring in a bill to
change the time of the Annual Meeting of the
Stockholders of the Bank of the Valley from Janu
»ry to some time in July.
UNITED STA TES’ SENATOR.
Mr. Gus in offered a resolution to proceed jolnth
r>n Monday next with the Senate to the election of
♦ Senator in Congress in the place of J.imc# Barbour,
E-q. On the suggestion of Mr. Moore of Rock
ttidge. the resolution was changed by the mover so
is to designate Friday as the day for the appoint
ment. And ir. this form it was agreed to by the
Mr. .Miller of Botetourt, presented to the House
1 letter from the Commissioner of the Kanawha
lioad and Navigation, stating the reason why it
ivouhl not be in his power to make his report to the
Legislature during the first week of its session.
On Mr. Mnrteney's motion the House agreed to
esolvc ilself into a committeee of the whole on
he 7th, 10 take into consideration the state of the
Thomas V. Howard, was re-appointed Clerk
o the Committee for Court# of Justice, and Fnbius
Lawton, to the committee of Privilege# and Elec
ion# jrboth without opposition. Thomas Fanner
ton wa# re-appointed Clerk to the I rmmittee of
Proposition# and Grievance# in opposition to Pey
on H. Rtert.e. The vote us# V. 161, 8. 4. Pey
on Drew was re-appointed Clerk to the Committee
>f Road# and Interna) Navigation, in competition
vith Thomas McKinney. The vote was for D
112, for McK. 37.
The following petitions virre presented and
The petition of Wm. L. Montague, contesting
he election of Win. Sheppard, from the county of
Middlesex; of 'Thomas Spencer, contesting thei
tied ion of W. A. Wardlaw of the county of I
rreensville; of Jno. 8itin«le,-#on one of the aeetiri-j
ies of Mr. II. Rice, asking that the instalment# due !
rom him miy be made payable in July instead of
'anuary of each year.
On motion of Mr Gordon, the Committee of i
?uad#and Internal Navigation were instructed to
nqtiire into the tno#t expedient mode of improvin'*
be navigation-of the Rmnna river
Vestfrda r—Mr. Patterson ot A. oLuinc.1
leave to bring in a bill to amend live act incorpo
rating a Company to opeu a turnpike from Staunton
lo James River.
On motion of .Mr. Amiss the House resolved to
proceed jointly with the Senate on Saturday next
lo the election of a Governor.
On motion of .Mr. Atarteney the Governor was
requested to lay before the House the Journal of the
proceedings of the Executive for the last yeai.
-1.r. Aluson, ot Southampton, presented n me
morial trout the Judges ot the ('oitrt of Appeals on
the subject of a Library for that court. lie nl-o
offered a resolution which was agreed to, making
enquiries ol the Lvecutive as to tiie sales of lieu
ing * Statutes at large, and into the coudttiou of
Gilmore’s k Randolph’s Reports.
Air. Slap reported a bill coucerning the Rank of
Ah\ Crump, ot Cumberland, offered the follow
Iltsoloed, That a Committee be appointed for
the purpose ul examining whether mis abuses are
practised at ■ lie Tobacco Warehouses in the City
of Richmond, co .irary to the laws of the State and
injurious to the planters—-and it any, wh.it reined.e
are necessary to prevent their continuance—with
power to call lor persons uid papers, and report
their proceedings by bill or otherwise.
.Mr. C. had no personal knowledge on the sub
ject, but there were complaints among the people,
to which it was hi. duty to attend. The high price
ol tobacco rendered it necessary not only that these
anuses should be enquired into, but that the law
should he amended in several respects.
Air. May move! to strike out *• the. City of
hiehmond, and insert 11 this common w eaith,*’
so as to make the enquiry a general one ; and also
to strike out “ injurious to the tobacco planters,”
so a* 10 leave it to read •* in violation ol law.”
Air. Crump accepted the first amendment ; but
objected to the seco d. I Ie sp ,ke of the losses the
planters sustained utter the tobacco was strip). and
belore it was weighed ; aixl of tlie propriety *ol so
amending the law .is to req lire each Hlul. to be
weighed belore strip , and bolding the Inspectors
responsible tor any loss that in iy occur.
Air. Amy s second amendment was rejected,
ami the resolution agreed to, and a committee ap
.1//'. Atorriss, ot (». obtained leave to bring in
a bill concerning coniemjc.s ot courts.
On motion of Air. Morris*, of W. so much of
the Governor s as relates to the power of
leinlttlng a part ol the sentence of convicts m the
\ enitciniary, was i el tired to the committee for
Courts of J.
i he Speaker laid qefore the House a leper from
the governor, announcing the vacancy in the oilier
ot Rrigd. Gen), to theifrn Grigude, by the death of
•Monist* ol W. oh’amfd leave lo bring in
a bill to .mend the act incorporating liie town o!
Sundry petitions were presented which will be
noticed on Saturday.
THE PRES ID E.VTS MESSAGE.
SPLENDID dOv ERNMEN 1 !
Thanks lo I he extraoidluiry exertions of Mr.
Poter, the contractor tor t lie Northern Mail—.ve
received a copy of the Presetem’- Message, and
ol 1 tie-day s Nion.it I iileiiigenret—yesterday
morning ut sun-rite, in anout 14 i-2 hours from
the Lity of \V asht .glou ! The Steam-boat brought
them to Potomac Creek; ai.d thence by Expresses,
who travelled all night to this city. VVe seize
this opportunity of acknowledging the meritorious
etlo.ts of Mr. Porter to contribute to the public ac
ciiiiiniod.it.on. ii is such men that the able Pos;
.MaKier-Lciieial ot tiie U. S. should call into the
public set vice.
We took up the President’s Message, with a
conscientious desire to do him justice -even with
conciliatory reeling* tow ards Mr. Adams himself,
li d u been such a Message ns we could have hon
estly approved ; we would most cheerfully have
pud it the humble, very humble, tribute which it
was III ourpo -er o pay It. We are sail.led
with comen.ion, and we could have been hippj!
to have gone with linn in promoting the happiness
01 our Country. We perused about two thirds Ol It
with some -alt-fac ion, (exceptng so far the Pana
ma tli-stoa.) It was so tar comparatively unam
bitious in its 'tyle, and unpretending in its doctrines:
Lu what friend to ihe re.d principles of die < ou
stmiiion can read from Ihe patagiaph begmnin .•
“ Upon tins it.si oc .i-ioii of addressing the Legis
lature ol the Union,” ice. .q the very e dot the
ch'pier (wi h some exceptions) without a species
oi indignant astonishment i l ne sty le is as excep
tionable, as i.i, doctrine: It is tuai of an ambttion*
rhe oiician, not .• solid statesman. And the doctrines
are die most high-toned and ui.r , ot those ol
any Message v» Inch has even been s ibmited lo
the American people, scarcely ever saving and ex
cepting itie Messages ol Mr. John Adams.
VVe have no roou. to-day tor an extensive Re
view ot this important paper.—I’he President has
accepted the i .vi.ation to the Congress at Pana
ma. lie lecommcnds, by a non of side- .-ind, a
lianlcrujit system—also the proper organization ot
the mi/ilia - the extension of the pe noon law—the
establishment of a jYuoat School oi Instruction_
the e-iabliahtneut of a j\ ahauat University—
the explor.itiou ol the wuoie north-west o. this
continent by ti.e equipment of a public shtp^ why not
upon his own avowed principle, enterpnzes for the
circumnavigation ol the globe : a tme season pet—
haps tor J. (J. S\mes to Oder iiia services for the
exploration of tins Arctic lioie i)—ilerpconimends
also the erection ot an Astronomical Observatory,
rmeof “ tnese ligut-houses of the -kie-” -(are t«
really reading a stale-paper, or a school-boy’s
1 lie-M ?)”—For it is most melancholy to reflect,
tint ire ..re cutting ourselves iroin the means ot re.
turning light for light, while we hive neither
observatory nor observer upop one half of tne
[jlobe, .nut the earth revolves, in perpetual d irk
ness to our un-searching eyes." ~l'ue President
also re. onii. ends a ne.v Department of the Inte
rior (-.ltd really if all bis splendid scheme* ,.re to
be Carried into execution, we ire at a loss to know
lio.v many Departments or Boards, we shall no:
req lire to superintend n tr national all' irs,) to keep
do. n“the cumulathe weights” winch the con
templated “ exigencies of the public service” may
produce. He recommends also the eniugeuiet4 of
the Judiciary ; a revision of the Patent I iws—
and the erection of a .Marble Monument to the
He recommend*, indeed,as we understand him, the
passage of “ laws promoting the improvement ot
Agriculture,* Commerce, and Manufactures, the
cultivation and encouragement of the Mechanic and
of the elegant arts, the advancement of Litera
ture, and ;t.e progie** of the Science*,ornamental
and profound;’’ and he urges upon Congress tlx
J tty ot passing such laws, declaring that their re
framing to exercise such powers for the benefit of
ihe people, *• would be treachery to the most sacred
of trust .!!'*
He deduces this extensive range of powers at one
lime from tiie wildest < oust met inn of the express,
enumerated powers given by the t.onsiitution; at
another, from the still wilder and still broader ground
of •• the great object of the Institution of civil
government itselfsometimes presenting our
du'y to exerci-e some of these encroachments as a
” deb!,” an •• tngageo.ent” we Have “ contract
ed” with •• the civilized nations of the earth:”
Sometimes upon the extraordinary ground that
Liberty is p noer\ that as we arc olessed with mo e
liberty, we must be the most po.vcrful nation in he
world; that the condition under which wc hold this
po;ver is, ihai *■ u shall he exercised to ends of
be.dficence ” And if x single individud was to
feply, “ we ih e people, are already displaying the
miracles wrought b, ixltcrty ; the States ton are
exercising their energies in the samifdirection.” Mr
A lams lake* care to set u« right about this matter:
" can we |,».xjs he) the Representative Authorities
of then hole Union, fall behind our feflow-ser
vant* in ihe exerei*e of the tru*t committed to us
lor the benefit ol our cdmtno.i Sovereign, by ihe ic
complishment of works important to the whole, and
to which neither die authority nor the resourt:*-s ol
any one can be adequate?” (Thusclaiming lor the
(General taovcrnmcnt all such powers as,they may
think the state* are net adeyuatf to discharge.
whether the states have actually conferred them
or not.) 11 ihe least doubt should be entertained
about »nch a power,why* Mr. Adams cuts the knot
ot once: rither, by the most extraordinary construc
tions Iront the express povvets in the constitution;
or if that expedient will not bear him out, lie refers
boldly to the still broader doctrine of the great ob—
jet t of (he Institution of civil government iiself!
Are such the established docilities of the Pre-i
d'*nt «•( the U. States.' W ** there no counc.l.'or at
ha d to oppose them with the freedom of u friend
and the fearlessness of a Republican? Where was j
Mi . ( lay, when this doctrine of the “ general wel
fare ^was sih>; a hi ml Iv p esseiFinlo the service of
the Message? Whsie were the old Virginia princi
pie* of Mr, James harbour? What does he notv
say to the professions widen Mr. Adams once
made him of his |i>ve lor V irgiuia and ajiprob ition
of her principles? Would i,e sit quie ly in the
Cabinet and iiear such doctrines boldly avowed?
H as there no solitary voire raised against, them?
Surely Virginia will not acquiesce in them: Hut pul
fonh every legitimate exertion for at resting their
e«tablishiua>t. It will change, m the most impor
t*"1 • l-I-ccis, the whole scheme of the Constitu
tion. The time lias come when we should look
track upon the work of our loiefithcrs; upon their
contemporaneous expositions of the constitution,
upon the pages of the Federalist, the Debates in otir
own Convention; anti upo i me warning voices of
the great men who lived in the days of the adoption
of the constitution. The time lias come when we
should not only look to the soyings|of our Hearv and
ot our Hraysou, bn! of the great men who lived in
our confederate slates. Samuel Ad-.nts (one of the
best and purest Whigs of whom this nation ever
boasted) rhetv a picture in 1787, of that so. e ol
things which ts inos congenial to our happiness,
ami that is, that “ we continue dist inct, sovereign
st.tes, confederated for tli* purposes of mutual
safety and happiness, each con ributing to the
ledetal he id such a part of i s sovereiguiv, aa would
render the government fully adequate to those pur
poses, and no more."
it were a curious thing to compare the doctrines
ol tins .Message with the sentiments of *hr» cvle
orated 4:1, of July Oration. There, Liberty was al
tnost every thing: and in such ie.m-<li,| he speak ol
the but- Arts a.nl even Sciences offl. H.itain, that
most ot the enlighten, il eitiaenn of our mvn Country
disapproved of the inditFerence with which he snoke
about th»m. Hut, now, the great use of Liberty i,
represent'd to consist m the Improvente ,ts wlm-l,
it promote-; and which are so unfortunately de io I
“ this benighttd hemisphere. The pen of pme-vri •
I.scll ,S most en nusias.icallv emplovcd on the
voyages of disco very, and the royal observatories
ol the nations ol Europe.— A ml: l,e-e improvement
'Me now to Ilf* 111 >f!n tint UA S.W...L l. . . .
t.w states, but by (tie General Government ’
whom hat never ha- l-e-i given, ami never’ean
be exercised but by trampling down the very first
p’lnriple of the Constitution!!
Hut tnue presses ; and spare fails tis—we eh.11
take up this .VIe-sage on Saturday, with that tree
-1'irf which its extraordinary contents (mini.,
upon the American Press.— We think it ts'e
titled to grr.it eji'ion. The idea of » mngnitil
cent government has dazzled »he mi d of Mr? A
tiams. -The brilliant and the striking have seized
upon Ins attention ; instead of the solid and the
Two remarks more. Mr. Adams lias most pro
peny reserved the subject of the Creek contro
versy to a »ii‘weq.,3„t Ale-sage. I lad he contented
htmseif .vttk saying so, witliout coupling it with
the precipitate insinuation, that “it was ratified
under the unsuspecting impres-io i that it had been
negoii.i ed in good hull,,*’ it would hive been
still much better. ^lt were well for him to have
read the otlici.l statement of the U. S. Commis-ion
ers, ju-t publi-hed in Georgia upon that subject.)
All-. Ad.:ns says, the invitation to attend the
t ongies- ol Panama is acccpteJ\ and the Minis
ters tall he ronunissioneil. The Senate will be t
decide liovV they ought to be pleased with this un
qualiti«Mecl,ration. What right the President ha
lo undertake to say, that Ministers will be com
missioned without obtaining the assent of their co
ordinate authority, we are at norms loss o determine.
It iie Contfiitrition be something more than parch
surely it* provisions, or the appointment ol
roretgn Ministers, may de-erve soma little respect.
It say* that “ The President shall have power tr
till up nil vacancies that may happen during ‘Ur
recess of the Senate, by gran ling coinmMons
which -htili expire at the eud ot their next session.”
i iiere is no vacancy ni the .Mission >o Panama;
'.or there net er lias been one: Ii is an original ap
pointment, in the institution of which the Senate
ci rta74/r/, if not the H. of Representative., have
a direct participation.
COIIRES f‘O.\ 1j EJYCE.
Wigwam Nov. 2fi. 1S23
JOHN MARSHALL, >.s*. Author of the Life
Sin: In the 5tii volume, page 722, of (he Life
of Washington, you ii;.ve mtioduced my name in
the following words. “ In support of this motion,
alter Urging the indelicacy ..f exulting over the
miyfortu .es of others by contrasting our bapphies
Mih their misery, Air. Giles said :’*and immediate
ly follows the speech ascribed to me under m.rk
ol quotation. It might possibly be inferred, from
his mode of staling these facts, that I had given
some authority or sanction to this quotation. Im
mediately after I first saw this statement, I deter
mined to address u resnenful nor.... a..
Hie subject, requesting mate explanation and ror
rection thereof; .tnd h .d reference to two files ot
p qteis, the Aurora and United States’ Gazette, the
one edited by Mr. lLche, the otiier by Mr. Fenno,
n. as, ertain whether or not the speech ascribed to
me, under >11 tuts of <| loLsitou, w ts to De fo tnd in
cither ot those paper*—And I think (those p..per
not being notv Instore me,) that although both of
those editors h id published notes of the speech, yet
neither ot them had used die version quoted. A
oout the time of in kt.tg this examinniou, I con
itinplated writing h work upon the origin and pro
gress ol the government of the U. S., with an
aualy iso! the coiKfitniion of the U. S. and of the
several sta.es, grounded upon legislative interpreta
tion* of each, a* far a* wa* known to me. This
work would necessarily have involved.a review of
certain parts of “ The Life of Washington.” In
me execution of the contemplated work I should
have been enabled to have given the nrcesaarr ex
planations myself in relation to the deba'e reftrr .1
to. I retired from public life with this determina
tiou; but wa* arrested in the undertaking by a
severe providential visitation.‘Since that disappoint
ment I have frequently intended to address a note to
you upon the same subject, but Ironi various causes
have hitherto deferre I it. I arn now informed thro’
the newspapers, that you are engaged m reviewing
| * the Lite of Washington.'’ If so, it will airoul
you an opportunity, without much inconvenience,
oi doing me in act of justice, which I am perfectly
confident would afford you pleasure I, therefore
respeciiuliy ask the favor of you, Sir, to inform the
public. 1st, \V he' her or not you have ever receiv
ed from me, either directly or indirectly, any autho
rity whatever to ascribe to me the speech under
marks of quotation,or whether you have any evi
dence that I have ever given the smallest sanction
whatever to the said spv^ch : 2d, To state to the
public the paper or document from which tint
speech was transcribe,! into “the Life of \Vn»h
">f ton.” I must presume the speech ascribed to
me, was taken from some newspaper unknown to
me; but from whatever source it may hive come, I
now disclaim entry txprctnion in it, nnd am per
tecily coufidant that I never used (ini/ rxpreation
imp.ite,I to me by the note-taker of tliat speech, nor
any oilier bearing any juaj resemblance thereto The
notes ol the speech as printed, seem to me, to have
been taken by a rude,uncultivated, prejudiced mind,
for which I do not feel the least responsibility—so
far as regard* the language used by the noie biker,
audit seems, in tins case, that il»e objections taken
to me course I pursued, arise principally from tin
language used, and nut the principles advocated by
me on mat Occasion. If the dtaft of the answer to
uic President's speech he critically examined, it will
bs to .id to have been made with gteat abiliiy and
a,!dia>s, by the majority of the committee who
ieported it. It was prepared in times of high part)
oxcjtcmcat, and was evidently pressed upou the
republican party with a view of involving It in tome
inconsistency by calling lor a general and unquali
fied approbation of the measures ot the ndininis
tration, some ol the most prominent of which, had
been opposed by the republicans generally, and by
mjself amongst others; snd this inconsistency was
to be enforced bv the dominant influence of the Pre
sident s popularity, & the general sensibilities exci
ted by his retiring from public life. I did not feel
disposed to yield to this influence* and therefore
opposed it ; but the opposition was supported
by the most decorous and respectful language to
wards the President, then at my command. —I also
»dnm that I did not concur iu thegeneral sentiments
of icarets undeveu alarms expieased upon the re
tirement of the President* These sentiments in the !
course ot debate, were limited only by the want of
mental efforts to go further in expressions of r.duia
itou, of alarms, & of regrets. So much so, that they
appeared to me to be poured forth at the expense'
both o* tiie people, and the government of the lj\
■S. and particularly of the republican parly. Not
feeling tlie-e emotion* myself, I endeavored to state
more calmly, but not leas respectfully, tny impres
sions on the occasion. They were in substance as
lollow : l’ltat the President Ins devoted the great
e>-t portion of Ins la,- 10 the public service, and had '
already leude.ed services inestimable. Thai he had !
already tilled op the lull measure cf services that 1
the public could reasonably require of him. That ^
lie had freque illy expressed the most ardent!
wishes t» I e relieved from public services ; and to
be indulged with a beloved retirement. That the
sincerity of these wishes coaid not be doubted ; that
I thought them highly honorable to him,and concur
ed w ith him in the opinion, th.it lie ought to be in
dulged iu them. That I had no doubt but that he
was consulting as we/I his own happiness, as his
own glory iu the deturiuiu.itiou he had made ; and
that l sincerely wished hire all the enjoymentsand I
happiness he had anticipated in the retired and phi
losophical retreat of .\tount Vernon. 1 expressly
and pointedly stated that I was willing to pour
tordi unbounded plaudits upon General Washing
ton lor lus own virtues, his own wisdom, hi* own
patriotism ; and the most heartfelt gratitude for his
inestimable services ; but I thought deserved e :l<>
gtutti, becatttse fulsome adulauoii when bus-ow ed
upon him at the expense of the government and
people ol the U. S. In the extravagant warmth ol
debate, produced by the occasion, it having been
frequently said, amongst other most sublimatedcoit
cepuo.is, that upo . the retirement ol the President
tne.e would be a p ditic.il chaos if not a natural o e,
I believe both, 1 replied in s ibstance that I did not
apprehend either; but it these horrible anticipations
»eie well loundel, the sooner they were made
ivnown the better ; because tile government of the
U, S. was founded upo.. the principle that man j
wa* conipete.it to his own government, and that it '■
iitescrvues 01 any-mdividu
u!, however meritorious and exalted ; and dial if!
die people had in tact been mistaken in tins -rest
principle upon winch they had loundtd their po
vernnieut, they ought to be odor el fiIl oppor
tunity upon discovering the fatal error, to iix
upon some other better principle for their future
government, and for Uic better protection of their
nghis, liberties, and happiness. Uut 1 had no ap
prehensions dial so taut a misfortune had befallen
die people ol tne fj. S., and in illustration, observ
ed, that i had no doubt if the i’resident, and every
othcer of the government, were to retire lo private
tile, a thousand other persons might be found in the
U. »S. to till their places with equal advantage to
Hie public. 1 am perfectly satisfied that the l rcsi
Uout was not Singled out as the only olliccr to which
me observation irui applicable. 1 would not at this
Hum pledge my sell as lo any particular form o.' ex
pression used upon the occasion, although the sub
ject has at all times beta familiar to my nunJ, but I
w ill positively pledge my self lor the correctne-s of
the principles here slated, and that they were urged
wi h die most perfect respect and decorum of lan
guage tore aids tne President, interspersed with Ihe
sentimental applauses which appeared to me to he
called for by the occasion: as proof positive upon
this essential point, it will a; pear fr.-m the debate in
reply, as stated in ‘ the Jd,e ol Washington,” that
not die si.giitesl cliar„e ol indecorous or disrespect
ful 1 inguage was imputed tome by a single debater,
although me peculiar character ot die debate, a: d
the highly excited emotions produced by i , would
necessarily have called firth the mo*i pointed te
cri in inn lion s, it they could have been justified bv
the course ot observations made by niy self. Whilst
therefore, 1 disclaim alt rude expressions imputed
to me by note-takers, and of course all lesponsibtli
ty lor mem, 1 acknowledge myself lirlly responsible
for die principles I urged in that debate; and v.hil-t
I have never pre umptuousl; set up any pretensions
whatever to iiiiallibtlity.and know 1 have commit
ted many error*, and have at all times been per
fectly disposed to acknowledge them when uis
cavered, ye* after neatly nine and twenty years of
reconsideration, u>y conscience stands perfectly
justitied in the course of conduct I pur-ued upon
the memorable occasion stated in “ tne Ufc ol
Washington. ” * %
He pie .Jed, sir, to accep*t assurances of my most
respect 1 .it and friendly considerations, etc.
WM. li. GILiiS.
Richmond, A or. ?9i'i. 1825.
Dear Sir: Your letter of the 26th wan pre
sented to me yesterday evening by your son. Not
mingling in ute party politics, or evcu ouevhons
oi tilt! ujy. ami cr’.!jre!y Iret fioai political or per
Boinl .i:ut»o*iiie«, in* with real concern,! perceive
mysuli brought into view u* having furnished mate
rial' lor au attack »>n any gentlemen wlia ever es
pecially’ on one with whom I have long been in hi*
oils 01 friendly in let course.
l o your enquiry I answer without hesitation,
that I never received any authority from • ou lo
prblish (he speech you are stated to have inndVft
ilia debate which took place in the House of U c
pieitcntatives, on the answer to the address of
General Washington to Congress, in J )w. 17;)^
nor did I ever have .my Conversation with you res
pecting it. I lie speech was extracted from one of
lue papers of the day, which professed to give the
de aies of Congress, and was supposed to be nsenr
recr us debate* ever are, which are not prepared by
me *pe ker lor the press, not only because nodis
sattrlaciiou was cxprc*-eU with it, but becausealso,
y o.1 about that timefi eipieutly & unreservedly declar
ed in public tire sentiments which were ascribed to
Not having preserved my regular files of papers
I cauno. at tliis lime *ay from winidi of i!,,,u ||,,.
speech was copied. I wa* at that time in po**r»- j
shin, of the Gazette of die United S ates, of Dmlop
ami (.day pole’s paper,of one edi.ed by Air. Grown,
and h id also frequent recourse to the Aurora. From'
oneot them your speech was copied, but ] cannot j
say positively from which. I incline to tiunk it
was from Dunlop and Clay pole. I shall, however,
make the necessary inqu /ies, wluch, I presume,
mat be done in Philadelphia.
The opinions which you there expressed were
not peculiar to yourself. They certainly prey tied
very extensively among the politician* o| \ irgin
ia. In a s:riigy)e for power men »pe,.k anil think of
a conspicuous individual to w hom they arc oppos
ed, very differently from what they" speak and
ihmk of the same imlividu I when the *intg»le i* •
over, and tin’memory only Jive,. If this be m. 1
Const* eucy, t< would be difficult lo point ort a
consistent ma i.
In a debate in the Senate on the ntirnlier* of the '
tegular army, which took plate soon after the
declaration oi tli» laic war, a «pe«, h purporting to
be your’s W*s put>ii-died,’ii whirh yo t took occasion |
openly to avow a change of opinion reopening ;
General Washing-on, I thought ihn derinra- j
(ion magnanimous and honorable to yourself, »nd|
while employed in a revision of the life of Wash-1
ington, I etii.e.tvomc'I io find rl for the purpose of'
inserting it iu a note, unless it should be more ,|(- j
r able to you *o omit the speech entirely. On lids'
I intended to consult yourself. VVoi'e.it Wn-hing
t »n two years, „got I *r reived the tile* of ih- .\*.1
nonal Intelligencer lor it; but coulu not find ill
even with the assistence of Mr. <}.des. Itic,e~j
fore relinquished the idea of introducing it ini.
note, and determined to omit the epoch made ini
You -igne-t some publication Iran me I am
certainly unwilling *o appear in tho p tper*, «,•
| pecially as a volunteer, but shall make no objection
['o your publishing your letter to me, wilb this an
swer to it, if it be desirable to yourself.
With sincere wishes for the resioraiion of your
sell, I am, dear sir, very respectfully your obedient
Strwnt’ o ^ *• ‘MARSHALL.
>>m. B. Giles, Esq.
t •„» . , t , FOR THR enquirer.
-Citt.e did I dream, when I addressed you, on
Tue-dny last, that so fearful a Crisis was at hand.
I he President s Message, of itself, forms an «ra in
the government. A higher-toned Message, has not
been seen since the .lay, of John Adam*. One so
directly looking to the establishment, by downright
encroachment, oi a magnificent, overshadowing
government !,a* never been uttered f.om that ' hair.
Wha, will \ irgtuia do? Whom will her Repre
sentative* select lor Senator or the LT. Slates? Tho
more I see, the more I am satisfied that Wni R
Giles is that man. Put John Randolph there an j
yon lose hi*service* in the other House. Put Wm.
II Giles there, and you have them both.
In the Senate rh< re is a great contest. Mr. Adam,
assume* the power of originaliug embassies by his
, e ;»u hoiiiy. •* Minister* on I he par? of the U.
Stales will l*e commissioned to attend the*e deli
beration*” at Panama. Will the Senate submit to
tin- assumption} Will they coiitirm Rufus King?
1 he battle t* to be fought in the Senate; and ton
ought to have your strongest at d most fearless men
lo lace tlie eri^io.
A REPUBLICAN OF *99.
( ONGKESS. I, appears from the catalog!,e of
the Mcinbe,* ol the present Congre**, t|liit j„ tll„
.W,/c out of the 23 member*. e/tten ruwMiics,
and J vacancies (,n V York, Jem Virgi.d.A And
in the Ilouseof Iiej,resetUutiois,b2 new utembe,*
out ot tiie 216. '
The bill from the H. of R. re-organizing the
boart or Appeals has passed the Swiale io iu
MAnmVm t- , COMMUNICATED
K s V‘ ' l',. \Jy*Pk ,'"<taU Crouch |„ Mi- Ann Lb}-.
•nt » »t >*"> CIO ^nml mi liis n,c rveiM.ig, Jl|r.
Iknnxat Macon , .Itl.gan- l.om Ntwk.nl fuu,„,
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IMKUJ- SUii-jat mot nine hoi. of a Ii,CPrinr ps'mnimr
nrtsc,....., ,se.| so yea.. Lit.rt. *'„!<„>£ of d.J s77.
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II H EKE AS .f appear, In ll.e Ever.,live l.y ,h. , f
,1 , •' * J*cy h.v ,l,r ... lor ill.- co.ir.iy . i
tl»l •..«!» I'tbWav of May I,..,.
cmi.nitled on ihr body ol a c.-tuin William Kill-Hie
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tl.trrr.or 'I'.Ughf p.np.r, aril a |,r ».| vice of the round of
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(L. S ) “ calll,ai UKh.««.nlt ,|„ of D
D„.2. 'm JAMKS PHEASANTS.
— - ■■ _ _CO ~vr4t
,,"l''iliui1 . <v
.'Z/./y THE CAPITALS PAID.
lOHE..’S Of 1-1 K, N... ill Ma.'.ef "reef.
\VK *>«=• llic [ileviire it»i, rnmning ‘i°*
i v. -f tkn tiuhsand hoi.
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-nil the drawing look pla- e 3 - ” *
'he neef ffraiid State J.v|,r, ... i i
w.ll t .kr plart ... the city ,.f .>:P . /- ,, T"'1
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w.l make .mmcdiat. pay incut, ut ,u,!. ..ill h. ,... Ml
c"jr IIs1.*. te H lilt Poor, 1).S
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L late John I ergu.ion,.|rr..„ lleeeiahr, ib7». i,.,VP 1JO,
i’lanlr llTr]"* „T!|'."T' l,,nN '• >'•• Kan...-.,'
rnTr ‘ell , “d’ Wl'l“ “"‘•y «'• oall and d.,
Dm. 8 UEO: ,,aM LTON, Kv'r.
1 he© I Hi5f ■ * ! 1,1 Goorl,l',oJ cuu*"7 court, 23-1 Novem
uu LWv 0*li*’ VV ,ll“"n G<sur5' > Edinwid George an , XV ||j.
Tnnmaa Gl».( and Mrvhi' wife, former!,- >Iarv Alien
t’7vr ,A vv,.l|l«'" Alien, Hirlt.r.l Ath-.i, Daniel ( ,,..,11
JII.I M.l't.jr :.)« wile, former,. Mart Ira At-ro, foil, 8. Pan fob
h« nr "fj.me, Allen the y ounger, dec. which Mid A flee, uith
,-oJ -Mary and M 1,1 U. «r.-rl,.ldten an I I,-,,.re, A|.
e„ I he elder, dec. an I Micli.tlax M- V ,u<h»r,, 8,.e ilT.d Om-eh.
laiul county and cnmmitlre of the e.ialo «f B*r„), Allen, dec.,
Til!*!i,y,ram,e ,l'e pl»'nlifl, hy llieir cnunael n„l thVh.'ii „f
the ,,l„m,d.,nd nn,«r,mf Jolly B. P„j.V Erect,,, ,.s j„„r<
All. , heynunrec.dr rM h, rflg fried, and the ,|, |, „ la,„, | j„_
mar UU-. and Mrcy t,|» ,,.,^1 f,rr„|| l)n,,
wife, Georg. Alim m.l K,c».*r.l Allen, not haying enter, ,|
lktl.a|,PN»M(«iH Mm aec.ity »r mnling to the "e. , f
A«.en,Mv and the ruler of thi. . ...
lie''«h« tart d drf. ,,r net
" h '' un 'he motion of ||,e plaint,If, hylh, ,r
” i A i«md, red, that the Mid Ian named defendant- ,1*
appe.rhe-e , " ,.r hef oe the third -Monday in February
an, a,,, ve the |>la„„.tfM„ll, „„| ,|„, » e„,.v „f thu order I,,
lorthw, h„ue, t,,| .* public new-nape,- prioled ... li.a
> . "><■' f '.ivelv and .,1,0 po.t.
til ait fit l oin *1 • gI (lie I'liUiih'Hh • «*l <ht« countv
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1. *■ __HU--* l.rv
1 Ad3dH| Vo K,< V 1,1 c un,y court Xut> uiher
Tr,o„M. l»»J,e, ||«nry n„he, Julia T. Dull* an t John Mel.
'A-Vm h Pun,.,IT,
Mur Huh. widow »„d r,li,r0 Thoma. IV ,he. ,|r ..Timm.
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