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Richmond enquirer. [volume] (Richmond, Va.) 1815-1867, December 07, 1826, Image 2

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iritfETEzxrrH cgugress. i
8KCONt> SK8SIU.N.
Mo.noay, Dkckmbkk 4, 1828.
Thisbeing tiie day established lor <he annual!
meeting of Congress, die members who have reach- |
ed the City assembled m tbstr respective Chambers, |
this morning.
IN THE SENATE.
The Hon. John C. Calhoun, Vice President of
the United States, took the Chair at 12 o'clock,
and the roil being calleJ over by tiie Secretary,
(Walter Lowrie, E.-q.) it appealed that the fol
lowing members were present, viz : (37prestnt;
names in o ir next; among them, Mr. Tazewell.)
The usual message was interchanged with tiie
House of Kepresentriive* of being formed, &•;.
ii i I the u -u.il standing orders sgieeJ to.
On balloting for a Joint Committee to wait on
tire President of the'UmteJ Stites and inform him
that tiie two houses were formed and ready to re
ceive communications from him, Messis. Smith &
Macon were chosen a committee cn the part of the
Seriate.
Mr. Huyne, oi South Carolina, gave notice that
ha should, on Wednesday next, ask le^ve to intro
d'ree “ a bill to establi-h a uniform System of
liankruptcy throughout the United States.”
And then the Senate adjourned to to-morrow.
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
At 12 o'clock, the House was called to order
by Hon. Joii't TV. 1 jj lor ot New York, Speaker
ot the House, i'lic roll being called over by the
Clerk of the House, (Matthew St. Clair Clarke,
Esq.) the following gentlemen answered to their
names: (17.) present; among ihem. from Virginia
are Messrs. Alexander, Archer, Armstrong, Har
bour, Claiborne,Crump, Davenport, Johnson, Mc
Coy, Mercer, Powell, Rives, Smith, Stevenson,
Taliaferro, Taylor, Trczvaut.)
The usual message having been interchanged
with the Senate, a committee was ordered to be
appointed, jointly with a committee on the part ol
tue Senate of the United States, to wait on the
President, an 1 announce to him tim organization of
tite two Houses. For this purpose, Mr. Eat hr op
and Mr. Melc-lfc were appointed on the pan ot
this il( use.
After adopting the usual onists for newspapers,
iic. the House adjourned.
The President of the United States transmitted,
thir day, to both House*of Congress llie following
Message:
Fellow-Citizens of t he Senate
and. of the House of fieprcscntutiecs .*
The assemblage of the Representatives ot our
1 ..ion in both ilouses ot Congies* at this time
occurs under n.cuiin’ances calling for the re
newed homage id our giatelul acknowledgments
to the (liver ot all flood. With the exceptions
incidental to the most felicitous condition of hu
man existence, wo continue to be highly favored
):■ all the elements winch contribute to individual
comfort and t» national prixi eri'y. In the sur
vey of our extensive country, we have geneialiy
to observe abodes of health and legions of plenty,
la our civil arid political relations, we have peace
without, and l:rw qutiiity within, o ir borders._
Vi e arc, as a people, increasing with unabated
rapidity in population, wealth, mi l nati mul re
s nirces; arc!, whatever dri'cie of opinion ex—
ivt among us. vvitn regard to tne mode and the
means by which vve shill turn tire beneficence ol
2 leaven to the impiov-un.-iit of our own cot.di
tton, there n jet a -ptrtt, animating us all, which
wiil not sutler the bounties ol Providence to be
showered upon us in vain, but will receive them
witii giateiui bear'.*, and apply them with un
wearied hands, to die advancement ot the general
t oo J.
Oi the subject* recommended to ti c considera
tion ot V oug; e •* ai their feat Sctirlcn, somo were
t.ien definitively acted uj or. Oilier* left utilin:*hed,
but partly main el, .v.:l recur lo your atteiilion,
wituout needing a renewal ot notice from me 1 he
purpose oi ilit* com .-umcati ur will lie, to present
io jour view me geueiai asp-el of our public af
fairs * this moment, and the ine.i-urts which have
Leva is cen to carry l-.lo effect the intention* of tiie
Legislature a* signiltcj hy the laws then and here- i
toipre e. nc'eJ
fu o^r lute cou: - with the oilier nations ot rtie
sa.t.i. we sti.i vu- luj pints* of enjoying peace !
atid a general go J uuder*t.ii.ihng — qualified, now- j
ever, in several nn; ortani instance*, by collisions;
of interest, and by n isntUiied (lain.* of justice, to
tne settlement ot which, the constitutional inter- 1
position ot the legislative authority may become!
ultimately indtspeu-abie.
ily the decease or the Emperor Alexander ot
Attssia, wh «’h titMi rid c.ileiii| urantou*ly with J
lire commencement of tits iu«i fce-sio.i of Congiess,;
the United Shalt* hive been de; rived ct along!
tried, *•' aily, and .ai uiul bread. Horn to the in— j
heritance of absolute power, and trained i.iihej
school of adversity, Irorn winch to power oti earth, I
ho.vevet assol.ite, ts exempt, th at mo.rarclr, fioni his I
youth, had been taught to i,.el the fmceanl value!
of public opinion, and to be scu-lblc that the inte- i
ie» * of hi* owi» government would test be prom*- •
te.loya li^j.c and Iriendiy intercourse wnti this'
republic, . » those ot iii* people would be advanced i
by a liberal commercial intercourse with our coun- i
try. A candid and contidentnl interchange of
scniiii’.euts between him ami the Government of the I
United Slates, uj on liic . tTii.^ ot Southern Am-- I
nca, look place at a period not long preceding hi* J
demise, and contributed to r*:c that course of policy 1
which left to the other government* of Europe no 1
alternative but that of so iner or Uter recognizing I
the independence of our southern neighbors, ot
which the esanaple had, by the United State*, al- j
ready been sc'. The ordinary diplomatic comrnui
nica’ton* between hi* success' r, the Emperor
Nicholas, snd the United .State*, have suffered!
some interruption by the illness*, departure, anil I
subsequent decease of In minister residing here, 1
who enjoyed, a* he merited, the entire coniidenc* |
ol his new sovereign, as he had eminently re-;
sjionded to that of m* predecessor. Hut we have
had the most satisfactory assurances, that the!
sentiment* of the reigning Emperor towards the j
United States are altogether conlormable to those I
which had so long and constantly animated his
imperial brother; and we hive reason to hope that
they will serve to cement that harmony and good
understanding between the two nations, which,
founded in congenial interests, cannot but result in
the advancement of the welfare and prosperity of
both.
Uur relations of commerce and navigation with
France are, by the operation of the Constitution
of 2 bh June, 1*522, with ihat nation, in a state
of gradual ar.d f rogressive improvement. Con
vinced by all our experience, no less than by the
principles of fair ar.d liberal reciprocity which the
United Slates have constantly tendered to all the
nations of toe earth, as the lule of commercial in
tercourse, winch they would universally prefer,
that fair and erjual competition is most conducive
to the interests of both parties, the United Stales,
in the negotiation of that Convention, earnestly
c(intended for a mutual rerrjnrution of discrimina- !
ling duties and charges in thu ports of the two,
r.< intries Unable to obtain the immediate re-'
cognition of this principle in its full extent, afer I
r "during the duties of discrimination, so t .r as was I
lound attainable, it was agreed that,at the expira
tion of two ye^rs from the 1-t of October, 1*522,
when the Convention was to go into effect, unless
* notice of six months on ei brr side should be gj
v o to the otbei, th»t the Convention itsejf rnu«t
teirntna’e, those tiiries stiouj I be reduced by one
l.urth; and that tfris reduction should be yearly
r .'taied until all dr-criruhiauon should re ise while
lb« Convention itself should c u.tinus in foire. — ;
Ilf the rfl t of tins stipulation, three.fourths cf
toe discriminating duties which had been levied by
each party upon the vessels of the other in its
f urls, h ive slre.dy I - en removed; and, on the Isi
<>l next October, should the Convention be still m
force, the remaining fourth will be discontinued.
French vessels, laden with French produce, will
be received in our ports on the same terms as our
own; and oure, in return, will enjoy the same ad
v .- 'age- m the ports Of France. Pj these ep
proxunation* to an equality Of duties'and oi charg
es, not only has (he commerce between the two
countries prospered, but friendly disposition* have
been, on both Hides, ei couraged and promoted.
They will continue to be cherished and cultivated
on the part of the United Slates. It would have
been gratifying to have had it in my power toadd,
that the claims upon the justice of the French Gj
vernnicnl, involving the property and the comfor
table subsistence of many of our fellow-citizens,
and which have been so long and so earnestly urg
ed, were in a more promising train of adjustment
than at your last meeting; but their condition re
main* unaltered.
With the Government of the Netherlands, the
mutual abandonment of discriminating duties had
been regulated by Legislative act* on both side*.—
The act of Congress of the 20th of April, ISIS,
abolished all discriminating duties of Impost and
Tonnage upon the vessels and produce of the Ne
thci lauds in the ports of the United Slates upon
the assurance given bv the Government of the Ne
lherlan Is, that all such duties operating against the
shipping and commerce of the United State’s, in
that ICiagdom, had been abolished. These reci
procal regulations had continued in force sever* 1
years when the discriminating principle wa9 resum
ed by the Netherlands in a new and indirect form,
by a bounty of ten per cent, in the shape of a return
of duties to thsir national vessels, & in which those
of the Uuiled States are nut pcimitted to partici
pate. 15y the act of Congress of the 7th of Janu
ary, 1821, all discriminating du'ies in the United
States were again suspended, so far as related to
the vessels and produce of the Netherlands, so
long as the reciprocal exemption should be extend
ed to the vessels and produce of the United States
in the Netherlands. But the same act provides
that, in the event ol a restoration of discriminating
duties, to operate against the shipping and com
merce o* the United Estates, in any ol the foreign
| countries referred to therein, the suspension of
discriminating duties in favor of the navigation of
such foreign country should cease, and all the pro
visions of the acts imposing disci iminating foreign
tonnage and impost duties in the United States,
should revive, and be in full force with regard to
that nation.
In the correspondence with the Government of
the Netherlands upon this subject, they have con
tended that the favor shown to their own shipping
by this bounty upon theic tonnage, is n6t to be
considered as a discriminating duty. But it cannot
be denied that it produces all the same effects.—
Had the mutual abolition been stipulated by treaty,
such a bounty upon the national vessels could
scarcely have been granted consistently with good
j blilh. Vet. as the act of Congress of 7th Janua
! ry, 1821, has not expressly authorized the Exe
j cutive authority to determine what shall be consi
dered as a revival of discriminating duties by a
foreign Government to the disadvantage of the
United .States, and as the retaliatory measure on
our part, however just and necessary, may tend
rather to that conflict of legislation which we de
precate, than to that concert to which we invite
all commercial nations, as most conducive to their
interest and our own, I have thought it more con
-istent with the spirit of o’lr institutions to refer
the subject again to the paramount authority of
tne Legislature to decide what measure the emer
gency may requite than abruptly, by proclamation,
to carry into effect the lu.natory provision of the
act ot 1824.
U King ili« ia*l session of Congres**, Treaties
of Amity, Navigation, and Commerce, were ne
gotiated and signed at tins place with the Govern
ment of Denmark, in Europe, and with the Fede
™l,OM C'eulral America, in this hcini.phere_
1 hese Titatifs then received the constitutional
-auction of ihe Senate, by the advice and consent
to their ratification. They were accordingly ra
ti ‘td, on the part of the United States, and durin~
the recess of Confess, have been also ratified by
the oilier respective contracting parties. The ra
tmeafions have been exchanged, and they have
..een publisher, by Proclamations, copies of which
are herewith communicated to Congress. These
I le.itie* have established between the contracting
parties ihe principles of equality ami reciprocity
in their broadest and ,ino»t liberal extent: E.ch
party admitting the vessels of the other into its
ports, laden with c.ugoes the produce or manuike
turcoi any quarter of the globe.,,, on the payment
... the same duties ot tonnage and impost that are
chargeable unon their own They have funhersli
P dved, that the parties shall hereafter grant no
lav or or navigation ol roir.utVrce to any other na
iion, which shall not; upon the same terms, be
granted to each other; and that neither party will
in.po»e, upon articles of merchandise, the produce
or manulactnre of the other, any other or bi-her
duties than upon the like articles, beit,- the pro
duce or manutacture of any other country. To
tnese principle* there is, in the Convention with
Denmark, an exception, with regard to the Colo
nies oi that Kingdom in :he Arctic .Seas, but none
with regard to her Colonies in the West Indie-.
In ihe course ot Ihe lant summer, the term
to which our last Commercial Treaty with Sweden
was limited, has expired. A continuation of it is
m the contemplation of the Swedish Government,
and is believed *o be desirable on the part
o: the United States. It has bee,, proposed
by the King of Sweden, that, pending the nego
Unt'oii ot renewal, the expired Treaty should be
mutually considered as still in force; a measure
which will require the sanction of Congress to be
carried into eiFcct on our part, and which I ihere
. oi c recommend to your consideration.
r,Lissia> 8Pain» Portugal, and in general
ad the European Powers, between whom and »he
United States relations of friendly intercourse luve
existed, their condition has not materially varied
since the last session of Congress. | regret not j
to lie able to say the same of our commercial in- i
tercourse with the Colonial possessions of Great 1
Brnain, in America. Negotiations of the highest
importance to our common interests have been for
several years in discuvsion between the two Gov
ernment-; and on the part of the United States
have b«en invariably pursued in the spirit of candor
and conciliation. Intere-tsof great magnitude and
delicacy have been adjusted by the Conventions of
1815 and 18.8, while that of 1822 mediated by
the late Emperor Alexander had promised a satis
factory compromise of claims which the Govern
ment of the United States, in justice to the rights
of a numerous cla-s of their citizen., was bound
to sustain. Hut with regard to the commercial in
tercourse between the United States and the Bri
li-h Colonies m America, it has been hnberio
found impracticable ,o bring the parties to am un
derstanding satisfactory to both. The relative ge
ographical position, and the respective products of
nainte cultivated hy human industry, had constitut
ed the elements ot a commercial intercourse be
tween the U. S. and British America, insular and
continental, important to the inhabitants of both
countries. Hut it had been interdicted by Great
Itiitein, upon a principle heretofore practised upon
by the colonizing nations t*f Europe, of holding
the trade of their colonies each in exclusive mo
nopoly to t.erself. Aiier the termination of the
Die war, this interdiction had been revived, anil
wic ijruiift Government d« dined including thin
portion ot our intercouite with her possession* in
• lie negotiation of the Convention of 1315. The
trade was then carried on exclusively ir. British
ves-e!*, till the act of Congress concerning navi*
gallon, of 1313, ar.d the supplemental act of IBM),
met tiie interdict by a corresponding measure on
tin: part of the United States. These measures, not
ot retaliation, but of necessary self-defence, were
so<«n succeeded by an Art of Parliament, opening
certain colonial port* to tbo vessels of the United
States, coming directly from them, and fo the Im
portation from them, of certain articles of *ur pro
dure, burdened with heavy duties, and excluding
s'mu', of mo most valuable articles of our exports.
Toe United State* opened their poll* to British
vessel* Irom the Colonies, tipon terms as ex- ,
actly corresponding with those of the Act of
Parliament, as in (be relative position of (lie .
parties, could be made. And a negotiation was
commenced by mutual conacn', with the hope, 1
on our part, that a reciprocal spirit of sc- j
commodation and a common sentiment of the im
portance of the trade to th# interest of the inbb |
I
V LiL&itsdSLAi.
Hants of the two counlr.es, between w..oiri it must
be earned on, would ulirnately bring tlie parties
to a compromise, with which both might be atiis
fied. With this view, the Government of the
United Stales bad determined to sacrifice some
thing of ihat entire reciprocity which in all com
mercial arrangement* wnh Foreign Powers they
are entitled to demand, and to acquiesce in some
inequalities disadvantageous to omselves, rather
than to foiego the benefit of a fnal and prima- '
nent adjustment of this interest, to the satisfaction
of Great Britain herself. Tlie negotiation, repeat
edly suspended by accidental circumstance*, was
however, by mutual agreement and express assent
considered a* pending, and to speedily resumed.
In the mean time, another Act of Parliament, so
doubtful and ambiguous in its import as to have
been misunderstood by the officers in the Colonies
who were to carry it into execution, opens agaiu
certain Colonial ports, uj>on new conditions and
terms, with a threat to close them against any Na
tion which may not accept those terms, as pre
scribed by the British Government. This act pass
ed in July, 1825, not communicated to the Gov
ernment of the United States, not understood by
the British Officers of tlie Customs in the Colonies
where it was to be enforced, was nevertheless
submitted to the consideration of Congress, at
their last session. With (he knowledge that a ne
gotiation upon the subject had long been in pro
gress, and pledges given of its resumption at an
eatly day, it was deemed expedient to await the
result of that negotiation, lather than to subscribe
implicitly to terms the import of which was not
clear, and which the British authorities them
selves, in this hemisphere, were not prepared to
explain.
Imir.eJiitely after the close of the last Session
of Congress, one of our most distinguished citi
zen* was despatched as Envoy Extraordinary and
Minister Plenipotentiary to Great Britain, furnish
ed with instruciions which we could not doubt
would lead to a conclusion of this long contro
verted interest, upon terms acceptable to Great
Britain. Upon his arrival, ami before he had de
livered his letters of credcuce, he was met by an
Order of the Briti-h Council, excluding, from and
after the first ot December now current, the ves
sels of the United States from all the Colonial
British ports, excepting those immediately border
ing upon our Territories. In answer to his expos
tulations upon a measure thus unexpected, lie is
informed that, according to the ancient maxims
of policy of European nations having colonies,
their trade is an exclusive possession of the mo
ther country. That all participation jn it by oth
er nations is a boon or favor, not forming a sub
ject of negotiation, but to be regulated by the
Legislative Acts of the Power owning the colo
ny. riiat the British Government, thereiurc, de
clines negotiating concerning it : and that, as the
| Lnitcd States did not torthwiib accept purely and
simply the terms offer*! by the Act of Parliament,
of July, lfc-.5. Great Britain would Dot now ad
mit the vessel* of the United States even upon
the terms on which she has opened them to the
navigation of other nations.
We have been accustomed to consider the trade
which we have enjoyed with the British Colonies
rather as an intei change of mutual benefits, than
as a mere favor received: that, under every cir
cumstance, we have given an ample equivalent.
Wc have seen every other nation, holding Colo
nies, negotiate with other nations, and grant them,
freely, admission to the Colonies by Treaty; and*
so far are the other colonizing nations of Europe
now from refusing to negotiate for trade with their
Colonies, that we ourselves have secured access
to the Colonies of more than one of them by Trea
ty. The refusal, however, of Gieat Britain to ne
gotiate, leaves to the United States no other alter
native than that of regulating, or interdicting, al
together, the trade on their part, according a* either
measure may affect the interests of our own coun
try; and, with that exclusive object, I would re
commend the whole suljject to your calm and
candid deliberations.
It is hoped that our unavailing exertions to ac
complish a cordial good understanding on this i:i
teiest will not have an unpropitious effect upon
the other great topics of discussion between the
two Governments. Our NoriLeasiern and North
western boundaries are still uuadj is'ei. The Com
in ssionerj under the 7th article of the Treaty of
Ghent Lave nearly come to the close of their Ja
bots; nor can we renounce the expectation, en
feebled as it is, that they may agree upon tli^ir re
port, to (he satisfaction nr acquiescence of both
parties. The Commission lor liquidating the
claims for indemnity for slaves carried away after
the close of the war has beeu sitting, with doubtful
prospects of success. Propositions of compromi-e
have, however, passed between the two Govern
ments, the result of which, we flatter ourselves,
may yet prove satislactory. Our own dispositions
and purposes towards Great Britain are all friend
ly and conciliatory; nor can we abandon, but
with strong reluctance, the belief that they will ul
timately meet a return, not of favors, which we
neither a^k nor desire, hut of equal reciprocity'ami
good will. * l
With the American Governments of tins hemis
phere, we continue to maintain an intercomse al
together friendly, and between their nations and
ours that commercial intei change of which mutual
benefit is the source, and mutual comfort and har
mony the lesult, is in a continual sia'e of improve
ment. The war between Spain and them, since
the total expulsion of the Spanish military force
from their tontinenta] territories, baa been little
more than nominal; and their internal tranquillity,
though occasionally menaced by the agitations
which civil wars never fail to leave behind them,
has not been affected by any venous calamity.
The Congress of Ministers from several of those
nations which assembled at Panama, after a short
session ttiere, adjourned to meet again, at a more
favorable season, in the neighborhood of Mexico.
The decease of one of our Ministers on his way
to the Isthmus, and the impediments of the season,
which delayed the departure of the other, deprived
us of the advantage of being represented at the
first meeting ot the Congress. There is, however
no reason to believe thai any of the transactions
of the Congress wereofa nature to affect iu|uri
ously the interests of the United States, or to re
quire the interposition of our Ministers, bad they
been present. Their absence has indeed deprived
us of the opportunity of possessing precise and
authentic information of the treaties which were
concluded at Panama; and the whole result has
confirmed me in the conviction of the expediency
to the United Stales of being represented at the
Congress. The surviving member of the Mission,
appointed during your last session, has according
ly proceeded (w his destination, and a successor
to hia distinguished and lamented associate will
be nominated to the Senate. A Treaty of Ainity,
Navigation, and Commerce, has, in the course of
the last summer, been concluded by our Minister
Plenipotentiary at Mexico, with ibe UnileJ Slates
oi th it Confederacy, which will also be laid before
the Senate, for their advice with regard to ita rati
fication.
In adverting to the present condition of our fis
cal concerns, and to the prospects of our Itevenue,
the hist remark that calls our attention, is, that
they are le.-s exuberantly proaperous than they
»veie at the corresponding period of the la»t year.
The severe shock so extensively suatained by the
commercial and manufacturing interest* in (Jreat
Hritain, has not been without a perceptible recoil
upon ourselves. A reduced importation from
abroad is neces*ari!y succeeded by a reduced re
turn to the Treasury at home. The net revenue
of the present year will not equal that of the last.
And the receipts of that which is to come will fail
slioit of those in the current year. The diintnu
tion,iiowever, is in part attributable to the fl ,m.
ishing Condition ot some of our domestic manu
factures, and so far is compensated by an equiva
lent more ptofi'able to the nation. Ii is also high
ly gratifyn g to perceive, that the deficiency it. ihe
revenue, wiule it scarcely exceeds the anticipa
tions of the last year’s estimate* from the Treasury,
has not in'errupii-d the application of more than
eleven millions during the present yc.ir, lo the dis
charge of the principal and interest of the drbr, nor
the reduction of op wauls of seven millions of the
capital debt itseif. The balance in the Treasury
on the first of January last, was five millions two
hundred and one thousand six hundred and fitly
dollars and forty-three cents The receipts from \
that time to the SUtli of September last, were nine- !
teen tnillio’-o five hundred aud eighty-five thou
sand nine hundred and thirty two dollars and fifty
cents. The receipts ot the current quarter, estima
ted at six millions of dollars, yield, with the sum
already received, a levenue ot about twenty-five
millions and a half for the year. The expenditures
for the thiee first quarters of the year have amoun
ted to eighteen millions seven hundred and four
teen thousand two hundred and twenty-six dollars
and sixty-six cents. The expenditures of the cur
rent quarter are expecied, including the two mil
lions of the principal debt lobe paid, to balance
the receipts. So that the expenses ot the year,
amounting to upwards of a million less than its
income, will leave a proportionally increased ba
lance in the Treasury on the first ot January, 1827,
over.that of the first of January last. Instead of
five millions two hundred thousand, there will be
six millions four hundred thousand dollars.
The amount of duties secured on merchandise
imported fiom the commencement of the year until
the Sllth of September, is estimated at twenty-one
millions two hundred and fifty thousand dollars,
and the amount that will probably accrue during
the present quarter, is estimated at four trillions
two lumdied and fifty thousand, making for the
whole year twenty-five millions and a half, hum
which the drawbacks being deducted, will leaves
clear revenue Irom the customs, leceivable in the
year IS27, of about twenty millions four hundred
housand dollars, which, with the sums to be re
ceived from the proceeds of Public Lmds, the
Dank Dividends, and other incidental receipts,
Will form an aggregate of about twenty-three mil
lions, a sum failing short of the w hole expenses of
the present year, little v.mre than the portion of
those expenditures applied to the discharge of the
public debt, beyond the annual appropriation of
ten millions, by the act of 3d March, 1S17. At
the passage of that act the putdic debt amounted to
one hundred and twenty-three millions and a half.
On the first of January next, it will be slioit of
seventy-four millions. In the lapse of these ten
yceis, fifty millions of public debt, with'.he annu
al charge ol upwards of three millions of interest
upon them, have been extinguished. At the pas«
sage of dial art, of the annual appropriation of the
ten millions, seven were absorbed in the payment
of inteiest, and not more than three millions went
to reduce the capital of the debt. Of the same ten
millions, at this time scarcely four are applicable
to the interest, and upwaids of six are ell'ective in
melting down die capital. Vet our experience has
pio veil that a revenue consisting so largely of im
posts and tonnage, ebbs and flows to an extraor
dinary extent, with all the fluctuations incident
. to the general commerce of the world. It is
within our recollection that even in the compass
ol the same la-t ten years, the receipts of the Trea
sury were not adequate to the expenditures of the
year ; and that in two successive years it was
found necessary to resoit to loans to meet the
engagements of the nation. The returiug tides of
the succeeding yests replenished the public cof
l-rs, until they have again begun to feel the vicis
situde of a decline. To produce these alterations
ol fulness and exhaustation, the relative operation
of abundant or ot untruittul seasons, the regula
tions of foreign Governments, political revolutions,
the prosperous or decaying condition of manufac
ture-, commercial speculations, and many odier
causes, not always to be traced, variously combine.
We have found the alternate swells and diminu
tions embracing periods of from two to three years,
i’he la-i period of depression to us was from 1819
to 1822. The corresponding revival was from
1S23 to the commencement of the present year.
Still we have no cause to apprehend a depression
comparable to that of the former period, or even
to anticipate a deficiency which will intrench upon
the ability to apply the annual ten millions to the
ieduction of the debt. It is well for us, however,
to be admonished of the necessity ol abiding by the
uxxims of the most vigilant economy, and of re
sorting to all honorable and useful expedients, for
pursuing with steady and inflexible perseverance
tiie tot.d discharge of the debt.
Besideii the seven mill) ms of the loans of |8l3,
which will have been discharged in the course ol
the present year, there are nine millions which, by
the rernu. ot the contracts, r.ould have been, and
are now, redeemable. Thirteen millions more of!
the loan of 1814 will become redeemable from and
after the expiration of tiie present month; and
nine other millions from and after the close of the
ensuing year. They constitute a mass of thirtv-one
millions of dollars, all bearing an interest of six
per cent, more than twenty millions of which will
| tie immediately redeemable, and the rest within lit
tie more than a year. Leaving of this amount,
fifteen millions to continue at the interest of six per
cent., but to be, as far as shall be found practicable,
paid off in the years 1.827 and 1829, there i- scarce
ly » doubt, that the remaining sixteen millions
n ight, within a few months, be discharged by a
loan at not exceeding five per cent, redeemable in
the years 1829 and 1830. By this operation, a
sum of neaily half a million of dollars may 'be
saved to the nation;and the discharge of the whole
thirty-one millions within the four years may be
greatly facilitated, if not wholly accomplished.
By an act of Congre-s of 3d March, 1927, a
lo-m, for the purpose now referred to, or a aub
scription to slock, was authorized, at an interest
not exceeding four and a hall per cc.it. But ai
that lime, so large a portion of the floating capital
of the country was absorbed in rommeicial specu
lations, and so little was left for investment in the
-locks, that the measure was but parihilly success
ful. At the last Session of Congiess, the condition
of the funds was still unpiopitious to the measure:
but the change so soon after words occurred, that
had the authority existed to redeem the nine mil
lions now redeemable by an exchange of slocks, or
a loan at five per rent., it is morally certain that it
might have been efT*cted, and with it a yearly fay
ing of ninety thousand dollars.
With regard to ihe collection of Revenue of Im
post, certain occurrence* have, within the last year,
been disclosed in one.or two of our principal ports'
wiiich engaged the attention cf Congress at their
last session, end may hereafter require further con
sideration Until within a very few years theex
ecution of the laws for raising the revenue, like
that of all our other laws, has been ensured more
by the moral sens* of the community, than by the
rigors of a jealous precaution, or by penal sanc
tions. Confiding in the exemplary punctuality and
unsullied integrity of our importing merchants, a
gradual relaxation from the provisions of the Col
lection Isaw*, a close adherence to which would
have caused inconvenience and expense to them,
had long become habitual: and indulgences had
been extended universally, birau-e 'hey had never
been abused. It mny be worthy of your serious
consideration, whether some further legislative
provision may not be necessary to cotno in aid of
this state of unguarded security.
Worn the reports herewith communicated of the
Secretaries of War and of the Navy, with the sub
sidiary documents annexed to them, tv ill be disco
vered the present condition and administration of
our Military establishment on the |>nd and on the
sea. The organization of the Army having un
dergone no change since it« reduction to the pre
sent Peace Establishment in 1.821, it remains only
to ob«erve, that it is yet found adequate to all the 1
purposes for which a permanent armed force in .
time ot peace can be needed, or useful. It mty be •
proper to add. that, from a difference of opinion
betn een the late President of the United States and 1
the Senate, with regard to the construction of the'
«ct of Congress of 2d March, 18*21, to reduce and 1
fix the Military Peace Establishment of the United
S'ates, it remains hitherto so far without execution
that no Colonel has been appointed to command one
of the Regiments of Artillery. A supplementary
or explanatory act ot the Legislature appears to be
the only exped cut practicable, for removing the
diffuul y of this appointment.
In a period ol profound peace, the conduct of
the mere military establishment forms but a very !
inconsiderable portion of the duties devolving upon I
the administration of the Department of War. It i
wilt be seen by the returns iiotu the subordinate
departments of the army, that every branch of the
service is marked with order, regularity, and dis
cipline. 1 hat from the Commanding Csenerul
through all the gradations of superintendence, the
officers feel themselves to have been citizens before
they were-soldiers, and that the glory of a Repub
lican Army must consist in the spirit of freedom
by which it is animated, and of patriotism by
which it Is impelled. It may be confidently sta
ted, that the moral character of the Army is in a
state of continual improvement, and that all the ar
rangements for the disposal of its parts have a con
stant reference to that end.
li’Jt to the War Department arc attributed other
duties, having indeed relation to a future possible
condition, of war, but being purely defensive, ahd
in their tendency contributing rather to the security
and permanency of peace: The erection of the
fortifications provided for by Congress, and adapt
ed to secure our shores from hostile invasion: The
distribution of the fund of public gratitude and jus
tice to the pensioners of the Revolutionary war:
I he maintenance ot our relations of peace and of
protection with the Indian Tribes: And the inter
nal improvements and surveys for the location of
Roads and Canals, which during the last three
sessions of Congress have engaged so much of their
attention, and may engross so large a share of
their iutuie benefactions to our country.
Ry the act of;he30tb of April, 1824, suggested
and approved by tny predecessor, the sum of thirty
thousand dollars jvas appropriated for the purpose
of causing to be made the uecessary surveys, plans,
and estimates, of the routes of such roads and
canals as the President of the United States might
deem ot national importance in a commercial or
military point of view, or necessary for the trans
portation of the public mail the surveys, plans,
and estimates, for each, when completed, to be laid
before Congress.
In execution of this act, a Board of Engi
neers was immediately instituted, and have
been since most assiduously and constantly oc
cupied, in carrying it into etTect. The firs1
object to which their labors were directed, by order
of the late President, was the examination of the
country between the tide waters of the Potomac,
the Ohio, and Lake Erie, to ascertain the practica
bility of a communication between them to desig
nate the most suitable route lor the same, and to
‘orm plans and estimates in detail of the expense
of execution.
vui Hie ou 01 reDruary, 1825, they made their
firs, repoit, which was immediately communicated
to Congress, and in which they declared that, ha
ving maturely considered the circumstances ob
served by them personally; and carefully studied
the results of such of the preliminary surveys as
were then completed, they were decidedly of o
pinion that the communication was practicable.
At the last session of Congress, before the
Board of Engineers were enabled to make up their
second report, containing a general plan, and pre
paratory mtimate for the work, the Committee of
tkciiuuse of Representatives upon Roads and Ca
nals closed the session with a report, expressing
the hope that the plan and estimate of the Board of
Engineers might «t this time be prepared, and that
the subject be referred to the early‘and favorable
consideration of Congress, at their present sc-sion
That expected Report of the Board of Engineers
is prepared, and will forthwith be laid before you
Under the resolution of Congress authorizing
the Secretary of War tu have prepared a complete
system of Cavalry Tactics of the United States, to
be reported to Congress at the present ses-ion —a
Board of distinguished Officers of the Army, and
of the Militia, has been convened, whose Report
will be submitted to you, with that of the Secreta
ry of War. The occasion was thought favourable
for consulting the same Board; aided by the results
of a correspondence with the Governors of the
several States and Territories, and other citizens
«f intelligence and expeiience, upon the acknow
ledged defective conJitton of our Militia system,
and upon the improvements of which it is suscep
tible. The repoit of the Board upon this subject
is al-.o submitted for your consideration.
In the estimates of appropriations for the ensu
ing year, upwards of five millions of dollars will
be submitted for the expenditures to be paid from
the Department of War. Less than two-fifths of
this will be applicable to the maintenance and sup
port cf the Army. A million and a half, in the
form ot pensions, goes as a scarcely adequate tri
bute to the services and sacrifices of a former age;
and a more than equal sum, invested in fortifica
tions, ot for the preparations of internal improve
ment, provides for the quiet, the comfort, and the
happier existence of the ages to come. Theappro
priations to indemnify those unfortunate remnants
of another race, unable alike to share in the enjoy
merits, and to exist in the presence of ci vilization,
tbo gh swelling in recent years to a magnitude’
burdens-me to the Treasury; are generally not
"•'bout their equivalents, in profitable value; or
serve to discharge the Union from engagements
more burdensome than debt.
In like manner, the estimate of appropriations
for the Navy Department will present an aggre
gate sum of upwards of three millions of dollars.
Al>oui one-half of these, however, cover the cur
rent expenditures of the Navy :n actual service,
and one-ball constitutes a fund of national proper
ty, the pledge of our future glory and defence. It
waa scarcely one short year after the close of the
late war, and when the burden of its expenses and
charges was weighing heaviest upon the country,
that Congress, by the act of 29th April, 1816, ap
propriated one million of dollars annually, for
eight years, to the gradual increase of the A’avu.
At a subsequent period, this annual appropriation
was reduced to half a million for six years, of
which the present year is the last. A yet more
recent appropriation the last two years for building
ten Sloops of War, has nearly restored the ori"i
nal appropriation of 1816, of a million for every
year. The result is before us all. We have twelve
line-of-battle Shij s, twenty Frigates; and Sloops
of War in proportion; which, with a few months
of preparation, may present a line of floating for
tifications along the whole range of our coast,
ready to meet any invader who might attempt to
set 1001 upon our snore* : Combining wnh a sys
tem of fortifications upon the shores themselves,
commenced about the same lime, under the auspi
ces of my immediate predecessor, and hitherto
systematically pursued, it has placed in our posses
sion the most effective sinewy of war, and has left
us at once an example and a lesson, from which
our own duties may be inferred. The gradual in
crease of the Navy was the principle of which the
act of y»th April, 1816, was the first develop
ment. It was the introduction of a system to act
upon the character and history of our country for
an indefinite series of ages. It was a declaration
of that Congress to their constituents and to pos
terity, that it was the destiny arid the duty of
the-e Confederated States, to become, in regular
process of time, and by no petty advances, a great
Naval Power. That, which they proposed to
accomplish in eight years, is rather to be consid
ered as the measure of their means, than the
limitation of their design. They looked forward
for a term of years sufficient for the accomplish,
|ment of a definite portion of their purpose
land they left to their ancceso,. to fill up
I the canvass of which they had traced the
large and prophetic outline. The ships of
! the hne, and frigates, which they had in content
plation, will be shortly completed. The time which
, they had allotted for the accomplishment of the
work ha- more than elapsed It remains for your
consideration, how their .ucessors may contribute
their portion of toil and of treasure for the benefit
the succeeding age, in (he gradual increase of our
Navy, i here is, perhaps, no part of the exerci-e
o! I he Constitutional Powers of the Federal
Government, which has given more general satj.
faction to the People of the Union than tins The
system ha. not been thus vigorously introduced
and hitherto sustained, to be now departed from’
or abandoned. In continuing to provide for the
gradual increase of the Navy, h may not be he
cessaryor expedient to add for the p,e„en, „„„
more to the number of our .hips ; but should rot.
deem it advisable to continue the yearly appropria
tion of half a million to the same objects, it nuy be
profitably expended, m providing a supply o{ tun.
her to'»e setsaned, and oilier materials for future
use ; in the conduction of docks, or in lavin
the foundation* of a School for Naval Education",
as to the wisdom of Congress either of these men’
sures may appear to claim the preference.
Of the small poition* of this Navy engaged in
actual service during the peace, squadron* have
continued to be maintained in the Pacific Ocean,
in the \\ est India Seas, in the Mediterranean; to
which has been added a small armament, to cruise
on the Eastern Coast of South America. In all
they have afforded protection to our commerce,
have contributed to make our country advantage
ously known to foreign nations, have honorably
employed multitude* of our seamen in the service
of their country, and have enured numbers of
youth* of the rising generation to lives of manly
hardihood and of nautical experience and skill
The piracies with which the West India Sea*
were for several year* infested, have been totallv
suppressed. But,'in the .Mediterranean they have
increased in a manner afflictive to other nations,
and, but lor the continued presence of our squad
ron, would probably have been distressing to our
own. Tie war which has unfortunately broken
out between the Republic of Buenos Ayres and
the Brazili in government, has given rise to very
great irregularities among the naval officers of the
latter, by whom principles in relation to blockade*
and to neutral navigation, have been brought for.
ward, to which we cannot subscribe, and which
our own rommandets have found it necessary to
resist. From the friendly deposition towards the
United States constantly manifested by the Em
peror of Biazil, and the very useful and friendly
commercial intercourse between the United States
and his dominions, we have reason to believe that
the just reparation demanded for the injuries ansi
tamed by seveial of our citizens from some of his
officers, will not be withheld. Abstracts from the
recent despatches of the Commanders of our several
squadrons arc communicated with the Report of
the Secretary of the Navy to Concrers
A report trorn the Postmaster General is like
wise communicated, presen ing, hi a highly sath,.
factory manner, the result of a vigorous, efficient,
and economical administration of that Department’
the revenue of the offire, even of the year includ
ing the Utter half of 1824, and the first half of
lbdij, had exceeded its expenditures by a sum of
more than forty-five thousand dollars. That of die
succeeding year has been still more productive.—.
The increase of the receipts, in the year preceding
the first of July last, over that of the year before,
exceeds one hundred and thirty-six thousand dol
lars, and the excess of the receipts over the expen
ditures of the year has swollen from $45 000
to nearly $30,000. During the same period, con
tracts for additional transportation of the mail in
stages, for about two hundred and sixty thousand
miles, have been made, and for seventy thousand
miles annually, on horseback. Seven hundred
and fourteen new Post Offices have been estab
lislied within the year; and the increase of revenue
within the last three jears, as well as the augmen
tation of the transportation by mail, is more° than
equal to the whole amount of receipts, and of mail
conveyance, at the commencement of the pieseat
century, when the seat of General Government
was removed to this place. When we letlect that
the objects effected by the transportation of the
mail are among the choicest comforts and enjoy
ments of social life, it is pleasing to observe, that
the dissemination of them to every corner of *.jr
country has outstripped in their increase even the
rapid march of our population.
By the Treaties with France and Spain, respec
rTVe- Louisiana abd the Florida* to the
United State-, provision was made for the securi
ty of land titles derived from the Govtrnments of
those nations. Son- progress has been been made,
under the audioriiy of various Acts of Congress
in the ascertainment and establishment of those
titles: but claims to a very large extent remain un
adjusted. The public raiih, no less than the just
rights of individuals, and the interest of the com
munity itself, appears to require further provision
tor the speedy settlement of these claims, which l
therefore recommend to the care and attention of
file Legislature.
conformity with the provisions of the act of
. ,h "lay to provide for erecting a Peniten
tiary tn the District of Columbia, and for other pur
poses, three Commissioners were appointed to
select B site for the erection of a Penitentiary for
tiie Distuct, and also a site in the county of Alex
andria for a county Jail: both of which obiec’s
have been effected. The building of the Peniten
tiary has been commenced, mid is in such a de
gree of forwardness a» to promise that it will be
completed before the meeting of the next Con
gress^ 1 his consideration points to the expedien
cy of maturing, at the present session, a system
tor the regulation and government of the Peniten
tiary, and of defining the class of offences which
shall be puni-liable by confinement in this edifice.
Io closing this communication, 1 trust that it
will not he deemed inappropiiate to the occasion
and purposes upon which we are here assembled,
to indulge a momentary retrospect, combinin',
m a single glance, the period of our origin as
a National Confederation with that of our pre
sent existence, at the preci-e interval of half
a century from each other. Since your last
meeting at this place, the Fiftieth Anniver
sary of the day when our Independence was de
clared, has been celebrated throughout our land:
and on that day, when every heart was hounding
with joy, and every voice was tuned togratulation.
amid the blessings of Freedom and Independence,
which the sires of a former age had handed down
to their children, two of the principal actors in that
solemn scene, the hand that penned the ever-me
morahle Declaration, and the voice that sustamad
it in debate, were, by one summons, at the dis
tanee of seven hundred miles from each other,
called before the Judge of all, to account for their
deeds done upon earth. They departed, cheered
,? the benedictions of their country, to whom
they left the inheritance of their fame, and the
memory of their bright example. If we turn
nur thoughts to the condition of their country, in
'be contrast of the first and last day of that half
J. respitnuent ami sublime is the transi
ijon from gloom to glory! Then, glancing through
... "an)e laf’!,e ®f •i™*1. 'n the condition of the in
dividuals, we Bee the first day marked with the
illness and vigor of youth, in the pledge of their
fives, their fortunes, and their sacred honor, to
ho cause of freedom and of mankind. And on
the last, extended on the bed of death, with but
sense and sensibility left to breathe a last asp,ration
to Heaven of bless,ng upon their country; may we
not humbly hope that to them, too, it was a pledge
of transition from gloom to glory; and that, while
h,'!r ve-tments were sinking into the clod
, , valleJ, their emancipated spirits were asceadini
to the bosom of their God! *
w , JOHN QUINCY ADAMS.
Washington, Dec. 5, 1826.
"nd fellow eit.zen,
W«hTn»*«! n"|,bn7'l '* *W' rrmove •«* the Ciiy rf
Wash.ngtnn. He haalbeen appointed Naval Architect aid
h'lprr iniendant of the Navy Yard, at the cent of govern***.
mrrflTlli,7,,<'.,0‘!!I ,Ppr>'",'"cnl,or one better calculated to pro
mnte (lie i.itere.t. of the Navy could net have been made.
v vC?H?T OF OVK,t AND TERWINOR.
oVuTk 2 ' J?* r'",rl y«*«*rday morning at I?
oelork, when Jo.tg • /.^marde commented hi. charge to th'
/iry, and deliverer) the «are to them at two o’clock. £he inr"
came ,0.0 Couria, |„,f p.„ f<nlr ifl ||m> afternooo. aod ieXr
5«!u te‘as,ns4".e,A u,,ker'T,,e coB,"h—dJ««
toSTr;,;i'drrVnd 'h,b""f'M«T neat,the court will prn,«,d
v I e' m,0f who •**'« indUter!
.? f,,*nd TMry.«'d charged with mmil tr offence* a*
le above named perron* who have been Convicted. [Mer. AJ
*Vr! °fc ,.rt,w f?m fif ,h« commiaeronen. for runniae
the line het ween,biaH.ate,,,d Alabama, to a gXhSZZ
“ <}ri running to the random line we ascertained that note a
9JSE*aL™ rh,'*** mademriln^'i7
Th, .V '":"”,nd40l"’l«. from the calculation a, Nicbanek”
i55Xh”5i'""’ ~*riH.«o * «A,
MOTWE.
,n *h'Marosiic
DrC * Pfc-Jt a

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