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Richmond enquirer. [volume] (Richmond, Va.) 1815-1867, May 19, 1829, Image 1

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[fy fjjo ENUlAUl.lt •• iiuMiihtd (Wire a week generally
lai thsaetimes R weak nunug the ivssiati ml (be but* Legisla
iufe.—Price, the same at heretofore, Five Doll.ua per annum,
payable in uaauce. N'ot.s of r.barlered, spechi- paying banka,,
(only) will be received iu paymtut. The Editors vnll guaran
tie the safety ef 'emitting them by r.tililki postage el alllet- j
ters being paid, by tae writers.
ar No paper e-ili be disc .ntinued(biil at (be discretion ef
ho ildrtois) instil sll arrearages have bean pa id op.
gX* Whoever mil yuarantec the payr^er.t ef nine papers
thill have tha tenth UHATU5.
rr One square, OK LESS—Firiliusertieu7*eeat»—teak
cenUuuaucv, 50 cents.
%*No euvertisemaut inserted, until it bat cither been paid
or arauuitd by ioos parson in (his city. 01 Us • ovirons.
rj"1HE MATTKAWAN COMPANY, al their Machine
A. Ship and Foundry, near f uhkill Lamliug on the Nuitii
(HiiJio’iJ River, Slate nf New York, ate cootirucliug every
hind of Colton anti H'oatcn Mackiiurt/, in a superior siylr
ol workmanship, and on (ha be.i nnd must apprnvrj plans—
One -of (he pai'nara has visile.I Europe, and brought with
him Models aud Mac nines of (be lilttl improvements iu those
two branches of Mv.iliac-factoring.
They do every description of Casting in their Foundry,
and Me particularly calculated for making all kinds ol Mill
Creeping—winch is all filled ready to put up when required.
They bast numerous paler ns ol Si.afli, Wheels. Ac. \c
The ityle nf their svork may he so n at the Cotton Mill of
Mrasis. Ounnioghain A Anderson ul lliihiuoud, (o tvboiu they
lake Ibe lihnly of icleiring.
AH orders diroit.d A. II. Schenck, Fishkill Laudint, or
P- H. Hchcr.ck A Co. N, w York, will be promptly attended to.
March 87._ _ Ipfei- 3a»
To-Ti iE~r OUL i 0.
MlUK itnrriuin, having put r based the Lina of Stages
JL run a tg between Guysudcltr. ami I.cwjiburg, will, oc or |
before the hrst of May uni, commence running Ihe Route j
twice a week.
The Line *ti I pm through Charleiton, aiul fiom lher.ee, |
by (lie State Turupike, tu Ltwisburg aud Ihe pi im ipal Aledi. 1
cinal Springs, lo wit: the Whir* Sulphur, (Lt Hut, the Winn, '
*«•, (o Staunton.
It will leave Uuyandjtte, twice a week, at 5 o’clock, A. At.
Aud, on its return, will leave Staunton twice a week.
From Guyaudnlte o tbe Spring] there will he no night
At Staunton the Lint meets the Charlottesville, Richmond.
od Fredeuckihurg Lines, tunning three liiuei n week.
Tbe Rome, from Guyandotte lo Staunton, will he performed
in five days, aud fioui Staunton, In Richmond, or Fiader.
ickihurg, id two days, and from llichtuoud, lo lha City el
Washington in 23 hours, and from Fredericksburg, to the City ,
in eight hours.
Persuus ascending the Ohio on their way lo the North, will
find (hie route tbe plra-autest it cheapest. And those who
may wish to visit tile Springs are informed, that, exclusive
of the Lina, they can at all times be accommodated, on shurt
notice, with good extra Coaches to those watering pieces.
And the public are assured, that in attention tu the accent*
laudation and comfort of the passengers, sc far as good Crath.
*• aud Trams, and skillul and sober Drivers can afford them,
the line shall not be infer 101 to any other in the State.
Rirbmcnd, Va. March 17. 103— tine
Land, Negroes, $c. /or~ bate.
ON Monday the 251h May, l shall jell, at public auction,
the laud un which I reside ill I’uwhntan county; it con.
tains 1000 acres, about IU.) acres of which is good low giotinds,
well adapted to the production of coin, wheal, and tobacco.
There is of the balai.ee of Ibis laud, 3M acres in woods of
good quality; on this land u a good dw# Iling house with all |
necessary out buildings. One half of (lie purchase money
will be required tu cash, the balance in twelve mouths, to be
secured by bond aud security, with a deed of trust on the
land. At the n'H lime, I shall sell, for cash, hrtweeu twelve
end fifteen likely uegrue,, stock, plantation ulttuilsi house
hold A kitchen fumituri, Jtc.
rorsetsiin will he given on the 2filh d.ay nf December next,
with tbe privilege of seeding a crop of wheat. E\ M.
April 17 112—wGw
t jpiiE NfcivV MAFA OF' VIRGINIA, tuning's Sin urea, at
-A. large, Gilmer’s k Randolph's Rep.irn 'I rues signed
and determined in the Court ot Appeili, Jourti.li of the .Se
nate aud House of Delegates .it Virginia from t77G to 1720
socialise, ant) of the Couveatiooj ot 1775 t> and 178k.
The Legisluture Uaving directed the sale of these liooks k.
maps, tnsuy of which were t urchased by the State, to insure
the publication, :hey ara offered to thv public si (exerpt
Ihe Jo«r:i>l'> much lejs.ttian east; and as me proceeds are
to be applied lathe increase of the Library of Ihe State, it is
hoped (hit every Virginia purchaser wtil h* disposed to sup>
ply himself from this source. Uf the lirgc .Maps ot Vugiuia,}sn
justly admired for its general accuracy and beauty of exsru
tiun, hut a limited number t.f -copies remain f«t sale—The
Jour dels, which nav* recently been printed at the public ex*
pense, embrace the entire perisd of (he Revolutionary sir —
gl», contain much viluabla an I iatereitiug matter— are no
ashere else to bo had, xnd with the Statutes it luge ought to
ha in the library of every Virginian. , flic filiowing are the
grices:— For the large map 5211, small map 6; ileuiog’s
(atutes at large, per selof l I vnls 12 dollars; Gilmai’s He.
ports 2 dolls, per vol.; Randolph's, per set 20 dolls, or m pro.
portion for any vol. except the 5th, which cannot he sold for
less than 5dolls.; fer llse journal#, per set, corapriuug 5 pi r(o,
and 3 uqlavo vols. 25 dolts, hung uo U...I e than the expanse u|
printing and hinding.
Orders addressed to the subscriber at tbe Capitol in the
City of Richmond, or to J. ff J. K. Heron, corner above the 1
Eagle Hotel will be promptly attended lo. *
Clerk of the Council and Librarian.
March 27. 10o— tf
Executive will receive proposals in conformity with
•A the provisiens of the 3d section of the act concerntut
the Armory, karats annexed—G And ha it further enacted,
(fiat the Executive be authorised ^required to ascertain upon
what terms (he Armory HuitUingi <y attached thereto,
can be sold, exchanged or leased for a term of years, 4t cotta
eiunicats to the neat Caiieral Assembly the result of tbvir
• nqeiry.” By order of the Exec
_ . . WM. 11. U1CUAUDS0N, e. c.
Executive Department, )
13th March, 1828. J
March M. rot _tf
*®r^A9 comn,ilt«d <° the Jail of Giles eoirnty, Va., on the
vv 20th day of December, 1228, as a runaway, a mulatto
man wins call# bimsell Henry Uud; says that he 11 a free trau.
g that he was raised in Essex County, Vs., ne«r Hobs’s.Hole.
j Hemy Bird had on wheu committed, a blue wouleu jeans coal
7 and pantaloons, an oid ,>ol hat, and a vanely ol other clothes
in bis possession, believed tu he stolen, ilemy Bird is a lew
v shade) darker than a bright mulatto, he .as a large beard, at d
! tolerable large whiskers, ire is about five feel an or seven mrhes
, high, between 25 Jt SO yi ara of eg*, appears a smart, intelli*
f ent man, quick spoken, and plays tolerably wall uu the viu
The owner, if any, xi e requested lo come toward, pruve
property,pay charges,and taae him awiy, or else he will be
dealt with according to law. MORTON P. EMMONS,
fot tV111 Smith, J. G. C.
* Feb. 21._ 08—8m
JOHN SAflVAY, re<peclfully informs bis customers, and
the public generally, tbit he has received l.y the lalist
Northern Packets,
•'* Splendid Spring Assortment, ,
which he U now opening, and offers either at Wholesale >r
Retail, for cash, or on the usual credit to punctual customers.
1 , Owing to his personal attention to the selection of these
• goods, at the principal Noithern Maucfactuiies, he feels pei
/ectconfidence m asserting that ther are ol the very
Latest Fashion;
' And can be disposed of no as good terir», as any that ere, or
roe* be in the market thn season. lie will he receiving ad
ditional supplies by eveiy packet throughout the season, so
that his aisortmeul will always he found complete.
Amongst the present ass •rtiiient are (he following:
1000 pair Lad es’ lasting slippers (with hee s,l various qualities
1000 ** do do do (springs) n a
bOO “ “ Saalskiu Shoes
60 “ Uenllemen’s uioro. dreis boots, 1st quality Pinle.
80 « do ealf do do '* «
!! „ do d,‘ do ,l0 2n'1 * 3rd qualities
jOT uentlemen’s .Ires, alu.es, 1st quality
200 •• d0 inure, pumps *• •*
600 “ Men's lined it boutid htnrana
*00 " d. ,hoe,
u .dt' rnarsa shoes It brogans
“00 Women's leather «iic>f|
!! M'**es’ lasting sealskin and leather shoe*
1000 « H v’* hoot. A. shoes
1000 “ Children’s hoots It shoes
Kobo hallows and bag tup travelling trunks
/ do '*» ill sitae
Calfskins, uf superior quality
liiodrogs, h«. kies and every i.ther descr.ption of hoot U shoe
Day k Martin's liquid Meeting, warranted
Lee fk Tlioinpsoo’s pa*te do u gg,r
Main Hi. Hichm. nd, Msy 5. , |‘rt _q,
Tobacco, Cotton Sf Flour.
,j',HK Subscribers tendo their ssrvicei to tUe pi,„i,r,
L sales nf fnhae.o, O.rfl .n it Hlm.fi on sst.icl. hber.i ad.
vaocea will be made in anticipation of sales.
* J. &. S. COSBY, & CO.
Apjil at;_Ml e,
NeHotpital, Williamsburg.
OTICKis hereby given thetall the r.ellslnt hin'nstitnfiee
ar otrup,w|,,nHih*t no morepatients will he received
MMetaid cells are vgranti duenoticcof which wil
V , Dy v,4u *f'hero. rtqf Direct-rs.
***-•» Tt- FIEHLUV.
Kicw Spring Goods.
MJIjY.V S. Vji L tlJYTljYE,
1! * AS received by (he fcixit, KtTml and Planter, fioro New
* * V»rk,4 Urge supply of tsaudsorui: Spring aoJ Bummer
bUOJd; airoug tlirtn ate:
Uio tie Iujti, vji Ue Berlin, and (iro de Naples
Hi avy sMwis.and *aliu levautine
Black aod blue black Italian lustring
Hi avy aehilrrws and aaiainetla
Black aud blue hlack Matpeine silk
I’lsiit will striped black cambist, fur gentlemen's summer
, coats and pantaloons
riain palmy n n-s. a beautiful a.ortmtul
l)o bittisie and pahnyiioe battiste
Orisntal plaidiaud Nankin cape
Satius, assurtrd, and hlack mi je
3- 1, 4 lauil I I plat.I and atnpcJ ginghams
3 k 4-4 black aud while plaid iio
A large supply of fancy col’d calicoes *
Mack aud white aud black and lavender dp
Figured aud plain Swiss muslins
l).i do hcok and tuull do
4- 4 St *3-4 cambric and cambric isiu.il.»s
3-1, 4-4 dr 5.4 plain hubuiet lace
Bobiutt laces, tdgiugs aud ijuillings
Ladies'fancy color ad haukcrthiefs, viz: da coupe, Gro
d» Nap coD'ta, garasbe, damask, Asiatic, matehoul aud
worsted barege
Marabout, deutete, rave and garasbe bounet aud rip lib*
bi ns, ail widths
Lustring aud satin ribbon*, assorted
l’lam printed and painted bell do
Bilk end worsted bind?and curds
Ladies’silk aud cotton hoiarry
Gentlemen's Jo do aud half hose
Ladles’ and geutleuirn’a gloves assorted
Irish linens, iswns arid liuru rainhrica
l.iueu cambric aud imitation hdkfs.
White It black hobbinet veils, game do
White 4r col’d Russia It FrencTi drilling
Black lastiug, prunella aud Circassian
Fine bombasines and hombaztG
^ ic' ,Ul* *R'P*d cottou jeans, fer summer pantaloons,
Wilmington and Washington stripes
Super yellow and blue uauktena
45 bite At hlack satfeen aud cotton eassimifc
Black silk, Maiscilles Ar other vesting
sXugo'a caasirutre and Uuiou mixture
I’lanl striped and twilled domestics
3,4 At 6-4 apron checks, furniture d>
Russia, birdsaye ami table dianer
Irish and Russia sheeting, duiHa and duck
Burlaps, ozn.shurgs and hempen culls
3, 4 At 6*4 bleached aud brown aheniin. »n.l .VI,it... -n i
qualities and \v;iuu« I
Tortoise St Drsxilian side and tuck comha
Uinh.*’!*.. parasol'and palmetto halt,
H ilh a rrr-» vuoiy ,-.f other goods, comprising a central
ari-l complete assrirtmeut, which have hren purchased princt*
pally at auction in New York, and will he sold at a very
leaauuihl* advauce, for ca.u.atthe comer of 4th 4- U Sheet,
Shockir HilL 1
Ma7 *• ___I I6-fit
|4llE Suhscrifcer olfeis fur sale, his tract of laud m Netto'
way county, on ihe north side of tjellar Creek, snJ on
both nut s of Deep Creek, containing hy late survey 872 3.4
*c.r.*V711 !' "‘V* U abou‘ >50 acres ..f (l»t laud, most of
which has been reclaimed at considerable eipence, and is
thought to bo first rate Tohacco land. Th. improvement* are
new, having been all built in the course of five years, and
cousistof two granaries, six liaini 20 hy 24 feet, with an
over leer’s house aud smoke house, all framed. Tho negroes’ I
cabins are good and comfortable.
Ihe pujrmeiili will be made to suit (he purchaser. Perrons
wishing to porchase, will apply to Lew Jones living iu th*
county of Nottoway, who ia aultio;ixrd to dispose of-it.
April 28._ 115-Sit
Hr. M* NEMAHA having formed a connection with
• rki’ip llu-l'al, Jr. the Apothecary and Drug business
heretofore con.lucted hv Inm, will in future ha carried on hy
the subscribers under the firm of
At the old established stand one door above the Util Tavern.
Tiie arrangement they have made is such, that one or hotli will
•I way* he on !h- ipoi; kihI from (heir knowledge of (he huai*
ne*f, they hope that the former curtoocers of the huiue, and
the public generally, will hove confidence in their abilities to
discharge any duties that may devolve on (hem in prosecuting
ihe hiuineft. Their unremitted attention will b« given to all
applicantt. fh«y will always b# supplied with « gen«ual assort*
riicot of the best aitides in their line, and are de(«*imined to
sell on n» ^ood terms as any other houst* in the city. The uu
fettled business ol II.0* Mc^emara,wili be attended toby ei
»ber of the parlies. 7
P. DU VAL, Jit.
Mav 12. 4—If
TOILL commence, over the Camp Field Course, one and
Ny shall miles from toe Court huus«, ou Tuesday the 22d
<lsy of May, and continue -1 days.
1st Day- Thei* will he a Sweepstake for colls and fillies
three year, old, mile heals entrance 450.
2nd Day— .lucky Club purse, 3 mile heals, Three Hundred
3rd Day— Post Slake, two mile heats, entrance Fifty Dolls,
free fur any horse, mare or gtldiog.
4th t)ay— Handy Cap, hest three in five, entrance Twenty
Dollars, tree l.-r any imr.-t, mare or gelding, tu be governed
by the rules of Ihe Club. * 5
The Hiihseriher as Treasurer,refer* th* member* of the Club
tu the 3Vh it i.d'li Itule. of the Oluh, as he is compelled to
put up the I’urse. The Rules will he enforced against delin
qtipsst*. X. CAKY. Proprietor.
May »2.___ _i-nit
mOy-SUANT to ailreJ of tru-t, ciecuteii to me, on (he
»—y' 2utb of January, by Henry W. and Asborne Lockett, and
duly »(.cot-ted in Ihe Clerk’s Office of PuwLalan; for the pur
poses th reirs mentr.ned, l *ha i, ou the 17th day of June next,
at Powliv sn courthouse, (Hist heing couit d«y.| prodded to
sc I, for cash, to the Inghes' hnldtr, at public auction, the I'ol
l wing rrnpetly, to wit—ten negroes |six men, a wmu'n »nd
three cn'idren,) allo, four uurie , the property of said II. W.
Lockett; or so much th*re«.f as may be necessary to satisfy the
requisites of said trust deed.
buch title only, as is vested in me hy sa-d deed, I will cos.
vev. A. U. WALTHALL, fruit**.
May 12. 1—
'•miner Online of Lectures will hegin on Monday, i
'-A ihe tith Hay of April, and end on the Saturday preceding ;
the first Mou Jay of November. The month of August is a
vac a1 inn.
NATHANIEL CUAP AN, M. D. On the Procure of 1
.Medieine. J I
WM. P. DEWEES, M. D. On Midwifery.
CHUB HARRIS, M. D. Surgeou U. b. Navy. On Optra•
live Surgery.
SAM L JACKSON, M. I). On Materia Me.lien.
WM. E. HORNER, AI. D. On Anatomy.
JNO. K MITCHELL, M. D. On Chemietry
JOHN HELL. M. D- On the /rutitutee of Medicine, and
Mtdica' Juritui udtnre.
HUtsll L ItODOE, M. D. On the PrincipUt of Surgery
Philadelphia, April 3. 108-2m
To the Members of the Protestant Episcopal
Church of Virginia.
rI1'IE Annual Ccniven'irn of the I’rotadent Episcopal Church
1. cf Vi enna, will he held jn Charlottesville on Wedues. !
day the 20 b ol Mny
JOHN G. WILLIAMS, Secretary.
- April 23. ljj-td
Executive Department, /
Feb. 21, 1829. )
rjKoroSALS will he received at thie Department fur the
.* purchase of the transports in the Penitentiary. Terms,cash,
rhose disposed to purchase will give id Ibtir proposals without
By rrd?r, Wm. II. HICIIAHDSON.
tf>h 24- _ 06— tf
TaNU Foil SALfc!
N Viftus* of a J««i| of trust haarmr date lh<* 2Glh day of !
; >4, fi&vrmhsr 1822, ao*1 duiy recopled io (becltrk’t n(h< e
u< the county court of Amherst no the Btlt day of January
!B23, whereby femes 8. Pendleton, of the said county, roll,
veyed to the undersigned, in trust, foi the purposes therein
mentioned, "one Witt lain (raft or parcel of land, containing
7BJ acres, be the same more or less, lying aod being in the
count/ of Amheist, on Duftaloe river, ou both sides of the
road from New ftlasguw to Lynchburg, and idjiining the
| Units of David 8. (ja. laud, being the same Isruli which Thus
i Aldridge purchased of John Gamin and John Warwick,
and which wa. conveyed hy .aid Tho.. Aldridge and Gatha
| fine his wife, to the said James 8 Pendleton, by deed fear.
| mg date the 23th .'ey of April l*l»)” we .hall, on Monday,
I the loth day of June oeat, before the froot door of the F.e.
j el6 Ifotel in the City of Kichrgnud, proceed to sell, to the
highest bidder, at puMir auction, for <!*sfi, all that part of said
trael of land which lies east of the Mid rued, with * small p*>l
west of the said road to include the ham, containing agreea
bly lo recent survey, S33 acres, fur the purposes of said lrs-t.
On that pottie of ssid tract, which w,|| be sold as aforssaid,
‘here ■« a two story brick dwelling bom*, with ofb*r n*eessary
out houses: (be situation is heelthy, water good, neirhourhond
ecreeable, improvements in good eond'Slon, and plantation un
der a good system nf culture. The title u believed to be io
disputable, hilt acting as tiuiteea we shall sell a id cunvey
only (be title vested in us. 7
WM. NKKERVIS, 51,U9lce<
April 7. >0<* td,
Fit/is tt .sj’/tTX a goo dS ~
P. L E. JAMES, h CO.,
M A R X KT-S^tf ARK,
nAVK |US( received, between 4 h. SOO- Packages ol 1 HKHII
DRY ft DS) comprising one cf th» largest, most ge.
''•land dej b!e stocks of Rpring floods they have *ver
oTered for sale. -A ant perliculsr auveit'i'meut will srresr
, in a few days.
I A; it! 34. ) I 6--tf
Correspondence between John Quincy Adams, i
Esquire, President of the United States, and
several Citizens oj Massachusetts, concerning
the Charge of a Design to Dissolve the Union
alleged to have existed in that State.
A weighty argument for limiting government to
the simple and general legislation which we hare
now recommended, though not intimately connect
ed with our main subject, deserves a biief notice. '
It is found in the great and growing extent of the
country. The attention of Congress is already
distracted and overwhelmed by the multiplicity
ot affairs, and every sessiou is more and more in
danger of neglecting its proper objects and do no
thing well. We fear that the most pressing busi
ness is the most frequently postponed. We refer
to the claims of individuals on the government;
and we call these (he most pressing concerns, be
cause the man who has been wronged by an un
anticipated operation of the laws or of any public
measures, has a right to immediate redress, and
because delay of justice may be his rum. Al
ready we hear angry complaint and derision of the ;
incfllcacy of Congress, and the evil will increase,
until that body shall select from a bewildering
crowd of applications, its appropriate objects, and
shall coniine itself to a legislation demanded by
tire general voice, and by the obvious wants of
the community
The principles of legislation now laid down,
seem to u9to have an important bearing on two
great questions, which have already agitated the
country, and which, we fear, bode no goad to the
Union. We refer to the restrictive system and to
internal improvement. The first, which projio.-es l
fo protect certain brandies r.f domestic industry, •
saems to us singularly wanting in that simplicity
and impartiality, which, as we have said, should j
characterize our legislation. It cannot be under
stood by the ina«s ot the people, and it will cer
tainly divide them. In the first place, the re
strictive system involves a Constitutional difficul
ty. We of this region, indeed, generally concede
to Congress the right of limiting trade in general,
or ol annihilating particular branches of it, for the
encouragement ot domestic industry; but the ar
gument for a narrower construction of the Con
stitution is certainly specious, and certainly stroug
enough to give to those on whom a tariff may
press heavily, the consciousness of being wrong
ed. In the next place, the general question ol
■the expediency of restriction must ha allowed by
its advocates to be a difficult one. The growing
light of the age certainly seems to oppose it, and
the statements and reasonings by which it is de
fended, even if founded in truth, are yet so intri
cate and so open to objection, that vast numbers
even of the enlightened cannot be satisfied ol
their validity. But supposing restriction to be ad
mitted, the question as to its extent, as to the kinds
of industry which shall be protected, as to (lie i
branches of trade which shall he sacrificed, this I
question is the most perplexing which can be offe 1
ed to popular discussion, and cannot tail to awaken
cupidity,jealousy, and hatred. From the nature
of the case, the protection must be unequally ex
tended, nor can any wisdom balauce the losses to
which the different states will be exposed. A re
strictive tariff is necessarily a source of discord.
To some portions of the country it must be an evil,
nor will they suffer patiently. Disadvantages
imposed by nature, communities will bear, but
not those which are brought on them by h gi-la
tion. Wc have, indeed, various objections to the
whole system of protection. Wo believe it to bo
deceptive throughout. Wo also oppose it, on the
ground that our country in adopting if, abandons
its true and honorable postion To this country,
above all others, belongs, as its primary duty and
interest, the support of liberal principles. It ha
nothing in it-institutions congenial with the max
ims of barbarous ages, with the nartow, monopo
lizing, restrictive legislation ol antiquated despo
tisms. Freedom, in all its forms, isourlile, strength,
and prosperity; and every system at war with
it,however speciously maintained, is a contradiction
to our characters, and, w anting harmony with one
spirit, must take something, however silently,
from the energy of the institutions which hold us
together.—As citizens of the world, we grieve
that this country should help to prolong prejudi
ces, which even monarchy is out-growing; should,
in imitation of meddling despotisms, undertake to
direct the industry and capital of the citizen, and
especially should lose sight of that sublime ob
ject of philanthropy, the promotion of free unre
stricted commerce throygh the world. As patri
ots, wr grieve that a prceedent has been afforded
for a kind of legislation which, if persisted in, will
almost certainly loo-on, and may rupture, the U
nion. The principal excellence of the late tariff
Is, that it is so constructed as to please no one, that
even its friends pronounce it an abomination; for
by offending and injuring all, it excites less ani
mosity in the principal sufferers. Tariffs never
will bo impartial. They will always, in a grea
ter or less degree, be the results of selfish com
binations of private and public men, through which
a majority will be secured to particular interests;
and such is the blindness of avarice, that to grasp
a short-lived partial good, the infinite blessings ol
union will be hazarded,and may be thrown away.
If we may be allowed a short digression, we
would say, that we have no partiality to tariff* of
any kind, not even those which are laid on imports
for the purpose of raising revenue. We suppose
that they are necessary at present, especially
w here they have become the habit of the peopl , j
and we are not insensible to the facility they at- 1
ford for collecting the revenue. But we should
rejoice, if by some great improvement in finance,
every*custom-house could be shut from Maine to j
Louisiana. The interests of human nature, require |
that every fotter should he broken from the inter- ,
course of nations, that the most distant countries
should exchange all their products, whether of]
manual or intellectual labor, as freely as the mem- I
bars of tho same community. An unrestricted
commeice we regard as tl»e most important means
of diffusing through the world, knowledge, arts,
comforts, civilization, religion, and liberty; and to
this great cause we would have our country d
voted. W<-will add that we attach no impart nr.
<\» what is deemed the chi- f benefit of tariffs, tint
they save the necessity of direct taxation, md
draw from a people a large revenue without their
knowledge. In the first place, wc say, that a free
people ought to know what they pay for freedom,
nnrl that they should as truly scorn to be cheated
into the support of their government, as into the
support of thois children. In tho next place, a
large revenue is no blessing. An overflowing
treasury will always be corrupting to the govern
ors and the governed. A revenue, rigorously pro
portioned to the wants of a people, is as much as
can be trusted safely to men in power. '1 he only
valid argument against substituting direct lor in
direct taxation, is the difficulty of ascertaining wiih
precision the property of tho citizen. Happy
would it he for us, could tariffs bo done away, for
with them would b0 abolished fruitful causes of
national jealousies, of war, of perjury, of smug
gling. of innumerable frauds and crimes, and of
harassing restraints on that commerce which i-houJd
he free as the winds.
We rounder many of the remarks made in re
ference to tariffs as applicable to internal im
provements. Thc«e also involve a Constitutional
question of no small difficulty; and it seems im
possible that they should be provecuted with any
degree of impartiality. Wc will not say, that an
extensive system of internal improvements, com
prehending and connecting the whole country,
and promijfujr great, nuu^-e*, an] uoiversi? good,
may not be framed. But let Congress propose;
narrow, local improvements, anil we ueed no pro
phet to loretell the endless and ever-multiplying
intrigues, the selfish combinations, the jealousies,
and discontents which will follow by a necessity
as sure as the laws of nature. An irresistible
temptation will be oil. red to unprincipled bargain
between states ami legislators, aud the treasury,
sending out partial streams, will become a fouu- !
tain ol bitterness and discord.
l-et it not be said, that most of the proposed iin- j
provements are designed to promote intercourse, ■
and that thus they lavor what we conceive to be
the great end of government, by binding us to
gether. We answer, that the General tiovem
meut already promotes intercourse incomparably
more than all other causes combined, and we are
unwilling to put to hazard this actual beneficent
influence hy striving to extend it. Government.
already Joes more lor this object thau all the ca
nals, railroads and other internal improvements,
which human ingenuity can devise, and lids it dues
hy that negative influence, which, as we have of- .
ten said, is its chief function. This it does hy
making us one people, by preserving us from be-:
ing broken into different communities, by prevent
ing those obstructions to a free interchange of
commodities, which, in case ol disunion, would at
once rise up between us; by preserving us from na
tional rivalries, from the war of tariffs, and Irom
open and ruinous hostility. We grant that cases
may occur, in which national advantage may lie
lost, or useful objects delayed, for want of positive
interference ol government in the work of internal
improvement. But (he wisdom of nations, like j
that of individuals, consists very much in a wil- j
liuguess to forego near and inferior benefits for j
permanent security. We have however little
apprehension of much injury resulting from the I
lorncarance oi government in tins particular.—
Let Congress hold us together, and keep U3 in
peace, and the spirit of the people will uot slum
ber. It will pour itseli forth through our state
governments, through corporations, and through
individual enterprise; ami who that observes what
it already has done can see limits to its efficiency?
Since the adoption ol the Federal Constitution,!
nothing has contributed so much to extend inter- !
course through the States as the invention of
steamboats. No legislation, «ud no possible direc
tion of the revenue to public improvements, could
have effected so much as the steam engine : and
this was contrived, perfected, and applied to navi
gation by the genius and wealth of individuals.—
Next to this agent, the most important service to
internal communication has been rendered by the
New York canal, and this was the work of the
State. With such examples, we need not fear,
that our progress will be arrested by the confine
ment ol the General Government to general ob
jects. Wo are not sure, that, were every objec
tion which we have stated removed, we should be
anxious to interest our national legislature in pub
lic imprevcn.ents. As a people, we want no new
excitement. Our danger lather is from over-ac
tion, from impatient or seltish enterprise, from fe
verish energy, horn too rapid growth, rather than |
from stagnation and lethargy. A calm, sober,'
«tcady government, is what we chiefly need.— !
May it be kept from the hands of theorists and
We have not yet exhausted (lie question, how
government may best strengthen and perpetuate I
our Union. There is one of its establishments,
which, in this point of view, we highly value, and
which we tear is not sufficiently p«^ed for the
highest benefits which it confers. We refer to
the Post Office The facilities which this insti
tution affords to the government for communica
tion with all parts of the country, arc probably re
garded by too many as the most important national
service which it renders. lint it does incompara
bly more for us as a community. It does much
towards making us one, by admitting free commu
nication between distant parts oT the country,
which no other channel of intercourse could bring
together. It binds the whole country in a chain
of sympathies, and makes it in truth one great
neighborhood. It promotes a kind of society be
tween the sea shore and the mountains. It per
petuates friendship between those who are never
to meet again. I (binds the family in the new set
tlement and h.ill-cleared forest to the cultivated
spot from which it emigrated. Jt facilitates be
yond calculation, commercial connexions, and the
interchange of products. On this account, we at
way-* grieve to see a statement of the revenue ac
cruing to government from the Post Office. It
ought not to yield a rent to the treasury. It should
simply support itself.—Such importance do we
attach to the freest communication ! etween all
parts of the country, so muck do we ((csirc that the
poor, as well as rich, may enjoy the inpans of in
tercourse, that we would sooner have the Post Of
nee a ia\ on me revenue, (nan one of its sourres.
We pas? io another method hy which th» go
vernment is to strengthen the Union. We know
not a more important one. Ft is, to give digni’y
ami independence to the National Judiciary. Let
Congress feel, let the people feel, that to this de
partment the seemity of the Union is especially
committed, that it is the great preservative power
among our institution?, and that its sanctity can
not be too jealously protected. Its olfice is, to
settle peacefully the questions between the differ
ent States and their citizens, which, without it,
would be sett cd by arms. What beneticcncc and
digrwty belong to this function! Nor is this all.
I .f|inds to cibz ns, who feel them<elve.s aggiiev
ed by an unconstitutional law, tFie means of peace
ful resistance. Ii gives them an opportunity ol be
ing heard before a tribunal, on which the meat so
lemn obligation- to justice aro laid, and which is
eminently titled to he an umpire between the cit
izen ai.d the legislature. We know not how go
vernment can contribute inoro effectually to its
own stability than by reverencing and guarding
the rights ol the National Judiciary. A Congress,
which should trench on its independence, ought
to bo counted guilty of a species of sacrilege.
From considering the importance of the Judi
ciary toour Union, we are naturally led to another
department of the government, and one which i«
particularly worthy of attention, because at the
present moment it seems to menace our confede
ration more seriously than anv other cause. We
refer to the F.xccutive Department. Wc refer to
the strnggl s which the election to the presidency
has again and again provoked. These are too so
lemn and fear ul to bo oveilooked. A remedy
must bo found, or the country will he thrown
into perpetual convulsions, and split into factions
devoted each to a chief. Wo shall waste our
selves in struggle* for a few leaders, who hy their
prominence will become dearer to a people than
their iiistitutiu s, and infighting for our favorites
we may heroine thrh slaves.
This evil we regird as a growing one; and we
know hut one remedy for it. The people must
acquire a just self-respect. This they want. It
ha:i been repressed hy false notions about govern
ment which have rorne down Irnm age* of nton
atrhv I he spirit of freedom, ol which we so
lunch boast, has not given a due elevation of *on
timenf to the community; and therefore the com
munity basely binds itself »0 leaders as if they
were superior* A people should understand its
greatness and dignity too well to attach much
importance to any individual, ft should regard
no individual as nerr*sarv loif, nor should it «uf
frr any one to urge hi* claims on it? gratitude. It
-liould feel, that it has a tight to the services ol
its member*, and that there i* r.o member, with
whose servirns it caftnol dispense, ft should have
no idols, no favor i'es. It should annihilate with
its frown, tho-e who would monopolize If* power, •
orhting it in o subserviency to their owrj gfnrv '
mn;* aV-u!! nun c . ■ * *\
should L:nd up in no man its prosperity &. honor-1
A free coiiiinui ily, indeed, lias need of a presid- 1
inx otlicer but it depends on no individual alone
fitted for the cilice. anti still more, it needs a I’re- '
Bident, not to be its master, but to express and ;
execute its own will. This last thought is fun- |
daniental and never to be forgotten. Th? only!
law ot a free people, is the will of the majority, or
public sentiment, and to coiled, embody, utter,
anti execute this, is the great end of its civil insti
tution. Self-government is its greatest attribute, its
supreme distinction, and this gives to office in a
free state an entirely different character from what
it possesses in despotic countries. The difference,
however, is overlooked among us, and the same
importance is attached to office, as if it conferred
absolute power.
We repeat it, the supreme law in a free state
is its own will, and consequently, among sucli a
people, tire highest power does not necessarily be
long to him, who is clothed with office, but to-hiin
w ho does most, in whatever sphere, to guide and
determine the public mind. Otfice is a seconda
ry inilucnce, and indeed its most enviable distinc
tion consists in the oppoi tu nitics whicli it affords
for swaying the opinions and purposes of the com
munity.The nominal legislator is not always the re
al one. Me is often the organ of superior minds,
and, it the people be truly tree, his chiel function
is, to give form and efficiency to the general will.
Lveu it) monarchies, where a free press is enjoj
ed,(he power passes more ami more from the pub
lic functionary to the master spirits who frame
the natiou's mind.—Thus the pen cf Curke rival
led the sceptre of fiis sovereign, 'i lie progress of
freedom and of society is marked by this fact,
that official gives place to personal, intellectual,
and moral dignity. Itisabad omen, where of
fice is thought the supreme good, and where a
people sues in the public functionary, uot an or
gan ol its own will, but a superior being, on whom
its peace and happiness depend.
*» o mean noi 10 ueny the necessity o* o(ncc>
We know^ that tho President tills an important ■
place. We know that the community has an in
terest in his integiity and wisdom, and that it is ■
disgraced and injured by placing an incompetent i
or unprincipled innn in the most conspicuous s*a- j
tion. To the President are conn,led important
functions, but not such functions as can be dis- ;
charged only by one or t wo individuals in the coun- j
try,not such as ought to make him an object of!
idolatry or dread, not such as should draw to him
any extraordinary homage,not such as to justify in
tense desiie in the candidate, or intense excite
ment in the people. Under institutions, really
free, no otfice can exist, which deserves tlie strug
gles of ambition, f): 1 our constitution cieatc
such an office, it would prove its authors to have ;
been blind or false to thvir country's dignity anil
rights. But that noble charter is open to no such
reproach.— The presidency, tho highest function
in the state, is exceedingly bounded by the Con
stitution, and stilt more by the spirit of the com
munity. A President has been, and may often be,
one of the least efficient men in the government.
We need not go far for proof. In both houses of
Congress there were men, whose intltience over
the cotinlry was greater than that of tho last
President. He indued contributed to keep the
wheel of government in motion. Put we ask,
what new impulse did he give it? What single
important measure did he originate? Was there a
man in office more fettered and thwarted? We
talk of the administrations of Mr. Monroe and
Mr. Adams. \\ a ask, what impression of them
selves have they left on legislation and on public
affairs? They gave no spring to the public mind.
A popular senator or representative did more to
sway the community. And this is as it should he.
" o rejoice that official influence is so restricted,
that the people are not mere echoes of a single
voice, that no man cun master his fellow-citizens,
that there is a general, all-pervading intelligence,
which modifies, controls, and often neutralizes, the *
opinion jnd will of the highest public functionary, j
We have spoken of the presidency as it has ac
tually existed, and as it must in a great measure
exist whilst we are free; and yet, through a delu
sion which has comedown from past ages, this of
fice, so limited in power, so obstructed by the leg
islative branches and by public opinion, which is
conferred on the individual at the longest but for
eight years, and trorn which he retires to a se
clusion, where scarcely an eye follows, or a voice 1
of approbation cheers him, this office, to our dis-1
grace, is coveted by an insane ambition, a; it it i
were an hereditary throne, and the people areas
much excited and disturbed, when call'll to fill it,
as if they were choosing a trader for life at wlo.se
leel the country was to lie laid an unprotcci. d vic
tim. To our shame be it said, for the last eight
years every interest of the nation has been post
poned to the comparatively inferior concern of
choosing a President. The national lrgi«!aiu;e,
■urgeiu'ig in appornimcnt to watch over the gen
eral weal, has wasted and worse than wasted it*
annual sessions in intrigues for tho advance
incut of rival candidates. The most important
measures have been discussed anil decided, not
with reference to the country, but chiefly accord
ing to their lie..rings on what has been called the
presidential election. So sadly have we wanted
the self-respect which belongs to freemen! In
these disgraceful transactions, in this shameful
excitement spread through the romniunify, we
see that as a people we have not drunk as deeply
as wo imagine of the lofty spirit of liberty. In
proportion as a people become free, in’ proportion
as public sentiment reign*, office ceases to bo a
distinction, political ambition expires, tho prizes
of political ambition arc withdrawn, the self-res
pect of the people prr«e,yrw j( from bowing to fa
vorites or idols. Whilst it is tho characteristic of
despotism, that the ruler is every thing and the
people comparatively nothing, the reverse is the
grand distinction of a free state. This distinction
we have yet to learn; ami it cannot he learned too
thoroughly. Unless we are preserved by a just
self-respect from dividing into faction , lor the ele
vation of leaders, wo shall hold our Union an I
our rights by a very uncertain tenure. Met*
ter wpre it fo choose a President by lot from a
hundred names to which each Htate shall rontrih
ute its fair proportion, than repeat the degrading
struggle thro* which we have recently pa«*cd.
We close this topic by entreating our citizens to
remember the great argument in favor of heredi
tary monarchy It may be expressed in a lew !
words : ‘ The highest office in a nation/ says th • \
monarchist, ‘ought to bo hereditary, bee,use it • l
an objeet loo dazzling and writing to be held Ui
for competition. Such a prize offered to tho ;»«
piring, must inflame to madness the lust of power !
and engender perpetual str ife. A p»oplo having !
=urh a gift to bestow, •et.'l l»o exposed to perpetu *
al arts and machinations. If* pinions will never i
be alb wed to sleep, faction*, header] by popular I
chiefs and exasperated by eoullicl. will at length /
resort to f, rc , ami itt tho storm* wl.irh will follow.;
tho Constitution will bo prostrated, and fhr r*u’{
protne power he the p ev < f a successful usurper.
The poJce and stability of a nation dcir.nd, that
the supreme power should be placed al ovc rival
ry, and beyond the hope s of ambition, and this can
only be done by making it hereditary.’ Surh r*
the grand argument in favor of monarchy. A* a
people we have done toy much to r on ft r in if.--li
f'"“1 *baf »v* prove oiirz- Ivra morn loyal tc
freedom. V.'e *h.il| !o y ■ It (., remember, that a
republic, broken 10(0 purlin C*1 ich bur the rhif
magistracy for tlnrir aim, at 1 thrown into pi-rpetu
a! agita ion by the rivalry r.f popol* leader*, r<
lending a mournful tesliniory to (hr r a<orur r;i ui
monarchist*, and aereh rating tbs fulfilment af
their sinister foreboding*.
Much rerria'e* fobs said of tho rnccos of | *r.
1 in.’of ‘ho !sr y *?t ,
it is exposed. Rut we want f:m" fo prosecute l) ^
subject. The injuries, with which the confcrfer."
ticn is menace.I by party spirit and a Sectional^r:
rit arc too obvious to need exposition. The im
portance of n national literature to our Unifnin'i
honor deserves particular consideration. JBut f« *■
topic is too great lor our present limits, and wo je
serve it for future discussion.
K # intended to close this article with jryr.t? re
mjrks on the conduct of the different parlies u
this country in relation to the Union, for the pnr.
pose of showing that all huve occasionally hern
wanting in fidelity to it. But the subject woul f
necessarily expand itself beyond the space allow
ed us. Still wo cannot wholly abandon it. One
branch ol it is particularly recommended lousbr
the Correspondence at the head of this review.
The merits or demerits of the Federal party in re
spcct to our Union, seem to be in a measure foil
ed on our consideration: and we are the more Rif
ling to give a few thoughts to the topic, because
we think that we understand if, and because w*
trust that we can treat it dispassionately. Our at
tachment to this party we have no desire fo ej>r
ceal; but our ideas c.f the allegiance due fo a
party arc exceedingly liberal. Wc claim the e»*
vilege ol censuring those with whom wc gerPri;
ly agree; ami we imiiguanlly disclaim the obliga
tion of justifying in the m:?s whatever they may
please todo. Of the Federalists, therefore, w<»
shall speak treely. Wo have no desire fo hid.,
what wc deem to be their errors. They heloti"
now to history, and the ojily question is, how tlicis?
history may be made most useful to their country
and to the cause of freedom. Before we proceed?
however, we beg to remark, that in this, as in eve -
ry other part of the present review, wo write frrn
our own convictions alone, that wc hold no eotr
munication with political leaders, and that we atrr
far from being certain of the reception which o\. -
views will meet from our best friends. ’
A purer party than that of tho Federalist.-,
believe, never exis'ed under any government. -
L\kc all other ccmbiuat ons it, indeed, contained
weak and bad men. In its prosperity, it itrevv to
itself seekers for office.—Still, when we conalJe*
that it enjoyed the confidence of Washington to
his last hour; that its leaders were his ctfovru
friends; that it snpported and strengthen.! I h •»
whole administration; thnt it participated with him
in tlie proclamation and system of neutrality, ihm’
which thnt great nan served his country as e'frce
tually as during the revolutionary war; when y.
consider that it contributed chiefly to the orgai;. •
zation of the Federal Government in the civjl.jw
dicial. financial, military and naval department',
that it carried the country safely and honprahi y
thro’ tho r;o«t tempestuous day of the French J>
volution; tint it withstood the frenzied tendcnric®
of multitudes to alliance with that power, and the*
it averted war with Great Ihitain during a perio-,.
when such a war won Id have bowed us wropuir
ous subserviency to the despot of France; when
we consider these tilings, wc feel, that the dgbtcv
this country to the Federal party is never to be cx
Still we thuik that this pnt'y in somo respcc^a
failed of its duty to the cause of the Union anJ «-v
freedom. Hut it so failed, not through freacheiv
fer truer spirits the wot Id could r>ot boast. Xt fail!*
ed through despondence. Here was the rod* on
which Federalism split. Too many of its IcadFng
men wanted a just confidence in our free instifu'
tians, and in tiie moral ability of the people to i:j.
hold then. Appalled by the excesses of th's
French revolution, by the extinction of lib' •
ty in that republic, and by the fanaticism
which the cause of Franco was still espoused s-.
ir.ung ourselves, they began to despair of their
own country. I he sympathies of tho majority c*
our people with the despotism of Trance were in
<!ee«l a tearful symptom. There seetnod a farcin
fion in that to rible power. An in-ane admire
tiun for the sworn foe ol freedom joined as wl t.
so deadly a hatred towards Tuglanil, so far pervad, :l
the country, that to the FedcrlisU wc sc«n
e.d enlisted as a people on the side of <?cj
potism, and fated to sink under its yoke. Thti
they had cause to fear, wc think. That ll;r /
weie criminal in the despondence to which the*'
yielded, we al-o believe. They forgot, that geeat
penis rail on us for renewed efforts, and lor ir •
creased sacrifices in a good cau<c. That some ot
them considered the doom of the country as sea.’
ed, we have reason to believe. Some, disappoint -
ed and irritated, were accustomed to speak in
hitter scorn of institutions, which, hearing th
name of free, had piovcd unable to rescue us from
b.ve subserviency to an alt-menacing despot. Tti-i
federalists ns a body wanted a r.oufidence in
our national in.-ditutio::*. 'ihev wanted lint la
which hopes against hope, and which freedon*
should inspire. Here was their .‘in, 2nd it breuglf t
ts penally; tor through this more than any cause,
they were driven from power. Hy not confiding
in the community, they lost its c onfidence. ]>'/
the depressed tone with which they spoke ofT*
berly, their attachment to it became «titn»rtr.v
I ho taint of a .*it i* re publican tendencies* wn*
tcncil upon them by their oppdiients; *ntl this *. .
proach no psrty could survive.
We know not in what manner wo can botfc;
communicate our views of the Federal party, if
it* merit* and defect*, than by referring to th«.
distinguished man, who was so long prominent in
it* ranks; we mean the late f.’oorgo t’.ibot. If an *
man in thi* region denrved to be called it* Irj/.*'
cr, it was lie, anil a stronger proof of it* poiitic t
pmity, cannot be imagined, than is found in the
ascendancy wbirli thi* illustrious jadh-j bjal mur. •
taint'd orer if, Ife was the l ist man to be char
ed will) a criimii it ambition* i*i*mind ru?e las
above office. Tho world bad no station wliif>«
would have tempted him from private life, fit.*
in private life, lie exerted the “tvny which is thro
worthiest priv.e of a lofty ambition. }fo vr**coii*u!
e<l with something of the respect which was paid to
m ancient orach-, and no min i among us contribut'
cil so much to the control of public affair* ft ii in
trre .ling to inquire bv what intellectual nttri
hub s he g lined thi* infWi iirejaml .is Ins ebararft r
now belongs to history, perhaps we mw render ii »
unacceptable service in iklioe.iting its Icadin-'
features. 9 "
Wo think, tint he was distingiih bed by nolliut'j*
so rnurli as bv the power id a*rending to genet'1,*
principles, and by the reverence anil ronsHnry
with wtiicli he adhered to them. '1 ho grp.*
(ruths of history and experience, the iinmtitab‘»
laws of Imman nufire, according to which a I
measures should be framed, shorn on his intcllra
tint ryo with an unc) iiid«*d brightness. No ijr.
patience of present evil*, n > c.ie.frm-rs for iuim
dlate good, e :cr tempt-d him to think, that thrv>
ini.lht be forsaken with impunity, 'i'a tho«e Jm
referred all questior-i i ;» which he wi« called tj
ju lgv, a.>d accordingly Ins cr.nvor*ttion had o
char irter ufromprehr1 ; wi* tom, ,vhi -Ii (jfn ■ l
with his ui handy. -' cure I til him a «ingttlnt sw ,.
over the mind* of hi* he ireis. Filii such a jnir *
lie of « ■ iitm held in contempt tho temporary c;
pcilionts, an I iiinMry legislation of r<>triin< n-g! i- c
polit,ci ms. . fie looked with aigul.-.r aversion <>•■,
every ihing factitious, fmred and riimplltilf d : a
policy. Wo Invc understood, Unit ! y the i.att «
.fiength and - .npli' i'y of hi* niind, lie auticip ,t, 1
ftie light*, whirti philosophy end e-.periencsi h: Vu
recently thrown oft 'h»- iinpoitsnee «*1 leaving c*_
e; pri ■. e, indiot i y, "id commefro free. Ho c
icd into pn'iiii * the gieat nxlotn which tho a, -
rlent -jgoir nie l into moral*,'Follow Ns»fin-t '
fuansgoof rcadieg, he leaned I «than in •
men on Iroek* A more independent mindot.r
rounfiy perhtp* has not produced. When r.*.»
ihltdr fbis wbol<* oh..TXcfer, wficn with tho
'ity «' his in»t •!-.>. t we combine (he fntegtily . •
• i t-ear*, !h" d'goifre.d p• ,*ee ot nidfuwrs. *|- ,
•I * v*
’4 *

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