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Richmond enquirer. [volume] (Richmond, Va.) 1815-1867, December 09, 1830, Image 4

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“Mtci« nr i musq ••
A KVA'iMil' Vr<>m' I1KLO -V.
M Shoe 6/<*•.%»*»."--Si4 So mu.
» From Mr. Hood't Comte Annual.)
A< Mr. H. and Mr- I*
*>nn night were ellting i!c':a toto.i,
With total and imilfiiis ho*—
They h«*nid n loinl and sudden bounce,
That made the v**ry chin i tlounc
They could not for a time pionouiiee
If they \\*re s.ile or shot —
r«»r memory brought 1 deed to match
At Ih'plti’fd done by night —
P«*fbre one eyn Appear'd a Patch
h t’olii* r «■>»» n blight!
To h.* helsbottnid out of life,
Wiinoul imruc atmill attempt at
Our tmturo \rill nut grovel;
One tmpuU.t mov'd both man and Omno.
lie seized the tongs--he did the sanis,
l-tsviiig the rulfnn, »f lie runu*,
Tiie poker «md thn short I.
So puso tie coupU ttendirg so
When rushing footsteps fioen below
Mad** pulf«*e fast and !*•»vent;
And tiesi burst ia the h antic cat •
• All steaming like «t brewer's v.it.
And then—;»« white * tey rrivat —
Poor Mnry .May, the servant!
I#«ml how the couple's taatb did chatter,
IMustor and Mi«tt«»«* both flew at h«*r,
'•Si»* »k' Kite? or murder? Wlmt's the matter.*’
Till Mary getting breath
t#|K>n her tele bog in to touch
With rapid tongue, full trotting, inch
A* ifidie thought she It id too much
To toll In*foie her death
"IVe wna both, Ma’am, in Hie w««h homo, Ma'am, a .landing
at out tub.,
Ao'l Mia. Round ua« according ivlial littla thine. I mb.,
‘Maiy,’ *uy« »ho to me, ’I t«y ’ ami them aha atop* lor rough
irtg,
•That rtraOvil copper line h«« look t.. imakin vary often,
•Hut |»|i aaa the pig*,' — lor Uut’a hrr way ol •wealing lua par
• ion,
. *1*11 blow it up, amt not bo act a roughing in thU flithion*'
"'oil lli»n »h.i lOp* •' y mailer’* limn — l moan hi. horn for
loading.
And ernptio* rvrrr grain ntiva for in .at ilia tiro etplndmg.
•Lawk, Vra Round?' toy* I, and (llrci, that quantam I. un
proper,
I'm •arlain •lire it can’t not tnkn a pound to *ky a copper;
Ton’ll pmvJrr both our head, off, -o I toll, you, with it. puff.
Hut .ho only dried lior finger., ami alio lake, u pinch of muff,
Well, when tho pinch t. over—’leach your grandmother to
• lick
A ponder horn,’ »ayi «ho—Well, aay. t, I with you luck
Them word* lot Uli her back, an with tier hand. upon hrr
!•»»»,
Coma b it. ahn, quito in a hufi’, cornu karp your tongua in.i.lc
your lip.;
Atom ever you writ* Itorn, I waa well I m thing' like llieao
I • hull put it i i i h*t grata, and lut it limn up by rtpgrnos!
Bo iu it gnea, and buunco -l) Lord! it givu. u< aucli a ratila
t thought we both wt-r,r raanonisnd, like angora in a H.-.tii<>.'
Up go»a thu coppwr llko a atpiib and us on both our tiarka,
A".I bloaa Him lull* they ’•i.idlod off .m l split uII into crack'
Wall, lharo 1 fainted dead away, and might huvo bcun cut
•hut tar,
But Piovidenco mi kind and brought me tu with ioahtiag wa
ter.
I fir't I.M»U' round for 5lr«. Round, and an«a her at u di'tannn
Aa'tin'll''torch, and looked u> dead ua any thing in eaial
vnrn ;
All eciirchod and grimed, and more than that, I ten tho cop
per (lap 1
Right on her head, lor all tho woilj Ilka parcuaaion copper
rap.
Wull, I crook'tie lilllo fingirra, and crumpa them wall up
logulhnr,
Aa humanity puna nut,ami burnt linr nostrum with a feather;
But for all 9a I rail do, to roatoro her to imulalitr,
Bh« never givea n aign of a return tu aeimiality ’
l liiuka I, well lliero atie liea, aa doad a> my own lulu di parted
mother,
Well, ahe’ll wash iio moro in thu world, whalover she doea in
t’other,
Bo I givea myaelf to irrnnible tip ilia linen' for a minute,
Lawk, rich a ahtrl.’ think' I, it ia well my maator waa tot
in it ••
0!t ' I ttovor, nover, ncrer never, «eo a right ao .hot-kin;
Horn lay' a leg, and the is a leg—I moan, you know n aloekin.
Bodin. all eltt a d tom to rag', nod many n tattered aliirt,
And anna burnt offand aiJti and hack'nil acorched and black
w- tli dirt;
Hut a' no body waa in *om—nono but— nobody waa hurt!
Well, lliero l am, n 'crumbling up tho thing', nil in a lump,
n lien, mercy on ua! aucli u groan at make a my l.e.iri to
jump.
And there alia ia, with a crary aort ofeyo.
A'taring at tho waah-houia roof, laid open to thn aky:
Then aho ln<nko,i' with a finger, so down to her I reach",
And pul' my ear agin linr mouth to hear hnr dying apeecl.ea,
"or, poor aoul! aho lira a liutbauJ ani young orphans, aa 1
know t
"'•II, Ma’am, you won’t believo it, but ita Oospal faet Rod
true,
But theao ivorda la r.II aho whiaperod-‘ Wiry, w haro ia tho
p wd«r blow.'” '»_
lhat an interesting decision on (he subject of Ihc In
diaat right to Sovereignly, over llto Clierokoe lands had
been recently made in the highest tribunal of the State
of Georgia. Tho subject is one of such importance
that we givis at length the opinion of that tribunal,
which was a Convention of a!l tho Judges of the differ
ei;t circuits of the State, it is entitled to moro weight
in lhat it is understood to ho the production of ono of the
most distinguished ciliieni ol that state, as well as one
ol (hemost eminent men in the Union, \i/.: 0f Wn.
is tAM H.'Cn vwkokd, s» man whoso namo is closely
i(]on!ine<l with “ol'l-la^hioned * rcpulilicnni^in.
The casu was one, in wlticlt an indictment hai been
found against n Cherokee, for the murder of another
Cherokee, within tho torritory claimed by t'at tiibe of
Indians and hi their occupancy. Tho indictment was
la'Vii rUn< °r d 'V.a,'l,°-,0' <;eorK'a. passed in the year
1 V >> for extending lift laws of the Slate over tho Che
rokuo country, and which, for tha purpose of giving the
. uperior Courts c.f curtain counties jurisdiction over
offences committed in tho Cherokee territory, annexes
ttie whole ol sai l hr. dory to certain counties of the
Mi'at i bordering upon the same. A part of that terrilo
ry was attached to the county of Ilall, and it was in the
jMrt ao attache*), (lj.it (ho offence described in (he in
d elm nt was charged to have been-committed. To
tins indictment, a ph a d tho jo-ix lictlon of the Court
was til ; and the Julgn presiding in Mali co'in v,
r'Vi. I 'yt0,» v‘-<l tho fp.esrion for thu opinion
of the Judges m ( ouveiilion. 1
„ rl"3 '.. ,fo' ,h° defendant appeared before tbe
Convention, and contended that the act of 1329 of the
fct.not Georgia, extending the criminal jurisdiction of
tl o State over tho Cherokee countiy, was uuconslitu
Uonal an I void. I hat by various treaties negotiated
between tl..* United States and the Cherokee Indian,
beginning with the »r. aty of Hopewell and ending with
tlu year 1329, tho Cherokee nation had been treated
with, and con-ode re 1 an independent sovereign State
and, therefore, could not be subjected to the taws of V
Mate; that in those several treaties, the right of self
government had been expressly recognized and dis
Ituctly i.i'lntained by the Cherokee h it,,, 0r nation- that
the extending the cilmmal jurisdiction of thn laws ol
Georgia over the Cherokee nation, was an infringement
cr the right of self-government secured to the Cliero
leo Indiana by the treaties with the United States
which treaties ware by the Constitution of tho United’
Slates, declarer! to !>.* (ho Supreme law of (he land_
I he ( (institution declares all treaties in ado or to he
made, the supreme law o» the land; thn treaty of llono
we" hoi anterior date to tho Constitution, and is (hcrc
fore expressly recognized by it, and consequently on
titled to morn weight in the decision of this question.
1 hat treaty contains an article acknowledging the ri-*ht
to declare war against tho United Siam,, which "by
counsel W s relied upon as unequivocal evidence that
ho United States acknowledged tho Chetolsoo Indians
to ho s sovereign forci.State, possessing at least tho
sovereign attribute of declaring war.
Upon this plea the Convention of Judge* delivered
the opinion, which pubu*,. lo.(l.iyi which V¥0
sa.d before, is staled in tho Georgia papers, f„ be from
the p«n or Mr. Crawford. [Unit. H>p.
STATE OF GEORGIA.
Hall Superior Court, Srptt tuber, 1910.
The State »
v*- / indietmrnt—Murder.
UEnrtriK I ASSEf. t.s 3
/ly the Convention of Jwt^en—Tl.|. I* « very gMVr
and import a tit question, which probably never wsuld
have barn submitted to judirial inv-s'ig* Ion, but for
the political party an I l .mticl feeling exited during
ttm last session of Congress. W|».-n th- Indian* attend.
fn< at Washington last win'er, tnd their a lvoeaf-., ,li.
rov.red that the defMon of tha two Houses would h
unfavorable to •l.*m,t|,V Idea of bring,,,* the for,
before the Supreme Court, was rttggeeM and eazrrlv
soiled upon by the d •pu t i m of tlu Chrrrkees |„
ron*eqnencool ihit determination, It |» presumed that
the pi a now uul-r ror.sldrraticn In* been inl*r|io4sit j
f ho manner, however, in which title pb-a ha, ha> a In
« r|>o*ed ought not, aid it |« presumed, w| | have no in
flueres upon it* decision. The relatione which hav
existed hetwuen th* In,li*n tribes ol tho American Con- ‘
tififnt an»J the «I»|F r$iA fviropran w1t > I
os'ahlhhed coftinles In Ametle i, an ! tvihili* rolotrl-*
thamselv *, arelo bo connect* I from the histories „r.d I
imhhc ,cti c f tho.o nation*, and for tho par* of ahr.n
2U» yesr*. Duti ,g that tine, in ny things* of public
opinion and of public conduct towards the Indian tribe* !
IHVO aben place; which change. „fw ,|ron.t;v n,*rk*.l
in the rncrrd* nnd proceeding* of tbo d fGreet E iron-se
natien. who had colonial c.b i-bmonts in America
I ho.e fl sorc', have, however.lntro lured „„10.
and do setua ly axis', between tho fov*rn,„enf* fo-,„8
by Euro|>ean descendants sod tie »hf.,;,to,| f||"..
Hut the Ct-ndi tt of the crown of Umi It ,0it . i ‘ I
d».n trlhsr ha. been irn vari,r,f The re\V,>„ j
(Ids Stale and die Cherokee Indiana depend* upon the
'nuclei i •«'a')li*hod by England toward* ibe Indtau
tribe* occupying ili.it pari ol North Atnsric* which that
pnwer colonised. Whatever right Great Britain |K>a
-••**«• d over the Indian tribe* ia mini in the 8 at* ol
<>eorgia, and in >y be rightfully exercised. It i* uo1
tlie duty, nor i< it the intention of t)ii« Convention, to
enter into a vindication of Ibe rights exercised by the
B i*l*h crotvr, ever ilir Indian tribe*; but it the ques
tion is c n-iter-d upon Ir.v a’igation, un doubt i*
*u retail til (hot * h- p* licy ad, pt **1 by tlie British c> ow ti
toward* the Indian tiibes, might lie viiidi. a'v.l hy r*.v
« n. soui d morally, an I rcl'gion But Hi* whole
q vt.O 1 Is *'1/ * luri :At*d ill *h- deci ion if the S o —
pruine C.mr , in the case ol .1 ihr.*nn «•*. McIntosh, 8
Whraut.’* K-pori,&I3, part oi nhl h^iii* Convention
will han-riibe Into tl.i* «!o- i-i >:>. At , r s at.ug that
dl rovety gave !» the di*covering notion an exclud'C
riah •" the country dtreovered, ** betwrrn then an I
0 t.ei European no i ms, the ileridon proceeds—” Tho*e
r-la t-*u» 'Viirii tv. r« to cxid between tlie discoverer
t .d tb* natives, w«r« to be regulat'd hy th-m««l e<
1 (t« rights ih,i i arqiired living excl'iuv-, no o'her
power « on Id lutcrpo* a between thorn I i ikee-tahli h
tii n> « ( three relation-', the right* cf tla * original i
nit itan's vverv in no i istar.co entirely disregarded, hu'
\\ "* ■»r*,y lr * ron-id, r Sts extent impaired.—
['*y "-ero remitted to ho the ligh'ful occupant* ,.f the
.'oi with a legal, o* well ni ., j if clolm 'o r, tain poi
sa-sion el it and to u»e it acior lit g t > ttieir own d:-cr, -
t but Ibvir rig! I. to ooitpl*t- rovertignly as imiw
pendent r ation*, v* -re nocesraiity dlii.iuis:.«d, and thei.
power to «'i p ■*»• cf Jie soil to ivlnirn o.-v»r they plea-,
vd, wa« d i ivd by the orlg n.l I ntdain ntol piinriple,
'.hot ,titer,v-ry cave . xchisivs 'i I* to 'base who me !e
th Wliile >he diff-rent nation* of Enn p* reflected the
rdit ..I ilici o'ivcs a* orcupaate, t!;.y asserted at.d
rt >nri'd li iit'iinote dominion in liiemselvve, ar.d cla m
d .ml cx seised, o* t con-iqii.rica ol this ultimate do
in moo, a pow er to grant the soil, while yet in posse*. 1
-ton nf |,<t natives. These grouts hive hem . ontd red
by a. I. In convey a 'itlt* to the grantees, *ubj-ct only to
iliv lodii'i right of occupancy. Ti e iii-tory of America,
Ir.-m its sli cowry to the present day, proves, wo think’
I the univsis-l r* cogr.i ion of there princip’es.”
I ''f/r ,,,i' M" ° V °* v»»iin* gtauts hy Ormt
Britain, i ranra and Spain, to land* in tl e occupancy
*’! 1 ' u • it *d I* : - Thu* all the nation* ol
Europe, « h . have acquired tetri o y in America, ii ,ve
i -crtad in them* ives. an I have r-cognix, I in other.,
Ilia , x< lii-tve tight ot the discoverer to appiopiiate the
land, occupied by U o Indian*.” |five (he American
Sac t-j f el or mlopied this pri„ri|.|~? The deci
si ,n then proceed* to shew limt Hie United Stale* haw I
» h plod the j r nriple, and actrd upon it a* f*r a* they
have acted. The opinion a,J I* : •• The Uui'e l Sut *,'
'hen, hxv» unequivocally a**eit'd to (hit great ant
hrot I i ule, by which its civil xe<l inhabitants now hold*
till* countrv. They hold and »»*e. t in themselves :h*
I'le hy which it tv a- acquired. They maintain, as
nl other* Invp maintained, the* di rovety gave an ,r
«lu-iv- right to jx'ingni lithe Indian tide lo occupan
cy, either hy purchweor'y cot q-ct. and gave also
i fi a «!tti»rpp o’ *f>v*r«’icn v, tho per
ole would allow them lo exercise.” Again, <'n page I
•>T)1, 'h i decision proceed*— * Ho vever ostravaj-tmt I
the p-eteosiun ol convi-itiiig tho discovery ol an itiba
b te.l county in'o c*i>q' o«t may appear; if tho piinri
11e ha* been a**, rtvd in tlie first instance a„d a. ward*
an* auied; it a country ha* been held a: d acquired
under f; it the po; erty ol the great nun of the com
umrity original a in it, it heron,* a the law of tho land
at.d c .n- o: he quctloned. So tr0 wi h us ; put to the
ro, comi ant principle that the Indian inhabitant* nr*
to I,*, coo idered m-rely a* occt.p .nt*, to be p-o'ected
indeed while in peace In tho pniM#,|r,n of their lands
, *" 1be deemed incapable of iratisferriog tbs abso
luit M e to other*. However Ibis restriction may be
opp .wd to natural right, and to the usage* of civiliz-d
ns'inns yet :t it be indispensable to tint sytem under
w Inch the caun’ry hi* been re lied, and be adapted to
he actual condition of the itn people, it may p-rhap*
he supported by re/.s n, and certainly cannot bo re
i'cted by court# ot jus ice. Tbi* question is not new
Is 11lia C-uit. rn« care ol Fleteher v*. Peck 5
(-.ranch, 87, grew out c f a sain mad* by the S ate’ol
Georgia, t| a large tract 0f country within -he limi a < f
that Rato, i he grant ct which was afterward* resum
-d. ho action was brought hy a enh-purcba.er on
t.,o con-.act cf sal *, and on-of th» covenant* j„ the
‘ , 'v*'* *hat the S ate of Gt< rgia was at ths time ot
•«le S.tr- I in fee ol hr preuiisrs. The real q t-.tion
preset fed bv the issue wo, whether bo *#>.ing in fee
was in the S-a-e ol Georgit or in the Ut.ited State-. Af
ter elating that if i- ccntrnver.y between th# several
•Va ea had been compromised, t’ e Court th. tight it n
c-ssary to no i, e the Indian title, which although #n i
tied to the re-p-rt of all Courts, until it should b., U
gi imatefy evingu shed, wt* declared no! to bo such a*
to be absulutely icpugnaLt to seizing in fee on tho part
of th- S'Jit* .*• r
In tddition to the | receding amhoriil-g, tendli g to
shew .h,t the- lndLan..trLh,»_fau!id,,p.^,WriM;aW,f|3
not be comidi red aovcr.igo S'Hti, Uv, other facts r
sul.lng from tho legislation of <h* United State* will
be brought into vi*w-I,*. The Constitution of the
Un t.-!l S a es gives to Congress power to rrgulato cotn
mercs with foreign nitioa*, among tho ssveral Stales
ai d writ the Indian (ribs*. In t xerriung tho first
put of this grant, Congress hav • pre;rrib"d rules nrd
regulation*, with which (orrigntr# must comply when
they come to the port* and are within th« jtirbdicuoi.
o. the Uni C.l All eover. ign Sta’eshave exer
ct-ed the same power in tho sain* way. But whet
Congress exe-ri o the litter power, vizitlm power of
r.-gnl .ttrg trade with the If dim tribe*, the law direct#
how the cllwns of the United States,hill conduct to
ward* fh • Iri.li.in.*, and h«w the Indians shall behave
o them. It h-rice li t, difTarenca of conduct tinder the
krar.t of powoif Brcausa ths subjects ol Eu
ropean kingdoms w ho came into the American port,
*°JY'.tW* co,,VTeV rr,iof at.d ti.de
| o:.d- t.t Slat-*, anti tho India, s, whore rad* is so dill r
en ,y regulated, are members of comu.tiaifioa that are
not tiontTfi^n S’+tej.
r«« r .k . U.u r".n 0f ,u Un,,‘''1 State* give* to
F0: * t ,r ’ "K»" 'd;^l-.r»«.c war. Presided* Wa.-I,
f 7",.0,V. M.di.on anil Monroe, sari, waged
v.,r a h .he Indian tr.hs,. y*t the hook of th*
LTMled Slate* cor.l -in, not a -ingle drcl .ration againat
■in I di.'ii tribe. |. it onrelv.dd« that the two Hmi*e
0. • ii:r>es< would have -ilenly acquie.ced in t*,e uiiir
1. ation of (heir right, by the Executive DepMtment.lt
the Indian • itbe* had I e-n .Uppi««.| to ,he proper
otject-ct a declaration ot war? They IM, t have
judged improper ol jecls of a declaration of ,va , civ
they were held not to ho ov. reign Mate,. I„
deed " t, ditficult to conceive how any person who ha
a dcfint'e idea of what cnnatltu'es a sovereign Male can
havo corn- to the conch..ion that the Cherokee JVation
m a .overran and independent M te. I!y the ca« • ol
John-on v*. MclntOfh, and Fletcher v-. Peck it ha.
hern deermined hy the Supreme C ..rt ,1 theUnited
Mate*, that no t. lo to land can be delved .rom them
....media ely to an individual, and that a Mate is ,eiz d
in fee ol all land- within it. chartered lie,it., not wih
-tanding tho land may bo in the occupancy of the In
dian*, and that such grant, are good anil valid, and can
not be questioned in court* ,.f law. Coun.el in sup,., r.
o. th- ploa to the juri.dlction admitted that th, Chero.
* e In In.n* could not alien or transfer their land* lo anv
but to the Mate of O-orgl. or to th:, U. |'.d State, fr
fhnr ii«e, hut reemed to r.ipp,,*0 till, limitation of th jr
eaverclgnty wa, the result of treaty .tipulatlori. Thi*
h a ...••take. No treaty can he found in which any In
dian tr.be ha, agreed that ano-her government should
•>e authori'ed to alien and transfer it. territory. Th*
• a-1urn that t ie Mate of <J*orpU iva* *, feed j., fe, ff
ho \ ana., land., wa, not the re.ult of any trerty, h,„
th- I ga! c. n-equenee of .he r gh. acquired by the Eu
ropesn nation* upon th ir first ifi-covery of any nr- of
• i® A.ne.ic.n conline.it, Vettel, ... JOI ,,v, -We.l,,
fi.>'i.,eirf,|re.,1'eVl,'".i'r"n.,l,H nature in coi>
tnms the Indiana within the n-r o»v*r limit,.— If „rf.
ver w« cannot help praising the molerafon of f.; ,.
gl-l. puritan. who f,r-i .ruled In N w England, who
notwithstanding their b-ing furnhhed Vy a rt arier f.om
their sovereign, purcha-ed of Ibe Indian* the land ol
which 'hey intend,d to lake p>.,e,-j„n. Thi- l.udal I
exainpl. wa. followed by William P<on and Ibo colony
of (Quakers that he c n.flirted to P-.ui.ylvania.” From
thi* quo a ion, it I* manlfr.t tnat Vattel held that h*v
had „ I gd light to the Ian I wlihlntrelr charier, wi h
out any pureha.e from the Indian.. Other pl„agc
fru.n the-ome author, euypnt the doctrine. Th
*Hte rf Now York, a, late a- the y*nr 1822, vested in
lieir emu ta exclii-lve rrimina' j-iti diction of .ill , if., .
ce* committed hy Indian* within thalr reservation-• o
[oer state, have followed th* r ext. nph in a greater’ or
leM "ml every thing ha. gone on quia la ; but
•o loon -« the Mate of Ceorgi i pur*tie« the * me enure*
a hue and cry t, raised agafnM her, and a lawyer ro id’
mg user 1000 mile-from he* borders hi. bran erniloyed
Jo coil invert h*r right* and obstruct her law-, and who
In, .o' been a-hamed to «ay fh-t he hs* been aide to
.u. authority which juMlfi-, * drrd.il to th* Chero
ktt .Yaiiin of the rlgfi- o* a u/venign initeperulenl
mile Yot by tho d*rI,ion ot the Supreme Cm rt
which cif.tr t be unknown to that gen lernin, every
acre ot I.tod in the o.-cupanry 0f b-a too,reign inete
penitent ( kirohee .\atton, i-ve-iH p, \.n
01 " »« ... .o h* the fir*l 'lovereign
*ntieperulent rtuie wh c*i did not hold an arf* 0| land in
fee but wilieh wa* admitted to hold every »rr* of |,r,i
otily by occupancy, w'ide th« iltfo iu fee w . h*ld by
* foreign *-v,r«igu M te. The Conveu-lon fo n the
v *w wlilrh the au'horl'iee orevioutly pre.ented fur
I..S , can di-ewer no legsl n*'*rl* to the et'en.ion ol
tbe I. *r« r.- er tbe territory n »w In the pom**lon ol the
Onerok-e Indian*. If any ob.ti-l* to that evtrneion
exist, it must bo .ought lor In tbe triati*. whieh hive
-esD negonated between the Cherokee Indian, and the
l>mtfil her* a prHiminuy pr*«
••i-trd Are in# Indian trib*#, nMhin thf limiH of fh«i
United States, legal object* of the treaty-making power?
1* bar been shown in the preceding part of thia decision,
'hat they have oot been conrtdereij legal oM*«t« of a
declaration of war. It hj« also been shewn, that by all
the department# of the government, they have uot been
tr-ated as • sovereign independent elate in the regula
tion of if* commerce—Can any further evidence be re
il'iired, that the Indian triVes are not the ccnatitu'ionai
olj -ct* cl the treaty-making power? It la presumed not.
' It seems 10 be solf-evident, that communities wliich
hare been determined not to he objects of a declaration of
war, cannot he tho object of tho treaty-making power.
Hut it may be answered, that tho president and senate
have determined that the Indian tribes are tho proper
objects of the treaty-making power, ami that treaties
have actually been made with them. This is admitted.
Hut it may bo safely contended, that a construction put
by the president ami Senate upon that part ol the con
stitution which grants tho treaty-making power, is not
entitled to as much weight as a construction placed up
on other parts of tire constitution by all the departments
of the government, entirely inconsistent with that plac
ed upon tho treaty-making power by only two of tho de
partments which had concurred in that construction.
Hut f>r the sake ot investigating the subject more fully,
let it for tho present be taken for granted that tho In
dian tiibos arc tho proper objects of a treaty-making
power. I lie rights and (he relations of those tubes had
been unalterably fixed long before the treaty-making
power created by the constitution of tho U States ex
isted, and it was not competent for that power when
rightfully exerted to alter or change those rights ami
relations. The right of the Indians to the soil upon
which they lived, was that of occupancy only; the lee
being vested in ttio Stato of Georgia.—Any attempt to
change the right of occupancy into a fee, would have
invaded tho scizcn in fee declared to be vested in Geor
gia by the Supremo Court of the United States, and
wont I have been null and void. Again, the rotation ex
iting between the Cherokee Indians and the Stato of
Georgia, was that of pupilage.
No treaty between the United States and the Chero
kces conld change that relation, could confer upon them
the power of independent soil-government. If there
me any clauses in any of tho compacts between the
U. States and the Cherokee Indians (miscalled treaties)
which give to those Indians the right of independent
self-government, they aic simply void, and cannot, aud
ought not to he permitted to throw any obstacle In the
j way of tho operation of the act of Georgia, extending
jurisdiction ovor tho country in tho oceupacy of the Che
[ rokco Indians. But it may bo urged, that tho Stato of
Georgia having neglected lor about fifty years to exer
cise this jurisdiction over the Cherokee Indians, is barr
el by the lapse ol time, from exercising it now. It
might he deemed a sufficient reply to this objection, to
<*iie tho maxim of "jX'ullurn Tcmpiix," which has hocn
determined in the Courts of (his State, and as far as is
known to this Convention, by atl tho States to ap
ply to the State Governments with the panic force as
it applied to the British King. But this convention will
not rest the reply upon this maxim, because a more in
lutclligihle and satisfactory reason can be given. When
America was first discovered, as has been shown in the
derision of Johnson v. M’lntosh,discovery was consider
ed equivalent to conquest. It became therefore the duty
ot the discovering, or conquering nation, to make some
provision lor the aboi igines who were a savage race
and of imbccilo intellect. Inordinary conquests one of
the two modes were adopted. Eilhor the conquered
people were amalgamated with their vanquishers and
Occam 3 one people, or they were governed as a separate
but dependent State. The habits, manners, and iinbe
c. 'Melloct ol tho Indians opposed impracticable bar
riers to cither cf those modes ot proccduro. They could
neither sink into the common mass of ;hcir discoverers
or conquerors, or bo governed as a separate dependent
people. They were judged incapable of complying
with the obligations which tho laws of civilized society
imposed, or of being subjected to any code of laws
winch could bo sanctioned by any Christian society.
Humanity, therefore, required that they should bo per
muted to live according to their customs and manners:
and that they should be projected in their exist
ence, under those custoinsand usages, as lontr as they
chose to adhere to them.—But the Cherokcos''now say
they have advanced i i civilization, and have formed for
themselves a regular government Admit .he fact, they
arc then in a situation to be brought under the influence
of the laws of a civilized State of the State of Georgia.
I he obstacle which induced Iho State of Georgia to tor
bear the exercise ovor them and which vested in Geor
gia, no longer exists, if the Cherokee* or their Counsel
is to be believed. The State of Georgia is imperious
y called upon to exercise iis legitimate powers over
the < herokee Territory. — Indeed, it seem* strange that
an objection should now ho made to that jurisdiction.
1 hat a Government should be seized in lee of a territo
ry and yet have no jurisdiction over that country, is an
anomaly in the science of jurisprudence; but it may be
contended that altho’ tho state of Georgia may have the
jurisdiction over the Cherokee Territory, yet it has no
LKJfJfi.QWfiiiYri WFio‘ros'i.?e ItporTth etcriYtoryof which
tho Stato of Georgia is seized in fee. Such distinction
would present a more strange anomaly than that of a
government having no jurisdiction over a territory of
which it is seized in feo. y oi
This Convention holds It to be w ell established, that
where a sovereign Sute is seized in 'ee of terriiorv it
has exclude juii-diction over th it territory, not only
on the et:r-arc and every thing tint is to bj found in
tha surface, but a, Sir William Blacken, defines a
ov r h ‘hit it extends no. only
I ore r the »ui fie*, but by usque ad cat’uin, 4 c. N ,w
he ngh °f the ten.,- , in ,ee. could not be more e,.’
t nsi e than llut of the power granting lha fee. The
n fp; therefore, vo.-ts not only tho rurfae-.btr
Weis ol tbs cat th, and through tho ,ir above th
eir l>, as far a> the air car. be appropriated to tho ,,-e ol
.nan, or even usque ad calum a* tho maxim ha* it. U
'0 zin in Go, Vr/!« '•* '•> * tenant not only (he surface
ut extern.* to the cenlro downwards, and to heaven
upward', wuat this Convention would reKiiectfult’v e~
qtiire.ia to limit jt9 light of jurisdiction l 3
iii conclusion, it may tin proper to notice soma of
the arguments, «nd r°'i«l°n» assumed hy ecnneal in
•Mippm t <,f the plea. it was contended, thst ihe ici |»
in tne tr-a'y ol Hopewell, which required the I„Jian*
in case ol real or supposed wrongs, to demand saii,f<c
urn for the injury, ami it was refused, to give notice of
intention lo nuke war 1 hi. was c nddered hy cm.,
-el as unequivocal evidence of the recognition by the
United Stales ..f tha Cherokee Indians a. a sovereign
, V.e* J'.'0e’ 1 *P!”,ar *t» to this Convention. The
Indian Tribes in North America were as lo aci u<
bar baron •. 1 hey hid been immemorialy in the habit
of making secret and bloody attacks tigcn the whle
•a etnents —The.*, attacks usually st.uck tha white
settler, with p,.me terror, hy the secrecy and rapdiiy
w. h which they were perpetrated. To guard again/
a ml.sch.ef so lerritir and appalling, 'he freity i,nps.es
upo . tha Cherokee Indians the obligation ol giving no
turn o. their intention lo make their bloody innireion*
11 WM a «*«'»«y restric
i n rV h80r(,n|01 at ,eB<* «»• approach
towards Urn habits an ! usages of civi izalicn. To hive
omitted th-r-sTtction lor f-.r ol the omission, which
It is contended is giv-m to the Cherokee Indi ,n . r f mak
mg war upon the Un led Slates, would have been
weak Font ws. tnatt.r of universal notoriety, thrt the
various Indian Tribe* within (hi U. S-j-f/...,. „„
memorially in the h t.it of nuking war in th- manner
!a V' •1"n;' "l* wa. a salnt-ry one,
and h sa had the desired effort Cotinsel for ff,* tfh -rr
kse Indian, contended, that by the article# of trr.M
and cession between tha 8 a'e of Georgia an.l tho U
ni ril State- had given «l.« U. Iterl State-, a right m hold
t catie# wI• h the Cherokee Indians, and had bout d th*
Slate to absta n from all efforts to eg Ingi.H, tli« In
■han n*ht to Und. within the limits of G»n.zj, —TM.
tonvoM.on conceive hod. posit,ons to bo srronecus.
„ 111 ,7 h;'*r 1 qf ,r'*'y ■"'» ce*sion, ennfrr no rjgh'
upon the United Ma'ea to hold trea'ies wi h tha Chero
’,r,,rl"’ ‘.nposa upon the United!
States the tin y of egtingui.hiog i|,o Indian title, but
conUr. no political pow-r or. the Federal Gay. rumen'.
II thorn ha kUcii a thin* a* a pdi'ical axiom, It |« rgr.
Sllr !h*t !,,r (hvernincnt ra i derive „o
pnli'i al power from a r impart with on Individual S-at»
7,«i l s" the,H h" V' ’ : n h# °' * »•■»* •»»"«
or !t had Lot R ‘ M Wi‘h Intlnna.
| II II be true Ml .limited by conn-el if," 3 (i(l, ,0
Indian land# could be ralintnl*h»d only by |r*„y Br,,|
Iha Federa! O.v r iment had no right to nuk* *i.rh
treat lea, then the Federal Government in entering into
Ith* article* „f treaty and ce«. on took n;.on if-cir an
impossible condl'lon. Hut it j* „0t tr„* ,hM fh„ ,
till-cannot h -niingui-b-d but by treaty, That lift*,
can bo et-lng.,|.hel by b.rgjin and rale, or by Je-d
a* avrll tvrli til the form of a treaty a* w|ib it. tr
ill tu trea t** f..r e viit)>vi«lting Ib-ir right to their land*
are In f*-t. though not in form, n .tl.mg but con net’
'or Iho purrhar-r an l Ml* of Indian land*. H„t ^ , lht,
?,'*!.• in the obligation upon .he
United Staler <o rxtingui«h the Indian title to la. d*
ree el of etfingu’hing C at right lier*e|'. ||,vmB
given a valuable consideration 'o ano t, r .mrper io i..V
duro tt.at pow. r toa*»..me Iha obligatlc r. of *xtinri l .h
inrrit ol the Indian fill**, it <r»ii nittiral that .(,« *bonl.l
rely upon the good faith of that power it. dlfrhar.l, „
it. eng.grmcnfe, elimiM re... |or , re»*onable Cm*
any direct . ff.rl* t. efl ct the *ame object. ,,
conlracfing potver -houbl act al'b bat Uith or ahould
from any other can*e disappoint the ju*t expectation*
of iho State of O-orgl, might rightfully re.um. her
appended right of exttngnlrhing the Indian 'itl- and
demand payment from (he United S ate*, of
•urn the evingul*hm*nt co.t her. It may '
b-fera cto*|qg thl* opinion to ihM the Uni-erf
,he,r l,fl,ertM un,|#f ,hp Constitution, fconelder
• II Indian trlbo* within er without the United
' improper object*of a declaration of war. The Retni’
Indiana ware femd.nl to Florida. then a province
ol Spain; y*l lit* Pro.id.nl prosecuted a war against
the® without a d*cl nation of war.—The eveuts o! that
war produced a deep aeoaatlon in the nation and weie
discussed with animation in tba two home* of Cbng its*;
yet doling the whole of that dlacuasioo, no iutlmatioo
waa thrown out ou any aidu of uitbur home calling iu
question lltu right of the President to proeecute a war
with an Indian tribe, evm resident out of tho limits of
t* o United Stater. This c> nveutinndeem* it a waste cl
time to pursue this examination. It h*a rad-tied itself,
•ml it is hoped the community, that independent or the
proviilcn ol the Mate ConMitu'ion claim ng jini-dlcltott
over its chartered limit*, that the State ol (Joo-gia had
the right In the year IS29 to exteud i'r laws »ver the
territory inhabited by the Cherokee Indians and over
the Indians themselves; that raid act ol 1S2D isuelthst
unconstitutional n r inconsistent with the right* of the
Cbirok»o Indian*. Tho r!ea to the juri diction o
the cot.rt tubnuttvd to this convention is therefore
overruled.
Indian affairs — I lie p. liry pn-aucd by Ike pre-ent
administration, sod the indeta i» able exertions <1 the
Pre-lilent and S-crstory cl War, lor the removal ol the
Southern Indians, mo,t f4|| lorth fho ,ou , aj,p|au,e
awry intelligent member rf this community. In th> ir
laudable desira to accompli-h the objects of the com
pacts heretofore made wi h the S ates in which lie th*
!• dian territories, they have effected a trua'y for the
removal of tho Choctaw* west of the Mississippi, and
done all that is possible for them to dr, short of using
violent means, to btiog about tl « removal of the Chero
kees. Col John l.owery, of Teiities«ee, hat recently
be.n appointed a Special Agent, to go into the Chero
keo territory, and, “by fair argument, to explsiu the
views of the government toward* them;” ami if po«»i
bio, induce them to remove to a country where they
can eij*y tlie bles.-ings cl a government of their own
choice—where they can roam at leree, and iudulgc in
security all the savage witdncrs ol their liaturo, free
from tho reMninti of civilir.ed life, an I exempt
from what to litem are the burthens ol a civilized go
vernment.
I he Secret ,ry of W >r. in « letter to Col Moritgome
ry . the Cherok-e ngt-nt, has expressed tiie opinion that
*11 cla» m of meu, whether whites, b'acks or Indian*
reoi.tiiiR within the limit# of sny Sovereign S ate, ntu*I
yi'-'W obedience to the authorities ol the Sun in >«||icli
they live, and he Ins proved the correctness ol this
principle by a long and 11bored a’RUnvtit. Ho invites
'he Imli m* to rclinq'it'ii their lauds here, and rcc*iv<>
for them a large and fertile territory beyond the limit*
i.f any of the States—lie guarantee* that they shall he
removed tvi'lnut experts* to tlternselce«, and provided
with the ni*ain of Mib*htence for one year from lire
time at which they rhill arrive at their new place ot
residence—hut he informs them, that unless <hev ac
cept (hi* proposition, the protection ol the K*neral go
vernment will he en'irely withdrawn—that they mu*‘
it they remain, he subject to the laws o( (foorgia; and
il.they afterward* cl.ojse to remove, ji will moat pro
batdy be at llieir own expense. Thia is the po'iey fo.
tended to he pursued by the government ot the United
S'a'es, and w- Imvo no he*it»t|ju in expressing eur o
pinion that it is founded in justice.
• r ° ar® *'varo *hat the prejudices ol a large portion
of the citizens of the Union are enlisted on this subject.
1 lie mistaken philanthropists of the North, in their wild
and visionary zeal for Indian rights, have accused us or
avarice, cruelty and injustice ; they have opened their
phials of wrath, and poured on our devoted heads a tor
rent of invective and abuse, as uncalled (or as it is un
deserved. On the other hand, it is not impossible but
there may be a few individual* among us, who advo
catc measures that would be unjust and oppressive hut
they do not constitute any considerable portion ot our
citizens. No man here doubts the right of a State to
enforce obedience toiler laws upon every inhabitant of
her territory—hut our Northern friends are mistaken, if
they imagine that a feeling of covetousness, or wish to
take away any of an Indian’s inherent rights, predomi
nate among us.
1 o those who regard the extension of the laws of (his
State over the Cherokee.* as an act of oppression, and
who pretend not to find its parallel in the history of the
States, we would say, leok nearer home, gentlemen—
In what sttuahon are the Narr.igansct tribe <f Indian*
in Rhode Island, the Oneidas, the Onondaga*, the Sen
ecas, the I uscaroras in Now-York ? They live in dis
tinct and separate communities, retaining in a givat
measure their original habits, hut possessing the means
of education and improvement in abundance. The laws
of thorn States have been long since extended over
them; and wc hear no complaints from the Indians
themselves, or from those philanthropists who have ta
ken such an acivc stand in fovor ol tho Cherokees —
They do not call it unconstitutional or unjust. Why?
Is it because the Indians acquiesce in the juiis.liction
of the civil authorities ? Would that alter the principles
of the case ? Assuredly not. The fact is, tho murmurs
or those whites and half-breeds who control the minds
and actions of the unsophisticated n»iiv/»o I, -,i
. •/ ;c—- r ...H. .no zealous friends, and thev
have mistaken this feeling for the dictates of justice -
Ignorant ol the real state of the Indians hero, and the
advantage.* of n removal, they have, by intermeddling
with our affairs, encouraged the disaffected among then
to persevero in their resistance to legal authority anil
the spirit of opposition has extended so far, that Uwill
bo impossible to remove them, (ill they become practi
cally amenable to our laws, and can no longer screen
themselves from their leqniieuients.
In connexion with this subject we would remark, as
was mentioned last week, that the committee of our lo
gislaturo on tho state ol the Republic, reported a bill on
the 10th inst. recommending a partial survey of the
Cherokee territory, and laying it ofT into districts.—
Iherprincipai object in recommending this measure
is, that justices ot the peace may he elected in such
districts or counties as have white men of good moral
character in them, who will he able to aid j„ enforcing
our laws, and at tho same time in protecting the Indians
from iawiess outrage on (he part of abandoned and
P,o|l gate while men.’’ Should this bill become a law,
t will afford increased facilities for apprehendin'* fugi
lives fromjust.ee, who may seek lor shelter under the
protection of some Cherokeo Cliicr, as well n* to pie
vont the atrocities sometime.? committed (hero *
" cro it to bo distinctly undcrsood tl,.,t tho Chero
kee government was independent of any stale, what
would be the consequence? A man commits a flagrant
Violation of the laws, and for safety flees ,0 the Indian
nation. No officers of a slate Government, nor of the
hinted Mates, (for one government has no more le.ra|
or moral right to control tho In inns than the oth.'r ^
would have power to proceed into the nation and take
away the fugitive. lie would bo safe from tbe arm ol
tho law—beyond the reach of justice. Tho savage
might commit depredations—even robbery and min
der, upon our people, and wc would have no means of
redress, except by a general war. Ought this state, of
things to exist? No man will answer, m/e. Hut we
presume some will assert that the effect Would not be
such as we have foreboded. This position is altogether
untenable it can bo supported neither by a recurrence
o analogous fact* or by sound argument, and until
that can be done, wo shall adhere to the opinion we
have before expressed, that the course now pursuing
by the general and state governments towards the In
dians, is founded on the principles ol justice, and will
bo to tho Indian* themselves, erentually, a great anti
important benefit. 6
Mare wri'ing the for-going reminks, we have re d
' ''’r'',on Cinvention of Judge* in the ca-oof
h. 8 ate vs. George Tarsrl*. Our rea.lers w,|| reed
ecf, that ai ihe la-t Sip ri .r Court of Hall County, a
Cherokee Indi in was a-r ifgned f.r the murder of an
o her Indian—Judge Clayion pre-Ming, The prism er’s
counsel objected to the jur s ic ion ol tbe court, and this
que. i >r, was referred by Judge Clayton In i|,0 Conven
n.m of Judge., The Convention consisted of Ju,!e»«
Crawford, Cofqulie, W. \V Holt, Strong and Lunar—
Judge Law avas not present, but concurred in their de
ci-ion. The Convention rerognizo the right of tbe
Ma e ol Georgia to jurisdiction over tho Imllanr—the
a-RUtnents are forcible, and present several fuels that
will throw much additional lighten the subject. We
shall publish the decision next week. [Alabamian.
V. e learn frrm lie Cherokee Pi ccnix of ihe 13 h
in*C, that an unhappy circumstance occurred a f..w day.
before in Ihe nation, !i appears that two Cherokee*
had b-en arrceled by some of ihe civil au'hori’ie* |n
the adjacent counties, hut wrr-a re curd by a parly ol
the Indians. On ihe same evening, four whit* men
went into the premier* of one of the Indians, and dote
a horse. The owner discovered them, went in pursuit
and shot rue of Ihe two who were riding his horse so
that be died inrtvntly Whether they were of the par
ly who pains to arrrst Ihe Indian*, is not known.
This Is another proof that the Stale need* rnmrr'ur
authorities located among the Cherokee*, for Ihe pre
servation of ord»r, and the suppression of such disgrace
ini outrages, either on tho part of ihe Indians or white
"?f.[lb.
fW —w"* committed to the Jail of Cheater.
1 ^ held County, on ft o 27 h August last, as a runa
way, a negro man who call* liitna.ll Sun, la about dft
year* of age, 6 l-et 3 Inches high, mo«» of his teeth
out before, colour black, no particular marks or scars
and says he beloncc to the e*»ate of John Walf«r> of
(»,• county of Sorry, In the State of North Carolina.
The owner is requested to come forward, prove proper
ty, pay charges, and tike him atv.v, or ho will ha dealt
with according lo law. JOHN II. OOODR, J«i|or
0<t 2®*_ *0—w I2w
W AS rnmrnituj |« Ih. J.,l of Norfn.k n^ro.i.h, at , Ru„7^^
on Ih* l/Vthof K.hrnvj, IS30, a n.gro man, who.laf..K7
earn. t« h. THOMAS KVAMlf, and that h. w„ horn (Vcc lL lbJ
(hiy st ShiMtlphis. Thereat la of a li.ht ervo,.',,iro r .
fir* tech.* fci.h b.(w„n tw.otr-. o. anT tw.B .-tw . "l,.
T.h' TJ": T'h,‘ •h,T* "*«"*• *' ,rTt writ tom, vJSmVmj C^T
U« " M.a* iB ”,b "M,,, fcVMI dts'l wMh „ ,h;
q2'2U- « OimRtRR.JaiUs.
C9-WIJ*
raiKvsr balk i»f nechoes at ooouu
JL LAND COUUT-llOUSK—By virtue of a «l«mJ
ol trust executed by Jamea B Ferguson, to Nlcliolaa
®L Vaughn and William Bulliug, Trustee*, bearing
date the 8th day ol Noveailier. 1823, and recorded in
the Clerk’s ollice of Goochland rouuty court on the
mute day will be told at Goochland Courthouse, ou the
20t|» day ol December, ’.1830. that being court day, at
public auction, to tho highest bidder, lor ca»h, tie lol
towing negro slaves, and the increase of the female*, it
any, since the date of the deed, to wit : Dent I*, Ben,
Joshua, Little Batty, Atucy, and Albert and Jirk! chil
dren of Am y, and so many of them as may be urc>*
<ary toeaisly tho pur; ores of the trust deed, am! the
expenses attending thu execution thereof; it is behaved
it will he n.cvsssry to raiso about $1800--micIi title ns
l* vt-s ed in thw Tiustvea,aud that only, will Ins convey
ed to the purchasers ol Ilia slaves by tlie Tui«te-a, or
I'msiee, tint may act. THE TRUSTEES.
N. B. — By request the above S*.le is pos potted until
th«^17 h day of January, 1831, when it will lake place
at Goochland Courthouse, being Court day—at.d at tho
same lima and place, and ou the same terms, (hies o
G or negroes, lota the property if J. B Ferguiou, E q.
rvi I he so d—to w t : Tom, Deunis and Judy.
Gooch laid, Nov. 19. SB—wtd.«
Will IK MARSH hOR SALE.—The Suhsrriocr
is authorised by tho heirs and distributees ol
Mary M. 1» C. Kootes, dec’d. to make sale of that valu
able estate in the county of Gloucester and state oi Vir
ginia, called \\ 111 1 L MARSH, supposed to contain
about two thousand acres, 1209 of which arc first rate
l.ow Grounds; and the Hills of the best quality in that
section ot country. A minute discriptiou of this Estate
is unnecessary, as it is certain that persons disposed to
purchase will examine it particularly: they aic invited
to do so, ami Mr. A. Smith the Mnnagor, residing on
tho premises, is instructed to show any geiitlcmnn'wlio
desires it, every part of the Estate. I will only add,
that these Lauds lay between Ware and Severn Rivers,
ami extending to both, affording navigation to vessels o!
large burthen, and furnishing fish and oysters of the
best quality, and in great abundance. The improve
ments consist of a large brick Dwelling House, with
lour rooms on a floor, nearly new, and finished in the
best style; all necessary out bouses, some of them
brick, anl most of them new. The Low Grounds lay
ill onn rnn»|urt Iwvly, immuJiatoly in front of the hoti*c,
without a single break, and every part to bo seen from*
tlio dwelling at a single glance of the eve; they are fine
ly calculated for the production ot Harley, Wheat, In
dian Corn, Cotton, &c.; in fact, this Estate is generally
acknowledged by all who have seen it, to be the best
ol ^t|ic same extent, and one of the handsomest in Ya.
flic time of payment will he made to suit the pur
chaser, and the necessary number of hands to cultivate
the Estate, together with the stock of every kind, farm
ing uteuaila, fcte. will be sold with it, if required
May tl. 1—wif * JOHN TABB.
OFFICE TREASURY WAliHdjVTS.
'1Subscriber ii under the iinpressiou, that there
i r* yef out-standing, in the poBseniuH of intlivi
rS. ^. .,0 purr}<a» •«!, or w it i tlirir ropreieatatirt*.
i uginia Land Office Treasury IVarrants, i-sued up
•>n the old Continental Funds, that remain unappropri
ated according to law, especially to the benefit ci
tl’.o P.optieiors :—Notice is hereby given, D »|
|>a'roti4 who iiold any such IVarrants, whether they
br.vo been located or even suiveyed, that they can br
m. de available, it grant* have not i-*»ued ih.reou.—
He. therefore, suggests to persons, and the representa
tive* ol such person*, who have bad interest in such
IVarrants, to seaicb their old papers—and if they
find any IVarrants, or even entiies and surveys, which
have not been patented — and communicate the fact at
Fred.rnksburg, Virginia, (port paid) they may rely on
it, that (bey will bo m-ide available. I!e continue* lo
receive Agencies (or the icto-ation of We.tern Lands,
that have tieen so’d lor the State .nl United States
Tax. forfeit a re frc. — to idiuttfy Land* by re survey,
for a portion ot the Land, ora specific cornpensitioQ to
be paid after completion—piy taxes, procure teuauf*.
make salt s, coll. e. debt-, uegotiato budue** transac
tions, furnish iufoiinati in, proruie evidence—at.d ma
ture suits <or hearing in the different Chancery Dutiict
Cour s in Virginia.
II« will give the m Ft satisfactory attention and ilia
pa'ch to Revolutionary Claim*, and where (lie quantity
ot Land is ol justifiable magnitude, will attend in per
*on. and locate* Soldiers’ and Ofii era* L*kd*—all < f
which will be done by the Siihm ib.-r, for a pot i* n ol
th. I.and*, or p.-occed* cf any bu*inc«s contidcd t > him.
He invitee thnso who have bit iness, ta r oininunicaie'
wi ll him at F.edriickrhnrg, (V* ) m.d make proposal*,
coupling duties tor him to perform, and the promise ol
a specific or contingent compensation, to be paid after
the compbyoil of the business — No ice to those who
aldrces ftim after November : To direct to L-wish urg
(ireenbrier, (Va.) lor the next three month* thereafiei;
or until he gives notice of In* return to Fe.leii k*huig’
Lowisbtrrg Is nearly the centre of hi* Western Virei
e„ — IIIi n.a aosencc, to ,y „.hc, BCCI10IIR_
Wl >e* l>y or»!erf forwarded,
who have not rceu his faience in former fid
ver fcmenu, are directed to hi* paper, the Whig of
K chmon.l, and the Na ional Intelligencer of S.o eu .
ber and October past. Ho adds the. most positive aeau
rsiice that business ot any nature confided to him
will have hi* unremitted prisoncl services. H j. i$
land business, lie will go on the soil—if husiucss with
p-rson*, he will visit the individuals, and not tiust to
tic chance of half-doing business, by setting m *u ol
nee, and curie I ond.ng. The lores! will be l.isoffice_
and horse-back ilia medium of his corn spondenre._
Me will not trilie with business, nor mock the expect i
iton ol employer*-neither will he send, Imt g . and do
bun o*s—and give an early recount of the fleward
slifp—Hi* employers and corre-pandents in Washing
ton, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New Vork, and Boston,
may led arured, that lie will visit them once a years
“m*' eo HENRY t) MIDDLETON,
Nov. 19. 5fi-wG.il J'redeiicksburg, Virginia.
MARSHALS SALK.
S ^ V..v'rl,,e a H.creoof 1*9 Superior Court ol
U S9 Cl* army lor tl e Fredericksburg j>i,t:ict ju t
can e therein <|< pending, h-tween
Riub.ii M. Garnett, u’c; ol Cszier Weed, d r.
against P,lrt
li cl/.l M S -gar. adm’or wi 1* the will annexed of
\v?tia ’m’* ,leCo I^nr,f,|m S K':r’ ”i,low et Use said
« .Hum, Henry B. Roy and Polly his wife, and Cyrus
“J1 infant, by Jos Juicy 1 is Guardian, Debits.
I snail proceed to sell tor cash, before Tlios. S r *cl’s
tavern, in the Town ol U.bannr and County < f Mid*
dlescx, on the 27lt. day ol December . rX*, hem* Court
day, “ the I rart ot Ltnd whereof William Segar died
ei/u*d an I possessed, containing two hundred and trv.-n
tv hve arias, u.ore or lc«-.” mbj -et t0 th • widow’s
dowortherein. CHA. L. WINGFIELD,
at. s. c. c. w. n , orene ol his Deputies.
uer 7__ 61—4 w
Wil.LIAM St MARY (o17r.KGE.-For the In
lorn,ion of the candidates for (lie vacant pro
iassor>diip of Mathematics it, this Ins.ituiion. and ol
he public o gen-ral, notice is hereby g;v n. that the
visitor? and governors bav., not >. t had a meeting, i. r
s it probable they will m-et until the reg, | r annual
meeting on the -J I, of .1 tly.
I he public hare already be n Informed by th* Rev
.{• Ei"pie, President of the College, .hat i|M, dullee , f
■ hc racaM pro!t ssor-l .p wi I be disdurg.d by the
Pr.,lessor ot Na-ura' Philosophy a.,,1 Chsmisnyf un.d
rt ttTITk r*fl d*. -, J0HN PA(;K- «■ ‘tor.
d J . he L li'ora who published the , t:.,r alv. rti e
menl, will give the ab„ve two insertions, snd send
heir accounts :o the Editors c.f lie Richmond Enquirer
lor settle,n-nt. Dec «|_3,
A I ! L, 7l°'S wANTBD.-AyouoK man, who
Ha graduate, and ha. I ad considerable
enm m leaching, wlrhea to obtain a good public or p,j.
V. te ,c,,o,,l. 1 he u.o-t Mlirfaeiory testimonials of char
*‘,er ran bo given, and aPoof r.bi ity ?0 inrtruct in the
vnmi" branches of a Classlr.il and English education
u u.'l y taught in our Colleges
Kafrrence may be made ,o Col. Bernard Peyton of
R,chmn,,,l city, or .h. K«„. „f FclilX.
... c„
_^‘*f* Cl—2,»wt|rJ
A N oviSHSEER WANTED—Th* rabtcrlfo
l ,0 for the ensuing year, an Over
**'•/?'M,P?rIn’ct'd n farm in the county ol Ha note r
a .out 1(» in. e< fr ,n Richmond. To a man «Tsoi rlrfj
industry, sod integrity, with some mp rlenre in the
business, a liberal compensation will be allowed \
pfSirred"’ " * n,,r,,<,i ',M° w‘'h,'>' "Ill be
preferred JAMES LYONS.
— ' _ el—ff.
Vi b°t' HAi.et 1C fretfully mfotma
itesst r * .se? arit v;::.
JUM. anj ?iT*lr
vootn* are flearant and convenient. Dee. 7. 6lSt.
rV/'/;: •*'"""** Meting of The ~StTTkhTidTTe Tf ihr
M. Hunk of I'irglnia, will he li»|.f according to the
<t..trier, on (he lat Monday in .fantrorv nev.
n a. Robinson’. .?r.f
_D,f 7- 611 _ •
A I EA< IIER W AN I ED —I wnrh to engage a l«.
dy for the ei.ru.ng year undertake a rrhool in
toy family. Hue ir.tigt he qualified to teach all (ho uni.
al branch-* of an Engll.b education ; one acquainted
with French and Mude would he preferred, letter,
directed to the auhecriher elating terror, will bo promo;!
ly attended to. MARTHA C. FIELD*
Mecklenburg Cty. Vo . Boyd-on, Nor. 2 6|_„Vw'
VWOINUi-A(t IhMiM (jjuure W Mncnt hoUiail n.«
Capitol, la the City ol Iwhauud, In nib Jaaa, 1130 —
Joaepit Blrpb ua amt Mary tin wile, Frederick Wvlfley mad kilt
(a hi. nil*. Nancy llaekury tail Jau< tt. Ilceknryv Pitffi.
again*!
Johu Napier and Ai m a O. Napier, Adm’or, of John Napier,dec ,
William Fitspatrich and Colly bia uift, ltenjiuiin Williaaitoa, Juba
Williamwa, Johu K. Fi'cpa'.rick, Fully C. k itapivlri k, and Joba M.
k.iepalriek, Dafdta.
Thu came c mu e on thu day lo he heard on the Ml! t-keo fur cua.
feiaed ai to all the defendant., u rpl tka admit.utrator. of Joba
Naplar, dee., the aaauara af th« .aid aduuauiialma, with lha repli.
callua Ihtrttn, aul txbib.1.,and wai aiguid by uauael i Ou cua.
• ■deiati ,o wbrraof, the Oomt doth C.dei, Tlul tb* drlrnJauli, Joba
N»; ut ami A/oin C. Napier, laa let au a cuuut of ihnr ido.autia.
Ii n ■>( thr Kit ite i f thru lnleatatr, before oat af the Oi-nuuiiiion.
era af the Cvatt, wboir diractid to eaamiur, ililt, and aettlalba
raid arcouui, end ii p. it tbc tauie to thr CVnii, with ary lualteia rpe.
liilii fated, duauied pntini ut hy bun,ill, or which way be required
l>> the patlite In he sottaltd,
June 28th. 1830
The Ii'aim If, Frede iik Woilliy, having d< parted thle life,and Eli
at Wollley, hit widow, b emc iuteiuiaiiltd with Ceurge W. Uc
i-out, the Couit dull, Uidn, "I h*t tbu euil be herrafter couduetad ia
llic ua oee of the raid l£*otge W. McLem and Elai hit wife,and
he in all (hitigt m the Hire- plight end condition, aa it wai at Iba
liu-c ut tin mailing, afuictaid. C"|iirt. Te«t.
WM. O. PENDLETON, C. C.
ComntUHoner't Office, Richmond, J\’uv. 13/A, 188*.
1 be r*rtt*a mltratled will pltate t-kr uot.ee, 'hat 1 l ava appoint*
•u! the 17tlt day ol Jauutiv neat,to commence the account diicctad
I'fdei of Court ( on which dry, at <> o*olo, k. A. H,
they are requit ad tv attend at my iflire, iu tin, cily, with their ace
cm,ut. aud r uclieia, rtaJy lor eaiiuiu.tien and acttleuieM, aud wdU
1 fill-., cop ei ol the ueentaryn u t |.. pen
-*** 47— wRwHII.AKY ltAKr.lt, Commissioner.
I ^i ^UA^OKUV.—lu llmT.r Caaiajr CjuiI, OvUber 29th.
William Staike, Bowling Slaike, Lure Staiki, Thomas Durratt
an Kiauce, In. wilr, who wai hianert tjtaikv, J. hit Head and Ada
1 i:» h'l wilt, who wai Adtliue S'aik,, Deli* bla, k*. Charlotte
bi-ike.andIJ -ii| h A. Liak, au iutaut bv Philip U. Wmaiou, hia
gnaidian ad lliciu, Pllffi. ’
A Kifllt
He ry While and ff/sty Sthtaahlry hit wife, who wet Afaiw
blin aalilev blaik , aud Jofcu Leathern and Jane I n wile, who wai
J.nebt. ke, D. Id'a.
Ii.ii i ay cauie the plaintiffs hy their cmmstl, <ml filed (hail bill
in tlna cause; M il the dcliiidanla not having tillered (hen epceag
»uc», aud given secunty according to the Act of Annul, y nil the
Itulea ol tin* C ml, nud it appiariig to the aatialaclion of thw
V ,or *'i,t th' > »r* uot mhahitanti of tTiii Co i.iuonwralih, It u Ora
ile'ed, Thai the raid Defendants appear heie on tin fir.t d>* ,,t Jlu_
uarj Oeuit mi', to miner the laid li.ll; aud that a ropy id (hit or
k O*. ,n',l'"i*h insetted u, the Enquirer, a newspaper published in
»'’* c *'• 11 choiondjf.ir two m lOtlia mcceinrily, and that anothar
copy he poated at the froct door <>l the coutihmise ,.f that rouute
Arnny. T.ate, PHILIP U. WINSTON, O. H. C.*
. no9‘ la-_____ 58-wSw
f N / H ANC E rt Y—tirniaia—At i.iln held m ihe Oil i f, Office
Ur, 1 : V-lvoVi ,JUM’ UU M0Bd' y ““ 4 h - *”!
\V,I K nuit.CorneliuiBtail.y and Jane R. hi. wire. Uicharil
M. Ila ko.y. Will,.m I Daniel, aud Aulooialla Daniil, Eliaahttb
uEldl"«,‘ ’ ‘y VV,,:UU' J 'heir
m1.1;' Wi'eudaolt, C-unellui Uraalry an.) Jane R. his wifi, u'lVhai d
M. Ilarkvy, toil William I. Daniel, not hav.ng tntertd their ap
pearance, and g.yru aecutity arco.ding loth, art of Asarn.h y ,nj
k'i'.k *’ 0f ,hl* ^‘•“'•i »«•* « appeattog ly salialacto.y leid.ute,
■ “i?, ’*'* Ii-"1'“•'■•"Lima ol thu Uounoouwralth : Oo the motion
o* the Plaintiff It u Oi Jeied.Thal Ihe raid Defendant. Jo aprear
heforelhe Ju,l,eearf the County Court of Weatmotelaad, at tfco
U-ui(houae, enihe fourth Mouusy in December neat,and autwer
the bill Ol (he Piaiut.il and that a co| y of (hit Order be fcithwKh
ioiritad in the Uichmuud Emjolrtr, a inwapaptr | ul lulled in Iba
C: y . f Ui hmund, for two month, aucreiaiyr ly, and an*lher coo*
tntieul roTt.il at the front door of the Co.in.imne of tliia court'*
Aeojy. le.te, J OSEPH 8. L YELL, d. r. W. e. t.
*’_ 4H-—w8w
Vr 1KUINIA :—At Itnie*, holdru in ilie Clnk’*~OlHce ol Iht Su~
dTyo'I N°;,Ou;‘“;r,,mC0-“C,'y 0„l,u,,U.t L,
Ueoige W.Tru,heart,Uarlhslomew Trutheait, and Win. True.
LouiVa'p.?,hi*ll“ubt"y*H
l lie drfeudar,I. Liltl.h. rry II. Moahjr and Loui.a P. hi. wife, not
!k*‘hn.,r »l,1f,r»l »"**•* »l',l K een ircun y arcoidine to
he Act of At.tnah.y *„d th. Itole. „| t|„, Court; ...ft u appearf*.
y i*U"J. • valence,that th y *tr not iuhal.ilanti of thia count?*
It it Ordertd, r„«t the said d.lrndauti do appear here on the firat
d y nf the i.ral J inn i* Trim, and enw.r the'hill of Ihe plaintiff,,
aud that a roiy of tin. Order l.e fonhuith in.e.ted in aomenew.pat
per pul lialieu in (lie City of Iti. hmnad, fir tuo m< nth. .ucce».,Te%.
aud pus id ollhe front co*r of the Capital, in the saul Cily. y*
Acoiy. Ii.tr, WM. O. PENDLETON, D, a
T- * ____ 52-wBwU
A ll'lJf°r CuB,b..l.„dCo«u«y1.i;
UeuHru John*, id'or ol Josciih drc. P iflT
«KMOU
i f*"y ','"nl,,',T Urujamin Woodruff, nhu intermarried with Judith
Jolnii, M'lJred r.mliy, f„r,u,|ly John., Cliailea llonci and Mir
lha hn wifi, formerly Martha Johns, John T. Johns, Al.s.udw
u I)’1 rhomai Johns, Cstii, neimfil and L .y h,i wife, Will,am
M. D.iinl, Hilar tan lor h. T.nily, (l.,„,t M. Tinalry, Jauiea
Ur’rtllr h h» *».fi, All.«d T.mlry and MilArd Tines
^•uiiIr.0 j:Ly',tn",vt’ ,otte ^"•l,yi,1*tbl?:,rt*
r„e def.n fiiK, Iienjamin Woodruff and Judith hi. wife, and
C.iar.ei Roper and Maltha In, wifr,un( hiving eUtied their apprare
auce aud g » n ..rur, y according to lha Art „f As.eiul !y and Iba
... ra of t Ini Court, , it appearing („ t|„ „ti,fichrD „f tlle Couit,
A', ,'i!y’rV'i’1;"";1"'*"',' of ,h,‘ C>'nui.,nwrahh, Hi, Ordered
Inal ihe said ilefi-iidai.la do appear hue on Ihe lint ,l,y of Decem.
ber C. uit n.ai.and a.uwri the hill of ||„ Pl„t„H ; and .hat a co, ,
1 . ( Bid .led in tom* Newspaper pnlduhedm
‘ ' ,y *' R'chosond f-rtwo months sucees,,*-ly, and that an,.(her
c pjr be posted up at Ihe front door of (he Ooui thouse, on two ane.
° “II d*y*' Acuiy- Trite, P. H. NUNNALLY.d. e.
. Uc1, *”•___ 50—w8w
JNUIIANcEUYr-ln ti sochlanj Oouiry UjuiI, 19.Ii ul Julr
r." ’rj'''"."11 y "■ Ware, Samuel W. Hsrri. and
®, a \Vs'V’tfi'; f pJ,'o'n,l’rV;.V”' KliiahethP. hi, w,fe,nJJ
..... «•
B^mml IMlffr.
A;mli Fowlrr, WillUm Hirriem and 8u*au hi* nifa _-__
diVo^j'o";: w“*:;y(<':::w,f<iWI,,ih ••• «hifc
1 iiu d. y ran.r the Plaintiff, I y their atlonu y, and filed thair'hilf
against the lUrcDdaiil-,an I Ihe sail defendants not haying entered
their appearance, and p,T hi security acccidu r In Ihe a’ci a.
semldy aud the Rules of thi, Cuuil, and it ai.nr.dn, i« ik f
I • ,hr »*id lUfendant, do app,,r hci e on ihe Aral da* Dr
Januaty Cuuit mat, aud answer Ihe hit of ihe idainiifT, ,,,1,1/, *
< n, y VI, thu order hr furtliw.ll, in.e.tid in '.u.enuhl.ro.-.,? *
printr I in the Oily of Rirhinr.nJ, for two month' succeisiTel* lind
a.iopi , e.| at the front dour nf ihe Couilh use of thi, cminiyT’
At-iy. fr.e, W. AHLLI.lt, O. U. O.
-* _______ _~ %y 8 v* *
f.^J 771 «. Vim j" *
* on briihe IBth.lO)- for.It,nee Edward count*
VVaga*U.‘iDl 's,,t'T'11 *ud Nj“' J >1'1 wife, 1‘ilffs.
. Charles ilrightiecll, J-isiah II igldwrll, Hen v Y Je, lin. ,„a v
fa.it rhihlrcn nf Dainitt U.,s:„wcll, Jr.,dec,and Maiy U, igl twHI?
The defendant,, John llr,gUwell and Al *s.,drr Drigh^R not
-. oi'thc j.'M'c'aVVi’r h‘y M'la?,?;1 jf, *n
the .aid D in.,la,It. I d.n Unrh-wsM a„d Ai,«,n, Jf BngMw.M do
p«;«ft:>ssasS
? •”' "**« of (hr public ncwfpnprrt, printed in the (•.,*- 0r itj,H
%_51 11 1 W0R8HAV,c.c.
1 1830- N0ERV *~ln m°'v'r bounty Oruu, Octob.r 30lb,
JcqiL Wuolfulk, William Dabney, auj J„„,,h Dabney,
R;iin!i( PiiinJiffi
wifi* " y 431 1 rr' 1>1V' 1 Sp‘c*r' *,,<J J"!in L Sima anil K'ixtheth hi»
c'u''; 7,H " ■l>l’«,»'ir'g I.. (lit ulitlailioi, „( Ibe Oornt N,ii ike.
are n t n.li.l ifanta ,f , Ouir.m iriweallh It i. e\,i *
'-•■I D fmd.nU, Henry Hnirer? J„T „ V Hi' . I r?"*.'1’ Th*‘ lh*
1 ■ ’ r I H1UP 0 W I NS i ON. if. II (’!
VJKUIMA. Al « Hnprritir Court r.f Cliannei* h lAmm .i' iCl
C-ai'it’il. in M»e t:i r Richm ik. i ^ “ •' **'•
,.r.l, 1830 -John 1». Unllicr. * b* ‘Wt" **“,,rd 1*^' A.
again.1 6’ ruff.
»-V.:.;K:;' ,T;.a astfS
... r ..on',’
Jte vv'ii.'.irr,.'!"','’, <f .-..S' S*.
»y. dtdh onltr that one of thr Commit lll,B,l*''< !• ■'OBltorer
«flie notice,\y nuhli n• |oft * In r hy "J* *»••*<—ilto, after
iMifanf, due If om II.C.U,’ . , '.''vl ,hf. *9hu r€0,"*n i*n
-I'.rb ... . . h. im ifl'.'t h^ "J ,h* debt.
./•.ire, /, .^‘/Vr'.Ve^r,::/ '/ ft# VT,?*.^b'
WM. O. P8MDLKT0N.t. o.
Commliiiotur't Office, >
Tl ... . . , Richmond, Oct I8lh, 1830. f
I h. plfaif lik«no()et ili»i I
*, 'h* il\ 4,y ,.f N ermh.r nr,( t„ V". 1 *‘ST3 *PP»in».
e, in tl,r f.,.; .,nc .rdrr cf m»u.I nn Jh ,h •‘h.eJee°""to «*»re«l.
(hr pMiMlP i.'»(,,!«t, t.. aftrii,'*! th„ office7i»*rt|j9|Ul<>lJ’ A' M‘
»< uchfr« end doetimreft, from wlurh .. n**««»*iy
H<.ir*d of him, iftclndii > the rr ,V|£*. ’* "rr'’«,'»«s re.
I "i l »jr him .j i Iniiniifretoi ..f Th,.j T.l, hf ri‘Kn"f ,nf ,l*
of Tho.. r.l.h, .ter.. «re rr.,m»‘.! .t . ’ ''** • «'"«»'•« creditor*
prc,t.,re*Tidrn**of H o ** £*! .•"«»
them « rtfiftr ii?r *, J, J/M d« H § dee to
Ot.ai- 7 hi laky iiakkr, com.
____ d*r—eltr
C°.mUi!i«2' IS? “Ssei Vink-a Ln.
Mi« slock eori*i*i» pf in non Vin<.. ,
50,000 of 62 .'ifr .r n „ ' i .ft »n<* • OUPMrjr of
l urope, te-.e en n l Inf,* , a l ”'«•«*«»
l.atiruilc. The 5i h.,hW of Nor,»*
sffxSfSSsSSSps
(litionr, to w.t: For 1,000 or more roots \z 1.{t? **?/
root, tor 60 n 1,000 at 15 rents r*rl. !. i?"*th
vine*, 26 ceitlaMrb. A. LOUBAT,'* °
... b.
oiahail by tba •nbarriher in Richmond. Py f"r*
Nor. 30. JOt,.W ° , AY’ A"" fftr A. L.
60—wJOt

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