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THE GEORGIA QUESTION.
Tk» piper*, which m dm!«d loyally to lb* pow* W* of »• General Gav(rm*n', a* tha geniu* era* to th* Laaap of A'rldlo, have boroe d»wa with all (hair wroth upon th* act* *1 Gommt G.lmor, and tho r*»o lutlone of th* Legislator* o( Georgia, concerning the Citation of th* Chief Juatie*—Tbs Now York Amort eon de«l*'«*, that •• Th# aalueof the Union la now brought fully to tbo teat—that " It must now ha «o«n whether the President will or wi l no* .loain'aln th* Conatitution and law* ol tho United S'atee, which he hoeoworn to eupport. Th* Supratna Court, finding their prorata restated, «*Hi of course apply 'o th* Eg*, cutive depart merit lor the mean* of anfnrr nr it ; mu) If th* P-eaident decline*, the'Union is dissolv'd /”— that '* I- ia the mo*t momentou* quea'i^n that ha* arisen under the Conitltutfon »inr* it* **tabN*hm«ut, end it Is DOW presented in a form that ennot be evaded—Th* lif* of th* wretched Indian ha> doubtless been taken, and *o far oa he ia concerned, rar*h ran afford him no romedy ; but th* supremacy of the ConatltoMon, on Which th* happlnaa* and duration of this Uu oa de pood, may vat he aaaer'ed*’!! Th# N. Y. Duly Adve- i er cloth** it* cvnvaswith •ho darkest colour#. It chargoa tieason homo to the 'Governor and L-gi la ore or Geoig’a. It declar-f, that •• resistance to the authority of the Supreme Court, ia th* exorcise of its legal and conUitotiotial Cwora, I* a mat’or, at leaat to the p>r<on* wt.o may be mediately and ac'ively rnne#rn«,d in it, of a more oorlous Importance—that " Treason against the Unit ed States, aay* tha Conafi'ittinn, •• shall consist only <i* leaning war against them"—Wist *• Residing tha oxocutior, ol the laws by arm*, ia levying war against th* United State.”—4ha‘| Iti« no* ia th* power of the Governor, or Legislature of Qvorga, to ait in judg ment, oither a* a Court ol Error*, or a* a Court ol Arms, over tho S ipreru; Court of tbo Unied States”— end that M Howaaar much they may consider t‘ e dig nity or aovoreigety of tbo State enmpromitted by the sups-eraary of th* national laws, er the decrees of the national court*, they must either submit to them, or placo tharaeelvas in the attitude of forcible resistance, which is levying war ; aod, therefore, directly within th* eona'ltotional definition of treason.” Th* N. Y. Commercial quote* from the Constitution th* aaveral restriction* which have been imposed upon tho States, and refer* tv tha “41at, 42nd, 43rd and44th Noe. of the Federalist— all from tho pen of Mr. Madi. *#o”—to show that Gso'gia ought to h ive bowed sub mission to th* summon* of th* Chief Justice—and giv. on up, what baa never bean given, th- control of her criminal juris liction to tho Supremo Court of tho U. State*. Th* N it. tnte!lig*nc*r, of course, je!n« in tha meU— chimes in with all these Federal prra s»—and true toils usual vocation ot bin ing away charae’ers Uy inuen do and I•‘iinlt*ti9n, would leave th* imprea.iivn that th# friends of Jackson ara opposed to the lawful authorities of the Federal G vvernm-lit. and that Henry Clay must ho elected to aave th* Union itaalf. Th* resdor m«v i rig* how far M.-. Ma.limn «,n k. falrljr quoted 01 'hair aide of the question, by the lol lowing fact. TJe fumtDoai in the ca«e of Ti#«'l# convicted of mur .'er, it brought under an act of Pot which ia founded on the following clause of the 2nd Ssct o(8l Art of (he C.inititnti >n —"The Judici it power shall attend to all easel in law and equity aris ing under this Constitution, tha laws of the United fltatsa. snd treaties tnide, or which shall he mtde, un der their authority.” Now. what says Mr. Madison’s Report on this very clause? "Tha expression "cases 1® few and equity” I* manifestly confined to cases of a cseif nature, and would ex'lndo casts of criminal jnrinliction Criminal esses of law and equity would he a language unknown to the law.” What would be the «i'u*’ion of the S’ates, if the Fe daral Court could interfere with th-m in the ex ercise of their criminal juris ’lotion—and drag tS-m be fora its tribunal, at it* pleasure, au such an oicaslon? Can the State be dragged to that-bar, in a cm wh*re either its own citizen or the eitix -n of arm her S ate Is ■ partyf-Shall it he sail, that the writ of error is is sued by way of carrying in'o execution a Treaty «f the U. Stat-s with the Cherokee#?— But whe e is the treaty whieh strip* the Stats of its criminal jurl-dic ti«n? or, whieh acknowledges the Chondcse G ivern ■went as perfectly independent of that of Georgi,?—If such a treaty bad been ma le, woti'd it he valid? Can the U States pass away the rights of Georgia? What rul at inlivs power have the S *tre given to the Ome r«' Ouvernm»nt, but to regulate commerce with th* 1 Indian tribes?—and does this special power transfer all juriedirtion, both civil and criminal? But what his b-en tha r nli’iun of other S-a'ai?_ , Has either of them aver yie'drd such a right ol juri • diction within i’s own burdere? Have not many of them extended its cede to t >e Indian tribe.? A law of Con neeticut in 1809, provides that an In'iin -hall bo pu’ to death for the murder of annh-r Indian, "on beinc thereof convicted before ths Sti: erior Court.”—A law of N. York in 1823, forbid# <h » Seneca* and other tribes •f Indiana residing within (that) State, to try a> d pu* to death ’‘members of their respective tribes; ",nd e'atm* "the sole and exclusive pr-gnizanre of all crima* and offences committed with'n the State, as belonging " ef right to eourta holden uodsr the Constitution an l laws thereof, as a necessary attrihu o of sovereignty,” fcc.—Similar privi-ion* are to he found in th* sta'utos or other State*. The pow-r belong 'd to them evm when colrnies;and tb'y have neverd-ive ted ttiem'elv** of it—The sale power whioh they transferred under the Constitution, wasjhtl of regulating commerce. — If no other State haa parted with this power, wh n did Gear gie? If others are to azerci-e it with immunity, why should the alone be ptini-had ? It ha« b»en said, that the Now York trilia* were scattered—whereas the Chsrokees a-e a more nume rous penpl.s, and have formed a government nf th*i own—And this, whieh wa* a re a on with Mr. Adams, for urging him to interfere and to break up a g >verntn*nt, which was form'd wi'hin the jurisdiction ol G orgia, a pretended imperium in imperio, i* now to he cull'd in ■a • r»a*ou, why th * S ats should not interfere, and why it *houl I abandon its juris iiction ! The N. Y. American tremble* for the Union—I | insists upon ft, (hit the (Jnioi is in danger, if the au thority of the Federal Court he not assert-d.—B it ’a there no danger of distention ths other way ? — We are i’ well satisfied of if, that as we lately said to Sixth Car lina, " Pau-e, pause, for H 'avail’s tak* pau»o”— we would now say to tha Federal Court, " Pause, for Heaven’# rake pause ” A Literary Problem.' — Judge Clayton of fJeorgia, has published a candid and able Review of Mr. Mc Duffie’s Report on the Bank of the U. States.—The Re viewer has followed it up with a Card, stating his re ception of "an anonymous letter from one of our Com mercial Cities, informing (him,) among other tilings, •that scarcely a particle of the Report on the Hank of the United States, was penned by Mr. McDuffie, hut penned by those immediately interested in, or employ ed by, the Bank;’ and that, ‘the following individuals can tell who penned that document: Lingdon t'heves, N. Riddle. Mr. Ingersoll, tee. hr ’’’The Judge declares, that he know* and believes nothing about the matter; hut If It he trud, it "speaks volumes”—that the "hon orable Chairman of the committee (Mr. McD.) should promptly disabuse the public mind a* to the alarming auspicious which su h a circumstance is calculated to Inspire”—and that "for the sake of the purity ot their deliberations, Congress ought to enquire into it, if there ia the slightest foundation for such a belief. This much (say* Judge C.) w do know: one. hundred thousand copies of the Bank Report have been published at the expense of tho Hank; it has been republished in all th* papers in the U. S. friendly to that institution,” &c. hr. If the hand of the Hank he not in this thing, there are at least strong marks of it In certain newspaper ar ticles, THE STATES Nonm Caroi,iivv—The L-n*latur*i expected to adjourn on Sa urjay la*1. Mr. Bynum’s resolutions, protesting again d th* usurps’ion bv ih» f»*n*r*l <Jov *rnrnant of tbs power to d«g roadt and cut eanals within »h- limit* of the indiri lusl Stale \ p t*s»d lbs Hou«a ol Common* by * »n'e o' 73 to 47 —Mr Worth’* resolutions sgsmal nullification and the Tariff, w*r# adcp'ed by a vo'e of ft7 to 27.— But Iheso *evr->a1 reso lution* have liven laid upm tbs tibl- ol th- S.ma'r, "lor wan* cf <lms to diaau«s th-ml” There am vari ui* set* of resolutions hatore th# House o’ Common*, anprovinc the general e mrse of 'he pre*en* AdtnHlMr ulnn, an l reromm mdinc O m. Jackson’* re-el c ’on Mr Cil loway has al*o submitted resolutions, drcls'i' gthsl "'be publlr d main nr lard* belonging *« tba O n-ral O »v eminent are, anl id right ought to be, the common proper'y of ,|t the S a e* an I the people rpspse'lvely/* The bill vesting the appointment o' th* Clerks of Courts In the free white cl*lr.an* of the Slate ha* been por poned to the 4 h of Marrh —The hill »o exempt fr>m exeru'ion a certain portion of the lanrl of the debtor ha# been af»o pns*p nsd, by the ea ling vo a of the Speak er— b' i' g th* Mh bill #f lb'* *oit whlrh has been thus derided by the Sp*»lf»r’# css lug vote !—A bill is pa*' ed for th* r*Hef of ihs University—The bill to e impel Q taker* »o ba*r arm*, or piy the tax in lieu of per* nal service, h*« bee«nie a law. A>tr- York — The L-gl-latnr# convened on the 4'h lost—124 members of the Hum present. The oa'h was then administered by Mr Flarg, Secretary of Slat*—at d fl*srt* R Dtv# of Rensselaer, elertsd Speaker—Th a vn*e being lor ll ft!, John C. Spencer 3n, (ve u#t being the Aotl-Masonie role.)—.Lieut, Onv#rner Livingston 'o*k the Chair of the Senate —yt long *nd Interesting Msssstre wae delivered, from One error Threop— If* b gin* hy nayint the f (lowing rom p'linent to ih» present Administration : ■' A'liasm’i'dl Be Union, this 8‘ate pertlripa'e* laegefy in I’# g'o y, and share# In if* pm-p’rity ; an<l st p» p-rind -1 ce the revolution have w« had grsstsr rea son 'e refdre In the wiedrtn of if* council*, or to feel » Just patde at Its elevated ebsrse’er »* fits of the farnl lyef nation*. Tt * individual at it* head, renotvntJ lor hi* great service* eud devot*dn«M lo hie tountrylu enothwr rtpteity, het. In his rlvil station, shewn an intimate knowledge of the cardinal interest* ot the na tion, a familiarity with hit duties, anil an intrepidity in the disci a'ge of them, which cannot commend him more to our affrcliooe or respect, but which demand lor him the admiration of the pretent age, and will secure to him the lasting gratitude ol hi* c >uutry. The two leading principle! at hi* administration, which lie at the foumlalioi of our future prosperity M • nation, hive been averted by him in the discharge of hie sltittes, in a manner which »h'W« that Le love* hi* eountrv more than lie fair* the Ion ol power, or the effort* « f disappointed cupidity end ambition. I allude to the payment of the Na'ional D»bt, end the restraining ol the power of t'ongres* w thlo the limits plainly marked out iiy the compart betwesn the S'*tee. Hi* veto up on the Maysville road b ll, the tirst of a series ot mea sure* for internal improvement projected for th» sanr tioit of Conferva* and estimated to c.»*t inoro tLsn nine ty-six million' of dollars, will letuatii up «n record a du rable uio luinrut of hta co'reel view* of public policy and constitutional right*, as well as of his moral courage and urrotupionising patriotism " He offers a short hut impressive Euloglitro upon the recent Kevoluti<-n in Frsnce.— Hi* developement of tho *ituation of New York is a very striking Exhibi ion. The following ie selected from the Sketch ol the N. Y. K. P.»st : "The canal debt ot the State amount* to $7,825,035. —The toil* received upen the Erie and CltampUin ca nal* during the past year amount to about $1,027,327; from which, deducting 623,751, (the Interest ol the debt, repairs, fcc. Stc ) leave* the nett sum *>f 773,324; dollars—which added to 879,176 oollar*, (the accu mulation of previous year*,) giv* 1,652,000 dollars, toward* the ex ingui«hment of the debt.—There is in the Treasury, derived from the toll* of the Erie and Champlain Canals, and tho salt and auction du ties, added to the surplus of former years, a sum exceed ing a million and a half, applicable to the payment of that dobt—199,424 scholars have been taught during the past year in tho common schools of the State.—The accommodations of our State prisons are not correspon dent to tho number of their inmates. At Auburn there are aixty-six more prisoners than colls. Of these, 25 are women, all confiued in one room. The prison at Sing Sing lias 806 prisoners and but 800 cells. The num ber of criminals conftnod in this institution has in creased 228 during the past year, of which 114 have been sent from this city. By an appropriation of the Legislature, aud an order from tho Governor 200 addi tional cells were to have been built in the course ot the ensuing summer, bat the work is yet unfinished. Th* Auburn state prison has more than defrayed its expen ses from the labour of the prisoners.—Great frauds, it appears, have been practised at the salt works at 8a lina, in carving otr salt without paying the duties. These duties the Governor thinks excessive, and recommends a reduction. "The Delaware and Hudson Canal is, according to the message, in a properous situation. The Oneida In dians who have emigrated to Green Bay are much im proved in character and condition by the change. Tito message recommends an expression of the sentiments of the legislature in favor of the surviving officers and soldiers of the revolutionary war, who have not parta ken of the bounty or shared in tho justice ot the nation al government. ” ■ IIXJ VIEJf 1 ■! I)r llilT* C4IIIOU IIIC CUlIgl U9MUIIQI I'.ICC tion in JVew Jersey, l»y ' • majority of nbo it 900.— The vote is a remaikably tliin otie—the election taking place at an “ unusual and very inclement aeasoa.” The Philadelphia Sentinel affirms that the “ result by no means exhibits the real strength of tho friends of the aational administation in New Jersey.” Tho Clay Peo ple and the Anti-Masonics joined teams together—a majority of tho candidates having been nominated as Anti- M asoiis; and the ('lay Parly following suit. THE CENSUS. It will bo assn, by the Proceedings of the It. of R. that the Cnn ■ua has boon completed, with the exception o( a district in Ten nessee, one in Indiana, end nne ward in the city ef New York. A bill ia under its passage for allowing further time to completo iheee returns; end in the mean lime another bill ia to be brought n fur laying otT the Congressional Representation under the law Census —Ths returns from several Steles have been pub iahed, some of which Indicate a great increase of population; par icularly in the new states; Vet* Gamut. 1820. 1830. Iocrease. Vow York 1,375,819 1,031,496 581,684 Massachusetts M3 287 610,014 86,797 Connecticut 873,248 297,796 29.488 Union* 53,911 161,655 105,844 thodo Island 83,039 97,9x6 14,167 ieleware 72,749 76,73 4 3,990 •ennsylvaniaf 989,610 1,158,7 40 970,130 Mississippi! 67,865 krkenses Territory 14,970 30,380 16,104 The population ef the 03 counties in the Uistriel of Fsrjpirua Weal of tbs Alleghany Mountains, is as fellows - 1810. 1930. Inerease. White* 133,119 101,045 50,933 Free colored 1,099 1,538 616 Slaves 13,366 18,583 5,917 147,500 904,160 50,666 The Clarksburg Knqeiror says, that *• The ratio of increase in the white population hiss been a little upward ef 38 per cent ; of llaves 39 per cent This district contains 196,741 federal numbers. At present (with the addition ef the 3 valley counties, Botetourt, Rockbridge and Alleghany attached to the Montgomery District, ind exclusive of Pochahontas, attached to the Pendleton Dietriel,) it sends four representatives to Congress. Should tho ratio he in creased to 45,030, the District West of tho Alleghany will be en titled to four representatives, and have aTraction of 16,141 to apare. A ratio of 50,000 would givo us four representatives, as we would nnly want 3.256 to make up our full complement—and ours is Ilia Increasing dietriel.” •Probably thret Representatives in the next Congress. t7 Count ins to lie heard from. jUtill limited te one Reprusentativa. VIR GIN IA LEG IS L AT U RE. HOUSE OF DELEGATES. Friday J inn irv 7 SEPARATE ELECTIONS. On motion cf Mr. Luca*, the bill eusi-ntizing t»vo s-ptra'e eleci|»n« in the county of Jefferson, was taken tip, ant) having been rea l * third lime, Mr. Lucas ha t not snoposed it woulj have been n» eea ary to trouble the House with a debate on this sub ject. He had considered it a merely local mat'er, which would hiv" passed without opposition Bit* op po-ition having been made to the hill, when he was ab sent, it had been deterred, on motion of his colleague, until he >1)01)11 be present, and lie tied ris.-n to explain the nec»ssity tor the rn*RMire. He then went in o a statement of faets in relation to the grievar ca* stifle e! by the people of Harper’s Ferry and Smi’.hfi-ld, from the inconvenience they now experience, in going to 'hs Court House, a distance cf eight mil s from each of those p'accs So n" part of the psop'e lived on the other side of the 8h<nand>ah, which was generally high at the season cf editions. an I pre vertrd many from voting. He trusted the gentleman from Cumberland di I no', intend to throw on he peo ple ol tho*e places any imputaft >n, as they were in dustrious snd respectab'e <*itiz >ns. And here he wo>>ld observe to th-> gentleman from Henriro, that, if ever I s should go to Smithfield, or, Wiz/.ard’s Clip, a< he ha I twice chosen in pleasant y to rail it—he would find, insteal of a roguish set ot juggler*, a substantial in 1 respectable po; nlatiin, rvt'h g.ioJ regulations, goo1 tsver.i*, an I real o<d Virginia hnspi'ahty. Much had be-n said o' the evila of the precinct election system — hut it could not be sustained hete nr theiohere, that those evils could not bn remedied. He »aid elsewhere, because a learned individual h->d endeavored lo enlight en the n-ihlic on this subj-et, through the press, on ilia subject of precincts In Jeffarson County. The system, however, ha I been ro;nm need, and It would be un just to deprive Jefferson County of its benefits, when it could «o easily be rhown that (ha two precinct* were much needed. Mr Wi|«on **11 the g»nt1emin had done him justice in acquitting Mm of any dispsragement of the people of Jefferron County, where some of his earliest friends resided. His knowledge of the coun'v hast Induced him to make a few remarks on tins hill, on a former day. He still thought those precincts unnecessary. From Srnithfield to the court house wav a champaign country, without a s'ngle water course, while from Harper's Ferry, there was to he c instructed a gravelled turnpike. Baiter, in th# most distant part of th* conny. ih»re was already a precinct, at Shepherds town. So that there was not a voter in the county who had in trav»I fifteen mile* lo give his vote. He had •een with surprise the manner in which these sepirat* • lection hills had awept through the House, and the Apathy with whirh it was notieed by many who were opposed to the V'inciple; but he did not think it n*c»s vary for him t» romin*nce a crusade against them, al though, by giving a »nb tilentii rote on them, he if 11 nv wlrh It tob» supposed tliat he acquieace! in tbe system He bad n »t opposed this bill from any Inimi cal f 'eling to h • friends from J?ff rson; but on t e ground that the system w»sa bad one, and that J ff r on Coun'y was not in need of lhe*e pre/locls. Mr. Leigh hid not heard dieting ly lh» remark* of the gentleman from Jefferson, and he rove to a»k wh» tber that gentleman had said that t y his qnestionwhelher Sml hfield wo the place formerly called Wiggard's Clip, he had Intimated any di«r**peet to the people? Mr. Luca* said he had only sllud-d to II as a piece of pleasantry. Mr, Leigh—That wav all —and he wished the name had been retained —it wav a far belter name than Smtih. field. Th*re was humor in It. There w** Smithfi.id here, and Smithfisld there—they were to be foop I •very vfheTS—*»ut there wav not another W izxard’s Clip in th* whole country. He w*s fond of tracing out the M*tory of such mines. There was often hn mor in th* ir origii Ifor Instance, no • were to ?*k a r*aident of Chrsferfi*ld, whit rmmtvman h* (Mr. L ) was. he would he told that hs wise yellow Jacketf and lie wa» proud of the name. Mr. Gsllsgher alluded to some publications In • newt* paper m Richmond, relative to this bill, w-hich h* at tributed to a member of the Hcv«* ef Delegates Jt Was not tlio intention ol tbs people of JcfTsrson County to rslsa tbo standard of witchcraft, or »uvj«rt ei-ber cl <he gentlemen from Cumberland and Hetuiro, to I* influence—one o( whom, howevf, when he inotto'ed in debate, wa« attended by so evil ge ui(M, wl o rut hi* wings, and brought him down to the point whrnre he started. The eed* of preelrc' el-etioi.s existed |u th» law*. These precincts were necessary; nor wou'd tit turnpike rotd, ol which the gei.tlein n -pole*, m<-n«‘ the Mistier much—for if it should bo rninptpisd It would no' provide horses. Wn»t» tho tu'npiko M'l came up, he would s»k the gentl'tiisn from Cumber lend f r the witchery o’ his el queue* in I's favor. Tne peop'e thought their de'egatea were belt r ae qnaiu'ed wiili thrir interests than getiileui-n who had in-rely travelled vnre or twice through h* county. As 'oihesllusi u to Wizzsrd'a Clip, although the gen • cman did not make it with any In en'l~t'ol di*pir •uent, still p-oplo were -enitive on liio e subjects, and it they wet# iiM.ui.oued situs.i.igly, they would be offended. Mr. Leigh perceived that lie had given offence to the gentleman from Jefferson. The gentleman said that ti»® delegates from Jeffers »n knew the interests of the people better than a gentleman who had merely travel led two or three limes through the county. But this did not apply to Mr. L., as he had not pretended to know tlie county. He had asked the gentleman for in formation. He had asked whether Smlthfield, was the former Wizard's Clip, and ha replied in the sflirnia'ive. Ho had asked also whether the county was not sixteen miles square, to which ho had also anWered in 'lie affir mative. lie had, therefore, received all his informa tion from that gentleman. Some gentleman took offence at others, when there was no cause. It was his prac tice in such cases, to lot them follow their own inclina tions. It war not his habit to give oflcuce, and in this eas-*, he had no sucli intention. Mr. Callalicr said lie was of somewhat combustible nature, but he was not offended when the gentleman asked tlie question, to which ho had alluded—but lie had been somewhat excited, when tlie gentleman had lugged tlie subject iuto another debate. The cxplana tion, was, however, satisfactory. As to his answer to the other question of tlie gentleman, lie liad not intend ed to say, that Jefferson county was sixteen miles square, but that it was eight miles from eacli of (lie pre cincts to the Court House. Mr. Wilson said, that the gontleman from Jefferson had alluded to some articles published In a newspaper, which lie assumed were written by a member of the House. If so. why did not tho gentleman give hi* name?—The bill then passed. CI.KRKS OF COURTS. wii inmiuu oi »ir. uooue, mo report ol tlio Commit tee of Courts of Justice on the tenure by which Clerks of Courts shall hold their offices was taken up. The report recommended the following resolution: Resolved, as the opinion of this Committee, That it Is expedient to alter the tenure by which the Clerks of Courts hold their offices, and to provide that they shall hold for a term'of years—removable, however, toithin such term, at the pleasure of such Courts, respectively —provided, that before such removal of any Clerk of a county or corporation Court shall be made within the said term, as well as before any appointment shall be made of such clerk, all the acting magistrates of the county or corporation shall be summoned fortlic purpose of taking the matter into their consideration, in obedience to an order of such court; ami (hat a majority of such acting magistrates be present at the time of such removal and appointment, or of considering the subject. Mr. Gholson said he was heartily in favor of the change of the tenure of the Clerks to a term of yeirs; but was opposed to giving the discretion to tlio courts, to dismiss the clerks at pleasure during that term. He therefore moved to strike out all after the words “term of years.” Mr. Williams of Harrison, opposed fhe motion, os aim* *nfj slpin«t the most valuable portion of the report. Mr. Gholson supported his motion at considerable length. It was dangerous to give such power to the Courts. They did not ask it now; but once given, it would be a Herculean task to tako it from them. By this resolution the Courts were not required to give reasons for changing their Clerks—they might do so on any caprice. 1 his provision would cause a continual struggle among aspirants to the office, and the incum bent would be removed for tiie slightest want of com plaisance or pliancy to the judges. If might also pro duce political evils, liable to sap the foundations of jus tice. Political excitements were always to be avoided, ami a lesson might he taken from the turmoil caused in the great State ot N. York by the contemptible Morgan question. The Clerk, in case he were removable at pleasure, would be at the mercy ot the Court. Ho must becomo a cringing tool to bis superiors, or run the risk of being removed. Were lie guilty of malfeasance, the law would punish him. The office would become less desirable by its term being reduced; but respecta ble individual* would scarcely fake it with the liability of being removed at the will ol the Court. Mr. Knox did not think the office of Clerk one in, which so much independence could be claimed, as wa* assumed for it by the gentleman from Brunswick.— They were to do certain duties under the presiding Judge or the Court. Supposing the motion to prevail, and the term to be fixed at five years, the consequence would he, that the Clerk would hold the fee simple of the office for five years. Should he refuse, or become Incapable to perform his duty, there would be no means of removing him. It was said by the gentleman, that political strife would arise out of the power of the Couits to remove the Clerks at pleasure. They had been told by soi le gentlemen that the county Courts consis'ed of pure and upright men: hut now, it seemed, they could not be trusted. But their acts would he before the public, and its opinion would have a corrective influ ence upon them. Mr. L.aigh moved to amend the report, liy striking out (lie clause, fixing the tenure for a term of years, and inserting—“during the pleasure of their respective Courts. Mr. L. was opposed to tho limitation ol the office to a term of years, and more so to the exemption of the Clerks from the power of tho Court to remove them. The office of Clerk was merely ministerial, and ought not to he mingled with other offices. It was only necessary that a Clerk should he skilful, and a man ol integrity; and the longer lie held his office, the more skil ful lie would become But he might lack skill, or he dishonest, and then he ought to bp discharged, if it was the next day after his clertion. There might be instan ces in which a Clerk might have been proved dishonest, in transactions not connected with his office. He might have been guilty of perjury. He would not therefore have been guilty ol malfeasance; but lie ought to he removed as not worthy of trust. He did npt believe in the idea of political excitement arising out of such a power in tho Courts. They would no he so biased. As to (lie idea of rotation in office, it did not apply to offices of this description. He did not distrust the Courts, the Clerks, or any class of men. There might be had men among them; but a very largo majo rity would he found of the opposite character. He be Iteved if this power were given, there never would be a good Clerk turned out, or a had one retained. Mr. (Jliolson said he had not attacked the virtue ci ther of the courts or the clerks. In his own county, the court and the clerk were most able and trust-wor thy. He went upon the high principle, “ lead us not into temptation,” and believing in the purity of the character of the courts, ho would do notl.ing to stain their purity or injure their character. The members of those courts were men —they had passions, affec tions, ami friends. Were the resolulion of tho com mittee to he adopted, it would he to give way to the Judges to personal bias in the election of a clerk. Hut if, on a certain day an election was fixed, all would be placed on an equal footing. The gentle man had said, that Ihe clerk was a mere ministerial officer, requiring skill and integrity; yet he seemed af terwards to think his character and responsibility of higher conscauence. As to the idea of a clerk having been guilty ol perjury, it was a far-fetched supposition, as no such instatfee had occurred in fifty-five years. Hu believed, that if this power irers given, a clerk who took the office for a term o' years, would enter into a contract, which would not he fulfilled hy the State. He, therefore, hoped it would not he given. Mr. Knox regretted the opposition of the gentleman from Henrico. He had a high respect for the county courts; Imt there might ho defects which required a re medy. The argument that the elerks should he held In office during pleasure, because the longer they held the office, the more skilful they became, would apply equally as well to the office of President of tho U. States, or ti'overnor of the Slate, ns to Clerks. Hut this was no argument against the principle of rotation in office. On tho old system of “good behaviour,’ Clerk’s offices had been (ho subject of bargain and sale. The offices had been in (he market, ami the heaviest purse had ta ken it. He knew one instance of this, and he thought if the motion of the gentleman from Henrico prevail ed, such practices would he continued. If the report were adopted, lie believed no person would be removed without good cause. If the office were given during the pleasure of the court, noone would come forward, and complain, and no removal would take place. The effect would be, that the office would he held for life. Mr. Morris did not wish that a Clerk should be dis charged hy a majority of the court present; but of the whole number. He was not one of those who thought all offices should be elective. It was not necessary in j regard to certain otfieera to reetrr to the people and as certain th/ur will; but to do so, would corrupt the re public. Would any gentleman wish to see Ihe election of Judges take place at stated periods? Certainly not— for If would defeat the objects of a republican govern ! ment. If the proposition of the gentleman from Bruns wick prevailed, every fifth year the clerka would be bargaining for their offices—and during that term he would be shielded from removal, be hia conduct whate ver it might, so it did not relate to his office Mr XI wi’hed *o make fh-m responsible, and liable «♦ all ilmen lo be called on to show that h>« hands were clear. It l eras suppoaeJ that no one would complain; but there would be individuals in plenty, watching for the office, who would do it. He wes against making office hun f ter* ol the Clerk* every five yesre. He believed there would b<> a vast difference between a Clerk holding the office, because of good behaviour, and one who wa* bunting up the Magistrate* to solicit their votes. He did not understand how the office could be bargained and sold. Mr. Knox. In one county tho Clerk had not dene the duty lor filicen years; they had been done by another person who occupied the office by right of purchase. Mr. Mortis. Still it did uot atftn t the office If the duty had been well-pcrinrtned. Hut, If clerk* held their offices, durante bene placilo, the pleasure woulJ probably end when a bargain and sale took place. Mr. Gilmer observed, that rotation in office was al ways disliked by those in office, and approved by those who worn out. He thought tbo best method of secur ing .substantial reap nsibillfy, was (hat pointed out In tbo original report It provided (hat the conduct of the Clerk* should pass in review before the Magistrates at certain periods. He did not percclvo that the plan pr^ posed would lead to hat gaining, or strife, as the Clerk who had served faithfully for live years would be more likely to rotain the office, than another to get It. He was opposed to the proposition to take away the power of the Courts to dlschargo during the term of years. If on the other hand (hey he’d their offices during plea sure. it would be very difficult to remove them No one would take the first step, and the office would become one for life. After some further discussion in which Messrs. Chol son, Leigh, and Gilmer took part, Mr. Hives of Camp- j bell, called for the ayes and noea. Mr. Ma.xwoll rose & wa* about to address the House, but gave way to Mr. Williams of Harrison, who moved an adjourn ment. The question was then put aud decided on a division —64 to 69—So The House adjourned Saturdav, January 8 On Saturday, the Report ol the Au- ltor of Public Account*, presenting a statement cf the various return* made by the Cl, rk« or Ac* n-» of*the Ov-rseer* of the Poor, wa* t ken up, on motion of Mr. Riy-s, ol Cstui • bell, and referred to tho Select Coa mittee to which tha* subject bad been committed Ou motion of Mr. Crump, a committee was appointed to inquire Into the • xp-'dimey of providing f r the • *fe k*eplng o4 the pqers in the office of the Auditor of Public Account*; .mil further, to inquire info the propriety el providing to ne other place for the hcldin; of the Courts now held in the Cspl'of, and for keeplrg the eereral Clerk’s Offices of such Courts. The com mittee consists of Messrs. Garl nd of Nelson, Crump, Hays, \Va'|s, Shril l, Po'lard cf Kir g William, Mc Dowell, Mrn"ure, am! McCoy. On motion o' Mr. Garland of Nelson, the following re-oluttnra w«re adopted; xirauirru, nni in* uonimuuf on Hie I'euii nuary be intiucted to inquire into the expediency of dung ing the mode rf co i>p*-n*xt on ot the Pi inci; al Agent of the Penitentiary, so as to m k* hi* la'ary depend on the am-tint of sale ; that they inquire Into the expedi ency of defining the dutieeof the Agent and Superin leu 'ant, no a* to prevent any col 1i«i -it between them, in tiie ribcherge of their respective du'l •*; and that they inquire Info the ex ediency ol ad rpting conic nude for regulating the price- of ar icle# cold from ill* Peni tentiary Store, hy the Aeni*. Resolved, That the Principal Agent of the Peniten tiary, lay before lira Heme an I iventory of the arti cle* now on hand in the S ore. with the prices at which they were received from the Peniteniia' y, at d at which they are cold. Alio, a lot of bihnc a due raid Store, rta'ing the time when they were due. Resolved That the Sup-rinterd :nt of tie Penit n- i tiary lay bclore this House an Inventory of mauufac 'ured articl-s delivered to the Penitentiary Agent dur- t it g the p**t vear—the prices ch»rg-d to th* Common- i weal h— and the data upon which raid print are lixol Abo, a lie * of ca'aa made to individual* by him. and the price*. Also, an Inventory of Manufactured article* and raw ma c iat* roar on haud, an I of raw nia'ertals received li e pa»t year. Ou motion cf Mr. E, pec, the Committee of Profo’l lioo and Grievances were instructed to prorerd w III (he investigation of the application contained in ihe p-- i titfon of sundry citizen* of Ma-on, Kanawha, and Wood counties, for the for-ria ion of a new county out of put* o' those coui-ties. Oo n>otion of Mr. Mason of 1' ele-icV, a rein’u'lon of ihc Conuni t *e ot Claims, Tejee Ing the petition ot -mndry cl*is*nc of the 10th Judicial Circuit, praying Hie p<e *ge of au art continuing to Judge R bert White, i i-salary for life, wo* taken up, ond referred to the Committee on Revolutionary Claim*. CLERKS OF COURTS. Ou motion of Mr. Knox Ilia report of tho committee ot Court* of Justice ou the tenure of office of Clark* of Courts was taken up. Mr. Ghelson withdrew hi* motion to strike out. Mr. Leigh suggested that the proviso lie left open for the present, until the tenure wore decided upon. Mr. Gholson acquiesced—premising, that in cane the motion of the gentleman from Henrico failed, lie should offer the following additional proviso: “And provided, moreover, that two third* of the Ma gistrates present concur, in the vote for removing any Clerk of such county court." Mr. Leigh said, that he would withdraw hi* motion for the present. Mr. Halyhurton offered an amendment to the report, w’ iclt was discussed by Messrs. Halyhurton, Gholson, Crockett, Anderson of Botetourt, Yancey, Moore and Goode. Messrs. Williams of Shenandoah, Kenney and Slicild were excused from voting, on the ground of having re latives who were Clerkaof Courts. The motion of Mr. IFalyburton was rejected. Mr Gholson offered the above amendment which was agreed to. Mr. Leigh then renewed his motion to amend, which was supported hy Mr. Mason of Frederick, and Mr. Leigh, and opposed by Mr. Anderson of Botetourt. 'file amendment was rejected by iyes and noos 47 to 91. A\ ES—Mfs rx. Bank*, (Speaker) Watkina, Burfoot Broad us, B-odnax. Jane*, Wright, James, M trshall. Mason of Frederick, Perrin, Bryce, jr. Clsiborae, Green, Kvlev, Morris, Seymour, Leigh, Atkinson, Sempl*, jr. Luct*, Summer*, Hudgin*, Garland of Nrl son, Tliornn-on, Uiiahur, Barbour, Witcher, S-vansou, Venable, Tyl r. L*wi», Goodwin, Jackion, Maxwell, | Maebrtar-d i^d Rulberfoord — 37. i iivc.ii — hi i/ru’nrro'tiT, uumfr, i> ooo oi AID., Terrill, Booker, Girland of Amber*!, M'Cue, Mayse, Campbell nf Bedford, l,»ft«s>irh, Davie, llenshaw, An der.-on of Bo'efourt, Miller of do., Campbell of Brooke, Gho'son. Snell, Christian, Yancey, Spurlock, Rives of Campbell, Clay, Tavh'r, Halyburion, II tnebrongh, Wil*.in, Chicheafer, Payne, Pawe'l of F'r«»klln. Finl and, Cafleman jr. Wood of Fr-derl. k K nr, H-ll, Er.-Vin-, Dunn. Carrkadnn, DnTl«*on, Willi*ms of Mar 'i*on, Dyer. G »11 • I e", Po II *rd of King 8c Quern, H >oe. Poll-rd of Kins William, Leland, Ewing, Flays, Law son, Powell of Loudoun. Mason of do., Caldwell, Poln dexfer, S'rert. Newman, Knox, Goode, Waits, Billings ly, Vawter*. Pree'on, II 'lm«, O'F'errall, Oohonn, M’ Laughlin, Munlaugh, Blackwell, Andersi n of Notto way, Jacob*. Parrio't, Adam*, Hiner, Baxter. Miller ol Powha'an,/ nr, Hsrt, Mo>r , M’Diwell, M’Matmn Alexander, Kilgore, ffarris, Gatewood, Hamilton, Mon cure, Crump, F^ppes, Gillespie, M’Coy, M’Culloch, Keller and Nrwon— 01. Mr. Ghol*on moved to amend by adding to the proviso a clause, rendering it (lie duty of the court to place on record the cause for the removal of a Clerk. Thia motion, after s-ur.e discussion by Messrs. Leigh and Gholson was rejected. Mr. Brodnax moved (o fill the blank with “ ten years.” Mr. Gholson moved to fill it with ‘ seven years.” Mr. Goode moved to fill it with “five years”—and Mr. Knox with‘‘three years.” • The question on ten years being put It was rejected. On filling the blank with seven years, the ayes and noes were called for by Mr Maxwell, when it was de cided in the affirmative!—71 to 69. AYES —Messrs. Bank*, (Speaker) Gdmsr, Wood of Albemarle, B ok«r, M’Ci o, Campb-ll of Bedford, Di vi«, Henshaw, Gholson, Taylor Ga n«s, Buifnoi, H'na dus, WiIson, B odn' x, Jones, Wright, James, Marshall, P.yne, Mason of Frederick, Perrin, Bryce, jr., Clai borne, Grren, F-S'ley, Monte, Seymour, L«lgo, Atkin son, S.Trp'e, jr., Lurea Gsllab rr. Summers, Pollard of Kmg h Q iu n, Pollard of Kin< William, Ldand, F!w inr, Powell of Lomloun, Masrn of do , Poindex'*r. Hudgins, Cohoon, Garland o* Nelacn, Mi rdaiieh. Up. .•fiiir. Black well, Jacob*, Pairio**, Birbour, W'tchcr, Sw*naon. Miller of Powha'an, / nn, Venable, Shrihl, Tyler. Moore. M’Dowell, Lewis, William* ol Shen.n doab, Han is. Gate wood, (F >od win, Hamilton, Moncure, Crump, Jack-on, Maxwell, Merfarland and Ruber i loerd—7|. NOES—Messrs. Drummond, Terrill, G nlar.il of Am- j i her-t, Mayse, Leftwich, Anderson of Hdetour*. Miller i <1Campbell ol Brooke, Shell, ChrMlm, Ymrrv. > Spurlock, Riv«* of C»mpbeil. CLy, Halybur on, H»n* brongb, Ch'chesler, Powell of F-anklln, Fljlland, C.t*. <lem-n, jr. Wool of Frederick, K'ng, Had, Er-kine, i Dunn, Car-kuloti. Davisson. Williaiqjiof Harrl*©n, Dy *r. Hone. Hays, Lawson, Cald well^tfeet, Newman, ] Knox, Qen'e, Watfs, Billii g-le, Vewters, Pie*‘.on, Hrlma, O’Ferrall, M’LsoghMn, Thomoron, A'der*on of Nu'towav. Adams, Miner. B*x'er, flare, M'blah >n,! Alet'ndrr, Ktlgnre> Epp-s, Gillespie, M'Cojr, M'Cul lorh, Kell-r *ed Nswusn—59. The resolution of *be eomnrdffoe, as amended was •ban agrse-J to. Mr Mrfatlind mevsd to lake up 'he Fill er.urer»tpg lb* Petersburg Rail-road Company —but at tba request of Mr# Watkint, who wUh#d drat to obtain a geotrjJ report on Internal Improvement from the committee on that subject, Mr. Mcfarlsnd withdrew his motion. Mr. Mofarland presented a Report of the President »nd Directors of the Petersburg Maoutacturiug Com pany. Mr. Eppes, from tho committee of Propositions tod Grievances, reported, with amendments, a bill providing against the abuse of bridges erected under the authority ot tlie General Assembly. Mr. Miller of Botetourt, from the committee of Romt* and Internal Navigation, presented a t ill directing e survey ol a route tor a public road from Huntersville. In 'ho county ol Pocahontas, to Parkersburg—A bill to raise a nun i.f money hy lottery to improve the commu nication between Back Bay and tho Atlantic Ocean— And a bill authorising the Board ot Public Work* to sub scribe for a part of the stock of tho Berryville Turnpike ( ompany—which were laid upon the table. Mr. Holland presented a petition of sundry inhabitant* of Franklin county, praying certain alterations in the general law of elections. And Mr. Erskine presented certain documents i i support of th* petition of Antliofly On inotlou of Mr. Anderson o! Nottoway, the Houso adjourned. Yesterday A communicat-'.ii was received from t ie Srnat-, stating that thsy had pass.d th* bill “''on • emit g WTism Chapfiue, ol Ohio Co n A'.0 I; with ainsndttieai*. the bill ‘To author z* Ac We Bi wi» ‘ 'O elect a toll-bridge across Mattapony R* r, ,t |) ,u. / khk.”—An I the bill “ Changing the ti u* of ,,„di , i . Quarterly C-urt of King William Count v-W ■ . ain tidinen* w»re agreed tity th» House A communlra'ion sit received lr m ‘.b* fy. Audi or, transmitting c*‘tsin s'a'eir on s In ir'afp. ,u icve-tin-nts nth by ihe 3 ate in Public W rk-, a»i i hi improvements made by priva'e C mptim-s. «*i m nn motion ol Mr G rlanJ of Nelson, was reform! «• ord red to he printed. Mr. Williams of H.rrison, submitted thr f I - i; re sol in ini ; * Resolved. That th* Commit! *e < f C .nrt- of i be in* runed to report * clause or provision it Bn t it; reynlsting th" appointment and (enure ol Cleric 'he otfires cf the a-v-r I Cl-rk*, now In rili rBC’. | shall ezpir* at some time pres ubed by law.”—Wu:t !■ j' wa* agreed to. On Mr Atk usin'* rno Ion. a reso'ulion w;* ado - , J1 irstructing th* Committee nn»R > dz 8c Internet N > ration trwinqu r • into the expo lienrv of d'rgct tag ■ Public Engn o-r to exa nine U ack Water Riv-r. >>n i South Q' ay toils head, to ascertain the practical illy ! uf opuiing that river, and c ;t mg a canal from “I, , I Crick, near Smithfi-Id, in 1 le of Wight f . .ol u | *•’»»»* navigable point of said BUck W iter Rider. Mr. Miller ol B itetourt, pr -sen ed two rep r's Jraui the Committee of Roads anil Internal Nsviek ;yii,‘ A petition was presented 1st. By Mr. M ••'rr,!<V>.m j • tindry citiz-u* i f Rockbridg*, p> avng the in; rovei of the navigation of the North River, in I ,.t cou y, Also hy Mr. Ep ei, a petition Irom William Th^ru t 'on, Ev-cu'or, ftc., in hvha'f of uo tmanrip; ted •lave: — Also by Mr. Hamilton; nue from T. M. I-h is'on, aekiug lb* Coininonw ••Itli’s rrl i ipii-hu ant to cor’ain p.upeity in Spottaylvania, of whi.b P ; Holme* di*J po e. seed: — A'an a incmoiiil hy Vlr | Gar'aud, of Nelson, from the cultivator* *tTnl>*c co in all the counti-a bordering upon Janies U ver i.nd it* b anches, complaining ol the amount ot t ilia jw oo*-d upon tobacco pining through the Janus R l>«r Gaual, Itc —Referred. Mr U olnax presented a Dieutn’n' In vg-isM/ti of I he psti ion let 4 toll-br dze at Exo er .Mill —ivlilrh an r ferred. in-mu'e proee* It,I, on motion of M . A! ter ' >t PowI.j'iu, to take up ihe K-port o( tlie Cvin ni tee of Privilege* and Eire ion*, in tav -r of tlie t li rihility of U•njatn n W.ttkins l.-lili, tlie I) Irgite from loirlco. — Mr. William H. Oh tinbei layue, iu con'o-iiu v with tlie rstolu ion ailopte ) •oiuo dtv* ago, app-d-eJ it the bar of ihe H*uij, in opoosi ion to the ie,>ort of he Commutet. After an unavailing mo ion of Mr. S wton to postpone the subject indefinitely, tlia Re or! of the Cunmittee was amended on Mr. L‘*l*h,a ino'fon—and then Mr. Cliambcrlayne addressed the House in opposition to the Resolution of the Committ-'e. Hespoka ahou' ene hour — When he concluded, Mr. Lrigfi, (n an animated S e-eh of nearly two hour*, as* '-rted hi* eligibility. — A* soon a* he io:k fii* seat, tlie deport wa* laid on th* table,on Mr. Jackson’s mo iou—• Vud the iiouse idj urned. The Committee of Prop isinoii* and G iavances have reposted in ftvor ol establishing an*w li idge at R ch mond.—1 he Committee conceived, that th- prop.ir.ti >n to regulate ihe tol s at Mayo’s B ha I belter be in*ds an I derided on In the H >n»e.—The q-ies.'ion of the e'igiliility of Mr. L-igli to his seat, (upon the ground ot residence) was 'akei lip yrsteril ty in tile It. of D , and argued by Mr. Chambrrlayne in oop' 'Rion to the eiigihility, and by Mr. L i<Is in favor at it S. veral members seem to he preparing to taka part in ihe argument. TO THE KDtTon UF TH& £*YQ(//JtfiA The Trade to Virginia and Commercial imparlance vf Ihe Joints. Sir : — AMr'ugh on a recurrence to my paper of the 21th August, |S3H, cn 'he subject of Mr. Taylor’s let ter, I do not find myself any thing like as much in er ror, as lo fart, a« lie is, and egregiou-ly, in point ot throry, I do not iliink i: necessary to enter Into any de ta'ded reply. "Fsirp'ay” continue* (o aver, that “very little hea vy goods” can pass to Europe tint w.y, (the Baltimore and Ohio Rsil Road,) “so cheap as down the Mississip pi ” I re-av»r my former opinion, that “the proluce of the West (light and heavy) wilt find its cheapest road to murk>-l to b* that Rail-Road, and those lo which its successful results will give rise.” Mr. Smyth, in a rscer.t spe-ch in Congress, on the Buffalo and NewOrlenn* Rov!, (I thick) on this sub ject, sail, th- commerce ol East Tennessee obtains her soppli s from Bal'imcre, Pbila Uli.hu and N. York — Wagon* now travel a road, of 350 mibe; when the road I* made from BufTilo fo New Orleans, they may pas* through Washington or'Winchester. On the west ern road the Colton of .ilnbama and Tennessee may he brought and manujaetured in Tf't'ncArsfer, ("I cnur*e he. rarii.<d fr.-m thence to the rots',) and rasr 40ft miles of this road, lie u es these wor's: “The gentleman frem N. C. (Mr. Carson, I think,) a*Us. if th«r>vl can ever compete with ilia Mississippi? Sir, •he Mississippi does not run near us, and if d h'a- rh of that river was near us, New O/l-ans never can com pete with Bitiimore in supplying western Virginia (if course East Tennessee and Alabama) with merchan- I Again, a* In the canal in Ohio, I apprehend one ef fect of il will be to (urn much commerce toward* Mon treal, evpeci Hly the wheat trade. So *oon a* If reach* > Canada, I think, it become* provincial produce. Be •ide», all the advantage* of climate, a* well a* tho*eof market, are in favour of eerding flour, eeprcially, to Monir-al. I gathered till* fact from a rorreepondence fi° the National Gazette) between the agent* ol the Ohio and Wrlland can'll*. But, a* to canala, lot u* lo-k »o the contemplated and (he actual coat Mr. Hugh P Taylor date*,In hi*letter, 'o he found in the Richmond E iquirer of the 17th of Sept 1819, that the e»timat* of the N w York canal, for 250 mile*, wa* $1,250,000. Tbl*, I preaume, wa* only lh* wertern branch. We will allow a tlml'ar *urn for the northern one. Tbl* will make $2,500,000.— Now, whal i« th- aclual imoirnt of the N York canal debt? The canal board made a report to the Srnat- o N. Y only la*t ye*r. Thev calculated ihe re-eipt* anil expenditure* for 1826—’7 —’8 an''9, end then *»y — "Th't the whole amount ol deb*, juftttf rhnrgrfth'e to cnnnlt, wa*, on the lal Jan. 1828, $10,272,316; and, that title deb', instead of being red iced by the fn'l on the canalr, lit* increased cacti year, and tha* H e whole amount on the la: January, 1830 wa* $12,237 399 " — Here, we b*hol I an annual charge ol nearly $1,000, 000. Tbi* year, th- paver* *ay, he toll* h*va it creaa ed $168 000, or *ay $200 000, ihu* reducing Ihe an nual charge to only $800 000 per annum Founding hi* calculation* for th- Jam-* R ver canal on tbl* ba*l», Mr. Taylor »*v«, with twice at milch lockage, it might be made lor the ram* money. He thou proceed* on the e*»imaf- of the na'hnal tinneik-j that ir, for 28 mil-* $168,000; Virginia could do th Mine fro n Jack'nn** river to Greenhri r. The amotin', with that necessary fr r th* Improvement of GftenSrl ar and New river*, "on Ihe h-»t m 'dern plan of rime D*v gatio i," wonhl be about $1 591,000. H d Mich m e* imate be n made Ihe guide, and the Legislature have entered Into the •ch-me*. there I* little doubt that Viren1* would now hate bad a debt of $10 000,000 and an annual rharge of 800,000 or $1,000 000 I' I do not much miitake, a* early n* |8|fl | etaird o yon my app-ehm-lon, that *urh wa- Ihe violene* ol Ihe c'i i a'e In winter in N York, that the canal would fail. An intelligent officer had told me, that »nrh idea* bad been expressed of it by engineer* of capacity — Th- cau-e ol the actual ennrinnu* ex pence I have never h-sf'l; but, I have no doubt, if ha* »ri*en from the Ire quent breach** in tl e hank*, and th»l ibe«- br-*eh-* have prece dtd from the unl'Wl r*ti*e» of the work be ing ion quickly done, and ihe great *ev«> Ity of Ihe f o t* But, petting **ide all thl*, th* crowd of boat*, and H * crowd from an lncrea*lnr population, will be c< n*tan |y augncMing, will be rnch, a* to preclude a pt»-ege lor them. Taki-e 21 hour*, or 1440 m>nu'c», )n the day, and allcwii g7 m nut » to neb boat,(here rati rfity p-*. i through lh* fork* 200 bntr. But, tl I* 1* an enormous l allowance of time. However, let u« look to the other *1 > of Ihe question, and in thr rr*ult.—When Mtehl* g»p, he. 8cc Icc, err a il|*d, and th’ produce el O Io i* rfft red lo b*1 »errlf d fo New York, ihe mo • ruper fictal ol f*rvcr wi 1 see that, if this canal b* th - only d#,'*od*or.e. 'bn great m*i*of the pc-dur * Will ;.- uul •e tb» lake*, tb*Bt*>, In »sb<v>Dfr», !e It rj-tc?, ffr.a, wbcoce, «uji a (lata of thing* will nua produce a rail road to Mon'raal. r On a a'u'ce Navigation. | have no rallanc*. Fro A aft attentive consideration of ih* reject, I have a* Util* on Dam* or Weir*. (5fo» an admirable ariir le on Rl ver*. In tho Encyclopedia hri-*.,nla ) The nafuroof the Rivera in tbla Ccn'in.nt, th-lr proceeding from a mnuniainoua country, and conveying .0 large a man of •oil to (he natural place* r| d-pra.te, ual'e In proving, hat the •’atnmlng up a H er, wkl lo even'uaVy pro 'I'ldlve ot *0 large a m»#« of •e«J1meot, a* eventually tn.l * I*- cl*-ally *o preclude navigation. (See al-cme »di< ir»l 'e '-H-r* irom »n American In France, publlt' - -d r. t! « K. i* They afforded me much informantn ) Mill, are err '.'d In l >ok rt he very able Report, of reriatn Kn.li.eer. Th-.a a*«r rcnilemen. in whom I have Mile 'a"b. I have known 'he great J*hn Ren nie lead eC- mpany It.'o a Csnal, pron.Mhg It rhoofd only erat £13? per*h»r*. when u .dtu.liy o.a» £200 ■ and I have known the lota) value o' 'be .-nr k of 'hi* very work, eink from £1000.000 to £ 260 000 -about It* pre«-..t value—aud ruiri hundred* ol ludlvi.iu.il* In 9 he barra'n. I have «*en a grew* Engineer of (he (J. 8 . report p ace*. »n the S.S"'.., a- head, ol S-eamhoat land Slo'p Nivlgatlrn, that an Indian Canon* could Out fra r*r*c ihia very year. I have before me a R-p rt from one of the*#Oen -o nmev ibcC'enndfor ha K.il-Kntrd from Oh-rl-aton to Augu.ia. H* e.iy 1,1 * I'*"" "" M>' R<»»d will be amply mffl |-oi for i * oiindatlon. He add., that the u** of the Pine, and •jarhllf the Light<.<> d, (f.r ateam ) trill make It • much lee,abundant ” X/i-n, U win b# noe*.*ary • *o ."b-i'uio in place of L-Rblwood.** Gfmlte ,hr Kfletn StMea ; (teroridj |-otn ihe Cbaaa .ke ; (third, tatt and lea.-tj Irom Ihe Sivannab, a «v- A'lgurta Njw, although the Mineralogy of ' . w. S. I* not half a* well Ubderalood, «* Itrught to • v,the g-eateat lenorttiu* know*, iha* the gr*ni e idge run* on the edge of the primitive lorma’ion, (bat a lo *<y. near Ftyelf-vilfe, Cheraw, Camden, at C.. umhi ,(wh r- 'he M**>r?* vie Id cbeapueea'and txcel* et ee of work, wi:h (hose cf (he Middle Slater) aHn er Auguai*. Any re.*ona' le man would have ..Id, Ommenre your work at <hi. .pel; 'h. pe you can gel he finer! g-anile, an * aivc y«vr light wood for your lo :.»« o'lve Engine. You mil kill two bird* with one 'one Your work will be permanent, and you wi'l • u*^e I'* cheap travel for aKea to coitio^ Instead of hi*} the f'iel i« to be exhausted ; and, jmt about the •me the Rud I* to be re-l.uil , the fn-l I* to come from nobody know* where. Thi» wifi ehew how ittlj dependence |< lo be placed on Eugln-ev«* Re • rtf, especially the Report o» Iho-e wi n are d-pend •r»' a>n the (peculator*, gen-rally to be found In the** inArt.king.— When line ihe word "dependent,”! tlnsH who nicely aurrey (he .cite they are fold ■ recommit e, and are dm* * ti-fied wi h tbua doing .yak «lu'y. Of ihl*, I am aware, and being eo aware *Ol'» I be excuaed if I do not piece Implicit con adenre in th* " Ablest o( ihe R»port*” thu. made.—■* f'lai- I41 t lo ihe I’re-i len ’* Message, 'relative to th* Po' tlatid and Lonl-vitle C.nat, *p?nk. volume* 00 th* uhj • cl. I should like lo know what Engineer, f# jnimen lad 'be Canal; and, to wliaie auggeation the iov*rnm*rii **** indebted lor tho liunr ve:nent in tha 111 Ver. ($#- P. S.) 1 wll now cone 'ml* with toe coir^e of conduct, were I a Member of th* Virginia Legislature, ! would r ;> itsim'l ii h* recoll*ei and purme. I would advi-e it 14 recollect, that the D-b»fe« Jo th * rl. y| f). real - S‘t per diem, and :liat 8 «i.y» dab .a will e. at .v in,! 3 - a sum ilia* will v«< , v eat rr-iy t* • »y Eogi UOrr*. • ! would a-Mimn that R-d'-R ;ai‘s are enperfnr th Ca* i. iU, and 'bai V rgir ia ** -*n* a R til-Road (1)-from i e » <>ir■'* o' ■ Jam » t> R ehtnond—(2J from the hi i t corn*r v'. Tanneaere,' thonghth* Vail • y‘, to cross io l.ynclihiitjc, and thence to R rhino id — (2) from the fimv«t>th* Ruri'ke, and th’nre low ird« Sail-bury, N. O —(4) ff Jin Petersburg to the Roanoke, and thence Iowa d»- Kalxlgh and Faveiteville.—Let one good or nure Engineers lie npnoin el 'o r-connoitrn the ground, along which each of t!ie*e R til Rnd* »k)<iid run, and all D batv c*a*e fill *h dr R*port» were received. lit th • mean time, let th • S’ate advance Ha 2-5 h» of ihe Capit.il toward* the Petrr'burg Rail-Road, In order to ibew the HiitrliDDD1, in its best winner, and ‘o pro/e to North Cirulina, 'hat no Port die ran op*n on the VrIeq*i, ran pnaaihly be equal to'lie Part* thua off*r ■d to tier by h • .la *e‘. 1 tfink Ifamil’on Fulton, k q surveyed the Road from Fayetteville to the Vir* ginl* S nith rn Lm* If 'he «urv«y r-u'd h« prnctlr e I, it wituld perhaps prove the lac il dea cf a Rail Road •o F.iy Heville, ai.d p. leibly tint" >he attention of the Capi'a' sU in Noit i Carol na. a* well as those in Baltl more, Pn.Ldelphls, New York and Hodon. Bir, til* Jainvs River CjiuI !!! —The hiftory I liaro re-d of that underMiug, in t' e address to the L»gi» laiurg, makes me hope that it say* every thing in fa vour ol R >ri- Rj id*, and nulling in fjvor of ei her what is ralleJ improvement in Uivar Navigation, or a Canal. We know the deb* N w Y tk ha* Incurr.’d. That of Ohio I* $ 1,000 000. ai.d will toon be tqual to that of N w York. Oi Penn<vlvar‘U, we know the deb: to b i folly 10, If not .-Jtlo OdO.OHO The*e. euraly, are hea cane, an I more especially, il'umlriit-d as they xre by th* result of the Rihimore and Ohio, the Minchester un i Liv rpool, the Albany and Schenectady Hail-Rind*; and, adJHOnaliy, by a cor.vic'ion filing tr» New Yo»k, •hit eventually, it will he n-rc*s.iry to fill up the Ca nal, to rnaka a Rail-R -ad, which will give room to alt the cemmerre to p*s* uniformly tdong it at all time*—a m*B«iirenow rendered impracticable in ihe winter, by Ihe frost, and in Ihe summer, by Ihe fr-queut breaches io the Canal, owing, perhap*. to ihat very fro«t. A POLITICAL ECONOMIST. P S. This cotnmunica ion l a I no'b *en sealed, when an extract f om t*'e Louisville Daily A v*rtl?er, o( the 4 h D-cemb-r, 1930. reached me. It stated ilist the i Idle lock h'd been fi i b«d, and water lat into it, when it gave way, and rlo«ed tbe prosp ct of (:• being u*ed Ibis year; and “by tbe next,” the paper added, • it may be so filled up, as lo require another jresr to clear It out ” This is a pretty comment on works ef Internal Improvement, at the expense of (he Govern ment, and a Government that forsooth is to charge no toll'. From the Anrleit c May Review of 1819, I find the canal wa« calculated at $200,000. 'But the writer (*n officer of the U. S Armv) said ilie tolls cannot re mun-ra'e the expense. When the water is hi#h, boats esn pis* the river; o< course avoid tbe canal and ite to'!*. This is the (e-iod generally chosen for descend ing. For tnm mon'hs in rummer, it is scarcely naviga ble; and (nr six weeks in winter, it is rarely attempted. Thi was the ca*e in 1929 Probably for these two months' and six we. k-’ interruption, it last year amount ed to four months and twe.'vo weeks, or, in fact, seven mart.a. Thi# la a pretty commentary on the ability ot these Hydrophobia Engineers, and calls so leudly tor a eer rect detail of the expense on thi* canal, and the causes "f ••* not b«m.- completed and of these blunders, that I 'ruat scm» Member of Congress at Washington will move 'he offiri .i details necessary to an elucidation of tbe rirrnm s auce*. Those who are so anxious to have » •urplti< rev- ntie paid by the profile, for the purpoie of the (Government expending if, should ree to the matter; and, I trust, 'tie committee appointed fur the purpose ol applying hi* surplus revenue, will seo fo it. But, it is impossible not to reflect on what a laughing-stock lbs Government tl a' ha« talk'd >o much about Ita total freedom (in prospect) of taxation, will make of i'self to all the old world The veteran statesmen of Europe will »ay, w! y do not the United S ates fulfil thair pro* ml-e ami red lire ihrir revenue lo their wants? L’ar K'n? lemieux employe est t'am let Pocket det Sujetr, Slid a French ve aran iu Goven merit, a eentury ago. And so said President Jackson, in one part of Ilia late Message. But, be overlooked in his reroti mendation of public works to he erected at the public expanse, and to be supported without toll. He has quo #.I ifie Lou* Isville canal, for the partial purpose « f proving how the Congress can be cheated. He had better pursue his object and see what it will wholly prove. NKW ESTABLISHMENTr" 1 B^HE euberr ber# having assr eiated themes Ives In H the Saddle and Hamrsf*making Bu Inert, tinder the fi m ol J. ft T. Otxt, intend to carry it on iu all its various hrX' the*, five doors stove the Bell Tavern, a* done do»f bfbw Messrs W h J. C. Crane. J. O ey having h-en engag'd in manuf'eturing Sad* dl a, * tc. I»r reversl yea-s pas', in this city, his, he believes, given gensrel satisfaction to his friends ; he »»licit* a continuance of thnir custom, n well a* a share of (tie pain isge of ih • public to the n -w estab I hmeo'. No alienthn rf rx-rthin rhall be wanting on their part, to in-ill public favour. JOHN OTF.Y, Let-- of the firm of O ey ft Tyndall, THOMAS OrEY. They offer for tnle% First fats sl atted and plain saddles Herond quality do. Carriage, gig and wagon harness Saddle bags and valices Be t plat d and polish'd a(# I stirrup iron* Ho. do bridle hit* Ho. do. spur* Carriage »nd gig whip* Twig and switch do. All sr ie>a tn lh»lr line manufactured with heat n#sa and despatch, ard on the lowest term*. Jan IL 75-21 |\IOriCE—Tne Directors of the Brouk Turnpike IN Company, h ivj this day declared a dividend of f ur per cent, nr the last *.s mouih*, payable at (be Ct u i»g House ot Mr. R.'bird C. Wortham, on as d af *r the lflth fuif. Sen * Jt