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Richmond enquirer. [volume] (Richmond, Va.) 1815-1867, January 11, 1831, Image 4

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“ Mutw (XT KMIllat VHIVIIil."
From Friendatnp'a Offering for 1431
THE ACCEPTED.
it iiroxri lumtoiur.
1 thank you fur that dowitcaal look,
An»l for that blutbing cheek —
I would not have you rai«* your eye*.
I Would not kart you apeak;
Though ntulo, I deem you eloquent,
I atk no other eign,
While thua your little hand rentals!
Confidingly in mino.
I know you fain would hide flora roe
The tell-tale teara that ateal
Unhidden forth, and half hetray
Tlio atixtou* laara you fool —
Freni friend* Inng tried and doatly loved
The plighted bride mu«l pan —
Tken fraaly weep —1 could not lova
A cold unfeeliog heart.
I know you lovoyour cottagn horaa,
Wheru in tbe tunimar lime,
Your hand hai taoglitthe cteinetia.
Around the potoh to climb;
Yon caaemeot with the wild roae aaruerv.
Yon little geidon too.
How many fond remerobrnnooa
Endear them all to you.
You *lgh to Iniva ynot mother** roof;
Though on nir auit aheamiled.
And apurnlng ev’ry aelfiah thought,
Gave up her darling child;
High not for har, aho now may olaim,
^ Kind deed* irom morn than oea_
•ha’ll g"*e upon her D loghtar'a imtlee
Supported by hot Son!
I thank you for that look—it apeak*
Reliance on mv truth —
Anri never atm 11 uulrindneaa wound
Yuur en*u*p«clii>g youth —
If I it« ahutild frown, ami anxinua thought*
Oppraaa your huahand'a mind,
Ob' never !c*ir Ui elmj 10 iu«,—
\ could not be unkiiul.
Cotno look upon thin golden ring •
V aoluvu noC4iim to thiink,
Though ol\ *li»gnlling at the •l.iro't
lo<li»«olubhi link!
AimI lo«ik upon you Church, the pWea
Of bletimg ami of |iruy«r —
Galore too nlinr hear my yowi..
V\ ho could tfuitcinhle there!
REPORT «f the ~PRI.YCIP.1L EN'GIJYEER.
Jo J. Uaki.amj, Ksq Chairman aj the Sub-Commit
tee of a.) i,Li „n,i Inttrnnal Navigation.
Sir: I have been delayed longer lhan (expected, in
answering the communication you did me tho honor’ to
addres? to me, on behalf of the Committee of Road*
and Internal Navigation, by the necessity of reverting
lo a number of reports and documents, in order to give
the subject tho deliberate consideration its vast itupor
lance claim*. 1 will now proceed to reply, seriatim, to
ine enquiries of the committee.
j1.*!' ■*,* rfKarJs ,,lc Janus river impe ovtment, I could
add but Itttle to the extousive view 1 have presented of
ttil* subject in my reports of 1820 and 1828. They con
tain I lull investigation ot thu comparative merit* of the
two modes ot improvement, by cotta/, or locks and
dams, the preference being given to the latter, chiefly
on account of its greater economy, aud of it* extendinc
Its benefits alike to both sides of the river. The cost
at the present prices, might bo less than the estimate
made in 1828, but tt may not be ssfe to aisutne such a
fact: extensive improvements might bore, as in Ohio
raise the price of labor: the locks, however, might be’
rendered cheaper, though more poii*hable, by the in
troduction ol wood iu their construction, if an abundance
of hydraulic lime bo not obtained.
As regards the cost ot transportation, recent enqui
ries prove my estimate ol the size and cost of boats, and
•f the daily expense ot engine, fuel, Sic (o be very
ample, and I have no doubt, that between here and
Lynchburg, the conveyance will he made with le** than i
two pounds of coal per ton, per mile. 1 saw in New- I
York, a high pressure engine of twenty horse power j
building lor the Connecticut river: it has two hor.r.ontal’ '
boilers, one on each side ol the boat: cost of this en- i
gin*, with cas -iron shaft and water wheel flanges, and 1
bolls far wh-.»el arms, buckets, &.c. complete. $4,i»00_
W- eigut, with water iu tho boiler, bricks, wheel’s &.r
29 Ions, 7 cwt.
A ten horse pow er would be one half ol this: it can
be put on a boat 70 font loug and 13 feet wide, with
wheels in the -tern, to which no objection is found. It
will consume 1 1-2 bushels of Viiginla coal, per hors*
power, in twelve hours.
21. It is enquired, “whether at short rapids, canal*
might not be beneficially introduced, and at as little or
less expense.” This idan is occasionally recommend
ed iu the rep rt of 132$; and in several notes, places
are designs ed wheie such canals might be expedient;
others, not mentioned, might, probably, likewise be
deemed so. I bis will moro particularly bo the case
where water power may he collected, which may de
fray the differs rice ot cost; for, in most instances, dams
will be found tlto cheaper plan
8d. The next question is, “whether slopes, in some
place*, should not answer instead of locks, and the com
parative co.*t of each ’
Mopes to transfer heavy boats frooi one lovcl to Ihe
other, have for a longtime cx.-icjsed tho ingenuity ol
engineers: it is only of late that the many practical
difficulties of this sort of works, have, I think, been
successfully overcome. The inclined planes on the
Morris’canal, which I lately saw, are well contrived
snd executed, and pass boats with rapidity; still the slow
test of time and expeiieuco is wanting to confirm the
favorable impression produced by their appearance:
they are now in daily operation, but I do not flunk them
applicable to small elevations; particularly, on account
of their cost. It being evident that tho principal fix
tures, such as wheels, machinery, cars, &c. are the
same, whothor for a long or short plane; the difference
of cost, therefore, residing only in the additional length
of graduation, rails and chain, by which the longer ex
ceeds the shorter plane.
I know of no place below Lynchburg, where the fall
would be sufficient for the application of inclined planes.
Above the Blue Ridge there might be an inclined plane,
below the short tunnel, through Ritchie’s neck, at'
Leips’ fills, (12th Annual Report, p. 295:) Another at
the head of tho 1st Alum rock, below Covington, (10th
Annual Report, p. S<>9,) if a can.il was made so far,
would reduce (he cost of the same to very nearly that
of the lock and dam improvement, save above three
miles of distance, ami be every wi*e preferable. 1 he*e
planes would cost about half of substantial locks to over
come the same height.
4th. As to the enquiry, “whether the navigation of
James river can probably be extended beyond the Blue
Ridge for steam boats of light burthen.”
in the ti -t p a e. the canal through the B us R dee
**rl nd allow ot the pa sage ot boats w 1 ler than 10 | -2 '
fro’. unl-M the catiil «nd locks he eular,rH; , nd, ♦ van
In this ca*e, steam boa's would be useless on thl
mountain section; *■> tint ihr »rep I lug power, shoe
thr B us Rulje, would ply indeponden ly. |0 be n< x'
plar-.by referenre u> the tab #-, (It) h Annual Report,
p. 404, &.C ) it will be seen that th» fnrrease of fall
produ e* a rapid diminu'ion of speed and *n augmenta
tion ot th» roat cf I'aiiaportati >n; l»»nce the advantage*
ol the app’ics ion of steam-power ere lessened. as the
rapidjtv ot the stream b-eom-ii greater, still, from the
Blue R dge to the Cow Pasture, tbe overage tall being
Shout five teet p»r imlr, and the reduced sseed 2 I 4
mil'* an hour, the co*t *.( trauepcr'slion would be suit
1 1-4 c'liu per ton per mile cheaper than manual now
er, which may h« estimated at 2 1-2 cent* per ton per
mile: end on Jack o-.’a river, the fall of whirh i* near
ly 10 feet per mile, ih- co»t at ■ sp-ed of two mi e* an
hour, would *till be probably half rent lees. This ad
vantage, how'Ver, here, might probably be more than
compensated by other Inconveniences, e-p cully the
more frequent short can»l«, the cooling ol the * e*m
Ihe narrow and rn.ra crook'd channels, &r. On this
point, experience a'one can pronounce, but it i* not
improbable that, upon trial, tbe power of men, and oc
eesionally the towing by horses mu<l tie tis-d!
5 h. It is a*kfd, “ whether a rail-road would be a
tuecef/tU and valuable lubttitute Jar the navi^alxon
of Ihe river, on ilt whale line, or in part
In part, a rail-roe I might be exp-dient only In the '
upper section, in connex on with (he crossing of lb'
Alleghany, but not oiherwiae, oor elsewhere, be
eeuee frequent translation of goods should be avoided
ttn tho whole line, and pi.licularly below the rnour.
Uios, I stated, in my repo-t ol 1S2«. (p„g«, 419 t ,nv
opinion that It won Id be lUblo to msny objection* both
1* to co*t arid Inconveniences. .*# f<> enit tw.. *ii*m< i
should be considered, the roi/s and the foundation• I
the former ere pretty much the same, whoever mu' i
be tne nature ot the grotiud passed over; they hav.
been of late ohtein-d mueh cheeper then heretofore'
but the la'ter i* frequently by far Ihe most ripen ive 1
end would! 1 think, prove so along Jama* rlv.r. |'of
the purpose ol avoiding (Treat curve* and steep ascen s,
we must resort to d'ep cut# and embankments And
(what would be s'rmgy otj eted to) the forma'ion of
straight hoes would neeeeorily cut. In many pl.iees,
throueh the valnable June* r)vrr bottom*
Tble Improv m*..t would, thus, ©eea-ion even great
er romtdetnfe, and proportion,,* damage., than a const
Whl-h ear be made to wind dmer to the hl'l. A sain
While arsoal m»y rec.fv' som* m*oodd*„ble sir-am.
• rail-way »*^u|r<N, thM every tributary. a-,. ™ ,
email, should be peered over by a culvert, *, dart
bridge: this must evidently prove e s»r »1* r»j ’ ,
wpensn e Hne running across to tinny t< ffcos*
s- •
bnlariee, nil only on account of tba arches, but ala* 01
h« necessity of sustaining a auArtcnt elevation for tin
purp ts* by (vqumt embankment.
A*am, a high level would hero, aa lo a canal, bona*
ce.aary to keep tha ralt-way above the reach ol hub
tlO Hl, ; hvoen a heavy expense in walling aloug cliff.,
an.l embankment* at depressions.
Theae ami other <1 Mailed construction, too minutn to
a auiuiieraxl, can le«va no doubt, that on the lower
•ertio’ , a rail-way on the superior scale required a
n< llie Jantes river, would coat at losel as much as ■
c ml
As regards considerations of eonvtnieney, it is liablt
to some ol the ohjec I-us ol a caual with perhaps addi
tional fo r«. '
In 'It* first plac*. It can accommodate ouly one tidt
«f the riv. r. ami that arm less than a canal, which a
•ts feel- r- *t least ha* a couimuniralio , open with thr
stream; wliereaa, here frequ, nt and explosive bn.lgei
over the rtver would be l.a only means to place th.
ra I-way upon a par with the canal in thia respact.
2 1. Tha division ot tha low-g oun ls by the line o
in p.-av, meet would be more unfavourable tban by t
canal. '
*'5*. .ri'® ■*lM»*'.w ol fencing ro onaro a on the canal
would be inrreaaed here, as likewise the difficulty o
keeping the woik in order, where it would bailable U
"• cross d at so many points in (arms belonging to the
same owner on both rides of this road, which w.ll gen
"ra J dwTlr* ,h* building*from the field*.
4 n. Evan with accommorlatiana provided for boih
•Ideaof the river, the necessity of exacting high tell.,
i© an itlpauiie return on an ripen.-ive im
provemnn*, would favour, at partirtilar atagee, a conti
nuation of rampefirion oti the river, until the amount o1
'rad# had permitted a reduction of lo I# sufficient to
drlv„ «way acompeti Ion until then injurious.
5 |. |t a rail.road be made down to Maiden’s Adven
ture, a Irai f,r of the produce into boate must take place
there, or else the rail-way must be extended at cinrl
l**r*Nl* com to Kirliinopd.
® Tne article* to be transported on tha lower pari
o' Jain, a r v«r arc tni-c»lletinour, bulky, snd scattered
along the line. Tht-y du not require epeed ol trans
portation, and consequently, in every respect, ran
'Norn advantageously be carried in boats th.o iu wa
gone.
In order lo lavea'lgate the question fully, th-re re
•mine now to cons der the probable revenue of each
kmd ol Improvement. Thia ia equal to the saving in the
cxpvnee ol transportation,•available for tolls muldplied
by Ike number, of Ions to be carried.
In tile first p'acc, a< regards the amount of trade :
Tn« a-'imates made in 1826. were predicated on s^itan
tily o< 34.224 ton* of pioduca and tnarchandiz , ex
clusive ot coal and plsister.
In 1828, the trade had already ire eased to iriduce
and merchandize, 40,800 tons,
Cu*'. 595,300 bushels,
rite revenue far which was $48,429 00
In 1829, the nvroue for good* god pro
due*, was $15,393 00
For coal, 6 838 00
. ... . - 32,231 00
la 1830, if was for goods, fte., 61 835 00
Co.I, 6 042 0J
- 58 777 1)0
• r«pm increa>n exninite* Hare, speaks well lor
the future.
Hy a simple proportion, sufficiently correct lor the
.purpose, the return of 1830 is found to correspond to
Produce ami Merchandise, about 50,000 tons,
Co°!' very nearly, 700.000 bu-hels.
i ne*e amounts will bo assumed as the quantity ot
trade on James River below Lynchburg, altho-'gh a
more rapid iuerraso must evidently he lire immediate
consequence of a superior improvement when we a e
that the trade has regularly advanced uuder the p e
»«ut unlavoiable cin um.tancer; but, it is my object to
intent the following calctila'ion*, not as speculative
• o elusions, hut with the stamp ol decisive and iinme- i
dia'e certain'y:
The coaf of transportation between Lynchburg end
Rchmor.d, (150 miles,) mbs e>tun.i erf in 1826
By the canal, $1 80 per ton
*»y lock* an I I 6$
By Jis rail-road and lower canal, it
in'gM be 1 i3.
In the former reports, already quoted, the average
cost of transpnitati n by bsttesu* between Lyuchburs
and U.cliin'jnd, wjs estimated per ion,
»' 9 10
From which, in rrder to aecure
a raving in thir particular, 1 30 war deducted,
Lsr.Tiug, t C'Ver la It and Irani- -
per la i ion ou the im prove ine nt, $7 80 per t»n
Dji’u'tlng r m thia sum the estimated coat of trans
port n on on the several improvements, as above:
Canal Locks and Dams. Rail-Road.
„ 90 91 99 $1 13
Th- amount available for inffs oo each, will be
$6 OO $6 13 $6 67
" Inch, < u 50 000 tons, (one h-df only from and tc
Lynchburg ) would pr-duce respectively
$223 000 §229,500 §250,125
Now, the lower canal has co-t 610,000 The new
r oal was erimated M §2 150,000, if made all the way.
ring s'on| I I e a'ao, as admitted above, the co»t ol a
ro i.| et nil-way. The canal, by omitting the section
along the M aiden’s A lv ntuts pond, mig'• be only
$1 963 000, (1820, page 439.) The I ck and dam Im
prov mem wa-e.tunsu d ilS2S. pag- 239 ) at §664,110
To ihe«e several enimalra, adding the coil of the lower
raual, the whole cost ol the respecilvu improvements
wou'd be
$2,608 000 §1,304,140 §2.790,000
\\ Inch would produce for dividends &. annual expi-nres
§208.240 $115,206 60, (report ol 1828.)
§223,200
i new sums compared to the above amounts. Hint might
be obtained :r.-m lulls, sherv lhat Ihe present trade
to Lynchburg i< diffident to justify rl tw improve
ment, and would leive on each, viewed Independent
ly ol the other concerns o( the James River Com
pel y, a surplus t (
^•0*1. $16 760 00
Locks and dates, 114 293 10
Rail Kuad, 26,925 00
l'o which should be ad led, (or toll* on 700 000 hu-hela
•■( coal, $7 1)00 00
Water and ground ren*, 5,477 00
_ . . , -$12 477 06
Kai-mg each surplus to the (ollow ng amotiu :
$29,287 00
Lo ks and dams, 126,770 io
Kail-Road, 39,402 00
Applicable either to a further reduction of tolls, or Io
the m ioguiebm-nlot the debt; a •e-ult much mote
Haitering than lhat pre*ented io 1826,page 189,wh-u
an incre. ae of ona-third ol the trade was deemed ne
cessary to jus ily the canal. This increase has now
he< n exc-eded.
In connexion with the general debt chargeable on
the Fund for Internal Improvement, it is now prnper to
view each ot the new improvemnnis, by making a cat
dilation ol the anoml revenue similar to that ol 1923
i»> g- 258, es follows:
1 tie oius already obtained, amount
•o $1,230 000
On wh>h Iharo is paid an lute
_ ol. . $71,078 6b
From which should be deduct
ed the cost of the lower canal
already In'rodured in the pre
ceding calculations, 640 009
And Its propnr ional inter**!, 87,293 50
The account will thru stand thus: _______
Interest on $590,000, expanded in work* not
included in the p eceding calculations
and tetiinaies, 31 880 00
D.vidend* on 700 ahares original
_ •»ork 16,800 00
Kxpeiice* on Blue Ridge Canal, Ka
nawha Road and River, 11,675*00
Potal aintnin' of ehargea on (hose _*
improvements, 82,755 00
Probable revenue of iho same —
Blue Ridge Canal, 4,000
Kanawha Road, 5,000
Kanawha RiVrr, 6,000
—— 14,000 00
Annual detiri-nry on those work*, 48 755 00
•£»t y circninUaees baler*.,0 Ly aibburg ,tnl Kchtoon I h |
Iilaptsd I.. the »ppltcv>0 1 of lotu.not y. tnginrt a. ■ „n, pnw.
•f. Tki cel »f tbn mode of tm sportalion, w ,u!d rnt upon data
ratb-r «■ *sit«ia anti It- Slutting m Ilia hsginni.g. Tlis lot lowing
■ • HssmsJ, how var, a prohab't approximation of what ii wauls b*
until rtptfisncr and tlis augiusutitinn of Irs I* thnui<| hava Iriatntil
ths rsiperliva itanu liable to he iuAarnced by thsm. Tbs rrault
*n*w» an i apsi.as, by InCum-itiys rngin**, of 0 60 c*nt», nr S- iiht of
* P,r tvn p»i unit, tower ertimatss err mad* in Knglaml. but
bersih.y wiut t notbf alta.naMs at firtl, * ’
2> per cent ahonl-l bs dstaebad aa foli.wr, to at lo ahsw lhat it ii
fur intsrnt, dspr.is ati >o. A,:. i
24 par erol. on tb* toil of sugias and lender
wurtb g-, 007
And of I fib for spire engine tad tender, . fin
In ell, 01 Coo
K.» rufarirt, depreciation renewal, r*naira, girt**
ml, t <S»r>, he. | yraf u< SOO wo,*,, p 1,’ji $000
or per d *y f.j Qg
Engineer ft, Atwltm |l, 00
8>* j hantwle of <oela, 00, tnlsrsat, k- on wlfo w
W 59. g ^
rrupattio* »f wetet i*»fini>». nr table with ibs
•wa of togiwsi ) s oo
T.U1 tor ii, <n>i.| <jq .aaafut tabs cun .*\t, g. , <a
Wbith n to, lb. dwIaiKS of 170 *
miles *3 MaiJekh Adventure
por Ito, 13 |<2 at*. [0 40 uf a esut oar sal, i
To which thouM he added, fer 1
uaasoaimion ol psndnctaj
caotf Ir teapot (atari, V31 TrSXsyarlStl.
Xla» lur D aiV pis lip i.r If.a
•bids rl>»lrW» f, 01
•boeid the fa.t rt*d »* . reed sit fn k wf rxwutM t g,e,w,
l-7'set. Wnutd S'cres frost the ..pi*.. 0f *,».r| i
N«Uf***ou» on the new improvement#, a# before.
Canal. Lock* and Dam*. Bail-Road.
t*9'**7 $136,770 40 $39,403
which,compared with the above annual deficiency,
abew tha*, wi h a e*n*l or rail-road, the revenue
would atUI bo under the yearly cxp.nees, by
$19 518 $9,353
Bui with locka and «lamr, would exceed it by
$78,015 40
In conclusion, itieietore, the cand or ral'-road
would approximate io nearly au amount of revenue
equal to the animal expenses and prvarnt deficiency,
that with but an lurooaiderabte allowance (or increas*
ol trade, ih* y may bo b he considered not only juadfi
able «* regard* their own independent support, but
what i* anil more impoilant, equal to rslicvitig tbe
FunJ lor luiorual Iinprovoiuent Irom tba present ruin
oua yearly deficiency. Ol the two, however, the rail
i road abew* the greater approaimadon, and would be
preferable to tli* canal, upou the further consideratioo,
• hat a considerable revenue wiuld be yielded by n
Irom tbe travelling, ant probably the Iran pirtatfon ol
the mail upon it. Five dollars, lor Instance, being
charged between Lynchburg and Richmond, tbe rail
road would claim prelerenre a* to eemomy, as well a*
ecnveniency, over even journeying on Lorse-back.
I bis considera'iou would make it at uuce more tbau
equal to the above detirieucy.
1 bo most advantageous result is exhibited by the
lock aud dam improvement, wbirh wi I not only cov«r
the deficiency, but leave a suiplu* of $75,006, which
would, even on ihe present trade, autbo-ize a reduction
'u- k'* ,0^* $1 50 per ton, between Lynchburg aud
Richmond, or else It might be applied io some other
useful purpose, a* the iuterest of die trade may dictate.
It would borrow more than oue million ol dollars.
Io ihe luregoing, th«ie may be added a consider*
lion ot tome weigh*, that the revenue that may be col
lected ou >bie improvement, being $229,500 upon Ihe
preeeut trade, would justify an expenditure ol $2,295,.
000, wiiich it three limes ihe estimate of its cos*, and
shew* a U'iiude in tho expenditure, well calculated tj
dieptl every hesitation or leur ai regard* the cost of the
woik.
Concerning the section above the Blue Ridge, a rail
road would approximate closer to a luck and da nrim
provement, and would certainly be preferable to a ca
esaal, both aa to coat, speed and convenience.— I
Many ol ihe objections stated in my report ot
1826, relative to the whole line, ate less forci
ble on this upper section, and others have been in a
great measure removed by the perfection to which the
moviog power has been brought, and other considera
tion#. The late peiformances of locomotive engines,
have greatly enhanced the advantages of rail-ways,
though wo should not be deceived by the accounts of
tbe great speed they have been proved to be capablo
ot ; this being obtained evidently at a greater expense
of power or diminution of weight transported, is not ap
plicable to tho most favorable transportation of goods
I and is objectionable on the score ot prudence ; nor is
their ascent up certain inclined planes, a criterian ol
their usefulness in that respect, as what theydoalene,
they could not perform with a load ; and it would not
require a steep riso to make them inferior even to
horses.
To return above the Blue Ridge—Tbe tributaries are
not so large: Ihe river docs not rise so high: it is nar
rower, and consequently its crossings less ohjectiotable:
tho bottoms arc less distinct and valuable. Tbe objection
arising from the character of the trade along Janies ri
ver, is here of much less weight than below the ridge,
as but little can be expected along tho river itself, but
most of it would come in at fixed points from the later
al valleys, or over iho mountains.
The transportation and cost of iron, which constitu
ted a weighty objection in 1826, has been removed by
the establishment since of extensive iron works, which
should by all mean* be encouraged in preference to
English manufactures, even at a slight advance of cost,
retaining thus the circulating medium in the country,
and advancing its manufacturing interests. In addition
to this, upon tho plan successfully adopted on the Bal
timore rail-road, to lay the nils on longitudinal blocks
of stone, (a material very abundant above the Blue
Ridge,) dm ability and economy may both be se
cured.
lastly, tho translation of tho freight into boats, which
must ultimately lake place, ceases to constitute an ob
jection, when the rail-road is viewed in connexion with
similar improvements across the mountains.
A•• to the cost ol the line* scales of improvement, it
might compare as followr:—The two first being obtain
ed from the reports, and the lalt*r computed Irom an
acquaintance with the ground, though no survey f r
the purpose has ever been m*de.
Canal. I,ock amt Dam. Rail IVau—Dmble Trazk
$1,949,000 $616,960 $1,260,000
Wtieti should re.■•p c ively produce
133,920 62,696 100.800
Cjs! t l transportation tor the whole distance, (79 miles
by canal nr rail-way, 80 miles by the liver.) p*r ton
0.81 1.12 0 40
Tolls of $1 per ton being allowed on the canal, which
is certaiuly Ijw. considering the present difficulty ol
csr tags on that section, ths lolls on the three improve
ments might rate <hus;
4-00 8.70 4.60
Each would require to pay the annual expense, tons
tran*pnr*ed,
38.980 16,945 22,400
This comparative vie w puts a c.ind there out of the
quo-linn. It approximates, as to cost, ths lock and dam
and the rail-road improvement very near-toan equali'y
I he former might produce water-ren's; but other con
•ideratbns would more 1'ian make up-thi*, and the di -
fermce in the required tonnage in favor tf a roil.road
The revenue ibat would he received from the trans
portation of travellers and the mail, the prohabls fur
ther reduction ot the cost ol carriage by locomotives,
when more generally introduced, would, alter a shor
time, more than overbalance the apparrnt greater pro
ductiveness of 'lie lock and darn improvement
The rail-road besides, would encouraga the iron
works in that quarter, connect jtsell readily with the
improvemo its over the mountains, and moreover, alf-r
having attained the above standard ol trade, every in
crease would add to the superiority t
Lit us suppose, tar instance, tOOJlOO
On the river, over and above the requisite t nnagi \
83.055 tone, which, at $3 79, would bring $307 303 50 |
And on the rail-road, 77,800, which,
at $4 50, are 349,200 00
Besides a proportions!* probable increase el travelling.
As regsrda cost, it should not be forgotten, lh.it a
turnpike is call’d for on that section, the cost of which
with bridges, might be $36,040 00
To whtcb, adding the cost of the locks
and dams, 626 960 00 j
1 be whole amount, $663,000 00
Should he that which we ought fsirly to set against the
cost of the nil road?, which Would coinbiuu iho ad
vantages of both.
lu addition to all (hi*, if may further be remarknd,
thit, in order to institute a tatr rompirison, it was ex
pedient to place in competition the three moles of iin
provement, in their ultimate state o( p-rlection, hut
while a canal or river impr ivemsnt, cannot be enlarg
ed without considers! le additional expenditure, a raft
way, on the contrary, cn an inferior scale at first, n.ay
facilitate its further improvement: Therefore, some
advantage would be tonnd in construe ing, in the first
instance, only a single track, the corl ol which might
he $930,000, requiring only a trade of 17,420 ions, very
nearly that call-d for on Ihe river, without considering
the tun p ke. This plan then, at once superior to the
river improvement, would increase every year in pro
ferab'enirs, and so n justify the laying of a second
tat.
6th. The last subject of enquiry is, «• whether
a rail-road would he better eonjined to a connexion be
tween the eastern and western waters, and between
what points on the Jimes and [k'anawha it should
run."
This is a question of great intricacy ; it involves va
rious interests, and depends on considerations on tho to
pography of the country, the degree ol feasibility of the
plan, and its probable advantages, productiveness and
benefits on each practicable route. On these subjects,
the information I have so far collected, is yet iucoin
plete : I will, however, endeavour to present with
clearness, the prominent lacts I am acquainted with.
Two distinct routes are spoken ol ; the one Irom the
heads of Dunlap’s creek to Greenbrier river ; tin-other
between New Klver and Hoanoke, and thence to James
river.
I have not surveyed personally between Dunlap's
Creek and - Greenbrier, but operations relative to a ca
nal, were carried on in that quarter by the United
States’ Fugitive's; which, together with some of my
own surveys, furnish the following facts concerning a
connexion between the mouth of Greenbrier and
Lynchburg, two points common lo all the routes •
ifari'—l iirx
from l.yncM.utg to i’attooi
„ burg • 4V 303
Thonee to Covington M ].Q 4IG
Thene* to tbs mouth of fork
Run ie 1 9 439 ,k, * a
Thence to the vml of the troop
Cat and Toonot 9i.P 904 10o M
Rommlt level 4 19 <K/0 900
Thence to tirrrntifiei down ’
Howard’* Cr*ek r i fe 040 an r.'
Th*nce *0 th* iimiii). of Or**a
b»le* *9 11 9*7 r,w
Total distance tf this < out* ir-6 1 ft
6Y WAY Of ROANOKE AMD NEW k(V fck
Fisri Roi ie
• iwn Eytrchhurg to Fatten*
c JO I
f benoo to iho io|/ of (fee d,V/d
>ft«rhW» 13 3073!
f n«nco to Vaiem or. kcioeke IS 400 Oi’ivt
Thence 1* the forks of IW.. •
'*• »'W UC 14,91 f
r fee net ig m, mouth el tih
U 1-4 99t to n.
1 hooeo to tho oixluf Iho auto 13.04
ait lovol >2 3 4 dV) si v»
Summit lo»ol, (tut 30 loot 9 ^
•Uopt 5 g
Thoueu down Uoadow erook
... *o N«* lixi 111-4 uia trr jh
rhenco to iho mouth ofUrooii- 30® C7’4C
b,i,r W_58 3* 4.9S
Total diatanca 914 1.4
, ., Sncoso Routs.
rrom Lynrhhurg to Salem by
"•f of Oiler's crook and
Fmn, computed |00 Unknown .lu. Kasy trade
Fmm 8n,o,n tu U,eeob,ier ,1- ^ ^ no ab„,„. J.C
Tottl diatanc* 2j| 1.4
— t Tniau Route.
_ '"y C-hWu!;"" m u,,kr.nbobi:h,uk<" Zukzwa
h mm rt*|sm ,u Oroo.nb.l.r “ ttbov«
»•*•» 131 1-4
Tout diotaneo 199 14
ro“!c»'prominent feature is
the crossing o! the Alleghany mountain.
between Dunlap’s creek and Greenbrier river, a ca
"'l t* next te impracticable.
W°UM b•V,' !° 7 1-8 steep miles,
Ind A f I *! ,D mver4*e ri8° of 100 1* loot P*r mile,
.hi, i 89 ,ee‘* UP°° whirh the
be8u-edd r*b ** ,,OWar 0t ,ocomo,*v# *w«>nes could not
thnM^.krl?’7,9d*9 th,V coun,ry convince* me, that
C0U,d 1,01 b“ m*d* regular 011 those .ve
rges, that the steepness would consequently he much
Jtrea ,r place-; and Irotn the general ru/gednea. ol
he mountains there, much winding, cost of gradua
non an,t difficulties in the formed,o of inclined planes,
must be expected. Indeed, I doubt whether, unless at
•,d.« ®?r,n°UJ e'PeD8e* <* *»ould be practicable .0
graduate $e road lor any other than hor-e power.
Uu the contrary, the crossing of the Alleghany in
Montgomery county can be effected wi>h Creat ease
hit naUhh * choice of several practicable* passes in
nd'ai: ^0U,h°° .,Th# ,*round *«"• pracdc.ble
There the descent towards New river avenges 27 1 2
eM per mile, but is not uniform, it being 80 feet in the
fir-t, and 40 fee. in the second mile; \Zl wb 5,7it
hecomc* of course less than the averaga. By holding
»p the line in the second mile, and cutting mon at to-f
this side might be 6 ted for the adapt* ion of locomotive
east Ilde* U‘ ‘n* pr"h"h,B ,h*» «h" «pM descent on the
Ihl1#! df ’ w10,,'d ,n"k* “ore expedient to overcome
O ik™1 m',e by *" Inclined plane on both side*.
Th>tk*r*b? .°f. 6r” '• •>* (.«.
And in the 9 3-4 miles following, if aver*
ages between 47 „nil
The first mile will necessarily require an inclined
plane; but on the others, whose fall can, | think be
somewhat reduced, locomotives will be applicable ’
A* regards a connexion with the Kanawha alone
ho roule bv Montgomery county would, according to
the above computation, lu somewhat the longest- bJt I
iS%?!ZZ\,W “wou,d be b0,h fh?ap- -*d —*
K*nIa°whO«Va.rhib0,id?8 0p,n,i"K * communication with the
Kanawha, tbit route would embrace al-o »h * commerce
‘ba "rP" P,r‘°' New river, and of Rusook” .nd
lit ,°f t® 1 : Wo ahould bring ir.to l.f, the
dll ofbtHnLn.<‘"i, ,b*' di',rjc'i fcversing the former or
. J h',.!tC,li'V of con-ti uctlng the road in that quarter Is
not without ... weight; there are in that direction siv*
o"-.n. ,h.0,K.’„.'r,.”',kh »■«
ri."; »«,ou"> "i"*
J nat whi'li present* itself as ,he shortest on lh« man
pa-ijas through B-anfort’s Gapti Lynchburg- but n.
acclivities aud declivities, would be greater K»’nJ more
numerous, ou the east side of the Blue R dge- the mi
tain and run into the Staunton, being a*| crossed at
right aug.es. W hat windings and other difficulties these
obstacles would occasion. I am not prepared to -av
but I apprehend, that the road between The r Igc and
Lynchburg could not be adapted to the use of locomo
tives, slid that the transit wottlJ be both slower and
more t spenslvn than on the oilier routes J
1 bo route by Pattonsburg, and that by Otter’s crook
as far as I can judge, offer a .out the same facilities; the
former .a computed to be seventeen mdei shorter than
the Utter; but. constdoi ing the passage of the B'ue Ridg
I !h*!n '.bD » Ule eec‘lon/ol°w it. it is probable that more
h.io the hour ami a half, neeeMary lo p*** over th«
1 on*th«Tohorfer routo >»« ®«ti»n.d, would be lost
?1«^fS£^j3S,'zrS!xZ2r-,
ffr share of the benefit* „f t|,e Improvement. *’
tb«T lVruLPar'°.n>b,JrK W0U',, ,orr«»« «he revenue of
the section of Jimss river between that place and
Lynchburg and Raver.e the fertile county „» Bo'e
tour. I cob ib y both I nks may be foun.l expedient af
iSh-UTsirr."' •*“" h*“” <-•»*• a,.
a± i* f" ,r,pr,y l,e*n reported that a canal was
quite practcablo acros. the Alleghany in Mon-gome
an I " ft!W wo^',l,0, comparison betweeu this
and the rai.-w.y may not be an improper conclusion of
this communica-io’i
From Salem to New river.it i* 47 5 8 mile* • rise
1017 fee't (all, 309; i„ all. lockage 1,356. The er st of
Th W°U !* Prob,,b,y b« »hout $2,000 000
That of the railway, doubla Rack, 950.000
D mZCe,|ifi!?r,°f* 'be U“*r’ $1,030,000
hich at first might be ma le even gioater, by cou
slrncting only a single track. y
foi,ArVr.','eThh,e Cana' C0'i,‘J not be P*"**'1 in «han
lt a» . 1 h* ‘ransiton the rail-way would ba effect
ed at a molcra-e rate in eight hour*.
rail *5 coneidrra'ione are so decisive in favour of the
rail-road, that it would be useless to mention its advan
h.ad^oVth* HoIsJon.k*/ u,,|n*,,e eoon«i »«* "»b «b'
With great respect, I rem-in,
Sir your obedien’ serva t,
__ - C, GRO/ET, P. E.
(Continuation of Foreign JVeion by the Packet Ship
John Jay, from Liverpool.)
ENGLAND.
money market, Dec. o.
from the (everi.h a'ate ol the Market for Consol.
m'l'h^ 8rK#,n; on «*turday, the rise of 3 4 per cent,
itl the course of to-day wa, not unexpected.
commencement of business there was node
cided indication of any such movement, and Consol,
for account were sold, by one or two of the influontial
dealers at 82 2 Ft and 82 1-2; who, howevrr. reversed
SsKoTooT5 8’ .on ,he p"rc,,8,e 0f Upv' “r<1'
« I - k * by brok,,r* w,'° '» affirmed »o be connect
d , ^ " ?fr'*Jn **,rr'a'v" establishment in the imm
diate vklnKy of the Stork Exchange.
lhta latter transaction did not become generally
known for nsarly an hour subsequently, excepting to
those who had Mtpp’led the shirk. A, #<£„ the spec”
vinced fo'sVi.nred 'V h*'* Con'0'* fnr ■‘■count ad.
from infk ‘kS ’ a'" *ot firm ,hi* improvement
from which there was uon-reaclioH boyond 1-8 pej
Pie closing of Consols for Account was 14 per cent
hhrhrr. I. . 83 18, and the same in private bargains
with a very firm appearance. K '
Coololi*" **' *Vy S‘°fk* eVinCeJ *' <nuch elasticity am
of !hmlln„dl,lk*eDr! by *h" f0rei*n ■"iWtaof to day I,
?' l"'T .k. w ?rTr.L0DeLPOr"00 of il (e»<IinK to neu
P « °( ,h" o hpr- Priwaf account,
from Paris repres»nt a e nsidernble change for th» bel
ter in the Public Securities, but draw rather a Kloornv
fad tire" of °! Pomm#rfIi"1 •M". noticing the
n .kk 'V® here‘ fof* etni ent firm of Ard uin
Hubbard and Company, who, it «i'| be remembered'
were the rrntractors of most of the Corte. Loan”
DISTURnANCES IN THE COUNTIES."
The following remark. •! th. Chror irle co ,„ne frvn
the source they do, give to these disturSanr^s the eh*
faet.r which we have heretofore ..,rlhu"ed .h'm
lo'li Itnit*h *h* Ln* ,<h »,ri"U have »»®retolore been slow
l N'wra"’* ^marked In the Hon*, of
Lodsthat “lie was arxi mis the N >hl. K,,r| ((jR,.Yi
s mold fo.be,r for the .r ,en< to agit.te the qu-.ion ol
Reform at all. I, would only be productive of *git»"ion
in a time ol no ordinary excitement.”
rhe Chronlel. ..ys-”Though Earl Onxv avoided
entering nod tails and Indeed said, that ti I the nues
.ion reached ih. Upper House trom’th. Commons h.
shuatd not state bia opinion on it; yet he said enough to
.how that he was opposed to ballot Perhaps he might
hav. • tong ofj-ctlons to it.—‘If the Election by h.l
lot w-re adopted, said the Duke of Newcastle, -th-re
wot. d be no common ties between the two House* o'
I arllamenr. Tnaf. we bel eve, is the very reason why
the peoijo are so anxious for »t. Those tie, between
the two Houses are not iu the greatest favour at the
p’e>ent moment.
Wc confess the language of the Duke cl Newcastle
and some others of h s class at the present moment’
doe. s ir| rise ns not a little. I.idle do they know of what
is pa emg in the minds of men at this Um*. All tha>
we l.-ar from the country Gits os with the most
ous alarm. While his Grace of Newcastle is quarrel
Img with the use rf the word ‘'Borougbmnnger.” |n
elect,on .preeb, ihi land-holder# and farmers Ibrotirh
out the country are ahaolutely meditating the destruc
non of tithe#. Atthi*moment tithes ar* not c'eable*
•nd men who would have purchased livings gladly hall
' l88r *K®» n8w hold beck. Wo could asy much more
If we fhoos*; but wo abstain for the prsssol. This ws
now, that the farmers throughout tbs country are in
estate c( alarming discontent. They laugh at tumul
tuouf a'sssmblages-.n evil which they can meet; but
Tfa w"7 h,‘ P?r,,y,•‘, ‘hem, and they look for
h. Rd ri,h|b#rrs0r.!0uh* period "*‘eo ,h* thrasblog shall
fh.fr L,h«4**D‘i * '*!,• m*n "V •* hi*h‘ "•«*• «• on
h*> r binds. A gentleman whe has attended maoy of
their meeting*, says that the gloom on their rouote
nai ere oolj, gir8, way occasionally to a bitt.r ,m||#1
hrfr. k.h!y. •"r Vy ,‘n*cJo‘•0, 8 Clergyman be|..J
brought to terms by the rope around Isis neck. We
do not betleve shat men. like the Duke ol Newcastle
are aware ol the full extent ot the dinger.
ort/uimptmu hire—At Onndle, an attempt was made
" rescue three persons who had been arrested on the
I-t in>tant. A patrol of tho inhabitants protected the
police. Tlie mob tore up the pavements and wound*
pri'oo*1" Th* Pri,on8r* however, lodged in
A>nf—Five persons were arrested at Wrofham for
disturbing the peace. They have been committed to
pnson. In the neighborhood of Blackheeth end Deptford
ihreat-nmg letters are circulated.
Huntingdonshire — Many depredations have been
committed at Sawtry, St ton. an I the neighboring v||*
l»ge* rtfty.six persous have been arrested and com
milled to prison.
Lincolnshire—At 8011th Re.ton, Spalding and
0rMcu.T-’ ,ev'ri1 fire, ®«««»red siuce th. Ia*t seports
. , *.re—Twenty-oine persons have been arrest*
bfiut84 UbUirV 1,,Plc" Mine w'r* discharged, nine
bailed, and eleven held ever for trial.
Cambridgeshire—Several arte of disturbance have
been committed here. Throe hundred special constables
were sworn in lo preserve peace.
Iicdfordshire—A destructive fixe wos caused by in*
cendiari.aat Ampthill. J
Suffolk—A lew nights since some premises wore
set ou hre in this county; (he following day the owner
received an anonymous letter enclosing £300, tr.d slat*
mg that his premises were burned by mistake.
Dorsetshire— In the neighborhood of Dorchester se
veral hres took place. Several thrasblog machines
were des royed. Firs persons have been arrested. In
the neighbourhood of Poole the excitement is very
gr*a . . overs! special constables have been sworn in'
Hants and Wiltshire—Toe disturbances have
erased bore. Moit of the ring-leaders have been ir
Middlesex In consequence of the extension of out
rage to this county, a mo.fing of Magistrates ha* been
Vi *“‘|1'eV8r81 "pccial Constables sworn In.
v’ or folk—Several thrashing machines have been de
stroyed here. Many person* were arrested, and tl.e
peasantry assembled and attacked the prison in which
looy had been plae*d. They hid succeed ad in tearing
down the outer wal's before they were .'I parsed by the
dragoon guards. J
Sussex-The uutnber of outrage* are decreasing.
lak1nmbvfh^*r*^^,|*CaU,l0,,ary me#,ure* have been
^ken by iho L-rd Lieutenant to prevent disturbances,
rhe yeomanry ( . ilrlv) were called in-o service
... From the Morning Chronicle.
e reget tossy that the account* from Carlisle,
yesterday, w, r* very unfavourable. The lower orders,
consisting chit fly of handloom weavers, who have Ion*
b'en struggling wih pnveity, tempted by the Loral
■ agi-iney being as it were In abeyance, have broken
mt and committed great exce-ses. We learn that there
ire only two M agistrates in lb. place—one S7 year* 0l
go, and the other h*d-rid Tb. profession of the Car
isle Miglstracy is highly objectionable. A physician
lias quite enough lo do in alien ling to ihe health ol the
r'y* 7 c(,ncerning hims*lt with the heallli of
he body poli'lc. While attending enviously to the
lisease* el his patients, the other objects of his care
must n‘cetPAiily he Dirrlectpfl,
_ SPAIN.
1 . iv °p*?"n ,,eDeraI »'l«eenlia arrived at Bougeii on
1-t Ur com her, accompanied by several Spaniel, , Hirer*.
Hive or a.x hundred Spanish refugee* are shortly
pectsd at that place. J
AUSTRIA.
5 iemjva, November 24.—The London Pro*ocol. of
November 4. the answer ol (lie Belgian Government,
and th* promise! su^en-ion of hosiilides, have given
great satidaetion here, and ecarcely leave a doubt ot
the amicable settlement ol the important contest ot
tvlileh pa, ly epirit hs* taken so much adva.itsge.eepect
a'ly as De Potter.c. nvinced of th - insufficiency ol his in
lluence to estab ish a republic, leaves the theatre ot
I h,# rovohitioi ary ac ivily. which is covered with food
and conflagration. The Funds, which tell on the new*
of the march of the Russian troops, rose y-sterdsy, and
still more to day as the Austrian Observer has publish
ed the Ltndon P.-oetoe'l.
__ PRUSSIA.
. Tho, *,YenKY' ?f t,'° Prussian Army in Rhenish Prus
sia and Westphalia has been greatly exaggerated. It is
now said, instead or 75,000, to be only 35,000
fronMeS;,,‘Y',nYC’ from tho Prussian
frontiers, dated yesterday, say_
..:,ulefUmK!e8/r#,n B?l?ium ,lai|y arrive at Aix-Ia-Cha
urn,. I®, tnT °f ‘h0 1>rusi,'an army of observation
nXn In t „ W ' every ne«”ary for a winter cam
paign, and tho regiment at Alx-la-Chapelle received
yesterday new clotlies.
“Since the garrison of Maestricht has been reinforc
andfheP|aPP,rChemi0n8,arC,0,l‘ Lei«c- Tho c'*adel
and tlie Chartrcux are almost destitute ot a garrison and
b> no means secure against coups de niaine. Liege itself
lift* not provisions tor two days.
. ,nor* an<l !MOre aPParent that part of the clersv
■ n Hclgmm abuse their influence to render the name of
Nassau odious.”
Hunt.!*, Nov. 25—The first protocol of the con er
waru'.Y ,0n;.by '.rhich ,hefirat 8<®P "« taken .0
war.ls the amicable adjustment ot the affairs ol Belgium
lias made a favourable impression, here; only our politi
cians are rather surprised that circumstances must he
acr,;,:'f<Ll?,hre.1:een mor° urSont «hal‘ appeared con
eistent with the ideas entertained here. The speech
ot Uignon has also given much satisfsetion here. It is
asked whether we continue our armaments. To this
™aybk° *,,at our military measures, espe
cially those which were necessary in the vicinity of
Belgium, are by no means to he considered as prepara
for,. war* ,a* neither their nature nor extent can
excite tlie jealousy of any Government. They are
merely measures o( security, such as every Stale is call
ed on to adopt in these critical limes.
Strasburo, Nov. 29—Th. Count Yoes de Sesmai
TS* AS.rro‘"Ly L°.1 i]}* Fre,,ch I-cgation at Vienna,
passed through this city this morning, at half past two
o Clock, on hts way from Vienna to Paris, with dis
pftk IlOSi
ALGIERS
It would appear, says ,he Morning Chronicle that
i>« r reneh have succeeded in organizing native reei
m-nu at Algiers. It must be owned that they have
always shown great skill in turning the resource, cl s
country to account. The system on which we no w re
tain Hmdoatan was borrowed by us from them. There
i. an article in the Consiituffonnel, on the subject ot
..Fowcr'« -hich attributes t„ them designs
m Vi,'".6.- " " ",N h* •» 0’ '• ••«) not
to trust to the fair promises of the Holy All anee. M.
do Ne.s drode ard M de Melternleh perfectly agree.
In a word, the plan ol actual policy i< |0 deceive the
Pren-h Revolution, bv pretending to recognise it ”
Aloi.r, N ,v. 18 -The General-ln-Chlel, Count
Clau-el, resolved to check tV insolence ol the Hey cl
,7 ?,y* who** M-diah, and set out yesterday,W
inf.nr 6 ln|,h;im1or,1'nK-"t 'he hea l ot 12 battalions ol
infantry and all the cavsl. y. three batteries of artillery
oMuL",'r "united bat.aHion of zouares, compowd
o loors and Arabs who have enlisted volun-ari'y The
Aga and 100 mounted Arabs aim compom part of ihi.
expediHon. Genera! H >yer commands the division,
rinlh ,?*"*' if ° .'^,7® brigades, under the orders ot
(*eneral« Achur, I) lJx*r# and HnrH.
IstifDofr, Diir. 0.— Corn Exchange—The b#M par
eels of English Wheat have rather exceeded the terms
last quoted, with a slack trade, os .here is no advance
n *he ,,,p pric" 01 Flo,,r- 1,1 'he Foreign
Wheat the country demand continues,and most descrip.
Mcnda'J? a* 3* p*p 9',*,,rp advance on las'
h. d hi Any Forp'Bn Wh«*‘ 'h**'l* rood i.
" “ prices, lor some D.nzing 80«. and tor
some red 72. waa asked to-day. In Flour ne al cralion.
SHORT PASSAGE FROM RUSSIA
V. i r.W.4 rnK’ e" 8 ~Th" br‘t Kremlin. Hall. srri
1.7 *' on nn V","y "'nin* from Cren.ta.l#, having
loft that place as late a. the 21 >t of November, and El
sinore or. the 29th. We learn horn our Boston rorres
When" I"/ «*P n"*" *ira" *h" ,ollow,n* Information!
When he lef Sf. Peiershnrgh, it waa said a large divi.
Jon of the Russian army h d marched for the Western
P ronlier, and varioas reasona for such a course were re
!rPe.Ju"' u Wc'h"' ,r,M>p' "*r® lo 'he King
ofPru.sla, who feared trouble In h‘a dominions; »„ne
that ihey were intended fowatrh the movem-me ot ihe
"f * - ,h respect to (he Provinc-s of
inh l. -h *" h»* <’»P« H. heard nn one at
Ahlte u 7P’C'*" >" of war wlthFrr n-e.
the ^v.mn V”01" ^ *",fk,‘l "» Moscow hy
ThePe disease, of whom about one half had died
n». e*»lo«k» had not spread ». Sf. Petershnrgh. .nd
h f.hflV •*'» P"r«ued to prevent Its
V „.e P:;«-;:"-»l'ho.,gh at the last account* from
Moscow the dieaate was a manner abating
[Mer. Ad*.
i aU? 4i /iMHfl, Tlie law altering the rat*.
of duty on several ar icles took effect on Saturday, the
■ et instant.
Salt, which heretofore paid 20 cents duty per 6d lbs
now pay 15 cents per 58 lb». and after the 81.t Derm
h*r n xf will pay 10cents p-r 5« lb*.
cei^r'lVhifh htTt',,,orr r,i4 2 «•" pay one
C^c«.wbi«h btralofere paid S run per (h h9W
P*T, cent* l*#r ,b- Slat o( December next
will pay but one er at par lb. I Bair R™
Of tht Farmers* Diak of Virginia isd Dnacksf, far (ks VMr i tsi
„ .. _ RICHMOND. *** year last.
j.sssamxr
i:::: ySSnEF
Kai.,rr.-7 ■
Alfred T Harm * , U
Peter J Ch.r.1..* Kaeaual Ree»e
Ueorge Pollard
William Aui!errot>$
„ . NORFOLK.
Mordt” i Ceofci Klr'Jd.'rt.h'Mr"**4
iiar.’.’,ar- SFi
KSSRS
Iwji While
Jamn Ootdoi *
Willi.m p . . FETERBBURO.
John V? W^Y„‘i,0° 1 Stt.r.1
Edward Waiklo, {VJJ* **.efarlaad, jr.
W.lli.m 0<>rling, aen.
John Crammer IJjjrt ***!j**t ■■ ,
Nathaniel Friend Stephen O. Well.*
Itoharl Dolling
Robtrt Duoo$
nifl#. FRKDERIOE8BURO.
SS0" anwc.
Il.oiillua iT.'.h'Sirf;.'"
S&JWSL.
Duff Ureen
John II. Wallace
. . „ „ • , t LYNOHBURO.
Ammon H. l ..* SUdford
J.lTn k Ohn.iopher Winfree
pxE Fiirirk
Matnct Ltngbornt, jr. ^
»l*Wf Drown, sr.$
David R. B llty*,
n . . . WINCHESTER.
Jane* M* Muon ft?”
j+l'£'iLTHl',M 1 *
E^cl°.0r*itk Qodf">
Jacob Baker
Jo.eph Kate*
* JYot in the hut Directory.
^ DIRECTORS
Of the Berk of Virginia and Ur.nch.r, for the Tter 1(31,
. . „ , RICHMOND. 7
i,;:'AuS"K'-,b R.olulph H.jr.c
Robert Own hme, £°k".
fieo. L. Bamp.ou 8VmojFu Jfh
William Ford J ? T *f,n,Mb»
Th ima. Vaden V.
Thom.. Ru.h.rfo, rd APmeolYr’0**
w nl „ . , NORFOLK. A PH,e0'•,4
John JS*HoU William B. Balden
Albert^A^maod Ed^nd T°7
John South,.,, Ku^!dJg
Edward D-I.ory
O.lrb Bona.I 7 &
William Mo.el.y Wil.iam Franc.
wm u .. , , . PHTER8BUR3.
William H. Macfavland n. »
Wm. He,all J*h 'V ..
Edward Powell tockdwlt
J-..ph Ur,,, ^.Ar,y ‘'■l„
Jam.. 8. lirander I!";™"
Dae.d H. Branch ?*Lr“> J,"'km
Oh.,. K. Olborn. JohoO.Hoh.on
„ . „ VREDERICKSBURC.
Hugh Mercer n - .
r,*.1" *»$?“■
Wm E Knox j*hn
J oho Monrur. Jo.aph Wh.tiemon*
w .. «r . synchbdro.
William Wnrw ck n l
lien.y D>ri. Ob'.p.II Dabn.p
John J C.b,|| "*Vd W. her
John O. L.ftwich f^‘k ^'‘S,hfr .
JohnCaki. ’,*! r%*"4
Ball. M D.nirl J v iV'i
Willi.ro McKenny John Ho I n *
.. _ DANVILLE.
John Dirkimun j. A K*?,b*.*dI1
J .hnllo,, . B. W. 8. Cabell
* -Vot in tA« hut Directory.
| BUM FORD ACADEMY.—ThT firi, session of
nTn^ Ih! ?£?!!in.K 3r*f,r* w,n ^om,nence in this Semina
June Th. fir-J.?U^y,-“d ‘er,nin,l,e °u 'he 16th
June. * he Gr-ik and ..-nan authors read in the
?}'i'rC* d“P,rln,f “*• *r« ‘hose which are approved of by
the University of Virginia. The English and Math/
mV‘Kent*v*r«h?Dl W‘“ con,in"° the direction or
Mr. Keimy, whose course of ■ instruction is extensive
hr9nrh°m»,,rs.fhRi!ld8 Al**brl'* Surveying, and every
branch oi Malhematirka requisite, not only for admie
■ton into College, but like wise into the Navy or the
Military Academy at \Ve«t Point. 1
.,ZE?M8■^'Board,/V,,*hin,f, *ni1 Tuition, (each Beard
er finding his own bed, bedding, towels, eaodles, kc. )
$60 per session of five months, payable in advance—
1 union slone, $15 per session; payable, also, in advance.
Boarders who enter at any time previous to the l5.fi
ebruary, are liable to the expense of the whole eee
scholarsS 'p™* rU'* ?Dplic*,,,e «° ‘he charge for day
cholars. Parents and Guardians are requested not to
furnish fire-arms. WM. HAWKESWORTH
- _ C’ 1 *• 61-D.c. 14, 21, 28, Jan 4, 11.
T1HE SCHOOL AT LLANGOLLEN.—The n-xt
Session will commence ae usual on the 25th of
January and end on the 1-t of July, 1831. Ti ls is a
Clasaicai and Mathematical School, intended to prepwe
oy* (or co lege, or for the active pursuits of life. A
good knowledge of the English language and its Gram
mailcal structure are made the basis of further litera
y Mreme.D*V *Dd Ari,bme*>c and Algebra of high
er Mathematical studies. mgn
f..e/.r^,r/°:,$0ard *nd ,e,chinK. washing, lights,
\nd/T1:*70 l er The boarder finds5 his
own hed-clothcs. JNO LKW,o8 BW
Nov 30eW',,# Sl°re P- ° ' SP°«''y'vani. County.
-1 :_ 69—w8w
TV0™? '* hV.eby *'V,D»Jh»‘ a Called Me^tiogTf
X w the Stockholders of the Rivanne Ntviea'ion Pm,
paoy will be held in the CouMhouM ofAiKSK
county, in the town ol Charlottesville, on the first
Tuesday after the first Monday in February next—
wheti matters impoitant to the interests of the comm,
ny will be submitted for consideration. P
By order of the Board of Director.
Jan. 6. N’L F CARR* SrC* R,?v*&*■
— ___ 73—wlm
1C ■ : " " 7,* «‘ v I.A IN 08.- From 80 to M
AA valuable Slaves at Auction—The l.„d. |yj„.
and brine situate oo ihe Kivanna River late the Ln*
,.r,, of Wilton J Cary, ilocM.. cX"’,Jd“
the name el Carey a Brook, recently offered lor sale ty
notice published in this paper, not having been sold
at private con.ran, will be off,red lor sale,*! Auction
on the premises on Wednesday the 19th day of January
next, if lair, if not, the next fair day-^Oo the farm is
seeded nearly 400 bushels wheat. '
It found expedient, or in order to accommodate the
views of purchasers, the lands may be divided into
several par’s or lots, which will be judged of according
to circumstances on the day ol sale. ^
Terms ol sale of the lands will be one third cash and
a liberal credit given lor ihe balance. If a salr ol the
lands he effected, then a sale ol the whole of the slaves
on he premise, will take place-smong which is a
finne l?,e'r.*rpen!fr ' * bl',ck*roi,h- Sale. |0 be con
Med^lmV' V0 *y Un!'‘ rornpf®,e,I—Twaive months
credit will he given on Ihe slaves, the purchasers giv.
ing b nd. with good personal security and a deed or
deeds ol trust will be rrnuired to secure the credit part
of the purchase money lor the lands. '
W. TIMBKRLAKE, .dm’, of the
Palmyra, Dei l". °f W‘'1K,0 J'
William n. whiting, A.torTe'y ,< l.V
having located himself in Norfolk, will attend
;»■>« ,h. loi.rio, ,p";,oJ
( ourls of Norfolk County, snd the Suneifor r.,,,.
hancery lor the Willi,,„*hurg District. All business
•x'af.'iffr*.‘•^r
ATEACIIF.K Wan I El). —a gentlemau qualified
to iustiuel in the English, Latin snd Greek l*n
guagea—will find an agreeable situation, and imme
diate employment, in the management ol a School bv
application io the subscribers. He will be exDeetad
to furnish satis'aetory testimonials of character and
qualifications. WIM.Iam HARRISON*
o„ v benjamin Harrison.
“ti*s»x rounty, Va Jan 4. 72_
I *l<l v ' ‘K ^JLHOOI. —I have employed Mr. cTe
A , ment F. Harris, a gentleman of exnei ience ahili
ties and unexceptionable moral character. ,o teaih my
children the coming year, and will take a few bov. nn
r mi /•"»»
Mr FUrrU tesrh . Th t'”"'* " b"' <•» "b°»-"
Language* an!^tt * * French
,1 “At V’e.1? ‘' a*'1* br*' eheeof EnglMi Education
.ntls. n.K There *r* still ibree va
flnn dVj“ M* "‘’T'' Wh° *"y 'biok «’’• Situ*.
i, '!*# will please make immediate application
month *f,ho° ,wlM *cm»nonce on the 17ih of this
Ih* nh‘ l,TinK wh,‘ u* wl" h* considered, for
the time being, a* member* of our family, and any ad
vantages my own children may have fo r.sp*?, to
morale and manners will he extrnded to them* The
price of board and tuition will he one humlr.dTed .IT
dollars. I reside In the Korks •" Hanjy.r 2» mils.
from Richmond —l.effara ad.tressed to Newfound Mill
Hanover, will receive attention N*'fh*D* Mills,
M.oov.r, J.o 6. ,m- M

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