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BY RITCHIE Sc COOK.
_^CUJ^OJYD^jrMRGMJYMA, THURSDAY9, AAJYUARY* «C, 1839. ____ VOI* X X VIII_Wo. 81. W ?*• KNftUIUBR is published twice a week, generally, and tkrea time* a week during thn trninn of the (Stale legislature— (he aamo aa hi-retnfuro, Five Dollar* per annum, parable in ad raeee. Note* of chartered, specie-paying bonks (only) will be rocrir *w »• payment. The Editors will guarantee the safety of remitting (hem by mail; the poatage of all leltert being paid by the writers. SO" No paper will be diaeonlinued, but at the dlaorstiuo of thu Editors, until all arrearage* hare been paid up. ..w Whoever wi I guarantee the payment uf nina papers shall hare the tenth Gra ia. TERMS OF ADVERTISING. IT Oa* square or laaa - Firat inaortion 75 cents—each eoetinu •nee, SO cants. No adrnrtiaemenl inserted, until it has either bean paid for, or assumed by somo person in this city or its environ*. jiew a»vKirrisivTiE.vrs. Artificial hair to imitate nature.— Mr. Quihk, of New York, deems it only neces sary to announce to a fashionable world, that he has just arrived in Richmond, (where he intends remaining a short time,) and offers for the inspection of a discriminating community, an elegant and extensive assortment of Wig* and Toupets, got up under his own immediate inspec tion, at a variety of prices; which for taste, and durability, he flatters himself must meet the approbation of all who honor him with their commands, at the Eagle Hotel. Jan. 26, 1832. 81—3tif A GOVERNESS WANTED.—To a Lady welTqua lified to take charge of a private school, in a heal thy neighborhood, and instruct in 'the various branches of a female English education, a salary of $300 and board will be given. A letter addressed to thu subscriber, Lu nenburg county, Macfarlauds Post-office, Va. will be at tended to. D. G. WILLIAMS. Jan. 26, 1832. 81 — fiiolkanna WILL, for tho next soasou, occupy his old stand, at Half Sink, nine miles from Richmond, and three (from the Merry Oaks. Ho will stand at fifty dollars the season, which may be discharged by the payment of forty -dollars, when tho mares are taken away, or refuse the horse; otherwise a note will be expected for fifty dollars, payable on the first of January next—sixty-five dollars in surance and one dollar to the groom. Good pastures are provided, and a charge of twenty-five cents a day for all inarcs left with the horse, for feeding, Stc. (Johanna’s colts have not yet made their appearance on tho turf, and it is with great diffidence and hesitation that I undertake to speak ot their performances in a full train ing, least partiality ami interest may have misled me, and I might thereby mislead others: suffice it to say that, as far as they have been tried by me, and heard of from others, they have fully or more than equalled expectation, and 1 feci the mod confident assurance that those who may de sire to breed from this line horse, will not be disappointed or dissatisfied with the result. That ho is of tho purest and miht genuine race horse •took, is attested by the fact, that there has never been a member of hi* family that was not a race nag of distinc tion, cithor of the present generation or as far back as it can bo traced, with tho exception of the imported marc, and aho was never tried, being purchased at two years old, ex clusively for breeding. It is not a little encouraging to those who have hereto fore bred from Gohanna, as welt as those who may desire it in luturc, to be informed that a challenge has been made to run one of his colls over tho Norfolk course next Spring, against any colt in tho United States, for five thousand dol lars. This circumstance is mentioned because it merely Is one well calculated to increaso the public confidence in him as a stock, horse. Gohanna served one hundred and lifiy-seven marcs last year, having the celebrated horses Sir Charles and Titnoleon as bis competitors, which furnishes the best evi dence o( satisfaction with tho appearance and promise of his colls. There is another recommendation that may with pro priety be offered for breeding from Gohanna, which is that his colts are so large and line (as universally admitted) that such as should not prove to be race horses, are sure to compensate their owners for the trouble and expense of raising; a circumstance which should not bo overlooked in breeding, as in the nature of things, it is nat likely that all can make race horses. Gohanna, it is believed, is now standing lower Ilian any other horse of distinction in Virginia: this does not proceed from a disposition to underbid other horses, nor is it be cause bis proprietor thinks lie ought not to stand ns high as any other whatever; hut he does not feel justified in raising to a level with others, until there has been some public exhibition on the part of his colts. Mares will be served at any time during the year, and nuchas did not prove in foal from the last season, may be sent again, and no charge made for the services ol the horse, unless they should prove in foal. Jam 26. HI—I2t JOHN M. HOTTS. lpliiclus. ~|%TOTICE.—Iphiclus will stand at mj stable, in Louisa ll county, near Pottersville, and within 14 miles of the Court-house. Indue time, a full description shall be given of tliis great beamy. I had it in my power, while in the city of Richmond, to examine the two champions of the country, Eclipse and Sir Charles, and many other fine, stallions, when Iphiclus filled the measure of my fancy; and too, when my mind was stowed with all the flowers, with all the beauty and eloquence (bat the Legislature has bestowed upon the black bill. JAS. C. DICKERSON. Jan. 26. 81—3t nnioicoii WII-L stand at Weynoke, in Charles City, the resi dence of the subscriber, 80 miles from Richmond ami 20 from Petersburg, at $50 tho season, $75 insurance, payable when the mare is ascertained tobc in foal, or part ed with—$1 to tho Groom. Pasturage and servants hoard gratis, 25 cents per day forgrain feeding. 20 percent dis count for cash, during the season. JNO. MINGE. Jan. 2?i. 81—3t" Janus for Sale. f MIIIS muscular Stallion will he offered for sale, (on I. accommodating terms,) at Lovingston, (Nelson C. House,) en March Court day next. Janus is a beautiful chesmit sorrel; he is five feet one inch high, and will be ten years old in July next. He is of the Fearnought and Janus blood, except two crosses—one of which is Color.— His ancestors—the imported Fearnought and the imported Janus—were both of the Arabian stock. His pedigree will he exhibited, for the inspection of those who may desire it, on the day of sale—and also certificates, from gentlemen of the highest integrity, touching his character as a foal-getter.—It a sale is not effected on that day, I svill farm him lor the ensuing season, in the county of Nelson. I will add, that the muscular power of this Horse, which is richly bestowed upon his colts, renduis him particularly worthy of the attention of the farmers of Nelson. As an evidence ol his muscular form and power, I will here mention, that the circumference of his arm, when he was in low order, was 22 inches. Jan. 36. [*l w7w] JOHN P. WILLIAMS. KW STORK in Lynchburg,—Earthen, China and UUu» H'are.—To country merchant* and others.— The subscriber intends oponing, about the I5th of Febru ary next, in the bouse directly opposite the Post Office, a full and general assortment of Earthen, China and Glass Ware, wholesale and retail, which he warrant* to eel! at Richmond prices. Having mado arrangements with Mr. William Ailison, of Richmond, the Karthcn Ware, &r. will be ordered direct to this place from the Potteries in Liverpool ami neighborhood, which will enable him not only to keep fresh goods, hut all of the newest patterns,! and intending to turn his attention principally to the whole sale business, will keep constantly on hand a general as sortment of such articles as will suit country merchants, to 1»e re-packed as they may wish.—He hopes, by strict at tention to this business, in which he has had long experi ence, to receive a share of public patronage. J08KPH I). KVA NS. Jan. 26. HI—w2w ■ M LW ARI).■- Ran away from the subset i- i “ %/ her, on the IRth Dee. last, negro follow alw>ut 2*< years of age, dark complected, about I five fectR or 10 inches high, slow spoken, droop shoulder ed— when spoken to Is apt to shew the whitesol his e.yes; and had a very decent assortment of homespun clothes and a black fur hat; he also had a close coat of casslnct. It i» expected he has procured a free pass of a free negro of the name of Merry Corn. The above reward will be given for the apprehension and confinement in jail of said fellow. Information may be glv^i by mail directed lo Herndon's P O. Orange county, N. C. WILLIS DILLTARD, Exeeutnr of Lydia Dilliard, dec’d. Raleigh, N. C. Jan. 2. 81-9t DISSOLUTION—The Co-partnerships heretofore existing under the firm of Jacob Shxloon & Co., & W. W. Wkbb & Co., were dissolved on the 1st insl.. by limitation.—Jacob Sheldon and W. W. Webb, are du ly authorized to settle up the business of tho respective concerns. ROSCOW COLE, JACOB SHELDON, ..... WALTER W. WEBB, n illiamsburg, Jan. 18th, 1832. JACOB SHELDON, having purchased Mr. Walter W. Webb’s portion of the goods in the above con cerns, as also his store-house, he will continue the Mer cantile business on his own account, at the store formerly occupied by Mr. Webb, and solicits, as he hopes to merit, a share of the public patronage. Williamsburg, Jan. 16th, 1832. 81_tf 60 OR 100 DOLLARS* REWARD ; WILL bo given for JO.Jbis wife and son, who left Re- 1 leigh, N.C. about Christmas. Jo is about 36 veers of j age, six feet high, walks s little lauic, has a down look, blacksmith by trade, complexion not very black. His wife is of middle stature, and 1 believe her complexion ra ther blacker thau Jo’s. His son is about 9 or 10 years old. If these negroes are taken and confined in any jail in the State, $30 will he given; If out, $100. J*»- 26, 1832. [81—3tj E. HAYWOOD. Fresh (warden Seeds. THE Subscriber has received a supply of tho follow ing Garden Seeds, which he cuu recommend as fresh ami good. All persons wishing to obtain such, aro invited to call at his store near the Mansion-house. CHARLES GODDARD. Aparagus. Beet—Long Blood, Early Turnip Blood, Yellow Tur nip. Beans—Yellow 6 Weeks, Small Lima, Early China, Bush. Brocoli—Purple Cape. Cabbage—Early York, Early Sugar-loaf. Red Dutch, Hat Dutch Great Drumhead, Largo York, Green Globe Savoy Yellow Savoy. Carrot—Long Orange, Lemon, Altringham. Celery—White Solid, Koso Colored. Cress—Curled. CucumbQr—Early Frame, Long Green. Cauliflower—Early. Endive or Succory. Egg Plant—Purple. Kail—Green Curled, Scotch. Lettuce—Early Rose, Brown Dutch, Ice Cois, Im perial. Melon—Citron, Cantclope. Mangel Wurlzcl. Nasturtium. Onion—Red, White, Portugal, Madeira. Parsnip—Largo Dutch. Parsley— Double. Pepper—Squash, Cayenne. Pepper-Grass. Pumpkin—Yellow. Peas— Early May, Early 6 Weeks. Dwarf Juno, Mar row fat. Radish—Long Scarlet, Scarlet Turnip. Ruta Baga. Salsify—or Vegetablo Oyster. Sirnblin—Early Bunch. Spinach—Round. Turnip—Different kinds. Jan. 26. 81_2t Ojfice of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Co. > Waihiwotow, Jan. 9, 1883. < PROPOSALS will bo received at this office as fol lows : 1st. For tiic construction of a Dam across the Potomac River near “Harper’# Ferry,” and for the construction of a Stone Aqueduct across Catoctin Creek, until the 31st day of January instant. 2d. For the excavation, embankment, and walling of j twelve miles of Canal, extending from the 84th section of '■ the Canal near to the “Point of Rocks,” to Harper’s ferry, in sections of about lialf a mile each, and for the construc tion of four Stotic lift Locks and one Guard Lock, and neve- j ral Culvert* on the same portion of Canal, until the 17th [ day of February next. 3rd. For the excavation, embankment, anil walling of forty miles ol Canal, extending from Harper's Ferry to Williamsport, and for the construction of the necessary Locks, Aqueducts, Culverts, and Dams, until the 30th day of March next. The plan and specification of the'Dam and Aqueduct will be exhibited after the 15th instant, and the contracts will he declared at the Canal Office iu this City, on the 1st day of February next. The plan and specification of the other work below Harper’s Ferry, will be exhibited at the Canal Office after the 23th inst., and the contract will be declared at Harper’s Ferry, on the 23d day of February next. ^ The plan and specification of the work between Harper’s Ferry and Williamsport,will be exhibited at the Canal Office after the 10th day of March next, and the contracts will be pilcc la red at Sbcpherdstown, in Virginia, on the 4th day of April following. Blank forms of proposals will he furnished, on applica tion to this Office. JOHN P. INGLK, Jan. 17. [77—cot23F] Clerk dies. & Ohio Canal. Five Hundred Pound* Steward. WHEREAS THOMAS CLEW, Collecting Clerk in j servicc.of Messrs. Rohart*, Curtis & Co. l^uidon, , has failed to return to his employers with the following i amount of Hank Notes, which he received in the ordinary i discharge of his trust confided to him on Saturday, the 3rd of September inst., and has disappeared or absconded ! with the same; and also with a quantity of Sovereigns. Whoever will apprehend, or cause to he appehended, j the said Thomas Glew, or will make such discovery as ! will lead to his apprehension and the recovery of the pro- j perty stolen, shall receive a reward ol Five Hundred I rounds sterling; or in that proportion for such an amount as may he recovered upon application to FISH, GRIN- ■ NELL it Co. 131 Front st. New York. The said Thomas Glcw was dressed in a dark frock coat ' with striped plaid trousers and Wellington boots; is about ‘ 5 feet 7 1-2 inches in height, rather stout, and quirk and upright in his walk. Has a small head with a little scar on the forehead, light brown hair, combed flat on the left side, and bushy about flic cars. Whiskersofthcsamecolor, ! eyes a light anil with peculiar heavy anil sleepy expres- ‘ siou about them. The nose*rather large, with wide nos trils, and a little turned up. Hands large and feet rather broad. The voire thick, and when elevated becomes discordant and cracked. F'ull fleshy lips and features, and the complexion very sallow, having altogether a heavy i dull appearance. Rank of England. £1000 No. 4415 June 25 1831, I 500 •• 3614 Aug. 18 500 •• 3628 •* |8 300 •• 2885 •• I •• 200 •• 2799 •• 12 «• 200 '• 1044 ** 1 •• 100 •• 4496 ** 5 •• 100 •• 3769 •* 3 *• 100 *• 6054 *• 8 *« 100 •• 3397 •« 3 •• 60 »• 372 July 7 " 60 •« 8980 •• 23 •« 50 •• 8951 •• 23 *• 60 •• 9824 July 27 •• 50 *• 3894 March 22 1830 40 '* 15653 July 23 1831 40 •• 13623 •• 10 *• 30 •' 4113 •* 29 •• 30 « 18624 *• 7 •• 20 •• 1886 •• 29 « 20 «« 14351 »* 20 •• 20 •• 13277 •* 20 *« 20 •• 17087 «* 22 •• 6 •• 34261 Aug. 1 »* 5 “ 7234 •• 4 •• Payment ot the notes is stopped at the bank of Eng land, and every precaution has been adopted to prevent their circulation. London, S«pt. 5, 1831. Reference is made to Robert Oilrnor &. Sons, Baltimore; or to Kish, (Jrinnell fc Co. New York, j J»Q. 7. ___73—8t i 4 1 REY BEA Rf).—-This well-bred florae, bred by " ^ Richard 8ingleton, Esq. of S. C., by Kosciusko, his dam the imported mare Psyche, the dam of the distin guished racers Blank and Mark Time, [see Turf Register, vol. 2nd, page 518,] will stand the ensuing season at my stable in Nelson county. V*. Further particulars in time. Dec. 22. 67—lstF JNO. B COLES. Sir Charles. THIS beautiful, distinguished, thorough-bred racer, and getter of racer*, \V1II stand the ensuing season at the residence of m y eon, George W. Johnson, within one mile of Moody . fayom, in Chesterfield, and about 20 miles from Richmond and Petersburg; and is now at i'V , • 1‘*adJr ,0 *erve m®res at $40 the single lean and $60 the season, payable on the 1st or August neat, when it will expire—$100 insurance, payable as soon as the maro is known to be in I'oal or parted with: $1 cash to the groom. Mares that failed to Sir Charles last year, will be insured this year at the price of the session. A company o *;* marcs may go at $50 the season each—am! one gentleman pdtting live mares shall have the same privi lege. Mares furnished with pasturage, which is very extensivo and excellent—and servants sent with mares boarded graUs. Lots are laid down in both wheat and grass, lor mares and colts, and fed, ir required, at 25 cents a day. Care will bo taken to avoid accideuts, but no ac countability for any that may happen. Sir Charles has been so often advertised, that it is only necessary to say that he is in as fine health as a horse can be, and is a remarkably sure foal-getter. His colts ore very beautiful, very successful, and aro winning wherever they go: they arc selling at very high prices indeed, and are in very great demand. Should the colls of any other distinguished horse run and win, and win very often, and were to sell, and sell very often, and at high prices, thuy then would only be equal to Sir Charles's. ^ . W. R. JOHNSON. Chesterfield. Jan. 24,1832. 80—ll5M!i VALUABLE REAL ESTATE FOR SALE.—By vir tue ol a Decree of the Circuit Superior Court of Law and Chancery for tiic county of Henrico, iu the case of Price vs. George et al. pronounced on the 24th Decem ber, 1331—the subscribers will sell by public auction to the highest bidder, at Hanover Court House, on Tuesday the 31st day of January next, die tract of land on which the Court-House stands, [except the public lot] together with the taverns and all other houses, upon the follow iii" terms, to wit: $2,500 to be paid in cash, and a credit of 12 mouths from the day of sale as to the residue of the purchase mo ney, the purchaser giving bond w ith security for the cred it payment, and the title to be retained until the purchase money is paid. The subscribers arc justified in saying, that it is as valua ble property [for its extant] as any which has been offer cd lor sale in Virginia, for some time, or will be again of fered. The tract contains about 1*00 acres of land, a large portion of which is Hat land, and very good, and lies on both sides ol the main stage road to the North, and not twenty miles from the city ol Richmond. 1 ho buildings consist of two large tavern houses, nearly new, n small dwelling-house, kitchen, stables, and other customary out-houses and two store-houses. This proper ty has rented Ibr several years past for $1000 per annum, until the last year, when it rented under disadvantageous circumstances for $650; and in the hands of a judicious manager, it would be one of the most valuable tavern stands iu Virginia. The taveru houses arc insured. Mr. Sutton, on the premises, will shew the property to any dis posed to examine it. 70_tds JAMES T. SUTTON, >„ , , Dec. 30. THOMAS PRICE, Jr. J Commissioners. tCHESTERFIELD LAND FOR SALK.—Uy virtuo y of a Deed of Trust, executed to the subscriber and the late Daniel Cheatham, dec’d, by the late Bennett Goode, for the purpose of securing the payment of a cer tain sum of money therein mentioned, to Robert and John Goode, of Washington county, Va., which Deed has been regularly recorded in the Clerk’s office of the county of Chesterfield, the subscriber will, as surviving Trustee, on Saturday the 28th day of January, 1832, at the Tavern of Haley Cole, in Chesterfield county, sell at public sale, to the highest bidder, for cash, a certain tract or piece of Land, containing three hundred and seven acres and twen ty-eight chains, lying in the said county of Chesterfield, on both sides of the River Road and adjoins the lands of William Fisher and Robert D. Murchic, Esq. and others, with all its improvements. I his place is well calculated to make a very desirable residence, being high, healthy and well watered; situated in a most agreeable neighborhood, within a few miles ol James rivor navigation, several vuluablc coal mines, the Manchester Turnpike, and the Chesterfield Rail Road running very near thereto, and its proximity to the Rich mond market. The circumstance of this land lying in the vicinity of so many valuable mines, induces a belief that it contains stone coal. The greater portion of this land has been cleared, but that portion now to clear is of excellent quality. Any person desirous to view the land before the day ot sale, will please call on the subscriber, at the Ches - terfield Coal Mines, or to Cupt. B. T. Wells, either of whom will take great pleasure in shewing it. The title is believed to be good to the above land, hut the subscriber will only convey such as is vested in him as Trustee. GEO. W. COLE, Trustee. Chesterfield, Jan. .1. 71_2awtds IlhRII' f 'S SALE OF LAND.—By virtue of a dc IC9 cree pronounced by the County Court of Gloucester, in Chancery, sitting at May Term, 1831, in the case of William Jones, et at, Trustees of the Gloucester Charity School, Plaintiffs, against Mann Page, Defendant.—Will be sold, to the highest bidder, for cash, at Gloucester | Court-house, on Jttonday, the 6th day of February next, being Court day, A TRACT OF LAND, lying in said County, called lowland Cottage, estimated to contain Hundred Acres, except so much of said Tract of Land as shall he allotted to Mrs. Martha Jones (in dower.) This Tract of Land lies directly on Ware river, and for fertility of soil and certainty of product, is surpassed by no i estate in the ucighlioiirhood. it is situated immediately in the most desirable neighbourhood in the County lor ' navigation, and all other advantages derived from the | river. Fish and oysters, of the best kind, arc taken within , one hundred yards of the door. MAT. W. KEMP, D. S. Jan. 7. [73—13t*] for Wm. G. Wiatt, S. (1. C. PLOUGHS.—The subscriber respocthilly informs those who arc in the habit of buying implements of husbandry, that he has now on hand a greater variety than hi* has ever before offered them. He lias almost every kind of Ploughs now In use, with steelor cast points, and stocked wTth seasoned timber, an advantage not gene rally sufficiently appreciated. He has made an improve ment in the mould-board of the improved Barshcar Plough which lias been suggested by many practical farmers, rendering it much more desirable—Component parts of Ploughs always on hand, and mould boards sold at Foun dry prices. He flatters himself that bis prices have been so reduced as to give satisfaction. Should any implement purchased from him, not perform equal to the expectation of the purchaser, it may be returned. J»" 14. [7W—If] WM. PALMER, Markrt Bridge. TO Till PUBLIC—CENTRAL HOTEL. rpHOMAS IIA I.L respectfully announces to bis friends I and the public, that having purchased the entire interest ol Mr. Isham Puckett in the above well known establishment, It will in future be conducted by himself. To those unacquainted he. would merely state, that the location of this stand is one of the best in the City, being contiguous to the Capitol, and to all the principal Ware house*. Being determined to conduct it in a style inferior to none in the City, and on the most reasonable terms, he has provided himself with active and attentive Servants: his table will at all times be furnished with every de licacy that the Market affords, and his Bar stocked with the best Liquors. The Stables attached to the esta blishment are extensive and comfortable, and the Ostlers careful and attentive.—The long experience he ha« had in this business, and the satisfaction that he flatters him «clf has been invariably given heretofore, renders it unne cessary to make any remarks «* to qualification : suffleo it to say, that his personal attention, in every instance, will be entirely devoted to the comforts of his guests, and no i exertions spared to give general satisfaction. ttXTcn or twelve Boarders, by th« week, month, or i year, will be taken on terms as reasonable as at any other "on™‘ in City. [7ft—tf] Jan. 14. WANTED.—Two Apprentices to learn the Printing Business.—Boys from the country, of steady ha bits, who can read and write wall, would greatly be pre ferred—Enquire at the. Office of the Compiler. ' 14. 79—tf Twenty-second Con^rem.-Scss. I. IN SENATE. Jilonday, January 16. DEBATE 1>N THE TARIFF. ‘ he Senate resumed (he consideration of the special or der ol the day, beiug tho following resolution submitted by Mr. Clay. ^Resolved, That the existing duties upon articles import ed fiotn foreign countries, and not coming into competition with similar articles, made or produced within the United States, ought to be forthwith abolished, except the duties on wines and silks, and they ought to bo reduced. Resolved, That the Committee on Finance report a bill accordingly. Mr. Haync moved to amend tho first resolution, by strikin|( out all after the word "countries'1 in the second line, and inserting the following: “Be so reduced, that tho amount of the public revenue shall be sufficient to defray the expenses of government, according to their present scale, after the payment of the public debt; and that, allowing a reasonable time for the gradual reduction of the present high duties on the arti cles coming into competition with similar articles made or produced in the United States, the duties be ultimately equalized, so that the duties on no articles shall, as com pared with the value of that article, vary materially from the general average.” Mr. Hayke addressed the Senate in support of his pro position as follows: rho Senator from Kentucky (Mr. Clay,) commenced his remarks a few days ago, by complaining of the advan ces of age, and mourned the decay of his eloquence, so eloquently as to provo that it was' still in full vigor. He then went on. Sir, to make a most able and ingenious ar gument, amply sustaining his high reputution as an accom plished orator. W ith this example before me, Mr. President, (said Mr. H.) I am almost deterred from offering any apology, lest I should create expectations which It will certainly notbein my power to gratify. And yot, perhaps, it may be per mitted to one ho humble as myself to say, that it belongs not to me at any time, or under any circumstances, and, least of all, at this moment, and on this occasion, to satisfy the expectations of those, if any such there be, who may have come here to witness the graces of oratory, or to be delighted with the charms of eloquence. I would not, Sir, on this occasion, play the orator if I could. I came here to-day fbr higher and far nobler purposes. I stand on this floor as one of the representatives of a high-minded, gene rous and confiding people, whose dearest rights and intc rests I am now to vindicate and maintain. In such a situ ation, I would lose every thought of myself in the great ness of the cause. Confiding in the indulgence of the Se nate, and deeply sensible of my inability to do justice to the iui|>ortant subject embraced in these resolutions, I shall proceed at once in the plain unadorned language of sober ness and truth, to the examination of the question before us. The gentleman from Kentucky set out with the decla ration, that he did not deem it necesssary to oiler any ar guments in favor ol the American system, “that tho pro tecting policy stands self-vindicated—that it has scatter ed its rich fruits over the whole land, and is sustained hy the experience of all powerful and prosperous nations.” Sir, we meet these positions at once hy asserting on our part, that the protecting system stands self-tombined, con demned in our own country, by the desolation tehich has followed in its train, and the discontents it has produced —condemned by the experience of all the world, and the almost unanimous opinion of enlightened men in modern times. And now, having (airly joined issue witli the gen tleman, we might put ourselves upon the country, and submit the case, without argument, nor should I liuvo any Icarsfor the result, if the issue was to he tried and decid ed by an impartial tribunal, free from the disturbing inllu eDce of popular prejudice and delusion, and the strong bias of interests—personal, pecuniary, and political. JJuf, situated as we are, f feel and acknowledge the necessity of making out our case to the conviction of this assembly, and the satisfaction of the country. We are seeking re lief from an abiding evil—redress from an existing wrong. We cannot stand where we arc. We cannot, like the gentleman from Kentucky, rest on mere unsupported as sertions. Wo must submit our proofs and maintain our positions, if we can. It is greatly tobo regretted, howe ver, that the gentleman has not seen fit to present some of the strongest arguments in favor of his policy, as such a course might have directed our inquiries to a lew leading points instead of milking it necessary for us to wander at largo through tile wide field of argument presented by the protecting system. The gentleman, however, has so far favored us, as to ! specify two of the advantages which he asserts have been i derived from it in this country, and in our day, and I am ! perfectly w illing to try the merits of the system by these tests which he has himself proposed. They shall—if the gentleman pleases—constitute the standard by which its true character shall be determined. In the first place, then, the gentleman asserts, “ that the much abused poli cy of 1824, (the protecting tariff' of that year,) has filled our coffers, and enabled us to pay otT the public debt,” a debt of $100,000,000 of principal, and $100,000,000 of interest. Now, Sir, if any thing is capable of demonstra tion, it may be demonstrated, that the protecting system could not, by possibility, have contributed in the slightest degree to produce this result. One would suppose, in deed, that the very last merit which would be ascribed to this system, was its tendency to fill the “ public coffers.” It is unquestionably to a tariff, arranged and adjusted with a single eye to revenue, that we are to look for such a re sult. The object of a protecting tariff, as such, certainly is to diminish or exclude importations, and of course to lessen tho amount of the revenue derived from duties._ The very end and aim of such a system is, to substitute for the imported article,paying taxes to government—the domestic article paying none—to transmute the duty into a bounty to the manufacturers; and, just so far as this end is attained—that is to say, just so lar as the tariff is protective—must it cut off the public revenue. I)o we not all remember, that the lending argument in fa vor ol the protecting provisions of the tariff of 1824, was, that they were necessary, “to put down a ruinous foreign competition:” and did not one of the fathers of that hill pub licly declare, “(bat the vital principle of the system was, that the nation should command its own consumption, and flint when the nation did command its own consumption, importations and imposts would cease.” Sir, there are two distinct features in the tariff of 1824—revenue and pro tection. It is the former that lias filled our coffers and paid off the public debt; and, so far as the latter has operated at all, it must have diminished the revenue, and delayed the extinction of that debt. Sir, I w ill put it to the ran dom! the gentleman, whether, if the protecting duties tinder the Tariff of 1824 had been less, the revenue would not have been greater, and that too, without adding to, but on the contrary, diminishing the burthens of, the peo ple, since they would have obtained the articles of their consumption, in increasing quantities, and at a cheaper rate, and been relieved from the heavy tax which they have been compelled to pay to the American manufactur ers? Why, Sir, the policy of 1824 actually taxed to pro hibition a large amount of goods formerly imported. From a report made by the Secretary of the Treasury, in Junu ry, 1830, it appears that these prohibited articles amount to about * ,000,000 per annum, being near one sixth part of the whole of our imports. Has this part of the policy contributed to fill your coffers? Sir, the case is too plain for further argument, and tried by this test, the policy must be utterly condemned. i he fioxt text by Whien (he gentleman propoxex (o (ry this system, "is the rich fruits which it has scattered over the country.” Sir, where are they to he found ? Is it in iho \V*st * I appeal to the gentlemen from that quarter. We have heard a great deal of the flourishing condition of the manufacturing cstahlishmcntsclscwiicre; hut where are the manufacturing villages, the joint stock companies. , the splendid dividends, and other evidences of prosperity to he found in the West? I submit it to the candour of I (he gentlemen, whether the benefits of the protecting sys ! tom, so far as the west is concerned, do not still rest in ; hope—-whether the system would he sustained a day, if it I wore not for its supposed connection with larrmarAi, | ! imi’rovi Mrnts—whether it is not indebted for its po : polarity, tfi that quarter, to the unhappy, the fatal mar- : riage between the tariff and internal improvements—a ; union which I yet hope to see dissolved. It was n left-\ handed—an unlawful marriage, and surely those, whom f»od hath not joined, man may put asunder. Sir, there . are doubtless some flourishing manufactories scatter- I ed here and there throughout the western country— ! chiefly confined, however, to situations beyond the reach of foreign competition, and owing nothing to the protecting system. But the West has not been ren dered prosperous by these establishments. I appeal eon ! fidently to their actual condition at this time w ith regard I to tlio gentleman’* own State, I will apply a teat which ; cannot deccivo u«. When the policy of ’24 was before ! Congress, the Sonator from Kentucky stood forth a* its I champion, and it wa* my lot to attempt to answer hi* ar gument*. Its* tiue, Sir, that hi*Speech was made in the other House, und mine on this lloor; but hi* argument had been sent forth as the manifesto of the party—it was print ed in pamphlet and laid on the tallies of the Senator*, and, embodying the views of the Tariff Party, it was impossi ble for me to pas* it over. 1 Well re 11 lumber, therefore, that, on that occasion, the gentleman argued, that Ken tucky wa* to participate in the piotecting system by rai*- • ing large quantities ot henrp, ami supplying the Southern States with cotton bagging,—ami he strongly insisted that she was then only prevented from so doing, by the ruin ous competition ol the inconsiderable Scotch town* of Jn vemeaa and Dundee. And what Is it. Sir, that wo hear now—-alter the lapse of eight years? The old story repeat ed. Kentucky, still deprived of the benefits ol 'he pro tecting system by those formidable rivals, Inverness and Dundee. They still constitute “the lion in the path,” and foreign manufactures ever wHl be “a lion in the path” to those whoso prosperity depend* on the protecting system. W o know that tlio manufacture ol cotton bagging i* a sim ple process, requiring hardly any skill or capital; und yet, the great State of Kentucky cannot get along with it, in consequence of the formidable rrraishipof two miserable Scotch towns, tlio inhabitants ot' which are said to lie so poor and destitute, that they are obliged to import their fuel, and send to Dautzic, twelve hundred miles up> the Bal tic, lor their hemp, paying a freight equal to the first cost. Ills perfectly clear, therefore, that Kentucky has not real ized the promised blessings ol tho protecting system; and, I am told, that tills is substantially (rue of tho whole west. But, Sir, if the west has gained nothing by the system, she lias had her share of the taxes which it imposes—she has paid her proportion ofduticr tothc government, and bounties to the manufacturers; and, in consequence of the dire ca lamities which the system has indicted on tho south_ blasting our commerce and withering our prosperity—the west has vary nearby- been deprived of her beat customer. hen the policy of 24 went into operation, the south was supplied Iroiu the west, through a single avenue, (the Saluda Mountain Gup,) with live stock, horses, cattle, and hogs, to the amount of considerably upw ards of a million ol dollar* a year. Under the pressure of the system, this trade ha* regularly been diminishing.—It has already fal len otl inure than one hall, and from an authentic return, now before me, it appears that it has been further dimisli ed near one hundred and fifty thousand dollars during the last year. .So much for the rich blessings bestowed upon the west by the protecting system. We come now to the South. It any portion of the rich fruit* of this system have been scattered there, they have not (alien under my observation. Sir, we know them not—we see them not—we leel them not. It may be supposed, however, that wo are too full of prejudice, or too ungrateful, to acknowledge the blessings it has be stowed upon us. Sir, we have heard of men having honor thrust upon them, and perhaps there may be such a thing as having nenenw thrust upon an unwilling people: vet 1 should tlitnk that even in such a case, they would soon become reconciled to their lot, and submit to their fate with a good grace. But, I assure the gentleman, that the condition of the South is not merely one of unexampled depression, hut of great and all-pervading distress. In my own State, tho unhappy change which has within a feu years past taken place in the public prosperity, is of the most appalling character. If we look at the present condition ot our cities, (and I will take Charleston by way of example,) we find every where the mournful evidence ol premature decay. Sir, the crumbling memorials of our lormcr wealth aud happiness, too eloquently teach us, that without oinc change in your policy, the days of our prosperity “arc numbered.” Sir, it is within my own experience, that, in the devoted city in which my lot has been cast, a thriving foreign commerce was, within a few year.* past, carried on direct to Europe. We had native merchants, with large capitals, engaged in the foreign trade. \\ e had thirty or forty ships, many of them built, and all owned in Charleston, and riving employ- j “lent a numerous and valuable body of mechanics and tradesmen. Look at the state ol things now!— Our merchants bankrupt or driven away—their capital sunk or transferred to other pursuits—our shipyards broken up—our ships all sold!—yes. Sir, I am told tlie very last of them was, a few mouths ago, brought to the hammer— our mechanics in despair; the very grass growing in our streets, and houses tailing into ruins; real estate reduced to one third part ol its value, and rents almost to nothing. I lie commerce, which we are still permitted to enjoy, di j verted from its proper channels, carried on with borrowed capital, and through ngenls sent among us, and maintained by the tariff policy, bearing off their profits to more favor ed lands, eating out our substance, and leaving to our own people the miserable crumbs which fall from the table ol their prosperity. It we fly from the city to the country, what do we there behold ? Fields abandoned ; the hosp'i tuble mansions of our fathers deserted; agriculture droop ing; our slaves, like their masters, working harder, and luring worse; the planter striving, with unavailing ef forts, to avert the ruin which is before him. It bus often been my lot, Sir, to see the once thriving planter reduced to despair ; cursing his hard fate, gathering up the small remnants of his broken fortune—and, with his wife and his little ones, tearing himself from the scenes of his childhood, and the hones ol his ancestors, to seek, in the wilderness, ihat reward for his industry, of which your latul policy has | deprived him. Sir, when we look at our fertile fields, and consider Ihc genial climate with which God has Mossed the South— when we contemplate the rare felicity of our position, as the producers of an article, which, under a system of free trade, would command the markclsof the world—is it not enough to till our hearts almost to bursting to find the rich est blessings that an indulgent Providence ever showered down upon the heads of any people, torn from us by the cruel policy of our ow n government, to tirid the bounties of Heaven thus blasted by the hand of man. Sir, I will not deny that there are other causes besides the taritf, which ! have contributed to produce the evils which 1 have de i picted. Trade run, to some extent, he carried on with greater facility at New York, and cotton may be raised fnoie profitably in Alabama; but, these advantages would not have broken up the commerce or depressed^the agri culture of South Carolina, while an unrestricted inter course w ith foreign nations, enabled us to realize the most moderate profits! Men do not quit their accustomed em ployments, or the homes of their fathers, Ibrany small ad dition to their profits. It is only when restriction has reach ed a point which leaves the door still open to one, while it closes it against the other, that this result is produced; and, the re lore it is, that a rapid transferor capital and pop ulation is now added to the other evils with which the old States are. afllicted. In this condition of tho country, where is there to be found a fulfilment of the promises held out to the South in 1821 ? We were llien told that we had mistaken the true character of this system. H e were entreated only to try it for a short time. W e were told that the taxes imposed on foreign articles would he but temporary ; that the ma nufactures would want protection but for a short time_ only to give them n start—end that they would soon he able to stand alone. We were to have had a double mar ket for our cotton--high prices, reviving commerce, and renewed prosperity. Sir, after the experience ot lour years, the tariff of 28 came up for consideration, by which the protecting system was to he further extended nnd en larged. And what was found to have been the result of tour years’ experience at the South’ Not a hope fulfilled, not one promise performed—and our condition infinitely worse than It had been lour years before. Sir, the whole South rose up a« one man, and protested against any further experiment w ith this fatal system. The whole of the re presentatives of seven States, Virginia, North Carolina, Smith Carolina, CJcorgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Ten nessee, (with, I believe, hut three dissenting voires.) re corded their votes against that bill. 8ir, do not gentlemen find in this fact, some evidence of the dangerous cftarac- | tor of that legislation on which this system N baaed. Can it be w ise—ran it be just—can it be prudent—to adopt and j i nforce a policy so essentially leeiional in iu character .’ Can we hope for harmony, paace, and concord, while en forcing a system, against which an entire section of your I country so strongly revolts?—It Is the essential principle of the representative system, that a mutual sympathy ot teeling and of interest, should hind together the people and their rulers; and it may be worthy of profound reflection, how far that principle is essentially preserved hy a schem* of legislation, under which tho feelings and interest* of so large a portion of the country are outraged and trampled on. When taxes are imposed, not hy the representatives of those w ho are to bear the burthens, but of thooe who are to receive the bounty. Now, Sir, let us turn our sttention to the Nonrar Aad ; here f esnnot speak from my own knowledge, but I am free : to coufess, that if we are to credit the accounts we have i heard, the rich fruits of the ayetem havo been scattered ii> this quarter with a profuse hand. Wc are told that manii 1 «!r»tUr*D^i e*,al>lisiiuieiils have spiting up every where as H by enchantment.- 'I hriviug towns and beautiful villages I cover the whole face ot the land. Millions of capital bavs I “een withdrawn ironi other pursuits and iuvested in muuu - | lactures. Joint Block companies are receiving enormous dividends; and the people (at least in tho neighborhood of | tho establishments built up and sustained by the system)1 arc rejoicing in a prosperity unexampled in the history of the world. But, Sir, in flic midst of the universal joy, wo hear occasionally the voice ot lamentation aud complaint, 1 here are those north of the Potomac, wiso and ex perienced, and patriotic men, well acquainted too with tho actual condition ot tilings, who tell us that this apparent pro pority is inn great measure delusive; that the systent lias operated in building ujra favored class at the axpenso of the rest of the community. That it lias, in fact, made the “rich richer, and the poor poorer.” I have before tu« several statements, all going to prove these assertions, an to several of tho most nourishing manufacturing establish ments of the north, i will trouble the Senate with hut one ot them, and that merely by way of illustration. The article is from the pen ol ooe of tho ablest political econo niisU in tlie Union, one who has laid his country under * lusting debt of gratitude. [Mr. llayne here read a statement from the Banner of the ( onstitution, proving that a flourishing cotton inanu lactory at the I alls Village, in New Hampshire, was,/row* their own shoicitig, maintained bv a tux on the fomuiu ”**>*; exceeding the enU-s profits «rf the establishment, by tjiUM,000 per annum; and that, if a purse was made up, aud every operative man, wouiau and child, paid $100 per annum, for standing nils or turning grindstones, the pub lic would be gainers t.y $101,000 annually.] It will be seen,-the relore, that, with regard to some, at least, of our most flourishing manufacturing establishments, the profits derived arc drawn from the pockets of the peo ple. But, it will !Ve said, “here is a case let which tho south participates in the bounty, here hi a home market I lound lor three tlwusand bales of" Carolina cotton.” Sir, l seize thcopportunity to dispel forever the delusion, that the south cau derive any compensation in a homo market tor the injurious operations of the protecting system. The case before us affords a striking illustration of this truth. I ho value ol the raw moteiiaris about one-fourth part of the mamilacturcd article. Now if the cotton goods ma nufactured at the Falls Village, were imported from Eng land instead of being made in New Hampshire, vve should iind a market for 12,000 bales of our cotton instead ot 3,000; so that instead of gaining a market for 3,000 bales of cotton , we have lost a market ol 9,000. The home market for our cotton is not a new, or additional, hut a substituted market. If the trade were free, the goods manufactured in this country would he imported from England, and paid for in1 our cotton; but in cutting oil" the imports, you, of course, to the same extent, diminish our exports, "Now, suppose to make this matter too plain for cavil or dispute, that wo c.xjiorted to Gieat Britain ono hundred thousand bales of cotton, worth (at thirty dollars a bale) three millions of dollars, and that we received in exchange three million* ol dollars worth of British cotton goods. How much of our cotton would it take to manufacture these goods? Whyr just twenty-five thousand hales, v,hile (ho remaining so* venty-livc thousand would be disposed of on tho conti nent. But suppose the Importation of these good* prohi bited, in order that they should ho made at home, what portion of this cotton would find a home market? Only twenty-five thousand bales, and the remaining seventy live thousand must be left upon our hands. Thus, it will be seen, that the cflcct of substituting a home market in* the place ol a foreign market lor our cotton, would he to* deprive us entirely of a market for three-tourths of our productions. This result is inevitable, unless the domus lic manufacturer can enter into competition with the Brit isii in foreign markets—an idea altogether too extravagant to be worthy of serious notice; for, surely, if any thine can bo considered certain, wo may safely Assume that ar ticles which cannot be manufaciured at homo without a protectmg duty of from filly to one hundred percent., can not enter into competition with foreign manufactures in. the markets of the world, where they will, of courso have no protection whatever. But, to return to the condU tion ol the North under the protecting policy. If the riel* Iruits of the system in that quarter were greater eveu than they are alleged to be, 1 should still think that they have been purchased at too dear a rate. It has cven thero depressed our commerce, disturbed ull the relations of so ciety, and had a tendency to produce that inequality of fortunes, which may, one day or other, be fatal to tho liberties ol this country. Surveying with the lecling.s of an American, the actual condition ol things, I should certainly be dh.pw.ed to ex change all the blessings which the protecting system ha* produced, even in New England, for those which it has destroyed. In the place of the splendid villages, flourish ing manufactories, joint stock companies, and lordly pro prietors, clothed in fine linen and faring sumptuously every day, as a patriot, 1 should be disposed to say, givo me back the ships w hich have been destroyed, the mer chants which have been reduced to bankruptcy, the sail ors that have been forced into ioreign service, the “plun dered ploughmen and beggared yeomanry’’ w ho have been driven from tho pursuiis of their choice into the gloomy walls of the manufactory; give me hack these, ami above all, give mo back content—restore the peace and harmony which this system has destroyed, and I w ill consent that cVety manufacturing establishment shall bo razed to its a foundntion, which has been built up, and can only bo aus- • V tained, by this accursed system. Sir, if wealth were the ' highest good of a nation, and pecuniary profit the only * standard by which a wise policy could bo measured, it would even then be more than questionable, how far this system could he justified. Hut there are higher and mora sacred principle* involved in this question, which cannot be s.dety disregarded; there arc considerations ofjustire, and political equality, which rise far abovo all calculation* of mere profit and loss. Sir, what will it profit you, « yon gain the w hole world and lose the hearts ol your people! I Ins is a confederated Government, founded on a spirit of mutual conciliation, concession and compromise, and it is neither a just, prudent, nor rightful exercise ol the high trust with which you are invested for the common good, to resort to a system of legislation, by which benefits and burthens are unequally distributed. Sir, can any gentle man look this subject latr/y in the face, and not perceive that such a Government as ours (instituted *»r a lew defi nite purposes, in which every portion of the Union must, from (liC'Very nature of things, have a common interest) connot turn aside from their l.igh|duties, and undertako t* control the domestic industry el individuals, without under mining tl.o very found.lions of our republican system. It is contrary to the whole genius und character *f our insti tutions—the very form and structure of our Government— maul should undertake to regulate the whole labor and capital ol this extensive country. A .perseverance in this course will sow the seeds ol dissert lion broadcast Jthrough out the land, and let it be remembered, that discord is not a plant of slow grow th, but one that flourishes in overy soil, and never tails to produce its fruit iu due aeaaon. '' hat a spectate, do you even now exhibit to Iho worhi? \ large portion ol your fellow-eitixens believing them selves to be grievously oppressed by an unwise and uncon stitutional system, are clamoring at your doors for justice, while another portion, supposing tint they are enjoying rich bounties under it, are treating their complaints With scorn and contempt. Ciod only knows where all this is to end. Hut it “will not, and it cannot, come to good.” W* at the South still call you our brethren, and have over cherished towards you the strongest feelings of affection; but were you the brothers of our blood, for whom wo should coin our hearts, it is not in human nature that w* should long continue to retain for you undiminished nflee tion, when all hope ol redress shall have passed away, and we shall continue to believe that you are visiting t»s with a hard and cruel oppression, and enforcing a cold, heart less, and *«lfj*t. policy. I shall now proceed, Mr. rnrnnrwr, to examine the character of the protecting eyetem. And here, ( * shall assume, that the protection it extends to the American manufactures is something euhitavtioT, and af fords some advantage, he it more or less, to the protcctod interests. I shall take it for granted, that it is intended to enable the American manufacturers to enter into thatfcuc eesslul competition with the foreign, which they could not do without such protection; that the effect of the system ia to enable the American manufacturer to obtain more f«r We goods than he could otherwise command. In a worth tha* it affords substantial protection, and is not like that ex tended fa fattoiv- a were name. For, on tb\n fatter point, latU he remembered, that the first cotton produc ed In Ihis country found a market abroad; and that, even now, newly the whole of it it disposed ofln Kurope, wh«r| it maintain* aauo«*Aful competition againat all the woaJd If ia Idle, therefore, to talk of th* benefit of a protecting