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Richmond enquirer. [volume] (Richmond, Va.) 1815-1867, January 10, 1835, Image 3

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Gallatin. tint the sum stipulated by the Treaty might
Itt suffif'ent to pay all the just claims of our cilixens.
Was there any Hung in tht* opinion t > sustain the ob
jection* of the opponents of tin- appropriation ? Their
allegation was. tint the sum stipulated by the Treaty,
was a great deal mure than sufficient to nay the jnst claims
of the American merchants. Hut .Air. Hives' opinion,
that *t might be sufficient, was certainly n.» authority to
support an allegation, that it wa- it «rrut deal nine t/tun
who, in tlio'w eagerness t > criminate their own
government on every occasion, would lain have it be
lieved that the refusal of tile ChmdH-r of Deputies, at
their session in April last, to provide for the execution of
the Treaty, was owing In something in Mr. Hives' des
patches, choose to fmg t the history oflliia uffair—They
oloose to forget, that atb r the ratification of this Treaty,
and he fur.- fiio publication of Mr. Hives' despatches,
there li id liccn, as staled by the President in Ins lute
M essage to Cougress, three distinct sessions of the
Chamber of Deputies, when tin* appropriation for carry
ing into effect, might and ought to have been made by
them, but was not. How do these gentlemen explain
these several failures to provide for the fulfilment of the
Treaty ? Were Mr. Hives' despatches still the cause of
them, when those despatches hud not yet been published
in this country, and of course, when nothing of tlx*
contents could have been known in France?
The truth is, the difficulty which Iras arisen, is the
result ol prejudices which have long existed in France
against our claims—prejudices, which have been pain
fully and laboriously overcome with the government of
Franco, before they could he extinguished with the na
tion and its Representatives. One would suppose, that
tlie force ol these prejudices had been sufficiently attest
ed by the ineffectual efforts of ucgocinliou, for near a
quarter of u century, to procure a recognition of our
rights. Many circumstances, evincing the strength and
prevalence ol these unfavorable pr< possessions with re
gard to our claims, in the public mind of France, are
disclosed in the official correspondence of Mr. Hives.
A brief summary of them is given in the following ex
tract from mi article published on the 4th of June last,
in the official journal ut Washington :
** Our claims were always unpopular in France, par
ticularly with the liberal party—a thing which seems
never to have been understood in this country' hut is
now rendered manifest by the fact of the hitter opposi
tion of Bignon, Manguiu, Sulverte, Ac., the leading
members ot that party. When the treaty was concluded”,
it was denounced by many of tho journals of that party,
the Temps, the Courier r runeais, the Tribune, Ac., ex
tracts of which, in that spirit, were sent to Mr. Livings
ton at the time. The treaty was declared by them to be a
"pare, sacrifice." on the part of France, a ■pres, ut" made to
the United States, an "abuse" tile result of intrigue. Ac.
A report had been made by one Commission, in the time
ol l'olignac, that eight millions of francs was as much as
the U mted blutes could claim; another Commission, after
“the revolution," reported that tirelrc millions of francs
would be the amplest allowance for our claim. In this
way. the opinion had grown up, anil become general in
France, that the twenty-live millions, stipulated by the
treaty, was nu extravagant concession and shameful sa
crifice, made by the ministers of Louis i’hillippe. Un
der these circumstances, the appearance of the corres
pondence between the American Government and its
Minister, at a moment when there was supposed here to
be no longer the smallest motive for reserve, Idling the
veil of diplomatic mystery from the whole trnnsac
firm nn«i AViuminM It si... l_l .1_»• i . /• » •
•. . X. , (Villi W, III I'.U
rojw*, is so generally susjiectei! to mingle in such trans
actions, ami evincing that, in the sincere conviction of
the American Government, it had obtained no more than
it was justly entitled to demand, if so much, ami thut,
too, without the interest it might well have insisted on us
incident to the principal of the claims—such an expo
sure could have had no other than a highly salutary and
useful eftect in counteracting the prejudices, distrust, and
erroneous opinion with which the public mind was filled
in France.”
With a very edifying assumption of delicacy on the
part ol his ussailautu, Mr. Rives is accused of boasting,
because in bis despatch to his government traijsiuittiug
the I reaty, lie expressed the opinion, that the amount o'?’
indemnity stipulated by it might probably be sufficient
to pay the just claims of our citizens, and that the ar
rangement he had mude was. in other respects, such us
ought to bo accepted by the country. Let it be recollect
ed, that Mr. Hives bad concluded this arrangement, on
his own responsibility, llis instructions fixed no amount
which be was authorized to accept in satisfaction of
American Claims, nor the sum lie was to allow for
l‘ ronc*h C Liims. The rcductiou of duties on French
wines, in ration of the uliendouincnt of the claims
under the 8th article Oi Uu* I/iuisiana Treaty, and all
the details connected with it, wi re, in V.^c v™,,,nor, ar
ranged by him on hi* responsibility. In acquitting hiir«
sell of this responsibility—no very light one, when the
magnitude and delicacy of the interests involved aie
considered—was he not to be permitted, in communi
cating the result of bis labor to his own government,
to state facts and observations which lie Ix-Hoved to be
well-founded mid true, in justification ol himself for the
arrangement he hadpiinde ? 'I hat his despatch was con
ceived in this spirit and none other— that it contains,
especially, no boast of overreaching, unless to stipulate
for wliat, it was believed, might be “sujjicitnl’’ to pay
'•just claims, but not more than sufficient, is, according
to the system of ethics professed by the modern Whigs’,
to overreach—That such is the true character and spirit of
Mr. Hives’ despatch, no candid man, who will read it,
can fail to perceive or hesitate to admit.
As to the merits ot this arrangement, embracing com
plicated and important national interests, though the pe
cuniary stipulation should, by possibility, fall short of the
Jail payment of antiquated claims over which ns many us
tour Revolutions in France had already passed, and of
which the claimants themselves had well nigh despaired,
Air. Hives may safely leave them to lx* judged of by his
country. W liethcr the stun stipulated be adequate to the
payment of the just cluims of our citizens, is, nfler all,
matter of opinion, and involves many nice and difficult
questions of public law and national justice. That it
will be adequate, or nearly so, if the claims should be
properly sifted, and settled on correct principles, many
reasons of great force, drawn apparently from a minute
anil careful investigation of the whole subject, were gi
veu in your paper of the i?7tli June last. At all events,
t.ie opinion expressed by Mr. Rives doc*tf not stand alone.
It is supported by an authority, tlinn which, none higher
certainly can be appealed to on this question—that of Mr.
Gallatin—-who, both as Minister in France, and as Se
cretary ol the 1 rcasury, at the time that our commerce
sutlercd the injuries in question, lias had the lx-st oppor
tunities of appreciating their just amount. Mr. Rives'
opinion was, in fact, founded on that of Mr. Gallatin, as
will bo seen by reference to the despatch which has been
tbc subject of bo much misrepresentation. As, notwith
standing this, however, Mr. Gallatin's opinion has been
sedulously kept out ot view by the Opposition press, I
will here give it to your readers, as expressed by himself,
in a letter from him to the Secretary of State, dated the
ldth January, 1882, while he was Minister at 1’uris._
Writing of our clniniK on France, he uses the following
language:
s*iiiiuugii i nave cnumerauiu ail me casca within my
Knowledge, where actual condemnation l^ul not taken
I>lace, I mint add that it is possible that some vessels cap
lured, nud probably tint some burnt at sea, whilst the Berlin
and Milan decree* were in force, have nutyet been defini
tively condemned. But there run be no expectation tiiat
indemnity will ere.r be obtained, either for mono or in any
of the cage* where there has been *uch condemnation.—
t'roin all the documents which 1 have yet seen, 1 do not
believe that the total amount of this last -mentioned das*,
nfU r deducting the case* where the destination of the ves
Hels was concealed, enemv * property covered, or which
might generally afford plausible grounds of condemna
tion, exceed tiro millions of dollars in value. The Danish
prizes, H|id the vessels mid cargoes qi.-ized at Naples, are
not included in that estimate. J’lie amount of sequestru
tions and rcssrls burnt at sea, where no condemnation has
fn/.c/t place, may bo estimated at about three millions of
dollars. I bis last estimate cannot lie far from the truth ;
since we know the amount of the two largest chums, the
Ht. Sebastian and the Antwerp sequestrations, ’flic an
swer which this Government may give to my last note
will show whether we have any thing to expect from its
justice, in any case whatever ; for. if the Antwerp claim
J« rejected, there can be no expectation that they will vo
luntarily allow any other.”
Mr. Hives, in his desnatch transmitting the Treaty
concluded by him, introduces this extract from Mr. Gal
latin's communication, and then adds: " If the opinion
here expressed bo correct, and certainly none enjoy* or is
entitled to more respect, the sum stipulated to bo paid by
the french Government,” (twenty-eight and a half mil
lions of franca, including tlie interest to bo puid witli tlic?
instalments of the debt ns they fall due,) "will be amply
sufficient to pay all the just claims of our citizens of
evefy description, comprehended ill the scope of the ne
frocialioii. - It is here seen, that the opinion expressed
by Mr. Hives was conditional, resting expressly on the
accuracy of the estimate made by Mr. Gallatin, wlm had
had special opportunities; nnd by his acknowledged sa
gacity and ability, was pre-eminently capable of farming
tno most correct judgment on the subject.
My object, Messrs. Kditors, in this communication, ha*
been simply to stale facts, called for by the persevering
misrepresentations of party malignity. The public wifi
\appreciate them. Whether Mr. Hives In* deserved well
or ill of hi* country, tha*. country will decide.
On reviewing the Course of the Opposition, in relation
to this question, one con not but lie struck with the re
in irk able analogic* it presents to the anti-American spi
rit exhibited by the Old Federal Party,onthe similar oc
casion of the rejection by the British Government of Mr.
f.rskme s arrangement in MOf). Then, ns now, the odi
nm of Hn net proceeding from the perfidy of n foreign
power, was sought to be thrown by the Federal opposi
tion on their own government. In extenuation of the
conduct of the British Ministry, it was alleged tiiat the
I resident and Secretary of Stats- well knew, at the time
of entering into the arrangement with Mr. F.rskine, that
Im had no power* to conclude such .an iryangcment. In
like manner, Mr. Hive*, ha* been strongly censured for
cone hiding a treaty of indemnity with the Ministers of
I.am* rhillip|>e, with >ut the consent of the Chambers
because ho ought to have kuowa. a* these wiw objectors
nllcge in the very teeth of the French Charter, (which
expressly vests the treaty-making power in the King.)
»h‘f Ins Ministers had ro eonslitafion il authority
do make such a Treaty, without tho Joint agency
i ol the legislative bodies. So, likewise, as the re
fusal of tho French Chamber of Deputies to pro
vide for the execution ol a Treaty, solemnly con
cluded accordiAg to the forms of their Constitution,
is now wantonly ascrilwd to sonu thing in Mr. Uivcs’
di spatches, the rejection of the British government.
Into, ol the arrangement entered into by its accredited
minister, was gravely charged to a passage inserted by
express direction ol President Madison iu one of the let
ters ot the Secretary of Stale to Mr. Krskiue, which was
said to be insulting to the honor mid pride of liis Britan
nic Majesty. But while these disingenuous attempts
were made by the Federal parly of that day t> ascribe
the rejection of Mr. Krskiue'* arrangement to some fault
ol their i*.-u government, impartial History held her in
quest, ami justly traced that rejection to the cncourugt -
moot given to foreigu outrage by the desperate violence
ot domestic taction. May not the same cause have had
its influence in the present instance, in emboldening
f ranee to a violation of her plighted faith and the con
tempt of her solemn engagements ?
_A FRIEND OF TRUTH.
Itiiu afwl ill t'liii.h Treaty.
i lie N. Y. Journal of Commerce publishes the follow
ing extract ot a letter from a very respectable source,
dated Paris, Dec. (i:
‘•ll Gen. Jackson in liis Message should recommend a
non-intercourse with France, unless our claim is allow
ed, tho strong probability is, that the appropriation will
be made. It hi- does not, there is a strong probability
that the appropriation will be denied.”
The New York Gazette of Saturday says:—“Private
letters from Fiance, as late us the loili of last month,
give various opinions as to the result of the deliberations
in tin* Chambers, as to providing for American indemni
ties, agreeably to the '1 reaty. The most prevalent be
lief was, that the Treaty with this country would be ap
proved of.” 1
The National Intelligencer stales, that “ letters have
been received in thin city, from ditU-rcnt citizens of the
United States, public us well as private men, now iu
t rance, expressing the most decided opinion that the
bill for carrying into ( fleet the Treaty with the United
States will pass tile French Chambers. The proceedings
iu those bodies, however, a.s sometimes in our Congress,
are slow, and occasionally dilatory, so that it seemed not
to be expected that a bill would be carried through the
two Chambers very early in the session. Every tiling at
the latest dates, portended the passage of the bill.” **
1 lie following is an extract from tiro volumes of Let
ters just printed at London and Paris, under the name
ol “Simeon s Letters to bis Kinsfolk and other great
People, written chiefly from France and Belgium, in tho
years 1852, l.-fl'd and 1814—by Simeon South, Esq."
“ ljitter to th? Right lion, the Hurl Grey.
** Pakis, May 12. 185-1.
“ a here was a solemn Treaty entered into with the U.
States, France agteeing to pay that Aiition twenty-live
millions ol francs—due us justly os ercr money ecus due
from one nation to another; and although in his s(>eech
of Nov. 1812, the King said the question ecus finally set
tled, the bill drawn for part of it was protested, and the
Treaty ol 185] annulled. The Americans have waited
patiently three years—will they submit any longer? I
think net. I liicrs, Guizot, uud the Doctrmaries, may
.illcet to despise the United Stab's: hut there are rcast/ns
for suspecting that .innrial trill assume an attitude that
trill moke her more respected than ever in Hurope. What
would you say, my Lord, if you irrre to hear of Jonu
than-selling Uuailuloupe and Martinique; and blockad
ing all the pints of France? Would you, my Lord,
interfere? I should thiol: not I udll ....w
lo say that Jonathan's “Jir-bviU ships, villi their hits of
striped bunting," would be able to prevent either * French
man-of-war or a French merchant vessel, showing the
end even of a jib-boom beyond the mouth of a seaport,
uutil not only the 25 millions with interest, but also the
expense of such expeditions as the process of recovering
the debt, may incur. 1 grant that if you put all the
French ships of war in the Navy list in full commission,
with well trained suitors to fully man them, the case
would lie altered. “ The empire of the French,” as
Madame De Stool justly observed, “is the land;" and 1
happen to be sufficiently acquainted both with the Ame
rican and French Navies, to say, that the latter has pro
portionally fewer ships in its lists fit l'or service, and
worse trained sailors to man them, than any other power;
and, that the former has not only the greatest propor
tionate number in their fleet of the best equipped ships,
but also sailors, ail equally well trained and courageous
us those of any country.
“Lafayette is exceedingly annoyed at the manner in
which the American Claims have been treated. 1 spent
sonic hours with him two days ago. He was in despair
about the affairs of France:—when we talked of America
all his energies seemed to revive. Uis lust expressions
to vie about Colonial misrule, 1 hare registered He null
others have also protested the Associations bill; bill he
“ weak and confined to his bed, nor do 1 think he will ever
again appear on the theutre of public affairs. The divi
sion in the Chambers on the American question,hascuus
ed a modification, not for' the Wuer, iu the Ministry.
1 lie only man in it, whom the sensible port of the com
munity respected, (although a Doctrinaire,) was the l)uc
do Broglie, lie has resigned in disgust. Thiers takes
the Portfolio of the Interior, dragging along with him
nearly all the attributions of the Minister of Commerce,
andleaving very little iu the power of his successor!
M. Duchatol."
A letter from Washington slates, that Mr. Clay had
just finished reading his report from the Committee on
Foreign Affairs in the Senate; that it disclaims the au
thorizing of Ueprisals for the present, and sustains our
right and duty to maintain the treaty—and that it is un
derstood, Mr. Clay \» ill not acquiesce in the nomination
of either Judge White or Judge M' Lean.
AKXT PIWSIDKAir
We learn from the Columbus (.Mississippi) Argus, that
the Whig Convention which met at Jackson, has directly
arrayed itself against the Democratic Convention which
had nominated Mr. Van Buren. But “one spirit ap
peared to pervade this Whig assembly—unconquerable
opposition to Maui in Van Hi hkm. There was a differ
ence of opinion with regard to the best mode of concen
trating the Opposition, but it was only to the means,
while all approved the measure. On the 13th, a resolu
tion being read, recommending a A 'ulimiul Whig Con
tention at Pittsburg, Pa., an animated discussion occur
red, which lasted about five hours. On the question be
ing taken, tlic re was very little opposition—not more
Ihnn four or five dissenting voices. We can devise no
better means, and something must be done to unite the
Opposition, or the election of Van Buren is certain._
lA'i us, then, unite heartily in putting down the common
enemy, and when we have destroyed the monster that is
laying the axe at the root of the tree of Liberty, it will
be time enoug.i logo back to our domestic quarrels, and
settle minor controversies between us.”
Another movement is meditated in Alabama—as wo
gather from the following Extract, from tin* Huntsville
I InnmrMl .
fit tract of n letter date,I
. “ Tt'acafcooaa, f 'ntliiu, Dee. !2, 1834.
I in* mormc" It mol ill ion* w.ro introduced by Mr. I.aue of Mur
**"• KJCo nmoniling llugli L. White ns n caodiJat- for the next Pro
Mdrnry. A nofion wa* made to portions Umm to a day beyond the
e-wion, which vru tost, ami Monday tlio 29th of I hi* month, wm
made the day for their special considoralion. The motion I n, re ive
will he supported !*y all those who are onpmed to thv prereut Admin
Miration. I do not say, however, hut that many Administration men
are likely togivo them their support—for Mr. White ia, andduaorvoi
to bo, a groat laiorite with the Republican pnrly. I regard the mat
Iff my Ault a “iu«« ill* ^Ctiorf •? * * in the Ojipotition Co dli v idle.* our rankw;
nml u« much im I admire Ju.lge White, I would oppose this inoature.
jlocout events have tminted more nml more directly to Martin Van
Huron as the man who can best unite the Administration forces ol
the N'.irlli, anil if the friends of the Administriilion in the t-’outh do
not wish to divide ami distract— throw l he election into the lions-- ol
Representatives—an t there he bargained and managed out of tlx ir
ehi i-e altogether, tin y will not commit themselves to nay man._
1 hey will leave their determination* open, that they n.ay throw theii
weight nml influon o in that direction which the cri«H, when it eon.es
shull Indicate lo lie the licit to defeat the llnnk combination.”
F.tlraet of a letter from Tennessee of lire. 2H.
" For iny own part, I 'consider the selection of a propoi
candidate for the Vice Presidency, to be a matter of great
consequence in tlie present crisis. Those who believe,
tli.it the Monopolists will not put Van Huron's courage
to the lest, should hr. be eleeted President, as they have
done Gen. Jackson's, moat shut their eyes to iill the
lights of experience, nml their minds to all the sugges
tion* of reason. When tlid stock-jobbers, brokers* and
shavers, associated together, cease for an instant from the
pursuit of worldly gain, and political power? Or when
did they pay the least resjiect to the restrictions rewrit
ten constitutions ? They never have h id, and never will
have any other guide, than their own interests, nor any
other object, than the gratification of their own ravenous
cupidity. I hold it, therefore, that the next President
should have a str-mg baeker in the Vice President. My
own |iersona] feelings are in favor of PhilipP. Harbour.
If he shall be nominated, our voters will cast their suf
frages for him with a hearty good will.”
A OH Tit CARO I. IASI.
The I<egislatnre has finally passed the Bill, for taking
the sense of (he People on tin; subject of a Contention;
the Mouse of Commons having acceded to the amend
ments of the Senate. The hilfprovides, "that the Mouse
of Commons shall not contain less than lit), nor more
than 12<l members, errlusice of Borough representation,
which it is left discretionary with the Convention to abo
lish. either in whole or in part."
The Legislature has declared the office of Attorney
General vacant, in consequence of Gen. It. M. Saund
ers having filled the office of (‘ornmissioni r tinder the
Federal Government. J. ft. J. Daniel, a member of the
Mouse of Commons, and a zealous friend of the Admin
istration, was elected to fill the vacancy,by a decided ma
jority over Gen. Iredell.
Robert Potter luts been expelled from his seat in the
Mouse of Commons by a vote of 02 to fi2, in conse
quence of some gaining transactions, which are stated by
j a Gorrespondent of the Fayetteville Observer,
The legislature expected to adjourn on Hatnrday or
Monday last.
The .lames and Kanawha Improvement.
On Monday, Mr. Stnnard addressed a strong argument
at the bar of the Mouse of Delegates, against thenddi
| tiooaJ r.i ibscri|Hion by the Common Mall. On Tuesday,
Mr. Wickham npoenred st the Bar, on the same side—
| Mis speech is said to have Iwcn a fine and beautiful one
I On Wednesday and Thursday, Mr Chapman Johnson,
the City Delegate, replied, and contended most ably, both
for the Constitutionality and expediency of the proposed
measure.
Yesterday the bill eime tip on its second reading. He
verrvl ineffectual efforts were made to re-eorntnit it, with
instructions to substitute a subscription by the State, in
place of the Common Hall. Finally, the bill was slightly
amended, and then ordered to be engrossed, and read a
third time.
Voter of Westmoreland," was received ycaler
, day , and shall appear. 1 le Writes for the purpose of “ex
I posing the artifices which are so often, recently, resort
ed to, to prostrate Mr. Chinn and Col. Buy sc.” He de
nies, that the majority of the Senatorial District, are for
instructing t\.i it. t*,> vote for Mr. Leigh. Ho is not the
only Senator whom the Whig Kress is uf vain attempting
' to spur and rated into a support of Mr. L.
The weather continues to be excessively cold. The
thermometer has Lecu ut Washington several degrees
| below zero. Yesterday we had it •labove zero, or 23 de
grees below freezing point. Tho llasin bus been frozen
over several days ; and the ltiveris beli.ved to Le closed
down to l ity 1'oint. The Northern mail is now in, in
the mornings.
A meeting of the citizens of I'rince William was
held on the :ul iust., (Benoni K. Harrison, Ksq., in the
Chair)—the object of which was ‘‘louid, by its sanction,
a petition to the le gislature of Virginia, lor the enact
ment of a law to incorporate a Company to construct n
Hail lload from I'rcderickrbur-j to Mcxuiulrin; and the
said |K'tilioii was read and adopted unanimously.”
I Committees were appointed to further the view a of the
meeting.
ton Tut. iwvoutHt.n.
BANKS! BANKS!—No 1.
After the experience of many years, and the develope
inonts which have taken place within the last few,
it might reasonably have been expected, that the Bank
mania had subsided in our country, uud been succeeded
by more correct ptinciples of political economy. At u
comparatively recent |M-riod in the history of Virginia,
the State had nearly suffered the infliction of a litter of
Bunks; from which it was fortunately saved by tin* wis
dom mid firmness of a small majority in tho Legislature.
| Whatever differences of opinion existed then, in relation
to that decision, 1 hud supposed that its justice and poli
cy were now questioned by none who had attended to
• ho cllccts of similar measures, adopted about the same
time in ether Stales. 1 had thought that it was a sub
ject of universal rejoicing, that we had escaped the heavy
calamities brought on the western and middle States, by
excessive banking, and that we looked hack upon those
disasters as solemn warnings to direct our future course.
But I find 1 am mistaken. Memorials are before the Le
gislature for largely increasing the Bunking capital
of the State. Meetings have been held in 1'ortsinouth
and Norfolk, with the view of inducing the representa
tives of the people to extend the system; and all
the towns of Virginia are invited “to hold similar meet
ings to establish Banks, or to devise an increase of their
capital.” The first resolution of the Norfolk meeting
declares, “that the prosperity of other States admonish
es us of the great importance of enlarging now, and
from time to time, the amount of our Banking capital, nnd
of multiplying the number of our [sinking institutions.”
Thus, t etc is no tangible limit assigned to this system,
and the reasoning of the preaiublo is intended to shew
that none ought to be assigned; for it assumes, “that the
mere addition to our capital of a single Bunk, with a re
spectable amount ot capital, will only give us tentporunj
relief, unless we add another utul another from time to
time, as the increase of our business may require.” It
appears by subsequent proceedings, that the memorial
ists only ask at present, an addition to their hanking ca
pital of one million of dollars. According to the'mlio
liillicrtofohscrvcd, the other parts of the State would
equally entitled to an addition of five millions, in order
to enable them ••to prosecute the war of commercial com
fM-tition." Already our banking capital is near six mil
ions, and the Noriolk memorialists would make it twelve.
Il it be true, that it can be made nvuilablc to twice or
thrice its nominal amount, we should have a circulating
medium, in the shape of bank facilities, of y-1 or 3G mil
lions, which 1 shall hereafter show is more than three
times as much as we really require, upon any sound prin
ciples of political economy. And, if this is not “going
the whole in favor of the most unjust, partial, and jib 1
verily believe, diabolical course of legislation that a free
people ever submitted to, l am at a loss to conceive what
oilier proposition will be so considered.
Is it not a little remarkable, that in this country we
often take up the systems of European Governments, af
ter they have been fairly tried, and their errors and evils
demonstrated by all their wisest statesmen ? So it fared
with the protective system. We adopted and cherished
it as our own, when that country which hud favored it
most, had, under the guidance ot its distinguished po
litical economists, gradually relaxed its severity, and ad
mitted its impolicy. Now, when the statesmen familiar
with all the arguments usually udduced in favor of the
pupersystem, in the country which lias used itso long and
so extensively, pronounce “those persons who consider pa
per money as an excellent thing to be established in u
country,” the most dangerous ofali heretics," and when we
have our own experience of its unmitigated evils; some
among us would recur to it as the panacea for all evils,
ri al or imaginary; and this, too, at a time when every bo
dy is talking of “u reform in the eurrt my.” What, let me
ask, lias deranged the currency but a redundancy of pa
per money, and a deficiency «♦' «vt:.l|ic? The increase
o| Banks will only aggravate the evil. If we really de
sire a reform; ii we are ever to have a sale, and sound
and uniform currency, the Virginia Legislature ought,
in my humble opinion, instead of adding to our Banking
capital, to pass a law at its preseiit^session prohibiting
hereafter the circulation of all foreign notes in this State,
under twenty dollars, and another law logo into effect
on tiie 1st of June, 1B42, when the charters of all
our Banks expire; prohibiting, after that day, the cir
culation of any note under that sum. This would
soon diminish our paper one fourth of its present
amount, and re./i!ute it with gold and silver. It might
then be safe and prudent to renew the charters of Hur
present Batiks, when they are about to expire, for some
time-longer. Indeed, 1 know that it would be difficult
t i resist llicir united applications, and the combination
of interests that would be enlisted in their favor. Nor,
if it was practicable, do 1 affirm, that it would be desi
rable. It is easy to establish a Banking system, but to
get rid of it suddenly, after it has been in operation for
many years, is hazardous and difficult. The descent
into the infernal regions is easy, but to retrace your steps
forms the difficulty and the labor. 'I bis consideration
alone ought to weigh powerfully with the legislator, be
fore lie consents to make a second plunge into that
maelstrom, from which nothing emerges that is not
shattered and broken. Sound currency, sound credit,
public morals and private happiness, have all been
wrecked in its insatiable vortex, anil nothing but the
elastic energies ot a young and thriving people, has ciiu
bl< d them to repair the damages.
Unless some such measures ns I have suggested, are
adopted and persevered in. it is in vn'm to think of a
metallic currency; and when 1 use this term, I mean
such a currency as France or even England enjoys.
Twenty millions of dollars have been imported, and
upwards of three millions of gold been coined nt
our mint within the last twelve months, which must
he driven away, if the Btales do not orevent if Itv
thc'ir legislation, or the General Government, l»y rc*
ijiiiriiig all payments to lie mailc in specie, a measure
it will not probably adopt. Eagles and halt' eagles
cannot withstand the competition of small notes. Me
tallic money has an intrinsic value, because it can be em
ployed in the arts, and is the representative of the labour
necessary to its production. Paper money has only an
ideal value, which is ever fluctuating. A bank note may
be converted into ns many silver dollars as it expresses
on its face, to-day; but there is no security that it will
Command the same number to-morrow, muc h less a year
hence. Therefore, gold and silver is preferred by all
those who do not mean to part with the paper in a short
time,and is intrinsically more valuable. 15ut nothing is
better established than that, where there are two kinds ol
currency in circulation, authorized by law, or sanctioned
bv custom—that which has the least value will displace
the other. It lias happened uniformly, that the intro
duction of p iper drives specie out of circulation, whilst
its withdrawal brings it back again ; and experience
has demonstrated, that if this withdrawal is griitlual, no
evils ensue. In Pennsylvania ns well as in Virginia,
the act prohibiting the circulation of notes under
was warmly opposed, because “ it would make money
scarce.’’ Its only effect, however, was to drive from
circulation un immense quantity of trash, and supply its
place with silver change, without producing the slight
est inconvenience, in England it was found that one
pound notes ami sovereigns could not circulate together,
and that the paper had driven nvvny the gold.I In
the issue of notes ol less denomination than JCo sterling,
was prohibited nfU r lHifl. In l.iJV8, a vigorous effort
vves made to repeal the law, on the same grounds taken
in Pennsylvania; hut the ministers were firm—throne
pound notes were called in—gold took their place in
tlie circulation, and the “scarcity of money’’ was no
longer heard of
In I74il, a proposition was made in Massachusetts to
redeem the hills of credit whie.h had been previously is
sued by that colony,and to establish a stable currency
of gold and silvi r. The measure excited the most vio
lent opposition on the part of the advocates of paper mo
ney, who declared that the circulating medium would Ik*
so much reduced ns to give a fatal shock to trade and
credit, and it was only carried into execution by n
Statute of th«- Kritish Parliament. I lute in n.son, who in
liis history of Massachusetts gives this account—goes on
. further to state, that “the apprehensions of a shark to
trade proved groundless; the hills being dispersed through
every part of the province, the silver look place instead
of them—a good currency was ins, n.ubly substituted for
n bud one, and every branch of business was curried on
to greater advantage than before. The other govern
ments, especially Connecticut and Rhode Island, who re
fused, upon being invited, to conform to the currency of
Massachusetts, felt a *&»«/< in Hair trade, from which they
have not yet recovered."
These instances are referred to—first, for the purpose
of shewing, that the exclusion of five and ten dollnr notes
from our circulation, will lie an easy, insensible opera
tion; probably attended with no evil or inconvenience—
and secondly, to illustrate, by an example, the probable
i effects of raising the Standard of circulation in Virginia, if
the other States should not second hereftbrls. In any nl
temptof this sort, we shall hear the cries, of “scarcity of
money,"—“shock to trade," and superiority ofeither Slates
* >**« boot King's fcpen h, in III* Mltl on the esrrsMy, July,
t ftco ihe »)>coefjc, «f |x>nt f.it-rrpont Hlr Charles <!rant Mr. tins
j M**<Vft, rhr Outio in' UVIIinjIo.i unit otli in jsn'i -piui,m.
| in “banking privileges;” but I am well persuaded, that, if |
V irginiu shall lie able to establish a sound and uniforut cur
rcnc v, and the other Stales should adhere to their fluctuat- |
ing paper of small denomination, she will, in a few years,
| occupy the sonic desirable relative situation in respect to
j them, which Massachusetts occupied in 1740.
Many person* are disposed to get rid of the Banking
I system alt oi lher, end to make ours what the Conslitu*
I tion evidently intended it to be, “a liard money govern
ment: cithers treat tiiis as u visionary selierne, uualtain
uldo by tin* united etiorts of all our governments. To
me it seems clear, that the operation w ould be much less
*i tllis* it It or hazardous, than is generally imagined; and
| that now is the most propitious time to prepare the way fi.r
| 'b <>r 1° make at least a great icform. Hitherto one ditli
i By has been. that the system had lieen sanctioned by the
► cdcrul as well as the State (•overimients; and whilst
that state ot tilings existed, it was almost impracticable
lor any one of the States, or for all of them, to establish
! a system of sound credit and currency. But the charter
j ol tin* B ulk ol the l'. Slates will soon expire, and there
is little prospect now ot its renewal. (Congress might
' then assist the cHorts ot the States, by requiring tirst a
i portion of its revenue to be paid in specie, and 'finally,
I he whole. 1 o render this an easy* operation, we have
| now, fortunately, more gold and silver, than we have had
j t >r many years, or are likely to have again, if we neglect
the opportunity. It has tlowed in under the o|M*rutiou of
peculiar causes, and under the expectation that a reform
was contemplated in our currency, which would create
a demand for it. By a late rejiort of tin* Secretary of the
1 treasury, “on the present system of keeping and dis
bursing the public money,” 1 perceive that lie estimates
our active circulating medium at !fc*' millions of dollars,
including paper and specie—and that we have twenty
millions of gold and silver in circulation, and 35 niilliTnis
of specie i n the vaults of the Banks. Tlius we have 55 |
millions of specie in the country, which leaves only 43
millions more*to be provided, to render our whole cur- '
rency metallic—as.-uining that SM-t millions are enough i
lor our grants. This is considerably more than the esti
mate ol Air. (•allatiu in IKIO. But il'our imports of spe
cie should amount for the two succeeding years to as
much as they have amounted to for tin* last, we should
have in the country at the end of that period, nearly the
required sum. This, however, can neither be expected
nor desired. An import of 3 millions a year, in addition
to tlie gold extracted from our own mines, would in 1H
years supply the deficiency. To this operation, the ener
gies and resources of this proiqierous nation are more
than equal, without producing the slightest distress to
a solvent Bank, or to a solvent individual in the country.
It has paid off a public debt at the rnteofHor 10,000,000
a year, and the addition of 3 or 4.000,000 tier annum to
its specie capital, would not he felt out of its exports of
07 or ltd millions, and its annual income, according to
the estimate ol Air. Leo of Boston, of seven or eight hun
dred millions. Let it Ik* recollected, that England, on the
resumption of specie payments, in four years imported
twenty millions of pounds sterling in gold alone, without
its giving a shock t> her trade, or sensibly ali'ecting her
commercial prosperity. An importation of three or four
millions o(dollars annually, is therefore, surely, not be
yond our means. Even this sum would not at first bo
required. As the Banks withdrew their paper from cir
culation, they would require less specie in their vaults,
and they would consequently supply the vacuum, from
the hoard ot thirty-five millions, now locked up. This
operation, spread overtoil years, and aided by Uie impor
tations before spoken of, would leave us, at its termina
tion, in the absence of casualities, the happiest and most
prosperous nation that the sun shines upon—a nation free
Hut every addition to the number of our Hanks, increases
tlie difficulty of reform, as it multiplies the chances of mis
management. Y\ ill the Legislature, to gratify commercial
cupidity, grant other monopolies at the very time, when
by a fortunate concurrence of circumstances, it has the
ability, if it has also the inclination, to relieve the poo- I
pie from the whole iniquitous system,or greatly to miti- !
gate its evils? Will no one ol' its members, who can
neither be “sophisticated or suborned from his duties,"
come for ward to urge the work of reform, and entitle him
self to the lasting gratitude of his country ?
There is another view of this subject, which will shew
the impropriety of increasing our Hanking capital at this
time. Our ditlicultics with France, may terminate in
war. In that, but too probable event, our commerce
must be greatly crippled, and a smaller quantity of cir
culating medium will be required for the purposes of
trade and credit. Our Hanks will become embarrassed,
and confidence in their stability will be impaired. It is
our duty to prepare for this event, or at least not to mul
tiply the chances of greater embarrassments. To increase
our paper circulation ami to lessen our specie, on the ve
ry eve of war. would be folly equal to that of the ma
riner, who,at the approach of a storm, instead of Irim
ming his sails and making every thing snug and easy,
should spread all his canvass to tile gale. The com
merce and industry of the country are never so secure
when Ulcy are “suspended upon the Daedalian wings of
paper money, as when they travel about upon the solid
ground ol gold and silver," and war greatly increases
the danger, Surely it is not necessary to enlarge upon
this topic. 1
Hut there is still another reason, why the Bank memo
rials should not be acted upon at tlie present session._It
is a subject of infinite importance to the people of the
whole State; and Him should be consulted before a final
decision is made. Chartered rights, it seems, cannot be
touched by subsequent Legislatures, and if they are
granted improviduntly, the error is irretrievable. These
memorials have come noon us unexpectedly, like claps of
thunder in a cloudless day. As far as public sentiment
li.is been iihccrtaiiu'd, it is in favor of ictoriu, nmi against
an "extended system' of Hanking. Postponement will
give time and opportunity for consideration and discus
sion, and cannot materiaily alter the situation of the
memorialists. These considerations, added to those al
ready urged, will, it is hoped, have their proper weight
in inducing the Legislature to lay over the subject until
its next session. As, however, they may seetn less
weighty to others than to me, I propose in my next num
ber to examine more particularly the Norfolk memorial,
and to advert to some of the popular arguments in favor
of Hanking as well as to some of the prominent objec
tions to the system, supported by the opinions of men
who have had ample oppportunilicN of observing its prac
tical effects, and whose conclusions, upon such a sub
ject, are entitled to the most respectful consideration
ANTI-HANKS.
_ C OJU.M UA'/G/I TKD.
„ . , .Madison Co cut Ilousi:, January (>, 1,SX>.
lo Dun.11 / . Slaiightir, Esq.
I /< :. U,c undersigned, having been appointed a
Conijnittce, in reference to the Instructions which you
are aware were going on in this county, to instruct You
to vote against H. W. Leigh as United State* Senator,
now take the liberty of transmitting the result of our in
vestigations. You will discover that 11 I persons have
signed the instructions; all of whom wo believe to he le
gal voters. From tlie best information wo cun obtain
w <. be lie \ e there are about OOI) voters in this county. We
hope that yon will give an early acknowledgment of the
receipt ol tli ••nicalion. Supposing it not to he
out of our di but little exertion was
used to obtn • ...... UIM| t|int we
arc of the opinion, wjJO
havenot signed,are in la*^ r
which is respectfully submitted.
YVF.Sf.Ki _
BELFIKLD CA v ,.
JAMES T. HILL.
, K>H TUT. TJS'Q UtRKR.
SENATOR SLAUGHTER.
In several number* of your paper, Messrs. Editors
you seemed to class our Senator, Daniel F. Slaughter’
with the Opposition, ns to the question between Leigh
and Rives. Supposing that you bad paid sufficient atten
lion to the last Spring elections, to know that Mr. Slaugh
tor’s district is largely in favor of Mr. Rives, and that no
man could possibly be elected in this district, whether
Congressional or Senatorial, who could vote for the re
election of 11. YV. laugh to the U. States Senate, the
conclusion almost forces itself upon my mind, that
something must Ik- known in Richmond of Air. Slaughter,
in reference to his political course, which is surely not
known in his district. Can it be that Mr. Slaughter intend#
voting for Mr. Leigh,, in direct opposition to the known
wishes of n large majority of bis constituents,expressed
both nl t he polls last Spring, and subsequently by written
instruction a ? (’uii it hr. that Air. S);iu^)ifcr hrlirvi h in
the modern Whig (alias Wig) doclrine. that the people
have no right to instruct the representative ? Can it be,
that Mr. Slaughter wishes to set up his dictum in oppo
sition to th it nl the people? Thcao things may he so;
but from the many gratuitous declaration* made by Mr.
Slaughter, before leaving home, for Richmond, I should
hope,—but I should have said. 1 judge otherwise.
Rut. perhaps, Mr. Slaughter may say, he does not
come from an Administration district; that the last Bp ring
ejections do not shew such to hr- the opinion of the people.
Now, upon ibis point, we will join issue, nnd the tiicts
set forth below. I think, are smlicient to convince any
unprejudiced mind, that wV are for the Administration
in this district, l»y a majority far beyond any thing
which could lx* brought about by local i/aeslions. personal
popularity, or ignorant and foolish men -nil which is in
turn used by the Opposition here, as an argument why
this in not an Administration District.
c-rst, then, we will take the county of Rappahannock.
In that e.onnty (he Opposition obtained a lean majority
of <t:t. In Culjx'pcr. the Opposition, by running a man
who claimed both sides of the question, thereby gained
a ma jority of III; the joint majorities for the Opposition
thus fur, are 51). In the county of Orange, the majority
for the Administration is JX) In Madison, the majority
the name way, is at a fair calculation f»Ot>, making the
joint Administration majority to be 590, from which take
the ()|>po«ition majority of .'*9, leaves a clear majority for
the Administration in this district of *>M. This majori
ty is against Mr. laugh, nnd against Mr. Anyhodyelsc
who vot-s for him, as IJ. H. Senator.
The candid of the Opposition here admit the inajo
j rity to be against Mr. laugh, and for the Administra
tion. Our Senator must see it i* so; but perhaps he
I remembers the idea of the Poet, when he said,
nnn convinced n^uintt hii will,
N of fho unip Ojti no t i||.**
I As to this District, the Opposition here contend that
the polls last Spring must not be the guide, in the l-e
gislnture, however, they seem to be contending that the
noils la*t Spring should lie the only guide, and not the
Instructions which the People have had the nudaeitv and
boldness to sign f Now, which of these will Mr. Slaugh
ter take ? Will he hire the polls, last Spring ? .1 greed <
Then they speak to him in language not to he mistake'll.
Vote for Mr Hires! Will lie huvfc the recent Instructions-1
Jlgrccd' Then they tell him, ns plain as black and white
can make it, I oit fir Mr. lures! But, perhaps he will
take neither—and likes the doctrine of 14 alter natives,”
“future contingencies,’' “new dcvolo|K*incnts from the
people, Ac., Ac., Ac. Well, he cuu tuk<> the latter,
ami reject the former. In doing which, he will misrepre
sent a large majority of his Constituents.
1IOKTEKSIUS.
H‘r Mecklenburg mid llalifur District.
TO THE EDI / OHS OF TUT. LVQl/.RERi
k »>u ure authorized ami requested to aim mnee, in
vour pu|ier, that in the event of Mr. Luuan’s refusal to
become a candidate to represent tins District, in place
ol Dr. Atkinson, resigned, l’nr ton II. Birvui.l,
Esq. ol Mecklenburg, will bo brought forward for that
office. MANY VOTEltS.
H i ’ are authorized to uniioiince llriRi L. Hopkins
ns a candidate to represent the County of Powhatan, in
the next Legislature of Virginia.
ID’ We ore requested to st.iuTThat Maj. CiiARi.r.s
\ anc tv, will not be a candidate for the ensuing Legis
lature, at the Spring elections.
VO THE EDITORS OF THE fUYiiUIRI.lt.
Kn iimo.mi, January Hth. lS3f>.
In your paper of yesterday, 1 perceive that the “Eye
nnd har-Witness’’ is not yet satisfied with the explana
tion 1 gave him in reply to his first piece, as to the pro
priety of the course taken by the Committee, in rela
tion to the instructions gotten up in Cumberland. As 1
was unfortunate in that effort to explain, 1 will relate a
dialogue between a worthy nnd respectable neighbor of
iniiie. a personal friend, though opposed in political opi
nion, ami as much dissatisfied with the course of the
Committee ns the “Eye nnd Kir-Witness." lie asked
me why 1 did not, ns Chairman, desire the friends of Mr.
Leigh’s election, logo to one side, and the opponents to
tin- other, count both sides,and see which had the majo
rity? I replied by asking. “ Suppose 1 hail done so, and
bad obtained a majority of those present, do yon believe
that the Delegate would have obeyed the will of this ma
jority?” Alter some deliberation he replied, he did not
think he would. I then asked, if he thought he ought?
After auother pause, In- replied, that he did not Utinlt he
ought. “Then, said I. what end would it have an
swered, since you admit that it would have had no
binding effect noon those that were not present?”_
‘‘Well, then, said lie, why did you not get up instruc
tions on both sides, and see which could obtain the
greatest number of signers?” 1 replied, that was
what we ardently desired, but your party chose rather to
claim wh.it we did not obtain, whether in or out of the
county, with them or against them, or neutral. 1 then
asked, whether lie could point out any way so proper,
and ho certain of giving every voter an opportunity of
expressing his will; as to sign a letter to that effect r He
said he supposed not.
Perhaps this simple dialogue may satisfy the “Eye and
Ear-Witness.” ns it did his political friend. But’he en
quires, whether the people of Cumberland are “willing
to stand sponsors for all the statements and opinions con
tained in the address," and to “ immolate on the altar of
party, the most distinguished son of Virginia ?” Does
Ac forget that another “ distinguished son of Virginia"
was “immolated on the altar of party,” to make \vay for
Mr. Leigh?—In speaking of the Bank of the U. States,
’fbe "Eye and Ear-Witness” says : “The time is not far
distant, (mark it!) when you will lament its loss as the
\ only medium through ichich you Can obtain a sound and
uniform currency, mill a fiscal agent rifutil to ull the occa
sions and all the wants of the country." This will be re
ceived as a precious confession by the people of Cum
berland, who have supposed him altogether opposed
to the Bank of the United States.—He says, further,
“Let none persuade you, under pretence of killing that
which is already dead, to give your Lest friend a sPub un
der the Jifth rib.” Does he not know, that the stock
holders of this institution at a recent meeting, approved
all the measures of its President mid Uiroclors, and in
structed them to renew their application fora renewal of
their charter? Thus keeping alive their hope of a new char
ter, which they will In* sure to obtain, if they can succeed
in their choice of a President for the next term of four
years. This is the object of all the efforts that are now
making by the Opposition; and will succeed, unless the
people be on the alert.
The “Eye and Ear-Witness” has quoted ina note, the
language of one of the resolutions ottered by me, fas a
substitute to his in February h«t,)ending with these words:
“ We incline t > the opinion, that our experience of the
evils of the present Bank might enable us to organize
another, so as to make its advantages outweigh its disad
vantages.” He ought to have quoted the resolution pre
ceding it, the words of which, I have not before me;
but tlie substance is, “ the present Bank of the United
States is fraught with imminent danger to the liberties of
the people.” IJe says, that about the election in April,
(4til Monday.) the Chairman came out publicly, with
a lull recantation. This is not denied, and it is only
astonishing to mo, that all the people, who have no pride
o! opinion; 110 expectation of political ad vanceinent. either
in the way of honor r.r emolument, did not see in the
conduct of the Bank—fin which it has burst ull the fetters
Unit were intended to be fastened upon it by its charter ;
j disregarded all its restrictions, whenever "they stood in
i the way ofits pecuniary agrandizement, or ambitious de.
signs; bid dctiunce to the Government, and driven from
I its doors with hu uglily am Inapt, a cow witter, who went
under the authority of the House of Representatives, with
the charter in their hands, to ash the privilege, which teas
•ecured to them in the grant, of inspecting their boohs, and
examining into their proceedings—for tliis disclosure of
their power, l yield them my most hcaity and sincere
thanks,) [See more at large in the address from which
this is taken,]—I say, it is only ItSrCl’.ishing that they did
not see in all this, that paper restrictioiis
useless. For my own part. I think I can truly say, ihaTwilrr
this exception,although 1 never concealed any political
opinion from the people of my much-loved native county,
1 never had cause to change any opinion upon an im
portant political question, since the adoption of the
Constitution in the Virginia Convention, whose debates
i listened to with the most profound attention.
In the support i yield to the administration of Andrew
Jackson, I am sure the “Eye and Ear-Witness” will do
me tin* justice to say, that there is no change. If my re
collection does not deceive me, he ami I, side by side,
sustained his claims to the Presidential chair, ugainst
John Quincy Adams. I thought the first an honest poli
tician then, and 1 think so now. The last, 1 thought was
not. I believe the “ Eye and Ear-Witness” agreed with
me thin in these opinions. If he now thinks otherwise, I
suppose he will admit that he too has changed. Perhaps
he thinks there is more danger to bo apprehended from a
President elected by the people, who cannot draw even
bis own .salary, without passing through tho ordeal of
three officers of liir Government, while I think tho
greater danger is ill a President of the Bank of the U.
Elates, beyond the reach ol tho People, who bus at bis
disposal, millions upon millions of dollars, to be loaned to
whomsoever lie may think proper, upon whatever securi
ty ho may admit—with the privilege of subsidizing n»
many presses as lie may think right. The people
ot Cumberland will judge whether my opinion or bis is
changed upon the best ground. At any rate, be must
admit the change has placed him along side of John Q
* 'Gms, as bis political coadjutor, while I am still where
"••orting Andrew Jackson's Administration.
Witness” says, names, “as Mr. Leigh
•<« I,.,. .....I I.. It.
P'|‘p* and ail the other
white* waMn..b rreelv applied
to his own parly ; . or
popular epithet he can tluu..
ncnlt. Now, I would like to kno*. u„,
the name of Republican was in .such bad ou,.
him, ns to he denominated n white-washing name? a..
lm. w it hap|tened that he exchanged it for the name of
Whig ? I must lx* allowed t > ask him, too, what has be
come of all the Federalists, whether of the old school,
or ol Farmer * Haul, munorij(The people of Cnmlier
luid will understand this ) Have they not had a gene- I
ral christen.jig, and nil been baptized Hhiga, while the
old Republicans are just where lie left them ? Tliey are
not ashamed of their name ; they will wear it till death.
1 shall subjoin to this, a prediction of Mr. Jefferson)
which will serve ns a mirror to him and his new associ
ates. It they will look into it attentively, I think they
wiil m e their portraits, and acknowledge it wu» the spi
rit of prophecy.
With regard to the letter spoken of in my last, axhav
ing been read by lino to the people, I Miami corrected by
hia note, in which he say* it was a speech of James
(-twkic, and not a letter, i, living at n distance from the
t'ourt-housc, did not arrive till he li.nl commenced his
uddress to the people, ami was reading this speech, which
I supposed to he a letter. "The Kyo and Far-Witness ’
quotes from my reply to his first piece, ns follows, viz:
“ 1 l«« Chairman was pleased to say, that if the 4 Eye
ami Far Witness* would bent December Court, he would
see and hear something not to hi* taste. This was un
derstood by the latter ns intimating a purpose to at
tack him from the Hustings." I.el me assure him,
that 1 never leave my pl-mi'li, to address the peo
ple, but with reluctance. Nothing but a sense of duly
t° the people of Cumberland, with whom 1 wish to con
fer upon important public measures, would induce me
to employ my very leeble powers in that way. and par- j
ticulnrly to measure swords upon the political stage,
with such a gladiator n* he is. My meaning was, the
report ol the committee, which, as he says, 14 late itt the
evening, was announced at the front door of the Court
House Tavern.” That report in before the People, and
j also before tln-ir Deb gite. This work is done, and ( am j
going home to engage in a sort of labor much better i
suited to tny capacity and iny habits, and will leave the !
field to bim, to eoligliten the people, either by speaking
or writing, unmolested by THF CHAIRMAN.
F. if ran of a l,rf'trfrmn Timm,, JrrrtRtov, In (Irotox fiftAsars,
ihitfU M:*tierllo, Sfj.ril )I./A, I*’«H.—J« tlcr.o.i’, t'Mrsrt/Orulflnr s
Vol. 4, pngs l«, ' ’
' l»..,s Mis:—Is our l-,«l movor-Alioo yon mmilioued g fnloal
(t liciao silo-.l, of forming a imhtior b Isrcen lbs Fo lorali a, nn.l
H ■pubiionn*, of *bat they ssll.nl iho »«-von Kn,lr>rn Minis*. Tbs
l Is* Was us\% In mo, nn.l gi'|„ Inns Tor rrllrctiuu I liA.I no opportunity
ofsonrsNiay with youns* in. Tlir i'V.Irrnli.t, knew, nomine,
tl.sy nrv gnus for vrr. I b' ir i.'.j. . I, tbsrsfo *, i*, bow to r.-turii in
to pow> r m»l >r *ame oth*r form, |Tn taohnxlty they ham but o,w
mnn:i«, win h Is fa itinrln ||i> tlrpoldirnii-., join |bn MiMiitjf, nnrl
hailor with thorn bit tbs rliuk of iloii imbis. t *ny,/in thr mi*,
eiln- li fini, Iho majority of iho Kcpn'ifican* not nss.lirf* llisot,
will not,hoy then,. the- iiitmutiy, h»i in* noothnr menn* of rot,nr
th ’ majority, will *ivr> n prw« for nuvlisrios, an I Ihm pri.-w nnnl
is* prim ipls, it i, Who Ilia! lb, r,tbmli,l,, nmtiiijf Ihsi, luimbir*
sUo, imi,l nl*o give • pries, amtjprrasipbi is Ills coin llwy maul pay
ln. Thu, n hanl«nl *y,le.n of f*.ulster Ropuhln'tt-iiyin Will riss on
• hr ruin* of ilu> ini, prior ip) :* of our Rsvclminn. Ami s hoo llii*
|'«rtv i* foniM-.l, who will <*on«titiito llu* malorlty of it, which mo
juiuy i. then to dictate? Ortaiuly ilia K«d*rali»t». Thu. their
proposition of puttuy tliemj.lv*. into gear with tho Republican
nuunriti. {.exactly like Huger biiorinan'. ptopovilion to add Con
nc* IK lit to ib.o Je Island. *J lie idea of forming ntv.ii lla.lern btatc.
i. moreover iluarljr to form tho bu«i. of a «e|ioration of tho Ln
ion. 1. it pos.ible that real Republican, can Ik* gulled by nucb a
bait. And for what? What do tliev wish, that they have not?
federal mca.nre.f That it impossible. Hepublican measure*?
Have they tlieiu not? Cun any on. deny, Ihut in ull ini|*oitaut
ipiustiuiij of priiiciple, Hvputilicaiiiam pievailn? Hut do they want
tint their imin idunl will .ball govern Hie majority ? They may pur
cli. ue tilv giutittcatiuii of lliia unjust wish, for u little time, ut a great
Price ; hut tin* federuli-t. nm-t not have tha puj.ionj of oilier men,
il, alter glli'g Ihu. into the sunt of power, they tulier tliemo Ivc*
In h ■ guierued liv tlieir minority. Thi« miiionty mai sav, ihut
whenever they relapse lulu theirowaiprinciple.,they wiil i*uit them
atnldiaw the . at l.uui under them. They may i|u!t them, indied,
but, in the menu lime, all tin* venal will Imve become associated
with them, mi 1 will give them u majority suHicicnt to keep them in
pl-iee, ami to enable lliein t«r »*ject the hcleiugeuaout liicnJ. by
wliou* aid tin v gel agnin into i-ower.
IIif the Fdtturs—Walt tha* deference for both “I’ll*
F.yc uud K;ir Witness," und the worthy Chairman of the
Cumberland Committer, we tliink lluit sutlicieiit space
has been devoted in our paper to their Controversy.—
Every tiling must have an end—and wc must therefore,
decline any further publication fiom either party, on this
subject—or for the strictures on the Address which have
lieeu prouiiacd by one of them.— Cumberland has had
her fair proportion in our paper. Other articles, (em
hracing very lonjj and important Documents, such ns the
Report on'the French Treaty, the Report on the Rank
of the United States, *Vc. vVc..) are pressing upon our
columns.
, Virginia l.«'gi«lnfurc.
HOUSE OF DELEGATES.
Thursday, Jan. 8.
A message was received Trout the Senate, stating that
they had passed the bill to amend the art of incorpora
tion of the Wellsburg and Washington Turnpike Com
pany with uu amendment, wliieh was agreed to by the
I louse.
Petitions were presented uud referred—by Mr. Galla
lier, of citizens ot the North Eastern part of the Coun
ty of Frederick, for a new County, by Mr. Cline, of ci
tizens of Rockingham, for a new regiment of Militia;
by Mr. Watkins, ot citizens of Goochland, for iinicnd
mciits to the general road laws, and to the laws relating
to enclosures, and by Mr. Wetncred, of Lucy D. Row
an. fur a divorce.
Mr. Johnson of Richmond, called up tho bill to au
thorize the Common Hall of Richmond to make an ad
ditional subscription to the slock of the James River and
Kanawha Company; and again addressed tin* House in
support of the same, till after .'{o’clock, P. M.
'N hen lie had concluded, on motion of Mr. Wilson; of
Rotelourt, the House ttdjourned.
Friday, January 9.
A message was received from the Senate, stating that
they had agreed to the Resolution for proceeding on the
sixteenth inst., to tiie election of a member of the Execu
tive Council to supply the vacancy occasioned by the
expiration of the term of service of Peter V. Daniel, Esq.
On motion of Mr. Carroll,
Ihsolvrd Inj the Gem nil Assembly, That the Board of
Public Works be, and they arc hereby, authorized and
required to appoint a competent engineer to survey and
locate, without delay, the most practicable and best route
tor a turnpike road from some point on the Maryland
line, near Southfield, Pa., by way of Brandonville, King
wopd, thence to intersect the North-western Turnpike
Road, ut or west of Evansville in tho direction of Clarks
burg.
Ordered to the Senate for concurrence.
n.. _ n t_ *
Resulted, That the- Committee of Roads and Internal
Navigation, hr instructed to enquire into the expediency
of authorizing the Winchester and Potomac Rail Road
Company to increase their capital stock, or to borrow
such further sums of money, not exceeding thou
sand dollars, as may be necessary for carrying their said
road into complete operation, and that said Committee
have leave to report by bill or otherwise.
tin motion of Mr. Alexander,
Resulted, That the Committee for Courts of Justice,
be instructed to inquire into the expediency of amend
ing the law in relation to executions issued by Justices of
the Peace, so as to give power to Magistrates to renew
executions alter the officers have returned nothing found;
and that tho officer making sncli return, shall return the
execution to the PiaintiiTor Justice who issued the same,
and not to the Clerk, as is now directed by law; and that
lhey> report by bill or otherwise.
Petitions were presented and referred—by Mr. Dupuy,
of citizens ol Prince Edward, for a company further to
improve the navigation of the upper Appomattox River;
by Mr. Mayse, ot citizens of Bath, Rockbridge and Au
gusta, for a company to complete the free turnpike in
said counties; by .Mr. Watkins, of Joint Brockenbrougb
and Thomas M. Randolph, for an act of incorporation
to enable tham to carry on the Manufactory of Iron; by
Mr. Moncure, of citizens of Stafford and Spottaylvania,
for amendments to the laws relating to enclosures; by
Mr. Gregory, of David I. Anderson and others, to be
authorized to erect a wharf on James River; of Samuel
J. Winston, for compensation for summoning witnesses
to the Legislature.
The following engrossed bills wore read a third time
and passed :—To amend un act incorporating the town of
Parkersburg, and concerning the Trustees of the town
ol Union, in Monroe—Incorporating the Rosson Mining
Company Incorporating tho Louisa Alining Company
—,L" incorporate the Midlothian Conl-mining Company
—To incorporate the Cold-Brook Company oT Colliers.
JAMKS RlVI.il \NO KANAWHA IMPROVEMENT.
On motion ol Air. Wilson of Bot., the bill authorizing
the Common Ilall of the City of Richmond to make fur
ther subscription to the stock of the James River and
Kanawha Company, was taken up.
Vr. Gregory moved that the bill be re-connnilted to the
I Committee who brought it in, with instructions to report
rj 4ij 11 providing that the State shall subscribe for the re
mainingwtoHt of Company.
This motion at some length by
Mr. Johnson of Richmond, Mr H?lS+»in also staled his
objections to it. expressing his desire that the biTr$rtttP[d
be recommitted without instructions, and moved thattH?*— 1 -
question be divided, so as to lake a vole on re-committing
first; which was agreed to. 5
After considerable debate in which Messrs. Gregory
Colston, Wilson of li , Johnson of It., and Cabell took
j l>a)L the motion to re-commit generally was rejected.
| The question then recurred on Mr. Gregory 's motion
j to re-commit with instructions, and having been amend
j ed, on motion of Air. Wilson of B., so as to add to the
instructions, by requiring that the Stale should be placed
on the tooling of other stockholders in its vote upon stock
iiolil,— Un* motion wan rcj<?cU*(l.
Mr. Colston moved to amend the bill, by adding tho
billowing proviso:
Provided, that it shall not be lawful for the Divectors
to apply the profits ot the said Company to any other pur
pose; but that they shall semi-annually divide the same
unless otherwise provided by law.
This motion was opposed by Messrs. Witcher, and
Johnson of It., and supported by Mr. Colston, and was
rejected.
On motion of Air. Marshall, the bill was amended, by
striking out the word ‘ tenth” ami inserting the word
“fourteenth"— so as to allow stockholders tue right to
withdraw their subscriptions at any time prior To the
I 1th insf.
On motion of Air. Johnson of R., the hill was further
amended, so as to limit the vote of the Corporation of
I Richmond to one vote on every ten shares of its stock in
| all elections of Directors.
| The question on engrossing the hill being then before
li V.,'**' "v' * !,n<*,,oc" were ordered on motion of
Mr. Colston, who withdrew his cull at the suggestion of
'anney, when
was ordered to he engrossed for a third read
* “'boorned.
TO T
OkNTI.KN t.o . . ;
(of UotPtourtj ns reported in your pop,.. ..
in only lo remarks made by myself, be uses the follow
ing language, *• l fee) it iny duty to notice this part of
llie gentleman's speech, os bis object is no doubt to ex
cite the local prejudices of Eastern Virginia in favor of
Mr. Leigh, nnd against Mr. Hives and the llertern people.
The propriety of n step of this kind, by a Senator from
a Western District, I will leave to the gentleman and hi*
constituents to settle."
Now, if Mr. Anderson nsed any sueh language in the
Senate, 1 did not hear it. If lie used any expression
which, in the most remote manner conveyed the idea
Hint it was iny intention to excite the people of the East
against the people <>f tin- West and my own constituents,
it escaped me. I do not say that Mr. Anderson did not
use such language, hut I do say that I heard none such.
Such a charge or imputation would have received from
<ne a prompt and decisive denial. For, so far as J can re
collect, no observation unde by me on that or any other
ocoosion, justified such language. Of one thing I am
perfectly certain, that I had no intention whatever lo
array one portion of the State against the other. Such
an attempt would have been at war with every feeling
hitherto, or now enU rt lined by me. My object was, a*
I then slated, to prevent Mr. Hives, if possible, front be
inv supported in the West for opinions which the East
did not believe he entertained—and to ascertain his opi
nions from his friends, to prevent what 1 believed was
then doing that is, ri presenting him in the \Vrst ns
maintaining the principles of the white basis, nnd in the
East what ij commonly called the mixed basis.—Jle good
enough to publish this letter in your paper.
_Hespj-eitully yoiir«, DAVID Mcf'OMAH.
MARRIAGES*
Married, by thr !t<-r. Nieholm. II. Cotdir, i>| Rdfoldll, Alhrmstte
comity, OH Munisy, the XU alt., John C. ft. Tst lor of this <-0>inty,
to l’*t«y JeflV r- a i, dnughtcr of Tt or. J. Itinlolpli, Ksrj.
DEAT1IH
Pojisrtcd tlii. I fn, nt thr r. ••dnace of her hiobsm), on Tuesday lbs
iKitli day of It •cemher, IKrt, Mr*. Tahilhs T. Itlunl, lbe mifr i,f
Thom|iu-n Klunt, *enr., of Powhatan emintjr—-1 stinga di«eoo«olsls
liiultBii.i sod n nuoieroii* circle of fiii ndt lo hrmonii their t«*». Phe
tool l«et»s number of ilir itnj.tiM ( bun h lor many years. The wil
ier of lb,« bii.-f Holier h ut been writ n i|iminled with Riant,
suit if a life of great piety snd bmefotone r*n in-itfo tso u wsol
priHSti-ii In thr fio<pr I to the faithful, her friend* kayo no cams
I'nr f*sr.
[f'iswrniriilrrf].-Pii'ii st Ihr R. II Tstrot, tnty, on Wolnr«<
day, the7iH in*!., Mr. tlr Mnea), of('|>yd|enntt, nfj C. Ii will
dowbtle** In- a gistilii-ation to hi* fnrrvU te hit a*aired, that .Mr. MrM.,
during so il!nii»ol nhoiil two week* of ito- meaah'a, bnd Ihr- Iwat mo
• licit aid. and the nm-t kind and sore mutinyAttention p*t I him by ths
ho pits'll • and ge nr roar keep. »« of the home.
(J r' An alteration in the Vrict Itirffnl thee I art wre/t-,

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