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TUESDAY. FEBRUARY 13, 15.2.
^^^ir^iMViUowlng article The reasons ?n t ^ of tho from the I5ns,f,-<'^ section concerning the K*ntc Constitution the seen o Sfof tn.or.-t upon ">??<* ?re ?,ch aV f Z doubt influruoo many arsons.o voU, in m, affirmative. Let m cxrnnme them. Kriw-ClXO THK KaTK OF ISTKKEST.? At tHO ^Mioi. the rem* will l? vole upon the question whethci th of in'crest shall be lowered to six per eu ? '.I Si SI. Many fumble iisimI to sustain the assertion that *Joim. r^what it will f ^ ? proper!v. The basis of all-"J.""* ? eumect seems little under^*) . 'othei meat can only apply that money is theeqiwofl flowed vast cannot *>e assumed. >J1 ' , v< nliJ privileges w1!11*"? l| conferred "poa while sjiecial VI h-itAmito suhjeet for money ^Vrih.t M.'nev U a legal tender, projvr i.*inum. - . (wo U1CU <>i PrniHTty is im ? owning proi>crty equal weal h> ' jusivclv money, and place only, the otlit r ex . equally pro in Tennes U monevis all ]>owertul, and property t.ie ^ ) xi to sonic extent or impotence. Monev ?y,nbnI toHomecxie command and ?:Vire hr<-Shmiforvcrv little. Property Xot command more monoj? ttaii i ?; vorth The man who has monev lias pow , doubted that the movement will carrj Monev is allowed no privileges not allowed to all other kinds of property. It a man pro-1 miaou to pay money, the law makes mm pay money. If ho promises to pay wheat, the "w makes him p.y wheat. If he borrows I 1U0 bushels of wheat one year and promises to return 112 the next year, the law-compels him to comply with his contract. If ho givu a title bond promising to make a deed to land next year, the law require* specific perform ance- he must deliver the land itself?not iH value in money. Ho that the argument drawn from the fact that paper money is in common parlance a legal tender is founded in misapprehension. " Money," says the Aetrs .. is a legal tender." Ho it is; but we do no. suppose the Xews meant to say this, since the assertion is simply equivalent to saving that "money is money.' The A etc? was thinking of the fact that greenback* and bank notes are a legal tender. But these arc a 44 h -al tender" only who* the contract is to pay" money." If the contract is to pay any other article, the contract must be fulfilled. The Xctos says "it is idle to propose ?'that so powerfully armed a man as he who - has monev shall he turned loose among the 44 tender values of property wholly unpro 44 teeled." If tills language has any meaning it means that a man who has money must not be allowed to purchase property unless at prices to be llxed by law, or approved bv some officer. Those who advocate usury !aw> ought to advocate just such lavvsaslhu would be- but we have never before known any one to ho consistent, enough to propose such a law. People will see whither such reasoning leads them. Logically it leads to the conclu sion that the law must interpose to prevent all sorts of unprovable contracts between man and man. There is one more point in the article lroin the AYu*. it w that " whilst we have ad "vauced the price of moucy we have wit 4- nesseel a terrible decline in the price of real 44 estate." Such is not the truth as totlu> city. There has been more inonev lent out here at twelve per cent, interest than in all the rest of the State, perhaps, yet here real estate has advanced in price under the opera tion of the constitutional provision on tin subject of interest. That provision does not produce one otlVct in Richmond and another in Bristol. Like causes produce like effects. There must, therefore, bo some other cause for the terrible decline in the price of real estate in Bristol. "We think it. is pretty evident that not one of tiie reasons given in the above article why the interest laws should he changed is a fact. It is not true that money is in any sense more truly a 44 legal tender " than wheat or Hour, or any other article. It is a 44 legal tender " where the promise is to pay money. Ho wheat is a 44 legal tender " where tho promise is to pay wheat. It is not true that" real estate " lias declined in vulue in consequence of the present interest laws. Yet these are fair specimens of the best reasons that can be given for striking out of the Constitution the provision in reference to the rate of in terest. Radical Rascality.?Read the following: " The House disposed to-day of the most remarkable election contest that has arisen within the memory of the oldest member. By a unanimous vote it was decided that John Edwards had no right to the seat as tin? representative of the third district of Arkan sas, which he has held for nearly one-half of the entire term for which he was not elected, and his opponent was. Mr. Boles, the con testant, had over 2,000 majority, according to the evidence of the State officers who can vassed the vote. He has been robbed of one half of his term of service in Congress by the gross outrage of Governor Clayton, who falsely certified that Edwards whs elected in the face of the official count. Tho House was of one mind as to the injustice Mr. Boles had suffered, and not the least extra ordinary feature of tho case was that Ed wards, at the elose of a half-hour's argument in his own behalf, failed to convince a single member, Republican or Democratic, tint he had any claim to the seat he occupied."? Washntgtun telegram to the New York Tri bune. This villain Clayton now misrepresents Arkansas in the Uuited States Senate. If that body had half the pride and honor and honesty that it ought to have in its composi tion Clayton would In? exi>elled before Sat urday night. The House of Representatives had unseated Democrats and seated Radicals so often in the lace of the facts and of justice that Clayton and Edwakds doubtless thought they were safe iu initiating a fraud of the jnost. offensive character ; but it turned out to be one too glaring to be overlooked. We ore only surprised that the House did not exclude Boles and give the seat to the Radical. Gkeeley Denounces Abbott.?The Tribune of Saturday last says: "We know right well that Vance was elected senator and that Abbott was not. As lor any ' legal aspects' tbut are alleged as re versing this choice, they are to our mind simply detestable. The Senate has commit ted a blunder that has the effect of a crime in forcing Governor Vance to resign the seat. It may proceed if it will to duplicate that er ror by scaling Abbott, but fifty Senates could not make this other than the outrage which ail who do not profit by it must know it to be." The article in the Dispatch of yesterday referring to the Lebanon Branch railroad fbouUi hare been credited to the Louisville mond, that the meetings spoken of wehs held. Mr. Norwood.?Mr. Norwood isi making himself a namoIn the Unitad States Senate; amnesty bill with distinguished ability. Tire County Courts.?We invite attention to the able communication in another Column ou the subject of the county and circuit courts. It will he peculiarly interesting to the members of I lie General Assembly. General Assembly of ^ ihdnia. WXTV-MMH DAY. Monday, February 12, 1872. SENATE. .Mr. Thomas, President pro lem.f in the chair. No prayer. A number of House hills were twice raid and referred to appropriate committees. BILLS REPORTED. Senate bill providing for the payment of interest on certain cou)K)n bonds of Virginia held by Union Theological Seminary. Senate Till providing compensation for services to be rendered by the clerk of the Circuit Court of the city of Petersburg (re commended not pass). RESOLUTIONS OF EXPEDIENCY ADVERSELY RE PORTED UPON. As to amending the law in relation l<> granting licenses to retail spirituous lbpiors. As to levying a tax on dogs (thecase being already provided for by bill). In relation to reiisscssnient of lands (for same reason). LEAVE OF AJSSEXCS was granted to Mr. Kikkpatrjck for one day. HOUR OF MEET ISO. In view of the advanced state of the busi ness of the .Senate, on motion of Mr. Nowlin, tlie hour ot meeting, until further ordered, was fixed at 12 o'clock. EK EDERICKSTBURG, OKAXGB AND CHAKLOTTES VI I. EE IIAIl.RO All COM FAN Y. The Senate bill to extend the charter of the Fredericksburg, Orange and Charlottes ville Railroad Company, and to authorize said eompany to borrow money and ereate a mortgage upon its property and franchises, after being read a third time was, on motion of Mr. Fit/Patrick. laid on the table. THE PUBLIC PERT?ANOTHER ELAN. The following bill to provide for the ad justment of the public debt, and to pay the interest on the same, was offered by Mr. Penn as a substitute for Senate bill 112 [majority rejiortJ, and was ordered to be printed : "Whereas by section 2 of an act to pro vide for the fundiiigaiid payment of the pub 1 i?* debt,approved March 2", 1871, it was pro vided, among oilier things,"that 'the owners of certain bonds, stocks, and interest cer tificates heretofore issued by t his .State may fund two-thirds of the amount of the same, together willi two-thirds of the interest due or to become due-thereon to the 1st day of ?July, is;j, in six per centum coupon or re gistered bonds of this State; and whereas one-third of the amount of the bonds which have been and which may lie funded under said act is interest due upon the original debt; and whereas, by the laws of tins State, com pound interest is not required or recognized: < Thercfon " Be it enacted by the General Awmhly of Virginia, That interest shall be paid .semi annually at the rate of four per cent, per annum upon all bonds issued or that may be issued under said act, except that upon bonds funded thereunder, bearing an interest of live per centum, sii.-b interest shall be at the rale of three and ouothird per centum per annum : and upon all bonds not funded under said act interest shall be paid at the rate of six per centum on two-thirds of the principal thereof. "2. For the unpaid interest due up to July 1st, 1871, on bonds so funded, which is estimated to be oiie-tliird of the face value of the several bonds, and for two-thirds of the interest due to the last above mentioned date on the bonds which may not lie funded under said act, lion-interest-bearing eorfilinilcs of indebtedness shall be issued by the Second Auditor, who shall keep a projier tvgistn thereof in his oilicc, and each cert ideate shaii lie numbered from one upwards, and also bear on its face the number of the bond for the interest on which it nixy be issued. " 2. li the revenue of the Male shall in any year exceed the amount necessary to defray the current expenses of the Government and the payment of the interest as herein pro vided on the public debt, the excess shaii be applied to the payment oft he said certilir.it es. on presentation at the ticasury, or the Trea surer shall purchase the same in open mar ket to the extent of the said excess of the revenue. And the said certificates shall thereupon be cancelled and tiled away in his oilicc. ''-I. On the application of the bonds fund ed under said act to the I'lvasuter of this State for the payment of the four per cent, interest as herein provided, the Treasurer shall cause to be stamped on said bonds in fair, legible ehrructers the following or equivalent words?to wit: ' This bond bears interest at the rate of four per cent, per an num, and a non-interest bearing certificate of indebtedness for one-third of the amount hereof has been issued and its payment pro vided for under an act of the General As sembly passed on the day of , 1872.' (The blank in the above sentence shall be tilled with the date of the passage of this act.) And on the presentation of the coupons issued under said act of March MO, 1871, at the ti casury for payment of two-thirds of the face value thereof shall be paid on the sur render of said coupons to the Treasurer, who siiail cause the same to lie cancelled and tiled away in his ofiiee. "3. No person or persons authorized to collect or receive any portion of the taxes, debts, or demands due or to become due to the State shall receive in payment thereofany coupon or coupons heretofore or hereafter issued under the provisions of the said act of March 150, 1871. "G. All acts and parts of acts, iu so far as the same may ho inconsistent with this act, are hereby repealed. 4<7. This act shall be in force from its pas sage." QUALIFICATION OF A NEW MEMBER. 31 r. Aluert 1\ I.athkop, senator elect from the thirtieth district, composed of the counties ol Charlotte and Mecklenburg, aj> peared at the clerk's desk and qualified by taking the oaths prescribed by law. DISPOSITION OF SCHOOL FUNDS. Oil motion of Mr. Fitzpatkick, the .Super intendent of Public Instruction was re quested to inform the Senate if any portion ul the school fund raised by county tax lias been appropriated to the paymout of salaries of county superintendents, which have been allowed tliwin iu addition to the salaries as fixed by the lMth section of the act providing tor public free schools; and if so, the naiiD's of such superintendents, and what amount and under what provision of law such an al j lowance was made. BILLS ON T1IE1R SECOND READING. The Senate was engaged for about an hour in the second reading of hills. THE STATE DEBT AGAIN. Mr. Greene ollcred the follow ing joint re solution, which was ordered to be printed, and lies over under the rules: "Whereas a joint committee of both Houses of this Geueral Assembly, represent ing all shades of opinion on the subject of the .Slate debt, has presented two reports, in bothot which Is recognized the ability and obligation of the State to pay at least''three I? r cent, per annum interest upon the debt; and whereas with more than sufficient money in the Treasury to pay the same, fortv-two days have elapsed since the January interest on the Ststtedebt became due; and" whereas iu this condition of affairs, when cbmmou honesty requires that this obligation should lie met, every day of delay is seriously damaging the public credit and every other interest in the State;?and whereas it is ad mitted bv all that one of the most important duties of the General Assembly is to pre ? ?""J p' ' serve the tredit of the State by providing for the prompt discharge of till its obligations ro the fullest extent of its ability : Therefore be it by thu (feiwral Assembly, That licreoy, wnwu; w ,? torn thnsto time, suttfect to the wtrr&nt of tbe Second Auditor so mtich of the public revenue iw the Sccoiui Aftditor may certify to be necessary to pay the interest duo January i 1,1872,.on . the public debtns funded itndcrJ tire act approved March 00, 1871, entitled an act to provide for the funding and payment of the public debt,and also two-thirds of one semi-annual payment of interest due on any, portion of the public debt not funded un der said act" T'KOI'OSKI) REMOVAL OF THE PEN"ITENT J AR V. Senate joint resolution to provide for the apimintTuent by the President of the,Senate of two persons, and by the Sjx-nker of t lie House of three jrersons, t>> form a eominis >ion to consider and report upon the removal of the penitentiary?the same to serve with out charge to the State Treasury?was taken up. Mr. Fitzi'atrick moved to lay the resolu tion upon tbe table. Mr. Wynne earnestly opposed tbe motion, and urged the immediate passage of tire rvso lution as a matter of courtesy, at least to the City Council of Richmond and the large body of petitioners asking for the adoption of some J measure. looking to tliu ultimate removal of this institution. Mr. Roller also favored the passage of the resolution. . r . On motion of Mr. Faylob, of Loudoun, the resolution was amended so as to require the commissioners to be members of the Gen eral Assembly. The resolution was then passed, and <*>m municatcd to the llomse of Delegates by Mr. Wynne. SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC BUILDINGS. Senate bill making the office of Superin tendent of Public Buildings elective by the General Assembly was rejected. OR PER OF THE PAY FOR TUESDAY. Senate bill to regulate the imposition, as sessment, and collection of taxes for the suj> port of public free schools by counties and school districts, and for this purpose to re peal the 2d clause of the 14th section, and t<> amend and reenact the Stir clause of tin; 24th section and t he 2d and yd clauses of the dith section, and the 50th and 64th sections of chapter 25!?of acts of 18G9-'70, was made the special order lor Tuesday. LAND SCRIP. The Senate bill appropriating the income arising from the laud scrip was made the order of the day for Thursday. FENCE LAW IN HALIFAX. Senate bill relating to the adoption of a fence law in the county of Halifax was re jected. EXECUTIVE EXPENDITURES. The report, of the Committee on Finance relative to Executive expenditures was taken up. It states by what authority the various altacht* of the Executive office an? emptevd. and that they consist of: Aid, at $2.fRV.Ki per annum; clerk (when the business re quires his services) at $1,000; messenger. ?730; and porter (who also acts for the Li brary), ?180. Total, ?.'!,410.75 for last year. In reference to the aid, the report siy-: "There being not sutiieient dutie> to require the whole services of said aid as a military officer, the Governor has assigned to him cle rical duties, in which he is generally em ployed. Whilst the services of said aid as a military officer are not important, and can be dispensed with without detriment to the public service, yet that they are absolutely necessary in the performance of the clerical duties belonging to the Executive Depart ment, and they submit to the General As sembly whether tliev will continue the office of aid-de-enmp to the Govern or as a paid offi cer and attach to the duties of said office that of private secretary to the Governor." BILLS AND PETITIONS PRESENTED AND REFERRED. By Mr. Taylor, of Loudoun: Bill to amend an act entitled an act to amend and n enact an act passed February 28, 1856, amending an act for working the roads of Loudoun county. By Mr. Cochran: Bill to provide audi-| tloual facilities for the education of the blind of the State. By Mr. Ward: Petition of a number of j citizens of Winchester, praying that the General Assembly will pass the bill now pending before, it authorizing the Court oi'| Appeals to hold a session at Winchester to hear causes of the twelfth judicial district. By Mr. Lackland: Bill to amend and re-| enact section 1 of the act passed February 7th, 18G(>, entitled ** au act to increase t In* price of treasury warrants for land in Vir ginia," and to repeal an act pusscd 4th Janu ary, J.S60, entitled ''an act prohibiting the further entry of waste and unappropriated lands, or any grant of such." By Mr. Penn : Bill to amend the charter of j the' Norfolk and Great Western Railway! Company. By Mr. Coxnali.y: Bill to amend the Code so as to authorize the sale instead ol the de stination of all captured gambling properly, and the proceeds to be devoted to the school fund in the county or city in which the seiz ure is made. RESOLUTIONS INTRODUCED AND ADOPTED. By Mr. Wynne: Removing injunction of secrecy from the boundary line documents procured by Mr. Dejarncttc, and to authorize the printing of sucli of them as the Library Committee*may deem proper, at a cost not to exceed ?500. By Mr. Penn: As to the expediency of s?> amending the general election Jaw as to pro vide for the counting of ballots every two hours while the election is in progress. COMMITTEE REPORTS AGREED TO. A large number of committee reports on matters of small importance were taken up and agreed to. Adjourned. HOUSE OF DELEGATES. House met at 12 o'clock. Speaker Hanger iu the chair. Prayer by Rev. Dr. Gnuibery, of Centenary Methodist church. liiLLS REPORTED AND PLACED ON THE CALENDAR. Senate bills: To amend the charier of the Potomac and Manassas Railroad Company; to incorporate the West Point Ferry Com pany; to amend the Code in relation to judgment liens; to amend the law in relation to the release of an insane wife's interest in realty. House bills: To incorporate the Nor folk and Sewell's Point Railroad Company: to incorporate the Piedmont Wine Company, of Nelson county; to amend the Code so as to dctinc the manner in which distress war nnts are levied and referred; to amend the Code in relation to decrees of sale and com missioners of sale (with a recommendation that it do not pass); to amend the act au thorizing the Orange, Alexandria and Ma nassas Railroad Company to consolidate and provide for the payment of its mortgage debt; to amend and reenact an act for the relief of tlie late sheriffs of the Common wealth (with a recommendation that Senate amendment lie agreed to); to provide for the organization of county school lxiards and prescribing the powers and duties of said boards, Ac., (with a recommendation that Senate amendments be agreed to). ri'BLlC DEBT. The special order (House bill to provide for the payment of the public debt) was lakcu up, the question being upon agreeing to tlie substitute of Mr. Ckitz. Mr. Critz explained the provisions ot his substitute, after which the pending question was called, and it was rejected. At the conclusion of his remarks Mr. 1)e xeale proposed to amend by providing that 3 per cent, shall be )>aid for the lirst seven teen years, and 6 per cent, for the remaining seventeen years. Mr. Head opposed the bill. Mr. O'Febkall again offered his substitute which lie withdrew on Friday last. He again explained and advocated its provisions. Mr. Queen sjioke in favor of the O'Ferrall substitute. Mr. Head moved to adjourn. Lost?ayes, 40; noes, 08. The question recurring upon the adop tion of the bill reported by the majority of the special joint committee, 3Jr. Poague moved to amend by a proviso that incor porated colleges and seminaries of learning holding State bonds shall not be affected by the provisions of this bill. The proviso was rejected?ayes, 49; noes, 57. Mr. CoaiiiLL moved to amend by striking out the 9th section and inserting a provision that the act of March 30,1S71, aud all other acts and parts of acts inconsistent with the bill shall bo repealed, Agreed to?ayes, 73j; noes, 34. length in sapfort oL-tlre bllL; ted AXO refer bed. tfll.r.f>,'?0., PREmTTED AND REFEBBED. By/Mr. Brooke: Petition of the Prince Trillium Mraind -remonstrance against the passage of the bill depriving the county ?cotfr^jutl^ of tlielr safeties and present jurisdiction. By Mr.Coonat: Petition of John C.Mun rl'iy anrlofcbcra tor the pnssageofnn act to de clare the .Tallies river within certain rtnlnties a lawful fence, - ~ ?**" By Mr. ItiDULEBAROER: Bill to provide for a redivfsioii of the county of Shenandoah into townships. . < ? By Mr. MTilllaus : Petition of citizens of Amherst in relation to removal of the court house. Bv Mr. Watts : Bill to facilitate the col lection of the revenue and provide for the pavmcnt of interest- on the debt- of the State through i he issue of revenue certificates. By AIr.Nowi.iN: .Resolution inquiring into the expediency of amending the Code so as to make sheriffs commissioners to execute deeds for sales of property. The Speaker then vacated the chair until hall-past 7 o'clock. yight Session. Tlsc Speaker resumed the chaii* at o'clock P. m. Mr: I'rnm.KBAKonn called the previous ques tion (upon the bill reported by the majority of the joint committee), but the House re fused to sustain the call. Mr. Btokholdek called the pending ques tion (upon Mr. Deneale's amendment), and it was ordered. A vote was then taken, and the amendment was rejected?ayes, 12 ; noes, 5f>. The' pending qnostion was then ordered upon the substitute of Mr. O'Ferball, aud it was defetited?ayes, ."1; noes, 04. Mr. KimiLF-BAKOER called the pending ques tion, but it was not sustained. Mr. O.opton proposed to ofl'cr a joint reso lution as a substitute for the pending bill, but it was ruled out of order. The pending question was then ordered upon the engrossment and third reading ot the bill proposed by the majority of the joint committee, and was decided ill the negative by the following vote: Yeas Messrs. Allen. Anderson, Bernard, Bookor, Bowiin, Brlr-IBW, Burklmlilnr. Butler, Jack Carter. Cogliill. Pniwile, Douglas, hlllott, tltzgcraltl.Gard ucr, Joseph (irahaui, Cray. Hill. Irvine. Janies, Kiuclii.'loc,bnssiiiT. Paul.I.klitiicr,MeMullan,.Mil ler Miuiscv, Noble, Nowlln, OierniU, 1 aige, P?vne. Perkins. Powell, Bainsdtll. Hiddleliarger. Uoirers, Holer. Scruggs. Smith. SjnhJow. Thomas, TiitboJi, Van Aukeu, Walker, Wharton, and W 11 '" vays'.?Messrs. Beaton. Borland. Benton. Brooke, J. T. Brown, Campbell, P. J. Carter. Christian, Cloiiluu. Cottrell. Cox, Cril/, Cuuiinings, Daniel, Donald. Ilunge v. Evans, Fletcher, freeman. Jamus s CMIinni. \V I Ilia tn Oilllain. Oilman, Graves, (IruJiain. Orlllith, Uamlltoii. P. h. Jones, KufusS. Jones I.ewis, A. B. I.ightner, Llpseombc, Mat ilu-v'f Matthew, Minor. N'enlo. Nleklns, Norton, Patterson. Pcaree. Poague. Bus-ell. Sangster.Smoot. <tovili Mrotlier. Soiithall. Sulhcrlin. SulUe,Talia tVrn . l cri'iii. Wall. Walke. Watts, Watson, Went- I worth. Voting, and Mr. Speaker? A resolution to reconsider was lost. Mr. O.opton then offered his joint resolu tion (under a suspension of the rules). It provides first for the payment, of the January interest on the funded debt and two-thirds of | t lie unfunded debt; second, the appointment of a commission, consisting of five members of the House aud three of the Senate, to be elected on joint ballot, who shall Iiave power to convene the creditors of the State and agree with them upon some just, equitable, and honorable mode of settlement of the pub lic debt, said mode of settlement to be re ported to the next session lor approval; third, repeals the coupon feature of the Fund ing act. The joint resolution was placed on the calendar. SENATE AMENDMENTS AGREED TO. Senate amendments to House bills to pro vide a -pecial court of appeals; to provide for the organization of county school boards, &c.: to amend the free school act, and for the relief of the late slierills of the Common wealth, were agreed to, and the bills passed. BILLS PASSED. Senate bills: To amend theaet for the pro tection of fish in (lie Shenandoah river, Ac.; to amend the charter of the Virginia and In ternational Land. Loan,and Trust Company; to incorporate the Petersburg Law Associa tion: to incorporate the Mechanics' Mutual Building Fund and Savings Bank of Staun ton. DOG TAX. Senate biil for the assessment of a tax on dogs came up in order. Mr. < "lotton moved to make it the special order for Monday next at 1 o'clock. Lost. Mr. JIill moved to pass it by. Messrs. BbookemuI Tjdball spoke in favor of the hill. Fending its consideration the llouse adjourned. For llif IHspatcli. 'B'Sie County Courts. Tin to scorn > b>bean intention on tho |ki 1*1 of sonv members of the Legislature to make a change in the county ancl circuit courts of the Mate. There i>:i proposition to strip tlie county court of iis jurisdiction, and to erect in it< place a court simply of probate ,und county police. in other words to do away with t ip' present county court, and to substi tute for it a surrogate court under the name of "thecounty court." We have heard and seen no evidence of the wish of the people for a change, certainly none for sueh change as is proposed. It ap pears to be a mere volunteer movement, never contemplated nor advised by the peo p!e. Let us give it some consideration. In th?* outset, it is more t han questional>lc whether sueh obliteration of the county court would not be a violation of the State Constitution. Thai instrument, by it> article 0, section 1, provides that there shall be county courts. The jurisdiction of which shall l?c reflated by law, except so far as the same is conferred l/v the Constitution. In section 12 it says that their jurisdiction shall be the same as that of the county courts then ccisling. except so far as modi tied by the Constitution or changed by law. It further proscribes that, the county courts shall be presided over by judges ''learned in the laws of the Slate." For purposes of construction the whole of these provisions of the Constitution must be taken together, and will be found entirely consistent. The fanners of the Constitution intended a routimxtance. of the courts then existing, with such modifications as Iliev therein named. They evidently contemplated a county court such as had existed in Virginia from time immemorial?such as by law and long usage had been determined, fixed, and defined. In fact, the Constitution actually coif rrcd on the county court which it pro vided for all the powers theretofore exer cised by that well-known court, thus ascer taining its character and jurisdiction beyond question. When it permitted changes by law it sim ply gave the Legislature the power needful to make such modification in or rather such extension in particulars as might from time to time become necessary lor the ellieiency of the court as thus established, and to adapt it to the changing interests which should come before it; simply to give such llexibility to it as would make all the powers which the Constitution conferred on it effective in the highest degree. The Convention never dreamed of its utter abolition, nor of such "changes by law" as would cause it to cease to he what usage and law, throughout the history of Virginia down to tho making of the Constitution, had taught us was tho " county court." They gave to the Legislature the power only to regulate an existing tribunal. This decs not confer the power to destroy. To strip the court of the jurisdiction con ferred on it is to destroy or abolish it. To erect another with totally different jurisdic tion, and to call it tiic "county court,'-' is not to preserve that county court, required, in tended, and established by the organic law. Jt is not even " Hamlet with the part of Hamlet left out." What kind of a court the Constitution in tends is further manifest by the requirement that its judges shall be " learned in the laws." ft demonstrates that there must be a county court of jurisdiction, such as to call for the services of a lawyer and to demand the ex ercise of a high order of legal attainment and ability. It shows that the judge must be far more t km a mere register of motions, of course, and that oilier and far more impor tant causes were to be submitted to hiin. The abolition of the county court, or any change tantamount to it, uxeeedd tho rightful power^nfJTl^^ Y^^VH^nTnT of the^game J?w in letter and spirit 1 But granfifog for the mohicnt that it fa competent .foir the Legislature to^nake the -:i-J J- '~IWt 96! Th ft d^aas;<;?f <m ?m*?? pedient? P&jit wise ? _i ? Eacb_ county now has two courts?tlje J^UCO_J-VUJUi?jr uwii ^ .-:_r TV- , - - " county and the circuit courts?presided over by judges of equal professional standing, having "concurrent jurisdiction, except that the county court find exclusive original juris diction in road and^other county, load mat-, ters, and in criminal causes save wlien one accused of a capital ollencc elects to be tt ted in the circuit court, and except that the cir cuit court has appellate jurisdiction. _ Were it settled that we need hut one of these courts the question would he, Which one could be best dispensed with ? Practically, the people have answered this question beyond all possibility of doubt. They have uttered no uncertain sonnd, but have shown which court they prefer as best adapted to their wants: the most convenient, efficient, and useful. For from the dab: when the last change in its bench went into effect the county court has been the 011c of largest and of nearly universal resort for all pur poses, while the business of the circuit courts has dwindled to the closing up of their old dockets and the hearing .of a fe w appeals. "With equal respect for the two courts and their judges, the county court lias met the wants of the public and lias commanded its approval and favor everywhere. Now' why destroy the county court in the teeth ot this verdict of the people? Why take iVom theiu the court of their choice? The wit of man never yet devised a tribu nal more safe and comprehensive?more ex actly suited to the interests and needs of a people such as ours?than the county court as now organized, with able judges oti its bench. It is fully adequate to every demand. It can take cognizance of the smallest, most homely local matter, and it can grasp the largest and broadest interests. It is nearer to tlie people than any other: it is -their own court par excellence. As a court of equity it affords more oppor tunities for speedy relief than the circuit court. As a court of common law it is fully as effective as the proposed circuit court can possibly bo. As a criminal judicature it is su perior to tho circuit court in insuring speedy trial*?early acquittal of the innocent, prompt punishment of the guilty. In it the accused are spared long delay and languish ing imprisonment. To the State is saved a heavy expense in the detention of prisoners. If the court be continued, as it now is, it. ensures the highest judicial ability for the de cision of those questions of probate and other matters which it is proposed to confide to the emasculated court?questions in which it is absurd to suppose that there will be 110 contests, and which often involve interests vital in importance, amount, and feeling? which in the emasculated court would be submitted not to a judge learned in the law, but to whatever jack-leg lawyer could be in duced to sit for the wages of 61 per day, or 61-") per year. What sort of learning would such salary command? Would this substi tuted court bo presided over by a judge learned, as peremptorily required by the Constitution? Could that court command that legal knowledge, ability, and character so essential to the judicial office ? Would it be a Virginia "county court "any longer? This county court is a time-honored insti tution of Virginia?not eJletc, not worn out; but more cherished and respected, more vig orous and useful now than at any previous period in its long history. Tt is our of the distinctive features of our dear old Stat**. Why sweep it away, now of all times, when wc "need our utmost care to preserve our State identity?to withstand the tide of inno vation which threatens to wipe out every fea ture of our State character; everything which i? essentially Virginian? Spare us, at least, this old friend! The county court has invaluable uses apart from its good as a tribunal. Its term are the periods of "high change" of the county. It. brings the people together fre quently, promotes interchange of thoughts, information, and experiences, realizing what Solomon, in his wisdom (which may. how ever, seem foolishness to our Solomons), says, that "as iron sharpeneth iron,sou man shur poneth his friend." The county court by its monthly gather ings is a means of education not fully appre ciated?mingling the jH-ople, enlarging their range of knowledge by information given and received, stimulating their minds unci exciting their interest, expanding their hearts, instructing them by the contests they witness in the court-house, saving them from becoming mere drudges, with no ideas be yond their own farm lines. It fa a court winch lias stood tho tost or time and attacks. It has been sustained, de fended. eulogized, by John Marshall. .Jcller son, ltandolpb, Heigh, and a host of the best minds of Virginia. In truth, is it wise to tain tier and tinker with so important a matter as this? Tratn nielled as the Legislature is by the Constitu tion, why make any change now, when such change can only be imperfect, partial, tempo rary, more patch-work?tending only to create confusion and to cause distrust and disrespect for a system so shifting. Wc must, in a year or two at farthest, have a revision of our Constitution; wait till then, when the convention can deal with the matter, as the Legislature cannot?with power over the: whole subject?who may preserve the coun ty court and erect the circuit courts in less ened number into district courts of appeal. But if one of our courts must he legis lated out of existence in the teeth of the Con stitution, why sacrilice the eouifty court?by far the better of the two and the more elli cient? Why defeat the people's choice? Why, in fact, have tiro courts?a pro bate and circuit court?when the county court can and docs now jicrforai the func tions of both? Jt is only because the '?re formers" feci hampered by the constitutional necessity of having a county court and cir cuit court, in name at least. Hence the wis dom of waiting for the convention. Let us see how the expense account would stand : There arc now sixteen circuits?salary and mileage of ju<lg?--? In each, $2,,.'0u I !?'!3,20u There are to he five new ones at iji',200 11,"uo The IncrcnseiJ cost of keeping prisoners to the circuit terms ln.ooo $36,SCO Expense of transferring causes from county courts to circuit con rts, average of n each of die I'D comities Sv-uo One hundred county Judges at per day. or $123 i>cr year 12.5oo *:h,7'.'0 The whole cost of the new system for the first v??jr would Ik? then annually....&i2t,7<>0 Expense of county eonrt, say oiie luuge to two counties, one hundred conuiles, Ufty judges at shy >?1.2 '0 each $00,000 ?If give Add mileage if given. tM,700 The feea and costs of transfer of educes would average at least $.">00 for each of the one hundred counties. The eost of detain ing accused prisoners, waiting the quarterly circuit terms instead of trying them monthly, would in the whole .State be at least $10,000 iu excess; and the cost of witnesses, grand and petit juries, and special veniries, would betlic same in each court. Now, what would be gained by the change on the score of economy ? The change could not take effect for a year, or till the term for which the judges have been elected expires. Tliat would consume the period of two years before a convention could revise tiic judiciary with power over the whole subject. Then, if the change be made and go into effect for the last year be fore the revision, we save the present salaries of the judges of the county court, but we incur an extra expense For the flvu new circuits of #11.000 For transfer of cuu*c>? 5i?,o<'0 For coots of Luiprbomucut 10,000 fcrt.ooo not counting the loss by confusion, delays, und injuries Incident to a'radical change of a judicial system.* Is it worth while to do all this for so pitiful a saving? Let us wait until a convention can revise the entire subject fully, deliberately, wisely, and permanently. But if utility, public interest,convenience, and safety, their resj>eet for the sacrednesa of the tribunals of the law, all arc to give way to the question of expense, v. by not go the whole figure at. once, and abolish all courts and save the enormous expense of the whole thing? But there ia one objection to retaining the county courts we have not adverted to, though It may l>e a material element in this matter. It fa that this system does not create 1 .SJanJr \' circuits. ' \ FTOn the $b?nanJoah UcriW \ -^ftoiiaty Conrts. "OurraprcscllMm ?ccm (Icterralned Uint nothing stall remain in slain ^.anlare willing to sacrifice positive benefits to ? P00 latlvc ameliorations. Kotbtaff seems to; be secure Crow invasions. Aluiost cW b ^ ! offered Ls an act to amend an act, but where the reason is weak and the imagination lively, as is the case with most of the members ot the Legislature, we must expect anumeroa progeny of schemes and speculations. Unc of the most dangerous of these ? themes we believe to be the practical abolition of the county courtsvstorn nowproposedby a bill which is before the General Assembly. The bill is briefly thia: Alter the county courts, (muster most ofthebits) ?>ss to the circuit courts, reduce the pa) of ttie countv judges to four tay when actually on duty, divide the Stateinto twentv-one circuits, and require each judge to hold four courts a year in ' counties or towns in his circuit. 1 Jbtbai ge in the system ol our courts we bdlcvc to ^ unwise, and is open to many ^jections. In the point of economy nothing will be gained. Juries and witnesses will much, and clerks'and lawyers- fees willbe as high, in the circuit as in the county court. The county judge being always PI^,lt; a,lJ having some itlca of the probable dilution of the pending causes, can and does so ar range the docket that the people lose much less time in performing their duties as wit nesses than they would do where the judge has no immediate superv ision of the docket, ;us is the case with circuit judges. Innerttie present svstorn criminal cases-an; tried with out delay; under Hie proposed system pri soners will have to lay in jail several months at a heavy expense, annually costing the State more than the difference. Hie best evidence of the efficiency and popularity of the county courts is the fact tliat nine-tenths of the suits are instituted in the county ?ourts. During the year 1871 there were of t nits brought in the County Court of 8hcn uidoah county, and but .T2 in the t in-uit lourt, fourteen of which were instituted by ion-resident lawyers,and almost half of the ?emainder were suits in which the Count) Tourt lmd no jurisdiction. The countv court is a great convenience, md we do not believe that public interest -an be advanced bv taking from the people he local tribunals which now afford them a ?needy hearing of all causes. We believe the a resent judiciary system can be unproved uul the expenses he reduced without destroy ing the county courts. Let the Legislature try it The Jcdiciary.?The bill to virtually abolish the county courts is an extreme measure, and takes everybody by sunrise. The people hear of it for the first time by the bill itself, and we are satisfied that they are opposed to it, and that the measure is uu U The curious part of the matter is, that sonic of t he chief supporters of it are now urging the calling of a convention to re model all of our laws. Now, it' a conven tion is to be held, why not let it pass upon these grave matters? ...... ,, If the Legislature can abolish the oldest court in the State, a* they propose todo, win can't they do everytliing else ami thereby save the* expense of a convention i It, iim.b r the specious plea of "regulating, tliov can abolish one of the best institutions the .State, there can be no limit upon their over. And then, as a matter ot economy, we mild save nothing. The cost ot translcr n" all the suits in the Commonwealt h from ic court to another, and the salaries of live *w circuit judges, and the delay in trying jminals and paying their jail fees, and the .?uer.il injury to business, would greatly ierbalamv anv supposed benefit which Hit result from tiiis change. The costs ot ie above items alone foot up over 9100,000: id for what ? I'm* the inconvenience oi the eople. And if a convention is to be called. I these matters belong exclusively to it.aiul would eertainlv not be good policy to sub et the people to all this expense at this tune > "ratify the ambition ot a lew men in tin egi-lature who wish to beeoine circuit court oi-'es at a salary ol about 9"2,*2"0 perauumi). ' Ue our countv curt judges are doing the lie work for 91,000.?Leethurg Washing nan. Proposed Unroots of Agriculture. It is not often of lain that we have agreed with the lvit'liiii(?iirl tthiij, but we must thoroughly oohiukle ill its objections to the new Agricu Rural Bureau as proposed in the hill reported hy the joint Coiiniiitree on Im migration tor the establishment of a Board of Agriculture, Immigration, and Statu-lies, appropriating cxJ'bOUO with a commissioner to reside at the capital and receive for his services a salary of i*o,uuO per annum, and a clerk at ? 1 ,oU0. The proposition at any time would savor too much of the. old propensity to multiply unnecessary olliees for the benefit of a few to be paid for hy the people. But in the present condition of our finances it i> monstrous. We fancy we see a comfortable gentleman, ensconced in a spacious room of thu capital, with his legs stuck up on a tahie, a cigar in his uioui.h, and a fishing rod in his hand, with his line thrown across the Atlan tic for the purpose of making emigrants bite in Europe. Three thousand a year! Not had in these times, nor even in the times be fore the war! The only objection that any holiest man could have to taking it would be that it would he highway robbery. We do not deem it n<ces-ary to discuss the various provisions of the lull. Good, bad. or indill'ereni, Virginia cannot afford it at this time, or, if she can alVord it by swindling lit r creditors, she is not likely to bring here im migrants having capital. The host appro priation we can make for immigration is to pay our debts. The resources and attrac tions of Virginia arc already being dismissed in the English journals and attracting public attention there. All that our Micawber Legislature has to do to complete the work is to i*ty its debts, and remove the impression which Is gaining ground abroad thai we arc a repudiating people.?Lynchbury Ames. The Immigration Bin..?Anefl'oit is lieing made to get an appropriation of ?iJ0,0UO from i lie State of Virginia to aid in organizing an immigration society. We hope the Leyisla turr icill make no such appropriation at this tinw. Those working up this movement are thinking more about the fat olliees it will create than the immigrants it will bring to Virgin hi. Let us lirst pay the interest 011 the debt we honestly bargained for before con tracting more debts. The best and most successful immigration scheme for Virginia at t'uis lime would be to reestablish abroad her diameter for honesty. That will induce more immigrants to set tie within her borders than agents employed at heavy salaries by the State.?L> reshu ry 11 roth iny Um inn. At the roldence of her hrotiier-in-l.iw. Mr. K. Francis, February mil. at oVIwk P. M., MUs CLAKA 11. LYLE, in the twenty-eighth ) ear of her We. _ Her luneral will take place fn?m the residence of the above. No. 1717 Yonable .street, Til 18 DAY,Feb ruary loth, at 11 o'clock A. M. Friend* and ac quaintance.. of the family arc respectful!v invited to att?Mul. Lynchburg papers please copy. * At ten minutes to tl o'clock A. 31., on Sunday the llth Instant. Mrs. ELIZABETH N KVINb, consort ot <.'liaries Xevins. Her funeral will like place from her husband's residence. 73'.' Ninth street, at 2 o'clock P. M. TO DA Y. Relatives and friends are Invited to attend. Philadelphia, and New York papers please copy. * At her residence. In Halifax couiitv. Va., on the "tlx February, 1*72, Mrs. NANCY blSOLF'iON, in her sixty-eighth year. A Kiuu mother and a true Chfistiau has gone to reap the reward she so richly deserved. In this city, on Sunday the mh instant, at 10 o'clock, WILLIAM DANDUIDOK K FN NUN, sou of tliu late Commodore Beverly Kcnuois; aged thirty-nine years. * PROPOSALS. CllKSAPKAKK ANI) OHIO ItAlLltOAD COMPANY,) F.NGtNKlClt'S OVKUTS, / Huntington, W. Va., January 27, nc?. > T)1U>1J0.SALS WILL BE RECEIVED A at this odiee UNTIL FEBltUAltY 20, 1172. for the CONST Ul'CTlON OKA l'ASSENUEK DEPOT ami bll i:i> at Huntington, on the main line of the Chesapeake and Otilo railroad. Bids may he made for each class of work sepa rate!)?Wood, Brick, Iron, Slate, Plastering, Glaz inar, and Painting. Plans and spcclUcatlous to bo seen at this otllec. Building Uk?x23, three stories high, vvltlt Mansard rot'f. H. T. DOUGLA8, fe 6-td ? Dhlilou Lii^tuwr. warranted all linen, at $1 worth $L?^. TABLE CLOTHS, two and a quarter yards long. ?< *2.25 worth to ; TABLE CLOTHS, two and a half yard* long, at fj, . . , . ''i - $f, and $3.50 worth $5, fd, and $7; TABLE CLOTHS. TABLE CLOTHS, threw end* RalLyartL, long, at $5^0 worth. $? ; TABLE CLOTHS, four yards lour, at $1 worth *J.Wi Extra quality DOUBLE SATIN DAMASK TABLE CLOTHS, four, four and a tuif, and five varo, long liy two and a half yards wj<lc, which we *.?j at 25 por c*nt. 1?m* tliau the *am?j good* can fa % purchased for in the uity of New York: Pure LINEN DOYLIES at cor., 73?., <si, and *i.5? per dozen; ^ LINEN' NAPKIN'S at *1.25, *1.50, $2, and per dozen; COLOEED DOYLIE8, in Turkey Red, Pink, iir/, and Brown; HUCKABACK TOWELS at *1.50, $.\*2.75, and *: per dozeu?must ho seen to he fully appreciated; LINEN SHEETING and PILLOW-CASE LIVEN; CltASH, liCCKABACK, and DIAPEIt ToWEI.. INGS; TABLE DAMASKluallfctyleoaudquality. Our stock of HOUSEKEEPING GOODS embrace* the largest assortment ever offered in this city, and wc are confident that we can pie?*c all who favor us with a call. LEVY BROTHERS, 1213 aud 1215 Main atrwt. ?1T GENTLEMEN IN WANT OF ?juiHTlor DOESKIN CASSIMERKSat $1.25 worth 1.50; Extra quality CASSIMKIiES at $1.50 worth SATrNET at toe. worth 5oc.. at 5 >o. wortli sue.,at 6-y. worth V><* ? i Good quality BROADCLOTHS, TESTINGS, UNDERSHIRTS, DRAWERS, DRESS SHIRTS, KID, DOG-SKIN, CLOTH, BERLIN, and >JLK GLOVES; COTTON, MERINO, I. ISLE Til R E AD, and YAI.'S SOCKS; LINEN and PATER COLLARS and CUFFS. SILK, LINEN, and COTTON HANDKEKClllI IS; N ECKT1ES. BOWS, SCARFS, CRAVATS, BUCKSKIN SHIRTS and DRAWERS. CA R I>IG AN JACK KTS, TH A V ELL ING-BI. A N K F.TS and SI I \ \V |.>. AT GREAT BARGAINS, call at LEVY BROTHERS*, 1213 and 1815 Main i-tr-.t. MujKjrlor douhle-ftitclicd KID GLO\ F.S at *1.5' a pair. nr GREAT KEDECTIOX I.N Till; PRICES OF NECK RIBBONS. BOWS and NECK-TIES. NECK aud SASH RIBBONS.af LKVN BROTHER' YAltD-WIDE TUCKED CAMBRIC. ST* 11 AM HI'KG EDGINGS AND 1N RTING. a new supply. We cm fhow over two idtvd patterns; all of which w ill be sold at c\ irdlnarlly low prices. LEVY BROTHERS. ARD-WiDE MUSLIN, tucked all over, .it *i A ? yard worth *l.75. EST THOSE ENGLISH KEY El l>.\ 15 EE CUFFS, neatly braided, are\ery clieapnt worth dottlile the money. INKN COLLARS at me. worth 2 ><\: . full assortment of PILLOW CASH I. V Es ; at LEVY BROTHERS'. 1213and 1815 Main Mi-ft. <?UR DOLLAR AND A OL'AUTEU ulll.'lS re got tig fast. * rTf A NKW.S EDITOR ol' l<?i>? expe rience, who I* also ;t REPORTER. desires cmpho - wilt. Best of reference* as to ability. Ac. A?Mj ?JOURALIST, Ijox 73. Richmond. Yi. fe *~t' ICrT FKBRl'AUY, 187-J. MORE NEW AND SEASONABLE DRY GOODS. t. jl prick a co. liave jif.t ojK'iicl for the early tradn many good.*, particularly lur useful an ! lion ckreplng jiurj o t . BROWN an<l RLE M 1IKD COTTON'S, a-i. li'-l,and 1 l-i t'tCJ'TOX SHEETINGS, l-'ineassortment of BED BLANKET?*, TABLE DAMASKS and NAPKIN!?, LINEN SHEETi NGS and TO W ELLING8, Beautiful rus Ttment of NEW PRINTS f?>r children. BLACK and WHITE CALICOES, Ac., Ac. ALSO, LIN I! N ('DLL A KS and OFF FS, I.At E COLLARS mid SLEEVES. Gentlemen's and ladle*' KID GLOVES. very l*-t? some very good for ?1. IN MOURNING GOODS: BLACK MOHAIKSanU VELOURS, BLACK CASHMERES and II E.N HI ETTA CLt >TJIS, BLACK TAMISE and BOMBAZINES, Good bargains In BLACK SILKS. Great bargains will la; sold during this month In Fall and Winter Dress Goods as well a.* in some light goods for spring; also in Phpics, Linens lor IxaV wear, Doylies. Ac. NEW G< H)| )S constantly arriving. T. ft. PRICE A- CO fe 5 1101 Main street, comer of Eleventh. HOT MEADE & llAKEli'S MEDICINALLY PI KE COD-I, 1 V E Jt OIL. Fresh supply of the new crop Just Imported from Newfoundland, direct. We have the testimony of physicians who prescribe It, and patients who have taken it, tiial It is more ac ceptable to the stomach and moru easily assimilated than any other oil. MEADE A BAKER. Importing and Dispensing Pharmacist*, de 15?3in 919 Main street. QLOTIITNG. ?' LOT 11 INC.'. COUVEKSIER'S KID GLOVES, WHITE AND COLOiUJD, V Alt IOCS MZK*. WM. IRA SMITH, and late T. S. Baldwin A Co le 12 HOB Main ?tnrt. JOHN LATOUCT1E, MERCHANT TAILOR, can tie found (until his old store is retltted) at N>? 12 FOURTEENTH STREET, where ho has hi* STOCK In order, and fully prepared to prorceute hLs business as promptly as heretofore, fe'-lm I l KMTl ttE, Ac. WE ARK NOW MANT FACTEK IXti and receiving the most eatensiv % and elegant stock of FURNITURE , that has ever been ottered to the |*ople of \ trgmia. We would particularly call the attention ofAbupu'? lie to our Cxi AMBER and PARLOR 11 RNlTl RF, being of superior workmanship and newest patterns. You will hud in our wareroom.* WARDROBES, BUREAUS, BEDSTEA DS, W ASHSTANDS, TABLES, SIDEBOARDS. ETAHER F.S, M A *1T R ESS KS, CHAIRS, DESKS, SAFES. wl tli a great variety of other FUKNTTl KE. U wll atfortl us pleasure to show ail who may call ou ta through our wareruoin*. . ? UAKW00D ? RIT1EK; 27 Govi'ruor JUvcti Kichiuouu, \ rkYSTKRS, OYSTEK&-J ust re- ^ celvcd a ftx-sh load of OYSTKRS?*t f JLa from Jones's creek, which I am selling at sL-ity-tlvu cents per gallon. They tu* us line stewing oysters as I have had this season . I usk the patronage of my customers and the public generally. 1 wdll have In a few days a lot from UauipUm creek, which I wUI soil at aewutv-Uvc ceutu, and solvet fur one dollar. 1'- WHt i F. fcIHl* ' ? No,lT3J0Dock?Uwt.