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Virginia free press & farmers' repository. [volume] (Charlestown, Va. [W. Va.]) 1827-1832, March 17, 1831, Image 1

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Virjjiwi# ^r«
ANI)
_ FARMERS’ REPOSITORY.
VOL. XXIV. C’M.IRLKSTOW.X, JKFFKHSOX COLATV, TllI KSOAV, HAl{< 33 IT, 1NII. ~ —
POETICAL. j
THE FALSE OXK.
MV T. N. II I ILLY. |
I knew him nnt, ! sought him not—
He was my tatlier's guest;
I gHVe him ict one smile in. us Lihil
I’hau those I gave the r> «t;
II «• fit beside me at the boml,
The choice was not mj own,
Hn» oh' I neser heard a voice
Willi hall >i sweet a tuue.
Ami at the dance strain we met—
Again I was his ihoi re—
Again I heard tie gentle tone
Of that Is-gsiiling » »ice:
I vujfhl him iiof—In- | ,| nic firth
From all th.- fairest iIm iv.
And U4d I nr hr had n. s. r seen
A lace hi thouglit > • f*ir.
A i a in-re I »re illil lie t. II me thi-'
Mis praises made lit • ia» i;
And, when he left me, h .« 1 I .i.-’J
I u hear that voice again f
I wonder'd why my old p iruiita
Had lost their wonted charm.
\nd why the piith wa« dull, imleas
I leant upon his arm.
Alas! I might have guess’d the rails -—
For w hat c.mM maki m vliuti
Mv jNSIvtila* ch< erful dwelling-place
1*0 W amter all al nil *
And wlut i oul-i innke me braid n.y lu»i.,
\nd study to improve
I he | rin that h lt.ul deign’d to praise—•
W hat cOUl>l it he hut ljve *
OJi' little l»-tew I of the world.
And less .I iiian's career;
l thought each -mile w as kindly meant—
I..ieh w »rd n|*praise sincere:
111* s»irt voire Spokl- of ctldlcss lose—
I listen'd and hi:. veil.
Ami little dream'd h >* . ft before
1 hat sw i». t voice ti.nl deceived.
He *tnile«upon another now —
And in tlie same sw« it t me
Hi* bn nlhe-s tn h. r tlr'*.* winning words
I once tli< light all nts own;
Oh ’ w hy is she- so !>. antilul *
I cannot hi.on. hi» choi< —
Nor can I doubt she will |#e won
By l at beguiling voice.
IWTBaWAl IMPROVCMEMT.
L&’rrcu, ~
From C. \V.Wm»,Riq Superintend-- nt „f ^
H^ltiruorr and Oldo tQ (j()j JA^,,
Him, Caq. of this county.
.. „ . *‘r«t»cajc«1(*».)C3n »e«. HJt.
Mv Fricml,—
In the Virginia Free Pre-s of the 3d
of this instant, 1 observe the proceed*
ings of a meeting of the Land holders
of Jefferson county,ovrr which you pre |
ftiJed, in relation to the opening of an
improved communication through the
great and fertile vallev of the Shenan- j
oah, either by a rail roid or a rnn.il. ■
a* mav seem ino-t meet to the I.egi*la !
ture of your Style: And in filename;
paper, a < an il ts highly recommended
4 bith by Cu n. Merrer. the President of
the Chesapeake an.I O iio Canal Com
pan v, and James M. !Ii*e, of (iuilford. i
tienera! Mercer &avs— “Knowing
“your country as I do, | would re-I
“recommend to you a canal, never*
- “less than £3 feet*wide, nor le** than
) five feet deep, to he ex 'emit <! where
•* ver practicable, without 1,1 ir/t uddi- j
*• ti<*niil rojf, to a width of m;iv tee*,!
“where the ground favors it ar. •! you
“ have water enough ”
lie then gives very good reasons in
fuvor of large Canal*, anil proceed*—
“ Such a Canal a* I have recommended
*• to you, would. I presume, not exceed'
“in cost S HhOOO a mile: and if it*
' acj'ipilurfs have wooden trunks, arid
’•ts lucks be constructed ul ivooil anil
. '".itone. its ru»t would be considerably
. ** lessened.”
As well as I ran now recollect, the
canal* of Pennsylvania were estimated
to cost about that sum per mile. Ilut
" !,at has been their actual cast/ I
find from the last irpmf of the* ran.il
cominissioncis of that Stn»e. that one
has co,t upwards of thirty-two thousand
dollars; and but two, leas than twenty
thousand dollars a mile.—one oi fliose
two, vi/.: the North Branch division,
cost 819.730 and the other, the \\>st
If ranch division, cost 817.213 a mile.
The average co*t of all the ?*ia»e ca
pa’* of that State, ha'* been upwards of
-8 ' I.WK» a mile.
I he West Branch canal, which has
jlicen the least rostlv of u|| the Penn
sylvania State canals, is thus describ
ed by the commissioners.—** No part
*•*•1 this division can be classed as dif
I ** hciilf. I he fiver hittoms are vet v
f 4* wide, their slopes gradual, the lands
** generally i Irared. very little rock is
“met with. I he soil i» sandy loam
“ and gravel-*-of cour-e the esc tvatmn
‘* easy—the lot k »ge is v try inrunsider
‘•able, lire width of die canal at hot
“tom is twenty eight feet, forty feet
" •* ,UP water line, the depth four fret;
“ in its course th**re are six lift lot ks.
“anrl one guard lock— a/I eonttructff/\
"of want amt ttone—they are s«-ven-l
*• tern leet wide, and ninety f*-et long, j
■ha whole rise and lockage is forty
“one fref. The original estimatrd
I 7,Cr c,,f>struction of tins hi am h
of the cans I, made in August, I8^H.
was one hundred and nine!v«j*even1
*• thousand right hundred and fifty-one i
y dollars (8h,07C a mile.) I he canal
* was Tilled for navigation in Novrm
“ her, 1830. The actual cost of tht#
jhtivion, rjc!ult,u itaumiff» to tumt,
“ i» nus fuund to be four hundred Nn«|
*• twenty-one thousand seven hundred
** and seventy-one dollars.”
l'his canal is onlv 23\ miles long.,
to the feeder dam at its upper cud ; but
the dam etvate* a mile and a quarter of
stock wuter navigation, along which a
towing path has been constructed.—
I bus the whole length of navigation
produced by the expenditure of S-42I.
m, is 24J miles, and cost at the tate
of HI7.215 a mile.
^ our acquaintance with the margin
of the Shenandoah river, will lead you,'
I am persuaded, at once to coincide
with me in opinion, that as favorable
ground lor the consti uction of a cannl
a* that above ih-*c*;b«*dt cannot be
found there; and I much fear that if n
canal be there constructed, of the di
mension* recommended bv (Jener.il I
Mercer, it* actual cost will be very
mueh mote disproportions! to hi- esti
mate, than ha* been the actual cost of
that canal to the estimate made of it
ill lb*H.
(ietieral Mercer admits that that;
p.irt ot the ( heii|.*eakeand Ohio canal,
Iroiri tide to Harpers Forte, is now es
tisnVed tnrost at the rate of £30,0001
a mile, and that the whole eastern di
vision. viz: from title to Cumberland,
a distance of ISO* milts, it “is not
expected will exceed in cost £25.000
a mile.” These sums are vet but rs
titmitfs. the aecuracv of whith, the
completion of the canal will test. It 1
am not mistaken, the report of the Ihe j
sitlent ami Directors ol the Canal com-I
pany, made shortly after a portion id
the canut wa« nut under cnntmrf .....
ted the cost per mile >tt con*iderablv !
less than is now rs:iiuatrd.
Mr great desire ,nat a rail road
• oouId he rons’n>cte*l through the tinf
ridlrv of the 'henundoah, instead of a
< ana1, because I b» lu re it to b*» a v a>t- •
iv *iip« nor «oiiktiiuniraliftn, must he,
my apology for troubling you at tins!
time, for the purpose of doubting the'
estimate whit h ha* In cr made of the J
Cost of a canal on that rivet, and of re
commending to you. most deridcly
the adoption of a rail tond. A- Mi.
Knight's Repot f, which 1 enclose,
treats of the relative advantage* of
those two mode* of communication, in
* most lurid, able, afol unanswerable!
manner, I forbear enlarging on the sub- .
ject. W ill you be pleased to cause it
to be published in the Free Press, that
the citizens of JefF-rson county mat
have an opportunity of seeing some
thing in favor i f tail roads as well a>
of canals. \ our*, sinrerelc,
CASPAR \Y.* WEVRR. '
Jimm llerr, K q. /
Jiifu, .ii eom.tv. Vs. y
HKPOUT.
I rom tin- l.r»i'in<-'T H lire Italriimui- ami Ohio
UuiMtnnit C i**ti■ |,
BY Tin: IIOI SEOK IlKI.KI. AITS, j
J esc Alt* llth, ts. l. «j
Ohdf.hku, 1 hat the Coinini’lee on
Internal Improvement be instiuctod to
mij lire inio and teport tits* iel.itive ex
pense, benefits and fa< ilities of con
btrucliiigU.nl Hoads and C’anuU, with
A View ol atcei tattling to tv imli ot those
means the lund* of the State, (so far
as they may hereafter be appropriated
to such wykt oi Internal Improve
ment.) can be most judiciously applied,
both a* regards the levenon to the1
State, And tiio advaiitages to be dctiv J
ed to citizens eeneir.11%.
AXNAFOUS JAX. 10th, 1831.
fJ?'iftcwrn.— l enclose you a ropy of
an Order referreil to the Committee
on Internal Improvement—and request
you ai 111 furnish such information upon
the subject matter, as you mav deem
important to the Committee to'enable
them to moke n correct report thereun.
Kespectl illy, votir ob’t. »ert*t.
AIM.'it I MALI) ILL. Chairman
Com on I n't. Imp't
OJJiee »f the II.-// r"./ Ohio Hat! Itoml Co. > I
*Tth January, I tt . 1. S
In compliance w ith your i equest, uti-!
der date ol the I9lli instant, and hi o |
hedietite to on order ol the House oft
Delegates, passed on the llih, requir-1
mg “the ConimiMi e on Intent*) lm-'
provementa to inquire into and report j
the relative « ipensr, In-nebt* and la-j
r ilities id construe ting Had lloads ami ;
Canal*, with a view of a«<ertaming j
to which of tho«e means the fund* id
the Mate can he roost brnr finally appli '
eil,*1 1 now iuciuif a rommunit at toll.
illustrative ol these sotcioi suhjei Is,
frnin the ( hief Fngineer ol tSie Haiti
more und Ohio K.iil-Kojd Company.
I am. &r. A.r.
I*. K. THOMAS, rretiJint.
I!"gi'ietr fifftt of th* U il'ir+ort ttn*i O'iio 1
Halt //*«/ /, J
Jast 48V 2t’h, 1 ’31. 3
7# f'hrfip /,*. '/7io -j.j*, /VernW, Sic —
lu aremdurue with thy request, I
submit the follow mg observation* in
ifganl to the comparative tnriifa ol
f inal* and Kail-Way*, so far a* re
late* to their expense. (utilities r.f coo
-true Mon ami he tie his, to the ft i ate of
Mart land, m point of rn** ue as w*II
a* of sacral advantages to the citi
zen*.
I ir*f. Comparative e.ipcnsr.— As a
t anal and a llail Road cannot both be
constructed between any two points
on the same identical route, the cvi- 1
deuce bv which wre are tojudge of their
comparative expense on a given line
must consequently be that of an esti
mate for each: or bv an approximate
conclusion drawn from analogy. I
know «>f but one route on whith cureful
estimates have been made at the same
turn- both lor a Canal am! for .» Rail
Road. 1 In* route here alluded to is
along the i’otoinuc River to the 1'nint
of Rocks to Harper- Kerry, oral least
so much of that route as was included
in the narrow passes.
Thi •se estimates were made bv N.
Roberts and mv-elf. as Commit,
sinner* appointed by the Chancellor
of Maryland, to examine ami survev
the ground with a view to the Imatu/n
of the Chesapeake am) Ohio ('anal, and
the Baltimore and Ohio Rail-Road a-1
long that line.
In the first place a route was run
foi the ( at. a I ami an estimate made
lor it, without any regard to the Rail
Road. In the next place, a mute was
lun and estimated for tie graduation
and masonry of the Rail Road, with a
view to tince sets of traikx through
the same nu:ruw passes, without anv
regaid »o the Canal.
L' .1 . - . .
• i «mii inv^c nit*rrri»rp. mm*
uig to the i **irnatc* lor the ail.
an average price fur the lav ing of three !
tiark* oi Rail Way or* the graduated
"inlace mi to he prepmed, we arrive
at results vvliicli will give the compara
live probable expense of both the C'a- '
nal and Rail Road.
*1 he Canal was assumed to he of
Mich dimensions that with a depth ul
water of si\ lent, its Clogs m-cI|ii|i
ahould contain an area of G( .<» square
feet. I he breadt!i of the graduation
for the Rail Ruud vwts to be thirty-i
feet. 1
Kithnuta fur tin Cana!.
I '.»cr Point of It *k\ Kngth Jt 25 I ',,t,
• »* $i n
t j.;m i- Point of Hocks, length 2I3j *•
• 23,12a
Mill n.’ Narrow v, “ r*»*32 •*
«••*» 30, <r28
HurjMiv-F it* Narrow*, “ 1126 “
2*1,102
Tm«I, *13.14 $187,01*1
VtM Id pi rt. f.jr Mi peril N »u\ net-, kr. 12,7 *2
Amounting to *Ij'j,7iil
n>i'! .1 to $79,036 p i ini!,.
Ultimo ft s for the /tail J/val.
U't'T Point of Hocks, length 3127 feet,
cost, $12,472
I pjwr Point of ltn< ks, “ 3107 “
c”*», 9,746
Mill tV Narrows, “ 3300 *•
cost, I6,H7'J
Harpers-Pcrrv Narrows, “ lino “
5,556
Total, It 131 $14,654
\<1«1 10 pi . *i. for sunninl*n«imrr, lv«. 4,466
M-*i, f.-r three no >.f Trucks on .« Knglh
ol 11,131 f**t, |**-r mill-, jkt
imck, including sup<rinuii<kiu«-, kic. 31,631
Amounting to $N**,75|
IV*pr-l t ) $.i8,‘.’94 IH r link'—hot with u iliHlhh
u\ *•! track*, iIm* c*»Ht tlir u.»iI Hoad, wlitu
lotnj.lit <1, M<Kil.I bv y>3.l,‘»ieV jH-r mile.
In relation fo the foregoing csti
male* the following rrtnaiks may he
made:—
1. I he estimate for I tying tbr rad track is
assumed erpial to lit* trlualrkil i.ltlmt on
the IJaltnnore and Ohio rail road, winch
li'i been I tid with ihr use u( wood stung
|orcr» mill •lone blocks. According to
the rijinii lir* I»liu li we have already
had. Ill* subst.fiitiou ol Mood sleeper* for
Ihe stone Id >ekv w >nld result in * cost of
tl.bOfl per tilde—’tod ihe me of stone sills
in lieu of eiibef, would revolt m about
yU.OOO to ffl.SUf) per mile, as the cost of a
• ii.gb Irnrjr, as stated m the tth annual
report ot die Company.
*J Ihe estimates for the canal, above
stated,do lint include a ny I «Ock age, though
flo r* will be abiu.t f rty lert el tail t*. pro
vide for hy lot k*. to tween the Point nf
li ii ks and liar j r* Kerry Nor is the
cost estimate r| for lining the interior ti.inks
of the canal wid» stone, a pre rau’-on,
vs it bout winch, sucli a work cannut
he ronstdeml as finished Tin* fun
elusion rr «ul's Ir. rn experience had on
the New \ ork Krie canal
The. amount r.f flos latter item would
perhaps lie about V'l.Ot'O par mile — to
wbic It ni'ist sle> he further added t|,r pro J
p, m itia! expense prr mile for the rrtpn i
siti I. iksge.
4. <tn the whole, therefore, whether we
tike lb* estimates as already stated, oi
with such addition* a* will ttivk* then* vf
the most permanent character, still the
ratio of *hv probable ripense •.I their r ,n
strut lien will on the ground here estimated
t>r abiMit as inn fur the canal to one for
the rail toad.
4 I ha«c not »esn the list esfimatr*
for the civti 'l on the inteimedi ite ground*,
inrl therefore eafi »t ilistifu'e *o strict a
eeTTpirison vsitfi regard In them
My opinion is. that in the m»*f favorable
ground *l«*r g lire river bottom lands, the
expense of the ran d would exceed dial of
the mil eoad fruni ij to 2r0 per cent
In trillio n in of.', r routes —I. util vv t
hate d< Unite ralcul vlion* for 8 greater v a
fiely of ir stances in this founli}', llii'i we j
are yrf *| |e fo lay before t!io piiblw in te (
t xtl’ltl *0 'Ms filter*" m • *v e fT|) fs’k
our opinion* upon the limited data within
our reach.
In the report of the U S Hoard of lot.
Impt. the cost ol constructing the C'hesn
peako and Ohio canal Ironi Georgetown
to Cumberland, was estimated at about
£8,000,000. It is true.ollierestimates have
-luce been made reducing the amount per
haps to about £5,000.000 Cut it is un
derstood. that so tar as the construction ol
that work has hern prosecuted, the latter
estimate has been luninl to be whollv in
adequate, and I am ol opinion that, unless
the dimensions shall lie contracted, or the
work be made lc»* permanent m its char
acter, the C'liinate Inst mentioned will
not be fir fiom the amount which that
woiU will have actually cost should it be
completed lu • Cumberland. It is ronfi
deoil} believed that the co*t of the rail
road to Cumberland, inclusive of tbe e*
traordinnry expense of that portion of it
between Haltimore and Klhcot’s Mills,will
not exceed £5,000,000.
1 he estimate made b} the same Hoard
for the entire canal fiom hicorgetrwn to
1’ittnburg,amounted to about $22,000.000.
It is conceit< il, that the cost ol the rail
road would not be one half of this amonnt;
nr.d it Ui'ght notexreet) a third of it The
stupendous reservoir* ntid Tunnel, ant*
the nnnirrrus !.• (k« vthich have been
consideicd n« erssary in crossing the
mountain* on the middle division of the
canal, would be dispensed witJi m ca»c c f
a rail road, and the romparatltel* m*ig
niCcant expense ul iuclim d planes and sta
tkun.iit c.i .lDi «tlltsllhlls>il
It is believed that the expense of cyr.
»:rurtinr a canal troin lbbiiiiore to the
Point nt |{nrL», would be double what
the rad road between the same points will
r«st
The estimate repottc«! by Hr. Howard
for a eana! from t.ccr^i town, I). 1'. to
IJaltinir re, the length being 441 miles. I
aim ut.teil to about >J.SOO.OOO. It is not
doubted hut that thrhalfof Ibis sum would
be more than ample lor a tail roatl
I pon the whole, I infer, that over rough
and lidlirult git-uinls, y*t sueli as have
been pronounced practicable for « canal,
the cost of the canal would be abaut from
50 to 100 per rt nt. noire than that ol a
rail roed—the former to be as spacious a*
such work* may In* expected to be made
on such glcunds, and tin latter t« bale u
double set of trark«—and that on the
most favorable grounds w |,i< h the mini •
tiy a (lords for sueli works, the ratio of •
expense may be expected to vary fu n'
an equality to 50 per cent in (aioi of rail
roads
Second Facilities <j eotistrvclun Thb
answer to this part of the inquiry may lie
considered as almost included in the pre j
fcdir g one. It may, however, be added,!
that by reason ol the supply of watrr nr j
ces*aiy fir canals, tin ir nunibr r, r xtef.t
and locality, will necrssanlv be n u li
more limited tIt.>n rail ways |* n.av also
be r« c< lb eted. that the nimiuuiiii <l.*cli «r
Ite* of tunning streams frrvirr li «< «« thi
rum try atlvanr* s in Ayr irultuir and Mann
lirfutirg iti.pioti mints
Kail road* rat; be rt r-trurted adinnfa •
peiMisly over a roO»iderat Ir variety nf in
dm a I ion »r d r| "meter of Mil fare urpt.ii'
tirsblr t*«r earn '« «• H thnr branches rati
bi- made to penetrate tfjr. pirn* and de
files i I p. Mat :n* where linkage wii.V
be vrn ; rat tnd th* Mipplv of watr r f r
canal* ti I..II\ i. . Ha ier t. I nt « h»n ex
t('i *i»e |t,i , and '* li•*r M nuf *r# .tit p r*
I v * >li» b Hi mi-f • i n I | i,ii«*d
rhirn / I • s f 1 Vmi
tftgft In the I i'izm* —'I I
vHntagi» I o:l> »r. tin «-t.«,«- an«l t.» 11riti
z*n» ciMfii »ing it, il i« cnn*’*iced. w* • 11 hr
pir»ii r it m the rail road if.on from the
canal »y %t» m.
'I hr l> Mowing oltarrvations arc o(TVrcd
in support of tin* opinion*
I lit- capital i v> a.* d in a give n line of Kail
lloada an«l of I'aiiaU, w •!! in iid riac hr gu-a. •
cr, in the firat, anil w 'll • f to hr only half of,
whal llu-latter vi oul r< quire,wl.ilvt tht ape«d
on the former may to fun* iiit.rv grtj.i ■*•
on the latter. The rekiataiu r from fi ir tk*n is
t ipial through equal apart », w I j'rvrr may he
• he Velocity. I he fcvtalance r f fluid* oc*
cw»toncd from a body p*»«tt.y through them,
iv rattier nn-re tii«n m prnpertu n to the
•'juarra nt the velorioe* of the body in mo
tion, whether it hr a hr at nr a car, ami n the
deoaity of water 11 to that ut the a-r, atl'fQia
to I, therefore the irvi*(auer from writer will 1
he bi<i tune* greater Ilian the reactance
fiom rtie a'mokplirrr, will, an » nial velocity
It it not hkr ly, thr tr forr, that velocitir s on
fail rnada w ill often be ao high, aa to fenu»fc
a calculation fur atmosphere reawtanrr,w hilsi
• law by »liir.li lire fcuk'aure of llirula in
rrea»e» carnet liiat itaia'anre, in a meihurti
an drna« aa water, Boon to he in r qodihnn
wi'lr any impelling power wh.cb Cal, be i r».
ployed.
I he f«rre of the wind and wf r'rim hat
hern the most aoerea«fnl it* propt Ho g ves*r l»
upon water, but the maiiniunr %eloo'y on-.
tier the mo*t f«vurahl<* t ircutnatan* ea (nut in
( anal*, but *r. teat, hay* and large r.vera, i«
not known to h*vc ei'cedtil 1 ,i in It* j ef
hour, winlat i»n a Pad wav, in the file*- nt,
yet alrn«.«t infant aiat*-, of that k>nd ol in.
; '’overwent, m re dan I or tune a t: irf «i
ty ra ku.'wu tr» have bi en a'tai p.l.
I he ii Irfiife then |,-re .a, , », r ,.'|y d
f anal* are inchi led, *h«t lot. *!*<*♦•« »' icni
land by n.earccf (tail lit,* !* will take pJ*re
w ill quadruple the vel <c>.y |h III f «fl |»* «a«f .
••y '*e aitamed upon water. I m ,
f< il any oneah'-tild «,y he imago ** r*wpr *e
Ikrn'r w II yet be m*de in the ct*l**« *->» e
up. * wale*. | artaWer, fid th.- prt'haful"y
« much grea'er that f rrthcr *«t.,i>o%ein# r
• *1 yet be Do |i! in the Contevance up< n
•*’*] 11 ie lor ol h . ,i«^re i-. l-f ut i l
*Vta p i *r', an I he• nr a h- * < I Nature, il
tti”*t at way* enfrtimie to • • * '»**
**eting therti- rc that the r < ,1 iner*»e *
w dl hr le*«, a> I that lot cr lei. ) # .1 « »-e r t
movement w ! be vi-'1- g :*'»t t a If*
Way than on a canal, and supposing, which
will not he doubled whan the velocity ia
considered, that the capacity of rad wav.
w.llbc ample fur all the wants of trade and
intercourse, w list can prevent the advantages
of a rad way being a. great, nay greater, to
the S>a»e and to the coaimuuitv, than those
to result from a canal*
If it be aaid that good* can be conveyed
cheaper or* a canal, it may be rmiakcd, that
the abundance of fuel in this country will al
Wayag.ve to ateam a preference as the cheap
«•* moving pow er, and that this agt ol w di
secure tu tail way* their full effect, and can
not fail tu place them preeminent above all
other modes of inland communication. A
Locomotive Kngine and its train convening
>0 tons of gin d« 120 mdea in a day, would
cau.e a daily expense of about *l’j. This
w i old he .‘>600 tons convey ed one n dr fur ten
dollar., that last the rate of \?78 era httleover
14 ol a emt per ion |>«r mde. I'lie opera
tion of the Locomotive at Charleston, S C.
will justify this conclusion, without rel> rence
to what ha. hren drmunsiratcd in Kngland.
I he cost of transporting coal on the Hud
sen ami Delaware canal during ihe last sea
son. vs as >1.50 per ton, e xr lusivr of anv charge
for toll —the length of tint canal is 108 mdea ;
I lie hngmeer slate J, how ever, that the I «»m
p.oy expected to reduce the charge to #1.25,
which would be at the rate of 1 16-106 cents
per ton prr mile, ’I Itia canal has considera
ble lockage, but not more than an average
quantity. I lie larger dimensions, however,
ot the f elngh canal, and of the < hrs.pi Ar
and Ohio Canal, would yif we except the
mountain section of the latter, in which the
quant tv of lockage w ill he unprecedented)
allow the charge for transportation lobe less
Hu* I do not perceive how it could on any ca
nal be less than 12a cent per ton per mile
It woulJ appear therefore, that the cost of
taitwif win Mm I»r |£icilit*r9 Dill ri >%,
-lid |>i obably Will be Ira*. or even one hall r i»
* rx.l way, with l.ncumulite Kngines, than i»
c-n be on the bed nral ; and the c>|ni >1 m
vested bi ing leas, Ibe tolls msv also hr less
Tin refnro,whether wen gard the inmuul of
revenue tn be derived, ir the faCibliea and
gt neial advantages to tlie citizens to rt atilt
Iri in the canal or thr rail toad avstem, it will
tollow that ra.l roada most have the preft r
e-ncc.
I l-is preft reore w ill be rendered more de
cisive when we r« Herr that a canal gt ncixli)
occupies the most valuable lands, and that it
r. t|uiie«a much greater quantity of lai d for
itst If, its f« eder*. d ims arid reverv iors,- tbat
i» itretfi irs with the plans of irrigation and
drainage and derange* the hv drauht in prnv t ■ ‘
n.riits connected v*iih tfir manufacturii g m
ilua'rv of a cnnntrv, and to that extent, < ip
,jln.g it. powers of production, wbeihe r j t
.eiit or prospective, —that it consider .it >lv in
Icfleres w idi Ibe free ai ces. a tl uur r> otit.t
to and fn>m the land* at d m ghl orbui.d. lv
mg up-ui its opposite aides, and it-. <1» » pr*
vei l tbe luraiion and list of roads .lit- pv-b
l.r or pnuti convenience might «<j•. e tj.4 r:
BC'OSS the r< Utr ut the same,—tl «. r .1
combined rflictsof fl. oils, breaches, it , .
drought arid cold, rfe averagi dotation i its
n-vigable com'.i tim.in our i lima*. , .,-(ituce d
tn ubi ut or.t half of tie tba* *’ c r.w
’ gatu.n is t-tJy w ini..opt ratiun, Lc mg too
•it-tt l it the I.—ris t of ligl • g : ds, or Iwr the
ronvevsure "I pr-.* , mails, er mestt n
f’1 »—that *be rail i rv qmr« a a It ss w iiitli
nl ground, ami rone th-t n a) be rciju'ieu
I i l>«tiers, dam*. i• »ervmfand will rot
»n fri CJin i.U- t < il, ) me l»« • l lal t!;, I* dues
no* use, v: ir.'e.l t-w t'li the atu-in.-nd u t
>er« i n pk-v • d u- w bic! r. \ hr cn i h>) 11. lor ‘
irtigat'Oii, . t-.r si v 1 i rlraultc, »’t n »■ t.l < '
'il. tug pi r, si •, bui t-n 11. * tit lit r t.aiu.,it at V*
to then value >m1 ihux -inn en«cl) in< erase • b«
rest line- -ml Vialhtl tin timii rti y> J mi
tu n t hi husii e»s -n.l ri \c in.t upon the ri a.i
i’ cm •rtjiii ii lv tltie') h-unt iliftr s*« tl —
:I .i o.i. ,r. . ..... i. '
drgl<-« , it at atlc W I'll > I’m r (:»•* -g) i m I'
In.in * iiir io aide, i it In i f, r t In i II. pu-r* t.i
»prn ul'uir, ti I r o'liri m'etr i.utae, or w •»
|»nb'i nr pi \ »ir n a.I*, w l<rihti i X »' » g toi i
In iralter h b* located,-.■ I,« bnjcbow II I < !
rare unit ’hi ii • lb t * to pt« ». ni 'he u*c of • l.«
way w !l be *«• I* n.f><>ii»it • !.»' vt rv little in 1
rnitmii mr, il any, w II be bit in cotter *
rju» nee—r« pair • m grntial will nnt pre*
M’l.t a lire oae of the fo.-d—whilst il.cit a J
nil uiii w ill lit- lr ** ft i tbe rad w ay tkiiifortl r '
rat al, —that tbe move ineni upon the rail wav
w.ll not be imped* d either by drought ol cold.
Ilic tudy in>p» dimrnt durii g liie w inter ara»ot> 1
• II br frot.i a fall » f Hint, w l.ich »• baa In •»
r)< iim uMrated is atrrvdy rru oved at scarcely
'*• i :!rr any rba*ruction—-and consequently ,
• hat the rad road r ay br (OMulrirrl to be
initially p-, •aside I Ii i nllg boot tbe w hole of
Ilic y r a* — that the rapidity of the trine emn I a
ip' <i it, may be a* great a» tbe wsiite c.t trade
icd mte rcctir»e fan demand, nr prudence
nltr.d; not only t .r tbe cor reyance of per-'
toi a, and the public trada, but «I rvny ci»m
modify, for tab- h conveyance would be j
"Might—that amre r-e« ei-ity would rauae rad
a ay a to be prt Irrred to cai al«, in many pla • !
"fa and nutation*, whatever n ght otherwise
t»e our opmiut-a ■ f tlieir relative value, and i
once ttanvfera anti traoal tpiv.ents, arid to the ,
np.ei.tr and riak,— (herelore,from thia rauae !
ilonr, the ratio nf advantage, would work fa-J
iiiraMy to the rail road ay a'r m ll.n.ogl.out •—J
I’ur the ear tl»at isauea fre-m tfir mine*, or I
In ei the manufactory w.th it* freight of nitn |
real* or nl w*rea, would then have no ohata- j
t le to natravelbng to the n. at remote ftrpo', i
■ oil at oftre delivering ita freight miv a wate-.
Iiojm , ilnp, »l y aril or otb.-r pl*re, wdhout
try r\pen«e nr dr lay in tbe intermediate
' -p; ' i; of the l ivd.
I rr ty<»' 1 gaer l.iv apleinn ir. favor cf a fa
nal ' . a level I'lrlrn, hut at Iti* mrr tur.e i
r< 0.3i *i <1, that in i.if a r«N a ont of ten, the i
rad rowd • l.inb. he j ret, iretJ ’ *ee Sn9 treahte .
'< t d to.da, 1 , rhv.it. i ’ <»ur cliOia'e ia
: hi ;.i *»M • f’i iiat* * V n th .■ of I'.ng-'
land, i a i I- .vn to w hi - b, .r mtr t be ?r mark '
• '« li'H.i the invent****** w d ir.ijwov*n.rnr* 1
• 1. i h h-.»f i'.ci e bc< n made, the rad ruwd I
• i hiad *b»le, d net trn.le the«fncienry J
i 1 it t'» 1 w hen I rerid wrote. tHrraUo
"" •' I i.j - r.n tad ioe*l», ', cl.apt. J
IX |
»>» dVr the f r*r*drg ncwkl it Io hy :
cu n • *na tfi'/ndetl to rn*.»->* <*rt or to dra
; n’c *a* i'd v fcanal*, hot to n.ake known
• a glial «>,«ioiiry manner, the er/w*yure»
l 'ij» f *»» ilt ar * *v I w rya, *o fa*.
a* concerns our country, an,) to rxpli.
citly. mv preference n> bn r of tad w.. - * —
Indeed it i* tibs ions'I'S' of t w o *t*te*. ilia oio
adopting the rail ro.nl sod the ntl er Hie ca
nal «) stem, the one which adopt* the rai)
cold, would alwa\• contini e fn have a .!• ci
drd advantage, whether a* reg.nl* it* agri
culture, it* manufacture a. or if* enmmefre.
in proportion to the greater ccler'iy, ecenu.
**V snd errli iniy which the i oe *y*'eni at
fonla over the other, t 'i>nw qurntli, other
thing* being equal, would become the mo*|
populous, wealtlo. intelligent, and powerful.
A oil that w Intrirr adrautagi * mar result to
Fnglsrd from the high speed allainahte «m
rail war*, the amount of the advantage* to
artsr fiom the name logh spetd mu«l
greatly enhanced in a rountrt, *o • xtcutieJ
and »u governed •* ttie Tneed State*.
Hi •pecilully submitted
(Sgntd) J KNIGHT.
C'h'-ef Knginet r II. <l(j H R.
-e— DWUi »—■»
Jl IH.F. KAkKP.K S LETTF.R,
On tin- Improvement of tlie N.»nrati, u of the
Sht natith „h.
1 o the Fihtof of the H inchest, r A irgmian.
MMAHV C!>ih, IF3I.
rvTi fmr.v In your p«pei of
etlitrstlajr la*f. I permite tha* one
of your rorrt*»potnletitft ha* done nut
the honor of mentioning mv name m
connexion with |br propositi improve
ment tif the Shenandoah bv mean* tif a
i mini. at.d «ay* tl at he under*'umb
that I am “not otdjr fiiendU' to the
object. bti» willing to t..ke an active
mu! Ir.iijing pait hi the enterprise.’*—
I * lw trim t ll f I tl m tae.il lama .* I..« I... oa.
anxious to see the navigation nl (hut
noble river improved in some •flcrtual
manner, or to witness the construction
«>f a tail way up the \ allev to S'aun
ton and even io the Ohio, (« ditertiou
which I had hu| ed the l’aliimnrc and
Ohio rail-toad would t.ike) but I have
never intimated that I had leisuie t,>
‘ ligage actively in such an ei te*j n/e,
nor have I been vain enough t-» pro
pose to lake a loading part in if. Such
a distinction, lot so I esteem if. must
be reserved for Minir one. who has a
permanent location in the country, ha*
tune to devote all his energies to tho
undeitaking, ai d lire necessary quali
fication* to ensure sUcccm*. lhcie are
gentlemen in tl e \ alley possessing nil
the requisite*, and having afar deeper
interest in the improve merit, than at y
which I may be supposed »o feel Imm
owning :• small farm on the river, and
they, following the worthy example
l your correspondent, w ill but exert
themselves, every difficulty will van
ish, and the great wo-k be»peedi'v ac
lomplis «tl. Whnewr take* t1.«* Uvd
in it.and by hi* public spirit and perse•
verar.ee bung* it to a suc< e,«ful iwr,
will not only renter a great puhbc.
hit using, but without bypeib !eit may
he su'd, will elect lot hinsclf, a rnonu
ineiit mme durable tliuti bias., tnd
{ roudei thi.ntleli.fi> pviau.id*.
After tl us dul.viixi, | run i inc* to
ad*! a few words in lefaii. i> to li *r.g
gesti d improvement. Vi>u will (.> *1
i .if iti tlif in* ei i g at l b*i lesJow n,
w lie h. h., pj ei.» d dutifig lie silting id
••>** t on11. a* <1 I ..t’lidcd
w 11fi j l.a-ti: r, l! r < r J !:.r,* o| iinpr .,\ e *
• I Cllf bit* soggesfid in the | * •! It.liofi*.
at <! iiii mot 14!, li’.T mi • r» it i, t ««* | r
ciIl*ri ♦ x press* rl. | * w a - in.i ii t il »i*< • t
piodem to adopt lli»% ti.ui-t- in i ! tl.o
i t*«ult- i f nn accurate -in »t \ at.11 v art -
ful CSbii.ii alioti of tl o rivet at il ml
refit tout irv coold bi re ettawnd, and
f'limuff* be j ii| rill for the pu* posy
of Icing submitted hereafter to a cot»
\ent ion of |rr-on* itifiiesied. '|’h®
l- • k and dmn M stem hits L. i n lerotn
ttipfided Ly the able Fng»nerr of the
.Mr:*?, a, the most eligible improve
ineitt for the James loin beh.w i!,»»
motitifati.s, /vee t.i* »rpi rt*. r.f JSfit —
1f>28 »f)il It'd!) Mini it might probal.ltr
stisw vr ii* v* ell or lirtlpf for the Mia •
nal iloati, whose ilcitrM • • more gentl®
vt;d it- ti califs! s t.of *•# tl mgerou*. ——
I he eUrCt of stry slight d uns in dil •
loiefit psrla rf ll e rivri is so striking,
as to sireiigtl.eti this opinu o, and it it
should be run fumed by the teports of
experienced Fngiii.eis, it to ght at:
percede evert other plan. Ii* adtan
tage* are. that at rut dir, g to Mr. fro
/et’a calculation it would cost a tf.irit
less than a canal or tail road ; it would
extend its benrf.ta equal ly to both sidea
r>f thy river; it would probably im
prove the health of the <uui>tiy in ifw
vicinity by keeping the water nearer
one point of elevation; it would a lunt
steamboat navigation vlmh tool-! not
be attempted in a canal ot imail di
mensions; and aa fist aa the improve
rnent was made which ncataaarily
Lommenres below, its benefits might
be einonencad without waiting for the
completion of the whole work.
Of the next plan r.f improvement
snggrated, Mr. Mrrcer hat q* ken
fully and tatisfaciui dy. Fvety ona
acquainted with the river must feel aa
aurtd that it ruold he more easily ca*
nailed, than any other in tha State;
not only for the rraaons ha assigns,
hot because it runs in a valley parallel
With the base of a mountain, and it to
r"rased hv no ridgta nr other obxtruc

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