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GBEAT FALLS DAILY TRIBUNE EDITORIAL SOCIETY AUTOMOBILES WOMEN'S GREAT FALLS, MONTANA, SUNDAY MORNING, JULY 27, 1919. IT REQUIRES 15,000 SACKS OF CEMENT TO BUILD SOUTH SIDE STORM SEWER Great Tube to Handle the Waters of the City the Line Will Drain Enters Missouri River—It Will Relieve Situation by Giving Quick Drainage Thru the Industry District and Eliminate the Damage Caused by Spring Floods. At least one Great Falls concern is delighted with the continued dry spell which has marked tho present summer. Hot weather with continued cloudless days has brot joy to tlie heart of the contractor engaged in constructing the large concrete pipes for the South side storm sewer. P. Opahl, foreman of the workers en gaged in moulding the hiß (Wî and 38-inch tubes which will carry off the surplus water from the South side declares the past month has been ideal weather for v his work and with two more months of similar weather n record in concrete construction will have been established. Nearly 2.000 of the monster pipes will be manufactured here for the sew er. Splendid success has been encoun tered in the work so far and the lot at Third avenue south and Fifth street is covered with completed pipes once very few days. Besides aiding the concrete construc tion the dry spell has saved the contrac tor considerable work and expenditure in driving the sewer into the river. By being able to lay the pipes during the' extremefy low water the contractor lias -enjoyed freedom from the difficul • ties- of coffer damming the river. '• Probably $7,500 has been saved. Scores of local residents have been attracted to the lot where -the big pipes * arfe. manufactured during the past month. By applying the principles of reinforced . concreting the pipe builders are enabled 'to turn out tubes possessing the strength of steel and thé durability of stone. * Made in special collapsible steel forms the pipes are built to withstand a pres sure of 4.000 pounds to the square foot or about 141.000 pounds to tin* large tit", inch pipes. To test the reinforced pipes a large steel girder is used and if the tubes show the slightest defect under the big weight they are discarded. A man tall enough to pass the army physical examination can walk upright thru the larger pipes which have a di ameter of (it» inches. One and one-half yards of concrete are used in the mauu lb* : v -n * *« • V. * i j* vv mm TUrVi Pnum uy r. m. Kogels. General view of the plant where the work of making the 2,000 concrete pipe for the south side storm sewer is being carried forward. c ARNOLD, THE TRAITOR, AND ANDRE, THE SPY Every school boy is supposed to be f amiliar with the sordid story of Benedict Arnold's attempted betrayal of his coun try to the British in the Revolutionary war, of his escape to Fnglaud, and of the arrest and tragic death of Major Andre, the British officer sent behind the American lines to receive Arnold's plans of West 'Point. And vet on the witness stand in a Mount Clemens. Mich., courtroom the other day, Henry Ford, millionaire motor cur manufacturer and an aspirant to the Fnited States senate, testified tlât lie thot Benedict Arnold was a writer, and said he never had heard of Major Andre. An attorney for the Chicago Tribune which Mr. Ford is suing for a million dollars for a'leged libel, undertook the instruction of Sir. Ford in Revolutionary history, but, on the chance that there are others who are unacquainted with this dramatic, yet tragic and sordid page of American his tory, here is the story: ßeidRlict Arnold was born in Norwich, Conn., in 1740. While still a boy he began his business career as n horse trader of not overscrupulous methods, Then he opened a drug store and book shop in New Haven, and was prospering when the revolution begun. Immediately he placed himself at the head of a vol xmteer company attached to General Montgomery's ill fated expedition against Quebec. In this disastrous affair his chief lost Iiis life, aud Arnold assuming command, so distinguished himself that he elicited General Washington's highest commendations. But, licentious and rapacious as he was brave and intelligent, he plundered Montreal on his retreat, and by his mis conduct exasperated the Canadians, who previously had been friendly to the rev olution He later distinguished himself on Lake Cham plain, nt Fort Schuyler and the Battle of Stillwater, but in « »ctober, 1777. hi« lee Wis shattered by a bullet in an attack upton the British lines. Ineapaci ded tor active service, he was placed facture of these. Thirtyeight feet of : heavy steel wire is the reinforcing ma- ; terial which goes into each pipe. The Murray sytem of lock jaw pipe. perfected bv a New York Construction firm is used in making the pipes. Fach tube dovetails into tin? one behind it leaving a water tight tunnel capable of resisting the. strongest pressure j which might evrr be Imposed upon it as a sewer line. F. T. < 'rowe construction company of Seattle is the company in charge of the manufacture of the reinforced pipes. Af- ! ter the concrete is poured the material : is permitted to set in the forms for a | day or so and then it is wet down ev ery day for n w« r ek. Special castings i are made for turns or where branch liues j leave the main sewer. In making the the pipes 14ÎÔ sacks of cement are used daily. Gravel is shipped from Cascade and the concrete is made in the ratio of one part cement, two parts sand and four parts gravel. About 1Ö.000 sacks of cement will w ; ;i be required to construct the pipes required for the sewer. 4'oncrete experts declare that the new sewer will withstand the weather and usage beyond the life of the youngest child in Great Falls. .Made according- to the highest specifications and subjected to the most severe tests each pipe is stronger than solid stone when it is plac ■ ed in the long line which is to form the drainage system. Enough material is being put into the : pipes to build a 15-story building. Th" south side sewer improvement is one that, has been talked of for a long , time and has hail a large amount of hard travel to its present state of progress. It has been needed since the city was a few years old and during the last few years prior to the present season, every hard rain has meant damage to property because of- lack of sewer capacity. The spring freshets have been especially . aggravating and" for the years when the ; (normal amount „of rainfall has occurred j in the spring, it has been a question of ability to wade or swim or else reach the ] in command of the garrison at Philadel 1 phi a. where his dissipation, extortion and peculation at last brot him before a court martial which recommended a reprimand by General Washington. Congress ap proved the sentence and General Wash ington fulfilled it. An Uninviting Aid to Treason. And then it was that, embarrassed fi nancially. disappointed in his expeditions and exasperated by the disgrace which had come upon him. lie conceived the idea of satisfying his' desire for revenge and at the saine time retrieving his fortune, by betraying his post at West Point to the enemy. Thru his wife he obtained the opportunity of communicating with the British. Mrs. Arnold had met the British Major Andre before her marriage, at a ball in Philadelphia, and for some time kept up a correspondence with him. Thru this channel Arnold saw his chance to com municate with Sir Henry Clinton, Brit ish commander at New York, under whom Major Andre was adjutant general. Fs ing fictitious names, and in the guise of mercantile business, the treacherous cor j respondence was begun. The British sloop of war. Vulture, was moved up the North River and took a position accessible to Arnold's command, I and an interview was arranged between the American officer and Major Andre. The night of September " 1. 17^0, An dre was taken in a boat from the sloop to the beach under a pass from John Anderson, and there, in a lonely housi he met Arnold. The Capture of Andre. The next night Andre started on his ! return to the British lines, accompanied : bv loflhua Smith at whose house the interview had been held. Reluctantly he had acceded to Arnold's request to re- i mo<e his uniform, worn under a heavy ; cloak, and had donned civilian clothes His pass, signed bv Arnold, authorized | him. under the name of Anderson to "proceed on the public service to the i White Plains, or lower if he thot proper." Ir : ; j ! : | i j , n I" •"I. «'7 1 &&X t a 'Jmt / 9 mC&r rT. m WS. w » m Photo by P. K. Hogers. Machine used and force in charge of making the south side storm sewer tile , , ! . ; business center by a long and circuitous j route for the people who reside in the extreme south portions of the city. The building up of the industry district j The night j at Compound September 'Z- lie spent rid the next morning lie crossed the Hudson to King's rerry oil the east side. A little beyond the Cro ton. Smith left him. Alone, and with out having excited the least suspicion, Andre passed the American guards, and believed himself beyond danger; when, coming to a woody dell where a stream crossed the road, a man stepped out from the trees, leveled a musket and brot him to a stand. The man wore a refugee uniform, as did his two com panions who followed him from (lie trees into the Foad. At sight of these uni forms. Andre sighed his relief. Throw irig caution to the winds, he exclaimed eagerly. ORGANIZATION UNDER WAY savings societies under the I'nited States treasury plan in every industrial plant in the Ninth federal reserve district have been sent to all county directors of war savings. In many counties the work jalready under way. In these the Directions for the organization of war county chairmen are now to complete the work with all speed by forming war savings societies in the remaining indus tries. M. K. Harrison, district director of war savings, has urged county chair men in the other counties to start form- ; ing societies at once. . A force of specially trained organizers of war savings societies is now busy forming societies in the larger cities of the ninth district. As soon as that has been done these experienced men will be ; at liberty to finish the work of organiz- | ing industries in all other counties. i ' below Third street south has added to the aggravation of the drainage .if that portion of the city and it became an absolute necessity that some sort of >evver improvement be made. The bonds were voted more than two years aço ;u»d t-lui- work would have been done in the summer of 1!H7 but for the fad the war between the Fnited States and Germany occurred and the sale, of muni cipal bonds was banned except in ex treme cases, and this improvement failed to sei re up to (he measure of an emergency need and the bonds could not he disposed of. The end of the war brot conditions favorable to the work and it was promptly started but not without a considerable wrangle in the city council in which one element attempted to provide a rake-off of something like $11.750 for an engineer but they were balked by public sentiment and forced to abandon their plan. The sitiith side sewer follows Third avenue v..nth out of the industry district. It provides drainage for a vast portion of the city and pours its contents into the rher n long distance below where Great falls gets its water supply, so there is no danger from that source of the city's water supply ever being con taminated by it. as the character of the river below the water works to the mouth of the sewer is marked by cascades and constant decline in eleva tion. The work of building the sewer was secured by the contractor, Fred A. Saner of Butte for slightly more than S'JOO.OOO, being something like $"N.000 under the total of the bond issue authorized by the vote of the people. The nature of the construction i> believed to be such as to take care of the drainage of that section of the city for a considerable period and of a character that insure permanence. I v ... . .. ! Andro Warns Arnold. ; ing the hands he had fallen into, ; his tactics and pocoselv he had represented him "Gentlemen, where do you belong? hope to our party." "What party?" was their response. "The party below"—meaning New York, Andre replied. "We do." was the answer of the trio, who, seizing the bridle of Andre's horse, ordered him to dismount. Perc Andre shifted remarked tiial self to be an Englishman merely by way of badinage, and that lie was in reality a Continental officer, going down to | The plan under which war savings so cieties are being formed is simple. A meeting is called in the plant during which the importance of thrift and in vestment in war savings stamps is ex plained to all employes. Those willing to take part, usually evefyone. are then asked tii sign a membership pledge, sometimes promising to buy a fixed I amount of stamps weekly or merely to , j buy stamps. A president of the society is appointed and one or more secretaries named. The secretaries each have a j fixed number of persons on whom they ; call each payday, giving them an oppor . (unify to buy thrift stamps or war sav- ! ings stamps. It is desirable to have plenty of sec retaries, according to Ray (. I euscher. | executive secretary of the district war ; savings organization. The secretary who | has but l.ö employes to call on each week i is more likely to finish his work than i new sewer will mean better pro values to the south side of the specially lie I o w Sixth street, be it will, it is expected, eliminate! - ■ • - WW« ** ,j/y ■ • £ jm* . 5vî ; ■■■ ! , ■ ; "■ : > .. r Vv- V >: . ? ?.. .'. V ' ■Jk < * MS - ! 'v: Photo by F. E. Rogers. View of the big sewer pips lying on Third avenue south ready to be put into place when the ditch for south side sewer is completed. lllobbs Ferry to get information. So sa.v inc. he showed them the pass from Gen era! Arnold At first this might have sufficed, but his actions had aroused the suspicion of the militiamen, and they in sisted on searching him. The removal of his coat and vest dis closed only $S0 in Continental money, and they were about to permit him to proceed when one insisted on an exam ! ination of his boots. They were drawn ; (l ff j )v |,; g ,. a |,tors and in them were ; found the papers he had received from Arnold. They contained exact returns of the state of the forces, ordnance and defenses of West Point, with critical re marks on the works and other important documents. ■ ; I the one with .'50 on his list. If there are .'10 employes two secretaries should be named so that every earner may be given a chance to become »»saver thru ; investment in war savings stamps or thrift stamps. "The Ninth federal reserve district has responded KM» per cent or better to ev cry national effort and we purpose to , do the same this time." Director Harri son said yesterday. "We are using Min neapolis as a model and there is every j indication that every industry in that city will have one or more war savings societies by August 1. St. Paul and I>u ! luth are to be organized with the same thoroughness and by tall we intend to attain the same result in every Ninth | district county. Minnesota, .North i»a kota. South Dakota. Montana, western \\ iscoirwn ami northern .Michigan are nil to deceive the same thorough atten (ion. Work Was Authorizéd by the Voters More Than Two Years Ago but the War Caused Delay. Last Wet Year Proved the Need Argument When People Were Driven Out by High Water—This Is but One of Many Improvements Started. the annual submergence of that section. The waters have at times spread from Third avenue south to Sixth avenue south and at points have been^ two or three feet depp. and just a casual glance at the sewer pipes now ready to be laid as the main sewer would cause the layman to doubt if they will carry the water that one of the big spring rains means. The engineers say it will and until that view has been controverted bv fact it must be accepted as correct. But there is a reason that if the layman will take into consideration, will make acceptance easier. The spread of the waters in the spring time has been caus ed largely because of the faet that the drainage as the flood approached the river prevented its quick escape into the stream. Passing it thru the sewer pipe under the r."Hlroad tracks will eliminate that difficulty and will put the water into tlfl- stream without it being dam med up by the railroad track and the buildings until it spreads all over the south portion of the city. Some four years ago, in the latest big flood, most of the warehouses and branch houses of the machinery and other companies that are located in the industrial section south of Second avenue were flooded with water, some of them to the extent of a foot or two of water, and yet they are built on a grade that they are entitled to expect protection by city drainage from flood waters, t »ne instance in point may be cited. The building of the Ilart-Parr company was then but about a jear in use and yet it filled with water until the office force was compelled to quit the place. It was but typical of all and due to no negle.t on the part of the company but due to the poor drainage that the city had pro vided for that section. And it may be stated that largely because of the heavy damage sunt lined l y property owners from that flood a cunpaign was .started which brot the bond «-lection and the a tit liorizatiou of the improvement, Thi; building of the south side sewer The efforts of the young officer to ransom himself only further aroused the anger of his captors, and he was taken back to American headquarters. < >n the "Sth. in charge of Major Talmadge. a ! voung Continental officer of about the same age. Andre boarded a barge to King's Ferrv. where he was turned over to Colonel Jameson. His first request was that he should' be permitted to notify General Arnold j that he had been arrested. Not knowing the rank of his prisoner nor the extent 1 of the plot in which lie was implicated, iColonel Jameson permitted the message to be dispatched. ! The Flight of Arnold. , " , . , i » I he news of Andres artes ; and Ar nold s treason fell hke a thunderbolt upon the public ear. and all!nate's tor relief to the wisdom of W ashington and to him I oloncl , .he papers found on the pi >oner aud a ; s.etement of the manner in which he was J taken. 1 \r oa i, ! liut the papers missed General Wash rngton who was on his way to insneet ■ (.encrai Arnolds post, and just two days after An.lre s capture W ashington came I within sight *>f )Nost Point As they reached a point opposite the s fort \\ ashiugto i .s ead of continuing J" 1 ,0 Arnold s head.piarters turned his ; horse don n a uam w road toward the j river. I-afaxette, who aecompauied him, observing this, exclaimed: "General, you are going in the wrong ' direction. You know Mrs. Arnold is j waiting breakfast for us, and that road will take us out of our wav. "I know you young nieu are all in love with Mrs. Arnold," the general laughed, j "and wish to get where she is as soon as j possible. You may go and take break fast with her snd tell her not to wait for j me. I must ride down and examine the f redonbts on this side of the river, and will joii%ou in a short time. ; But the officers preferred not to pro ceed without him, and two aides were is just one of the big public improve m -nts that is being carried forward this summer. It is the only one yet started but the others will be started shortly. The Sun river road improvement to cost sometl ing like #80.000 ".ill be started at once, the contract having been award ed at Helena on Friday. The two bridges which are to be erected over the Missouri river here, one at First, ave nue north and one at Tenth street north, will be started early in September, tho bids to be opened and tue contract let on August 25. There is being some further pavinpr added this summer but th" amount of paving will be relatively small because of the conditions as to crops that ob tained in this section. There had beep contemplated a paved avenue from one end of the city to the other, had the crops been normal but the city adminis tration took the view that such an ex tensive improvement should not be at tempted this year and it thus goes over. In addition to the contract work re ferred to as tßkiug place either within the city or adjacent to it, there is a road contract at Monarch and Neihart where the expenditure will run about $110.000, the road being the highway connecting Yellowstone and Glacier Na tional parks thru Great Falls. There is another bit of public improvement wirk pending but which at près _«nt is somewhat uncertain and that is the Montana Terminal elevator. The plans had been shaped to let that contract within the next. 30 days but failure, to self the bonds has temporarily, at least, checked that work and it is now uncer tain as to when it may proceed. The storm sewer is ttie first big eon tract to be undertaken by the city since the war and* real iy marks the era of bigger things wfiich will follow in* rapid order if the wishes of the leaders in the city building work are to be realized, tt thing which seems quite certain. dispatched to tell the Arnolds of the delay. The general, his wife and the two young aides had just seated themselves at the table when a messenger arrived with the note from Andre. Reading it before his guests, but not divulging it»s contents. Arnold rose quietly and remark the fell unconscious at his feet, he left her lying ih a swoon. Washington's Discovery, Arrived at the Arnold home. General Washington told that the post com mander lind crossed the river ahead of |,i n , ( 0 West Point and, after a belated breakfast, the general set out across the river to the opposite shore. Rut Arnold " as on his way to the British ship Vul turc, which earned him to safety and psi | ( , Washington learned of his subordi perfidy when he reached West , >oint <j, ( . <lispatc | ip( , ,„ uri ,, rs (iovvn tho river in an unsuccessful effort to head „ff , h e fleeing traitor and returned to er seeking Arnold - s qu(srtors . aftt , comfort Mrs. Arnold, hp rapid!v wrote in of Arnold's treason and sent mP8S0I in p .lirecio,, to spread th) , word am th( . Continental troops, Wh ilo Arnold escaped. Maior Andre was tried and. despite the desperate cf forts of sjr 1!t . Iir V nillton , hunjf(M | H Arnold, an outcast among tin ^ , h h(1 attem|)t ed to be ' tr J, his own , alul . expressed envy of tbe fate of llis tVUow conspirator. He had been made a brigadier general m the British service, but his fellow offi cers scorned to associate with the man who would have sold his country and his honor for flôO.OOO, the amount Arnold wus to have received for the delivery of West Point. .... f . , 4, l*rovi<h»nee. which lias so otten anu so remarkably interposed in our favor, never manifested itselt more oonspicu ously than in the timely discovery of Aranld's horrid intention to surrender tin"" post and garrison of West Point to jthe-cnemy, was the only comment W ask iugtou made of the occurence.