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LOW ESTATE OF CONGRESS.
The lowered reputation of congress is a thing that begins to attract public attention as it should (|o. The Springfield Republican, which is strieây independent and non-partisan in its attitude, feels compelled to comment on it and charitably attributes some of the doings of the republican majority to the irritation and bad temper that comes from overwork. It says : "Congress would be better qualified to deal with the present difficult situation, both with regard to the railroads and the league of nations, if it had not been almost continuously in session for the last several years. Recesses and the in terims between one congress and another have been few and short. Aside from other causes this alone would tend to promote friction and jealousy. Added evidence that tempers _ in Washington are bad and nerves on both sides not what they should be is found in the angry protests in the house against even the rulings of Speaker Gillett. Until within a few days ago Mr. Gillett had apparently been suavely proceed ing with as much success as if the house had re solved itself into an afternoon tea and no one had risen to question to whom the hostess should give the first cup. But in recognizing a repub lican instead of a democrat the other day be cause the democrat was endeavoring to employ dilatory tactics, Speaker Gillett committed what former Speaker Clark heatedly described as an "outrage." A year from next March when the present congress comes to an end Mr. Clark will presumably have cooled down and be making either the usual motion or the usual speech com mending Speaker Gillett on behalf of the minor ity for his fair rulings and courtesy in presiding. At the end of a session both parties are apt to remember that they have been playing politics and that a good deal of their fury, however sin cere at the moment, has after all been dictated by the mere fact of opposition rather than by any real cause of grave accusations. It would be well if what they remember then could be bet ter realized in times of crisis, and not merely when the crises are past." But the deterioration of congress and its loss of respect in the public mind does not apply solely to this session. Neither is it a partisan matter. Congress had a democratic majority up till the present session and it was not a great deal better than the present session, so far as securing the good opinion of the public is con cerned. It was also governed largely by partisan considerations and dodged responsibility. If it did not equal the present congress in that re spect it may be said that we never had a more cowardly and trivial congress in both chambers than the existing one. They do nothing but talk and beef about what Woodrow Wilson does. They do nothing themselves but kick about what others have done. That is more true of the up per branch of congress, the senate, than it is of the lower branch. When there is any really im portant matters put before them, like the threat ened tieup of all transportation in the United States, congress promptly passes the buck back to the president in a resolution telling him to settle the question himself according to his wis dom and inclination because congress to whom the matter was referred does not care to tackle the matter or express any opinions about it at all. Such cowardice and lack of initiative of course tends to lower congress in the minds of the public. The Massachusetts newspapers goes on to say: "For the present congress must remain in session. But if for a few hours elections could be forgotten and jockeying for political position be abandoned in the face of a domestic crisis, there would be more hope of wise decisions and less danger of those both hasty and ill-judged. If instead of making a spectacle of itself for the past two months, congress had been proceeding to the orderly transaction of business, it is pos sible that the labor leaders would not have re fused to await congressional action or dared to try to elbow congress to one side with the asser tion that their appeal was to the people. The fact that certain republican senators have been chiefly engaged in making faces at the president while the great body of the people, including a probable majority of their own party, has taken a different view upon the league of nations, has diminishedL popular respect for and confidence in congress at a time when respect and confidence are peculiarly needed. If there had been an ab ler, more responsible and more constructive con gressional leadership it may be doubted whether the ultimatum with regard to government own ership of the railroads would have been put for ward as it was. The present situation is a chal lenge to the development of such a leadership; if it does not appear there will probably come a further dominance by the president, whatever the wisdom or the unwisdom of the course which he may urge and in spite of the republican ma jority. To be effective, congress, or the major ity party in congress, needs to know what it wants and what it does not want, and to stand accordingly." THE BIG INCOMES. The income tax returns furnish for the first time accurate information about the wealth of individuals, which is almost invariably exagger ated in the public mind. We are told by the government reports that in 1917 there were 141 persons in the United States that had incomes of a million dollars or more. Assuming that they received an average return of five per cent on their property, this would indicate less than 150 persons in the whoie country who had for tunes of more than a score of millions. There were, however, 315 persons whose incomes ex ceeded $500,000 and yet did not reach a million. Presumably they were worth between ten and twenty millions each. There were 559 persons who had incomes ranging between $300,000 and $500,000 and counted in the very rich class. There were also 2,347 people who had incomes of between $150,000 and $300,000 and wer« therefore millionaires, and also 3,302 whose : - comes were $100,000 to $150,000. That would make 6,664 persons in the United States whose fortunes exceeded a million dollars. Too m;my millionaires, one would say. Perhaps so, but those who are jealous of such piled-up wealth and would have it distributed more evenly might be interested in a calculation made by the New York Sun, which finds that if all these big in comes of $100,000 or more were divided up even ly among all our citizens it would give each of them four cents a day, and the government would be deprived of a very large amount of tax money which it would have to levy in some other way, and be paid by people less able to pay it. The figures refer to the year 1917 just before we entered the war. The year 1918 showed less large incomes than the year 1917, but we have not seen the details published as yet. The treas ury department, however, announced a falling off of big incomes as compared with 1917. it is an interesting fact because it gives the lie to statements often made as to profiteering during the war. While these charges may be true as to individuals, yet wealthy men as a whole grew poorer during the war, as the income tax re turns disclose the facts. PROPAGANDA STUFF. The average newspaper editor is made weary these days with dumping in the waste basket every day piles of propaganda stuff gotten out hv every agency and organization under the sur from organizations to free Ireland to simila: ones to stir up war -with Japan. In fact the Tat ter is mighty active and has been for ' long tiros for some reason we do not quite understand Hand and glove with it is a propaganda to in duce the American people to commence war against Mexico and annex the country. There is nothing mysterious about this last propagan da. It is financed by men who have property in terests in Mexico and would naturally like to have the citizens of the country who do not have property interests m Mexico chip in and pay for the cost of rescuing American property from the hands of the bandits who govern that coun try at present. The desire is natural and easily understood. An eastern newspaper gives us this thumb nail sketch of the forces that are working to embroil this country in a Mexican war: "The charge made by the Presbyterian board of for eign missions that the oil interests are conduct ing a propaganda to embroil this country with Mexico is not exactly novel, but. it needs the pub licity that the Presbyterian church can give it. The board of missions asserts that the hearings at Washington have been staged so as to present only a certain class of witnesses; that it is im possible to get published in many American newspapers anything that is not unfriendly to Carranza. That intervention would mean the destruction of all Presbyterian and other mission work is a matter of secondary importance, view ed in the light of the whole situation. But if it enlists Presbyterian influence against the ef forts to provoke war, it will help to keep the pub lic mind alert with regard to Mexico. Congress might well investigate this propaganda along with other propagandas which are being con ducted in the United States at present—not, in deed, with the object of stopping them, unless they are against the laws, but to let the public know with just what motive and bias certain statements are given to the public." Œfje ©ptntonö ot ©tfjers HE AIN'T GONNA TAKE A CHANCE. (Ohio State Journal.) About everybody of supposed importance in Germany has now offered himself as a vicarious sacrifice for the kaiser except Count von Bernstorff, and we imagine he's afraid we might really take hiin up. LUCKY CENSOR HAS BEEN DITCHED. (Boston Transcript) Now that the mail service has been resumed to Germany, everybody has a chance to write over to the powers that be nnd tell them what they think of them. ANOTHER HOPE BLASTED. (Cleveland Plain Dealer.) "Swig Bill Passed by Senate," reads a headline in a Bos ton paper. It sounds very intriguing until an investigation of the story reveals that the "Swig bill" is not a prohibition relef measure, but a financial law introduced by one Senator Swig. BILL H0HENZ0LLERN KNOWS THAT. (Philadelphia Record.) The packers complain of "an unprecedented propaganda" against them. We doubt it; and yet unprecedented evils de mand unprecedented remedies. WOULDN'T BE UNPRECEDENTED. (New York World.) The New York burglars who rifled three safes and got only $350 have just grounds to go to the police and demand their rights. WHY NOT DROP THE SUIT? (Chicago News.) If Henry Ford were an anarchist the $32,000,000 melon he is cutting would be somebody else's. AN IMPROVEMENT AT THAT. (Chicago Post.) "French and Bulgars in three-hour «fight. Three dead." It's bad to have such chronic-lings in time of peace, but. it is at least an improvement upon the bloody days when such a happening would have been recorded as "Nothing to report: all quiet on the Franco-Bulgarian front." , i HASKIN LETTER By FREDERIC J. HASKIN THE BUFFALO COMES BACK ty act be fi'ashington, D. C., Aug. 12.—There nr • now no less than 7,000 buffaloes in Nor; h America, they are increasing rapid d America's most famous and char eristic large animal is considered to fa'rly safe from extermination. bhis news was brought to Washington re v ;;ly by Dr. George W. Field of the bioj "ical survey, who has charge of the gove: -iment's several buffalo ranches, ancî of all its other bird and animal res f*rv(a lions. The Buffalo has long figured in the popular mind as a creature practically or iisoarly extinct. He has been classed witjb Dodo, the great auk and the bigh balp. as a thing which was. "Gone the v. a 'if the buffalo and the passenger pipjeon" is a standard oratorical and lit erary bromide implying irrevocable ob livion. For the last twenty years, while he hfii: bt en serving as a pathetic example of man's ruthless destructivenesa, while accounts of his extermination were he •>,i4 written, and while his likeness was t vin? "tamped on the nickel that Ameri cas*» might know what he looked like, th.ii buffalo has been steadily multiply ing. By attending strictly to the busi ness of raising calves, and paying no at îeïitio nto the alarming rumors that he wäa extinct, the buffalo, as a species, hs^ literally crawled out of his gruve. There was a time, within the memory of: living men, when there were more bujffalo in the United States than there srè now people. In 1880 there were quite a few left. In 1897 a taxidermist killi'd. iu Lost Park, Colorado, the last Members of the last wild herd of buf falo outside of a national park in the i'àited States. At that time there were not many more than a thousand buffalo alive in the wo-id. These were scattered in small herds ; public and private parks. The only v : 1 ones were a small herd in Can aria, nd those in our Yellowstone na ; ark. >'O any species of animal is re •: v a thousand individuals, scient ;■ » rally give up hope for it. It is r ctt'h-l as practically extinct. And "v ; 'ilj is this true when many of the , ittîdrfljrls are old and most of them it: uptivity. Tt ' -i great deal of interest was felt in the late of the buffalo. He was < ne animal that the people knew about. He had been extensively depicted and de scribed. Buffalo Bill had chased his buf faloes and shot blank cartridges at them in every town over 10,000 in the Uni ted States. The buffalo had been sculp tured and painted and stamped on coins. In a word, he had gotten that thing which in America is the maker of des tinies—advertising. The scientists of the biological survey, who watched and nursed the buffalo dur ing the days when he was almost gone, firmly believe thnt advertising saved his life. It lead rbh men to buy buffalo reservations. It saved the buffalo from neglect, of which he would surely have died. As showing how important publicity has been to the buffalo, the scientists compare him with the pronghorn Ante lope. There are now only about 9.000 of tbepe auimals in the United States, and they are in far greater danger of extermination than the buffalo. Altho ARCHDUKE JOSEPH HUNGARY 'S MASTER V*. m* &*■ * sX! Archduke Joseph of the house of Hnpsburg has been recognized by the allies as the master of Hungary. He has assumed power with the title of governor of the state and announces his intention to organize a coalition cab inet. Archduke Joseph was a commander of Aus tro-Hungarian forces on the southern section of the eastern battle front duriug the first two years of the gre.-it war. In 1918 he headed a move ment looking to the securing of inde pendence for Hungary from Austria, and when the collapse of the dual mon archy came in November, 1918, he was asked to take charge of the situation and find a solution for the political crisis before the country . With his son, Archdultc Joseph Fran cis. he took the oath to submit uncon ditionally to the orders of the Hungarian national council, and later took the oath of fealty to the new government. Last April it was announced he had been executed by the communists at Budapest, but this report was promptly denied. Archduke Joseph was born at Alosuth on August 9, 1872. The archduke frequently has been re ferred to us the most popular member of the Hapsburg family. He did much work among the poor and unfortunate, particularly iu Budapest. slightly more numerous, they are not nearly so well protected and do not live and breed well in captivity. Unless res ervations are set aside for them, and other radical measures taken for their protection, they will be gone in another 10 years. And the antelope is just as distinc tive and interesting an American animal as the buffalo. Like the buffalo it once lived all over half the continent in un counted millions. It was the familiar daily sight of the western pioneers. And it is a far more beautiful and graceful animal than the buffalo. Yet for some reason it failed to impress itself on the popular imagination as the buffalo did, and so it seems doomed. The buffalo, in addition to his hold upon popular affection, has another strong claim to the right of survival, in the fact that he has great possibilities as a domestic animal. It has been usual to say that the buf falo had to go to give way to the cattle herds on the western plains, and it is probably true that it would have been impossible to conserve the enormous wild herds of buffalo—to use them for the national meat supply instead of domes tic cattle. But now that the buffalo has been reduced in numbers and handled like a domestic animal in many parks, it hag been discovered that he is really not much harded to manage than any other variety of cattle. It is true that he re tains a feral contempt for fences, v.nd the great weight of his shoulders, pro tected by a mantole of heavy hair, en ables him to express this contempt for barbed wire by going right through it. An ordinary three or four-stand barbed wire fence does not hold him at all. Those buffalo keepers who use barbed wire fences do so with the full knowledge that they will have to round the buffalo up and drive them back into the enclosure every once in so often. The government buffalo pastures are enclosed in woven wire fencing with strong posts planted about 16 feet apart. This spacing gives the fence a certain resilience, so that when the buffalo hits it. he has a tendency to bouncc back. There have been many cases, however, when the bouncing idea didn't work. Once, for example, on the Montana bison range a buffalo bull in a bad humor saw a big black ahd white Hostein bull paw ing up the dirt and bellowing in an in sulting manner just outside the enclosure. The buffalo bull very deliberately backed off about a hundred yards and took a run at the Holstein, completely disre garding the detail that a fence was be tween them. His disregard was justi fied by the fact that he went through the fence just as easily as the lady at the circus goes through the paper hoop. After properly drubbing the impudent domestic, the buffalo bull walked back to the gate of his home pasture and waited for the keeper to let him in. The potential value of the buffalo as a domestic animal lies in the fact that he can stand very cold weather. _ He can survive a vfinter that would kill cattle, iir.d can get to the grass through deeper snow than can cattle. If the buffalo herds were established on a commercial basis, beef could be produced on moun tain ranges, which are now producing nothing. And the buffalo makes a fine grnde of beef and more of it under the same conditions of feed and age than other cattle. The extreme scarcity of the buffalo, and the fact that breeding animals cost $250 a piece, are the reasons why the domestication of the animal has not pro ceeded further. Another ten years is verv apt to see good progress in the es tablishment of the buffalo as a ranch animal. The cattalo, which is a cross between the buffalo and domestic stock, is nn even more promising animal than the buffalo. This hybird is generally larger than either of its parents. It inherits the hardihood of the buffalo and elso his heavy valuable coat. A cattalo robe has been sold for $1.200. But the difficulties of putting the cat talo on a sound productive basis are even greater than those of domesticating the bufftilo. In the first place only about one-in ten of these hybird?. is fertile. In the second place a breeder must have sevèrnl different strains of them in or der to produce a stock, free from inter breeding. Thus a very large number of buffaloes and a long time would be nec essary to produce a sound strain of cat talo. That the animal would be of great value, and that it could be greatly im proved by scientific selective breeding, cannot be doubted, but the preliminary work would cost millions and would re quire several generations. It is not like ly. therefore, that any private individual will ever undertake it, but it seems prob able that when the government buffalo heards have increased to eight or ten times their present size, the cattalo will be bred and developed by the scientists of the biological survey. Of the 7,000 buffalo now alive, about half are in the United States and half iu Canada. The government owns slight ly less than a thousand buffalo. These are on eight reservations and national parks, the largest herd being that of the Yellowstone, with 440 members, and the second largest that on the Bison range in Montana, where there are 290 buffalo in a fenced pasture of 18,000 acres. The government has in its parks and reservations range enough for ten times as many buffalo as it now owus. The rest of the buffalo in this country are in five or six large herds which aie privately owned. Aliens at Libby Fail to Observe State Law Special to The Daily Tribune. Helena, Aug. 14.-—Twelve aliens in the employ of the J. Neils lumber com pany of Libby have refused to comply ; with the state law in giving reports to , the state accident board of their natura lization and ability to read, write and . speak English. Chairman Spriggs said he will start an action thru the courts j to compell compliance with the law. Roll Call on Higgins Bill Not Stolen Special to The Daily Tribune. Helena. Aug. 14.-r-The missing roll call on Higgins' appeal from the chair on the last, day of the special session was found in the drawer in the desk in the journal clerk's office in which it was placed the night before, according to AV. O. Craig, chief clerk of the house, who has completed the clerical work in cleaning np the special session busi ness. UNIVERSITY HAS RAISED $103,000. Spokane, Aug. 14.—-Spokane univer sity thru direct gifts and bequests has received $108,000 in its campaign* to raise $500,000 withiu five years. ESES1 5TI M AWP lUz STRENGTH and SERVI CE ESTABLISHED 1891 Careful Saving does not mean miserliness. It is the daily use of prudence in your business life. A Savings Account in this bank is a great aid to thrift. Have you started one yet? It pays 4% interest which is com pounded semi-annually. arsF Great Falls ES3 National Bank TRAVELETTE By NIKSAB. CAPE MAY COUNTRY. If you travel by boat from Philadel phia to New York, Cape May lengthens your trip by thirty miles. It is the southern most tip of New Jersey. It projects like a horn into the coastal wa ters which, next to those of Sandy Hook, carry most traffic. Cape May, in addition to being a point of land projecting into the water, is a county. As such, here in the effete East, it throws down the gauntlet to any other county in the union for that qual ity supposed to be peculiar to the west, Cape May county is wild. It is unbrok en, uninhabited, unsubdued. Bears prowl about its wastes, deer bound through its thickets. All the creatures of the wood and marsh live unmolested in its soli tudes while huntsmen from nearby cities cross the continent for a shot at other creatures of their kind. The game wardens of Cape May coun ty are Jersey r o..*!««'.-■•■«s io the sum mer. and tangle s >penetrable jungle at all times. So .'•> ihat stretch of land between Delaware bay and the Atlantic ocean, is in hailing distance of New York and at the front door of Philadelphia, is still left to the creatures that inhab ited ît when Henry Hudson first sailed this way. The only exceptions to Cape May's wilderness are a few pleasure settle ments, along the sandy ocean front, that escape the mosquito plague. They are Ocean City, Sea Isle City and Cape May —^labs of prosperous and fashionable American life on the very edge of a primitive American wilderness. Patents Issued to 306 Valier Entrymen Special to The Daily Tribune. Helena, Aug. 14.—The Carey land act board has granted during the last few weeks, patents to 305 entrymen on the Valier project giving them title to 26. 480 acres which have been reclaimed, according to Fred Lange, secretary of the board. TAC0MA WILL NOT TAKE U. S. BACON IF NOT PERFECT Tacoma, Aug. 14.—Acting Mayor F. n. Pettit has announced that the gov ernment bacon which is en route here for sale by the city, will be rigidly in | spected and sent back to the government 1 if it is not fit for sale. Spal - Bor Insect Powder EXTERMINATES ALL INSECTS LAPEYRE BROS. LOTS Industrial Sites, Business Lots Trackage X Residence Lots in all parteof the city—With Water, Sewer» Cement Walks, Boulevards TERMS Cash, '/sin 1 year, V 3 in 2 years 7 Per Cent Interest on Deferred Payments THE GREAT FALLS TOWNSITE CO. 9Va Third Street South, First National Bank Building 1. T Prosecutor Makes Statement as Eight Winnipeg Strike Leaders Are Held. Winnipeg, Man., Aug. 14.—Eight Win nipeg strike leaders were formally com mitted for trial at the November session of court, on a charge of seditious con spiracy. Presecutors Andrews said that spread ing of propaganda had been noticeable during the past month and that he had information which led him to believe that a general tie-up of the dominion was planned for October 1. A youth of 20 likes to have some on<> refer to him us an old friend. But it is different with a girl of 20. Stanton Trust & Savings Bank Capital «00,00» Surplus . — 153 noa DIRECTORS ' P H. Buckley J. O. Patterson James W. Freeman Jacob C. Far Bart Armstrong A. Beardsle« Philip Jacoby M. S. Klepps P, H. Jones a. J, Doyle George H. Stanton OFFICERS George H. Stanton President P. H. Jones Vice-President 8. J. Doyle Caabler H. M. Emerson Assistant Caahiee Stanton Bank Building, Great S'alla. American Bank & Trust Co. of Great Falls DIRECTORS R. P. Reckard« H. G. Deseïie» W. K. Flowerree William Grills Fred A. Woehner Charles R. Taylor Frank W. Mitchel Albert J. Fouseîî h. E. Foster Alfred Malmbers Robert Cameron Charles Horning Charles E. Heisey OFFICERS R. P. ReckarCs President W. K. Flowerree..«^. Vlee-Presldent H. G. Ijescher. Cashier F. O. Nelson.. ...Assistant Caahlec Interest Paid on Time Decoalta. GREAT FALLS DAILY TRIBUNE W. H. BOLE. Mil*» m. a. WABDKM. Ummmgm LIOIfASD It. nuaii Bastneu Xutm EDITORIAL PAGE