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GREAT FALLS DAILY TRIBUNE
H". M. Bole, Editor O. S. Warden. Manager Leonard G- Diehl. Business Manager EDITOR IAL PAGE CONDITIONS IN RUSSIA. HPHE other day a cable dispatch * told our readers of a strike in Petrograd by working men who de manded a reduction in the hours of labor from sixteen hours and more food to eat. The strike was put down with machine guns by the soviet government we were informed and more than a hundred of the strike leaders immediately executed. No doubt some of the labor leaders in this country who so much admire the style of government now power in Russia will say this is a propaganda lie sent out by capital istic governments and nothing of the kind ever happened. Well we don't know how true it is of course, and there is a good deal of propaganda news afloat about Russia, some of it coming from Bolshevik sources and some from anti-Bolshevik sources. But even the friends and defenders of Lenine and his communist govern ment are now ready to admit that terrible want and privation and suf fering exists in Russia and that peo ple are starving to death in the cities, the factories generally closed down, ■nd production almost at a stand still in that unhappy country. The city of Petrograd is without fuel and very short of food. Recently H. G. Wells, the well known novel ist, returned from Russia and has told us what he found there. Be it remembered that Mr. Wells is himself a Socialist and has very recently been a defender of Lenine and his Bolshevik government. In fact he is still of the opinion that the only government possible in Russia at this time is the present Bolshevik government. As to the conditions he found in this work ingman's paradise this is a brief summary of it: "Petrograd is a city of 700,000 people, against the nearly 2,000,000 of before the war, or more than 3, 000,000 at the beginning of the revo lution; a city whose wooden houses have all been pulled down for fire wood, whose streets are full of holes, whose shops are closed. People do not go about in the streets because there is nowhere to go. Food is scarce, unpalatable, and not nourish ing, it is rationed inadequately by the government, and these rations must be supplemented by whatever can be purchased from illicit food traders, with rubles some 4,000 of which are worth a dollar. A suit of clothes which wears out. a dish that is broken, can not be replaced. Nothing is plentiful except tea, cig arettes, and matches. The death rate has quadrupled and the birth rate has been cut in two. There are no medicines and medical appliances. City life in Russia is a reversion to the primitive for which people of our day were never prepared. This civilization which has broken down, and which apparently can never rise again in its old form, is in essentials the civilization which Europe and the Americas know. Mr. Wells says: , "Russia, which was a modern civil ization of the western type, least dis ciplined and most ram-shackle of all the great powers, is now a modern civilization in extremis. The direct cause of its downfall has been mod ern war leading to physical exhaus tion. Only through that could the Bolsheviki have secured power, Nothing like this Russian downfall , . j , r „ . has ever happened before. If it goes on for a year or so more the process of collapse will be complete. "The peasants are absolutely il ... _ . , . , Iiterate and collectively stupid, cap able of resisting interference, but incapable of comprehensive fore sight and Ôrganization. They will , „ „ . . , . become a sort of human swamp in a state of division, petty civil war, j and political squalor, with a famine ' whenever the harvests are bad; and ; they will be breeding epidemics for j the rest of Europe. They will lapse j toward Asia. ! The collapse of the civilized sys tem in Russia into peasant barbarism means that Europe will be cut off for many years from all the rainera! wealth of Russia and from any sup ply of raw products from this area. from its corn, flax, and the like. It open question whether the western powers can get along with out these supplies. Their cessation certainly means a general impover ishment of western Europe. "The Bolshevik government is in experienced and incapable to an ex treme degree. It has had phases of violence and cruelty; but it is on the whole honest. And it includes a few individuals of real creative imagfaation and power, who may with opportunity, if their hands are strengthened, achieve great recon structions. "The only possible government that can stave off a final collapse of Russia now is the present Bolshevik government, if it can be assisted by America and the western powers. There is now no alternative to that government possible. We have to make what we can, therefore, of the Bolshevik government, whether we like it or not. "The Bolshevik government is, and says it is, a Communist govern ment. And it means this, and will make this the standard of its con duct. It has suppressed private ownership and private trade in Rus sia, not as an act of expediency, but as an act of right. It is hopeless and impossible, therefore, for indi vidual persons and firms to think of going to Russia to trade. "The only power capable of play ing this role of eleventh-hour helper to Russia single-handed is the United States of America. Other powers than the United States will in the present phase of world exhaustion need to combine before they can be of any effective use to Russia. Big business is by no means antipathetic to communism. 'The only alternative to such a helpful intervention in Bolshevik Russia is, I firmly believe, the final collapse of all that remains of mod em civilization throughout all that was formerly the Russian Empire. It is highly improbable that the collapse will be limited to its boundaries, Both eastward and westward other great regions may one after another tumble into the big hole in civiliza tion thus created. Possibly all mod ern civilization may tumble in." It is to be noted that even this admirer of the socialistic ideals ad mits that there is only two courses open to Russia. One is help from capitalists. The other is a relapse into barbarism. It is a striking con fession coming from the source it does.' THE "PECULIAR NATURE" OF CIDER. A TTORNEY GENERAL PALM ** ER seems to have gotten himself strang i e d in the toils of his lawyer | ]ogic when he comes Qut tQ discusg ; the legal standing of cider with a " kick " in it from the viewpoint of w hat congress meant in the Volstead ; inforcement statute and incidentally he has roused the wrath of Wayne B . Wheeler, the legal light of the ! Anti-Saloon League, who loses no t i me j n showing up the weaknesses ; j n the attorney general's logic and denouncing his decision. For our selves, we think that the Anti-Saloon League lawyer has somewhat the best of the argument At least, if t h e soundness of Mr. Palmer's inter pretation of the law is admitted, there is a hole in the Volstead in forcement statute big enough to drive a horse and wagon through so far as the making of home brew of an alcoholic nature is concerned. In reply to the secretary of the treas ury, who wanted to know whether nonintoxicating cider and fruit juices" means nonintoxicating in fact or containing less than half of 1 per cent 0 f a i co hol, the attorney general expresses the opinion that the latter }s meant, but goes on to say that section 29 prohibits the sale of fer mented cider, but not its manufac tU re for use in the home. Congress he declares, "seems to have recog n i zed t he peculiar nature of cider " an d he makes the following impori ar) t contribution to science: • • r , When the juice of apples is press ed out the immediate result is cider. When this is done an intoxicating even within the definition of j^ e PJ^Ü^tion act > has not been pro duced. But fermentation very short ] y sets j 0i producing alcohol, and all that is necessary to convert the cider into an intoxicating liquor is the ! a P se a short time. Broadly speak mg, one who has manufactured cider which has not yet had time tQ fer . ment has not manufactured intoxi eating liquor." ; If we get the logic of Attorney j General Palmer correctly, it is some j thing like this. The squeezing out ! of apple juice which then is sweet or unfermented cider, is lawful, and : the liquor so produced is a lawful 1 beverage and the manufacturer of it justified under the Volstead law. God Almighty having so ordered the law of ferment, the lapse of time changes the lawful liquor manufac tured by the owner of the apples into an unlawful liquor under the Volstead act. But this change in the nature of the critter was not made by the original manufacturer. It was changed by the law of the Creator and the lapse of time, so the farmer may not be charged with manufacturing .unlawful liquor with a kick in it but may keep and use the stuff, taking the goods the Gods provide without fear of the penal ties of the Volstead act. We are not surprised that the Anti-Saloon League challenges that interpretation of the law. It is true, no doubt, that congress recognized the peculiar nature of cider. No doubt most of them realized that with the lapse of time, a little sugar, and the proper conditions for fer mentation sweet cider would change its innocent nature and turn into stuff that "biteth like a serpent and stingeth like an adder." We doubt not a good many of the congress men have had practical experience of what a jug of hard cider will do to the man who treats it as an inno cent beverage. But they also know that this quality of change is char acteristic of all fruit juices when subjected to the lapse of time and the law of fermentation as establish ed by the Creator. By crushing out the juice of grapes a harmless and non-intoxicating drink can be manu factured, but leave it long enough and you have intoxicating wine. The same thing may be said of about all fruit juices from which pleasing drinks with a kick in them are manu factured—from peaches to choke cherries. They are non-intoxicating when they are first manufactured, but later some of them are pretty high in alcohol and have a kick like a mule. This decision of Attorney General Palmer opens a pretty wide door for the amateur booze manufacturer, but it may be well for them to remember that the attorney general of the United States neither makes the statues or construes their meaning in the last resort. Congress makes the lav/S of the nation and the federal j courts construe their meaning. The : attorney general's construction of j their meaning is only a lawyer's opinion, though he is the officer who makes sweet cider without any ! kick in it, should not be prosecuted t ■t n a i • u. f. j . if God almighty afterwards puts in the kick he left out, through the operation of the laws of nature made by him. That may seem logical particularly charged with the prose cution of violations of those laws. It is the opinion evidently of At torney General Palmer that a farmer enough to the man who likes his cider with a kick in it, and just enough, but we doubt if congress in tended to be so liberal with him and we doubt if the courts will hold that congress intended such liberality. If they should so decide then good-by to the restrictions of the Volstead prohibition act for every man can be his own booze provider at a slight I cost for fruit or fruit juices to make J it with. T5he SPIRIT of AMERICA DAILY EDITORIAL DIGEST Exclusively for The Tribune liy the Consolidated Pres« Association Today's Subject: j League they NEW WORLD AGAINST THE OLD The emphatic protest of the Canadian delegation to the assembly of the league of Nations against the domination by European statesmen who had "stained the world with blood" is a piece of "un finished business" that the American press is apparently anxious to see com pleted when the convention reconvenes. To some American writers it is proof positive that the League has already failed and the United States is well out of it. Others feel that Canada's pro test explodes the "myth of Britain's six votes" and sounds a clear call to this country to join with the rest of the western hemisphere in blocking Europe's autocratic diplomats and establishing a democratic association to check war. The Rochester Democrat and Chroni cle (Rep) believes that Canada's action shows that she endorses the attitude of the Republican party here in the United States when the Lodge reservations were adopted, but. Canada made its fight against Article X within the League and "the obstacles which are being thrown in the way of any changes in the covenant being made at Geneva indicate* that the United States adopted a wiser course." The Ann Arbor Times News (Ind.) also feels that the rejection of the League at the polls is now justified and the Wichita Beacon (lud.) considers that "gradually out of the murk and turmoil of international negotiation and recrimination is emerging the fact that the ideals <»? the eastern hemisphere and those of the -western hemisphere are ir reconcilable.." Until this difference is composed, the San Antonio Light (Ind. I declares, there can be no understanding "productive of permanent peace." On the present basis "nothing worth while can be accomplished," the Pittsburgh Gazette Times (Rep.) believes, for "if th» Entente Powers are to control th»> will jntrol it for them selves and there will be no improvement of conditions." That reform of the League can conn from within, the New York Evening Globe (Ind.) is certain, and there, iî thinks, America should be: "While our so-called 'liberals' de nounce autj belittle the League because it is "autocratic' these men are opposing its autocratic tendencies in the only place wher e they can be successfully fought— at Geneva in the meetings of the Assem bly—American delegates fighting at Geneva side by side with Howell, Doher tv, Barnes, Motta, Branting and Cecil might have transformed the spirit of the League in this single session." The Sioux City (la.) Tribune (Ind.) admits that "at first, the Canadian's statement appears to be an argument against the League of Nations and its consequent 'entanglements' ", but finds "on closer scrutiny" that it takes on the guise "of the strongest argument for the league." The Tribune points out that despite our former freedom from "entanglements" we were forced into the last "Europe-made" war and in the light of that experience one is led to consider that "it might have been better if we had some say as to whether the war should have been started, and now while we are in tbe tiuroea aftenuatli The Haskin Letter By FREDERICK HASKIN REASONS FOR RED TAPE. Washington, Dee. 25.—If the proposed budget bureau is created by congress, we may at last have an office with power to help cut some of the yards of red tape out^ of government routine. Year after year government bureaus go on duplicating effort and wander ing all around Robin Hood's barn, instead of taking the shortest route. In some cases an alteration in office procedure can be affected by order of the secretary of the department or some lesser offi cial, In other matters, omly congress or the president has the power to Act. Either way, the red tape goes on end lessly unrolling because nobody is suf ficiently interested to start unwinding a few more yards of it in order to bring about a change. When, once in a great while, some of ficial simplifies procedure, the change is so unusual as to cause surprise and comment. General Harris a few days ago attracted widespread interest when he put through the startling order cut ting down the number of endorsements on army correspondence. The idea itself is not original. For years people have ridiculed the army regulations which re quired a soldier applying for a furlough to send the request to his sergeant, who referred it to the captain, who had an endorsement writtein and copies of the papers made, and then referred it to the major who made some more copies, and so ort to the officer sufficiently elevated to have the final word. The remarkable tact is that somebody has finally thought of doing something about it Hereafter, papers will in some eases skip some of the intermediate officers and those offi cers who have to endorse them will in of of the war, is it not more pertinent that we have a voice in the question of the next war?" Without making any comment whatever concerning the duties or interests of the United States in th s connection th e Cleveland Plain Dealer (Ind. Dem.) concludes its remarks with this terse statement: "the United States unrepresented at Geneva, may be grati fied that her Canadian neighbor is win ning a large and respectful hearing." The question of "England's six" put before the country by those opposed to ! the league and asserting that Great t Kritain cast six ballots against 0,lr one > I s touched upon by several writers who consider that this "arguaient bep ° answered in Canada's defec Chronicle^Im!)! 6 Muskegon (Wlch) "The league has not yet vindicated itself, but it has done better than most of its friends expected it would be able to I our light substitute, Canada, carry ni'" ' r ° ur " al <iU! (Dem. I thinks that the most linpor I • c- . *\ c r its, •. , m .V? f ? meeting of j its assembly m exploiting the myths that | have been spread about it, Indeed, the Louisville Courier -Journal (Dem.) believes that instead of being part and parcel of the old country Can ada now "finds itself more kin to the United States thau kin to England," and she is actually "fighting America's bat tles" at Geneva, "while we are on the sidelines impotent and helpless, watching the azette portant thing in the revelation of the Canadian attitude is that "it emphasizes the absur- ! dity of the demagogic assumption that the five self-governing British colonies. ! having member tools Dispatch find-) also welcomes the fact that another "delusion" has been "punc tured'' and "it has transpired that Great Britain's crafty, diabolical six votes in the league do not exist." The Dispatch is satisfied that— "The incident amply proves that the free, independent dominions of the Brit ish Empire are not mere echoes of the ceutral government. The jingoistic Kip ling, even, sensed that long ago, with his 'daughter I am in my mother's house, but mistress of my own.' European or Brit ish domination of the league is a bogey which Canada has bowled over." The Lincoln, (Neb. I State .Tourna! (Ind, Rep.) goes so far as to say that "the six votes, as a matter of fact, are rather inimical to the harmony of the British Empire" and "even an anti-Brit ish Borah must feel that in abominating the six votes he for once failed to rec ognize a good thing when he saw it." Canada's action shows that she is not only "with America" but that our vote should be added to hers, the Wheeling Register (Dem.) declares. because, "America, Canada and the New World, askir nothing, seeking nothing are the only nations that can hold the world to an altruistic course—a course of peace because Europe will trust the west where it will not trust its own parts." i membership in the assembly, are j of England." The St. Louis Post : - - TH6Q.e APe TTMt£5 U'HgM MURDER OVS-TePtfQ te ri f J ost T o .S how J Tn? Ft cwxtekje 5 5 op T he i wj a.5 h6pfr INJ ONE AfvJ D *JOlA< / \ TuRee* ^ — —^ ootvieT.MS-S * VHSMHCA »XL QUIT THE GWS AMO t h 6 n A i.e. OP* A cSoöfS's i PICK UP «ND Have A sSPÊU, OF" v^ir-e swoonNg j- r t PUAYé ia/MCM "ha,t s Ti-t« wav IT Goes *LL HOU€ IHli THc SHOOT - day OTHÊ-a neftF 5 MA.Pi? *jD AW eao y üu« bali HoO "~7 r M ^f// w w At inCRes ^5om £- \ *THim£ 1 ÖR6 51ST ABLE , ABOUT <SÖCF_ I -SUT \ THCRCT -- ivjoy <He«E S OLD -OKtSS. CftOPPV hello çeoftQe ' HûWi T m S <â >\m£ T oday - T mat '^ <3ocn> faCf "Ota COUCKS I? GHT The COuRiB Aas rou Go To plat <j0lf or T alk people 70 JDfS ATM QAM£ OTH6R L'KG » •SAY LL ■•S ■ - / < C7. - m 'â ï 2/4 most cases be permitted to stamp an en dorsement on the document and send it directly on without making and keeping records. This is a typical instance of a reduction of red tape. People are inclined, however, to de nounce all government formalities as red tape. If we write a letter to the secre tary of the treasury about Liberty bonds and an answer is not found in the" return post, red tape is considered the only pos sible reason for the delay. And when we read in the paper that a skilled agricul turist is leaving important experimental work in the government for lack of a few dollars more in his pay check we be- I wail the red tape which prevents the de - 1 partment from cutting down its regiment of messenger boys and keeping the sci entists at work. The Biggest Business The fact is, the Government is too ponderous an organization to be very flexible. What might seem a desirable course to follow in one case would be a disastrous policy if applied throughout the service. The difference between the Govern ment and other business concerns can best be understood when you take a definite instance. If you run a private business, and prefer not to keep files but to throw your records of correspond ence into the waste basket that is your affair. If you are the partner would have to bg, consulted In a company, the members have still less absolute liberty. And if the firm incorporated, you may be responsible to a board of directors and to any number of stockholders. in a partnership, j The government represents the most complex system of all. It is composed of nearly 1,000,000 employees, including the army, and it has 110.000,000 em ployers, the citizens of the country Every government clerk is responsible to this enormous body of employers. The whole organization is on so large a scaie that only general rules can control its operation. Suppose then, you write to the depart ment of agriculture regarding a strange weed in your garden. When that letter reaches the department it becomes an official docuoient. It is answered by the scientist of the bureau of plant in dustry who knows most about such weeds. And then long after you have forgotten all about it, your letter and a copy of the aaswer lie duty bat safe in she department archives. Ten or twenty years from now the department may apply to congress for permission to destroy your correspond ence and other papers which no longer it approved, congress would probably i>a«s an act authorizing the destruction. " To destroy public documents without goiug tbrougl) this ceremony, or even to muti late them, is a penitentiary offense. ^ v. UU',4 paucia Will Cil IIU JUUKC seem of value. A committee would con sider the advisability of this step, and :f ■ Carloads of Records, One small bureau which employes only about 50 clerks has a carload of paper« filed away, many of them in bundles tied up literally with the proverbial red tape To sort out those of value from the worthless papers would take more time ! _ Ä „ 0 -, - , > t -,; , f ' , , ,an glve now - ! -, , tons of such papers stored in j Iuor S u es awaiting the per : and congressional ap pro val for a bonfire. From time to time the bureaus do get permission to reduce the mountains of old correspondence and records. The civil service commission, for instance, keeps its records of papers of persons who were found ineligible for a government position for several years, until there is no possible chance of these papers being wanted. Offhand, this looks like red tape at its reddest. A government official says not. He teils us that it is a protection to the government employe and to the people of the country. If there were no such stringent law regarding preservation of government papers, dishonest clerks could too easily cover up crookedneses. Time and again in an investigation of irregular dealings the records are called for. If the chief or some other official had the authority to throw away these papers after the correspondence was closed there might be no written evi dence available. As it is there have been cases were officials who had destroyed ! or altered records were discovered and ! sentenced. j Protecting Government Money. , ,, . . , .1 Another instance of what some people j ttunk is red tape is the requirement that employes who collect money under the j treasury department—such as customs ! officials—make returns daily. The of-1 Dennison's Crepe and Tissue Paper LAPEYRE BROS. DRUG STORE ficial, whoever he Is, turns in his money to a bank, and sends a report to the treasury department The bank also re ports at once to the treasury each amount deposited. This is a single step in the precautions to keep the govern ment's money affaiars straight. The I J re f sur - V department h a„ the m08t per ££ « c Ç 0UDtin S in ™ e ' A* * ve f y 1 point where money js handled it is cheek ed to avoid error or dishonesty. A gov ernment official may spend public funds unwisely, but it is practically impossible for him to take a dollar of the money entrusted to him, and put it directly in his pocket. Still another place where formality is carried to an extreme for protection is in the state department. Officials and clerks in this department are more care ful of what they say in answer to the most casual question than employees of any other government office. Nearly every statement for the press is careful ly written by the state department press bureau, approved by some high official, and copies made to be distributed to the newspaper correspondents. If news j is given verbally it is just as carefully prepared. Any slight change in wording might cause an international misunder standing. Even an adjective a trifle stronger that the one intended to be used might possibly offend some foreign rep resentative. On the other hand, ceremonies no less elaborate are being performed by some other bureau without any legitimate reason back of them. The budget bureau, if it materializes, will be re quired as one of its definite duties to "make a detailed study of the depart ments and establishments for the pur pose of enabling the president to deter mine what changes (with a view of se curing greater economy and efficiency in the conduct of the public service, should be made in (1) the existing organiza tion, activities, and methods of business of such departments or establishments, (2) the appropriations therefor, (3) the assignment of particular activities to particular services, or (4) the regroup ng of services. The results of such study shall be embodied in a report or reports to the president, who may trans mit to congress such reports with his recommendations on the matters cover ed thereby." This is still mnch like using red tape to eliminate it, but it is a safe way to simplify the complex government "ma chinery .and as such it is strongly sup ported by the congressional advocates of the budget system. > - pungent paragraphs The Cream oi the Nation's Humor ! ! j Selected for The Tribune. Why shouldn't a man be required to sift ashes after he gets home Saturday afternoon. Six days not five and a half, shalt thou labor.—Wichita Beacon. There's a big debate in the Sewing Circle as to whether a strong fat lady or an agile thin lady has the advantage in a shopping rush.—Saginaw News Courier. That Denver sheriff is aiot so bad, after all. He gets them and loses them. Our sheriff doesn't get them at all.— Buffalo Express. The Yanks are about ready to wind up the watch on the Rhme.—Washington Post. Argentina has had an earthquake, bnt nobo4» believes it resulted from her del egate? withdrawal from the assembly of the League of Nations.—New York Her aid. la the old days the cynic remarked that beauty is only skin deep, but now he concedes that it is frequently knee high. —Baltimore Sun. Invent all-year hat for men^—Head line. Especially appropriate for father. —Milwaukee Journal. Where the deuce does a girl get vacci j nated now so that it woo't show? —Min neapolis Tribune j -1 ! "The blue law leaders are impelled by the love of publicity," says a clergyman. in American Bank & Trust Co. of Great Falls OFFICERS! ft. P. Reckards President W. K. Flowerre« Vice-Presiden) H. G. Lescher Vic« Pre»!dsn! F. O. Nelson Caahlei P. A. Fisher Assistant Cashiei DIRECTORS: W. W. Haight Frank W. Mitchell J. J. Flaherty L. E. Foster Robert Cameron F. O. Nelson R. P. Reckards H. G. Lescher C. E. Hslseji Albert J. Fous« C. B. Robertl Alfred Malmberj Clyde Wilsoj Charles Hornin« W. K. Flowerr»» Walter Kenned) Chas. Gies Wm. Grills Fred A, Woehnei Charles R. Taylor E. L. Nprrtl 4 Çi Interest on Time Certificates and Savings Accounts. Children Study Art m ms m m ■ Ma 13 a • .k: fjJ-rjL Chicago school children have an op portunity to study sculpturing in the juvenile class started recently at the Chicago Art institute. The children model in clay. The photograph shows Mathilda Sherman, one of the little art pupils modeling a figure. It's another case of "little Boy Blue, come blow your horn."—Denver Time«. How would it do to amend the immi gration law so as to require every new comer to bring a house with him ?—Dai las News. "Move to Stop St Louis Crime." says a headline. The piam. might be ali right but for the fact that a lot of St Louis folks can't afford to move.-^Des Moines Register. We begin to fear that England wiD njver stabilize Ireland by continuing to csnstabulize it—Columbia iS. C.) Rec ord. French Army Paper Recommends a New Rhine Confederation Mainz, Germany—(Correspondence of The Associated Press).—The Echo Da Rhin, which is published under the direc tion of the French military authorities, in an editorial recommends the support of a new Rhine confederation under the leadership of Bavaria and Catholic Ger many with a prospect of the inclusion o( Austria later The editorial concludes: "An impover ished and subdued Prussia and a rich free south Germany would assure peace and prosperity for France."