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I a mONTANA NEWS ___
OWNED AND PUBLISHED BY TrE SOCIALIST PARTY Or MONTANA VOL. VII. HLENA, MONTANA, THURSDAY, FEB. 11, 1909. NO. 14. What Socialism Is and What It Will Accomplish (By C. F. D.lht, M. D., University of Minnesota.) A majority of the American people have not yet investigated Socialism. I shall, therefore, state briefly what it is and what It will accomplish that the readers may know the right or wrong of the Socialist movement, which has become third in the country in the number of votes cast, and much stronger in other countries. Socialism is a world-wide movement of the working class and its sympa thisers to have the products of labor to to those who produce htem; in other words, to secure for the pro ducers of wealth the wealth which they produce, that they may be better housed, better fed, better educated and live a longer and better life. The world's headquarters of the So clalist movement is in Brussels. The American headquarters is in Chicago. The internatiopal party is about 8, 000.000 strong in actual votes cast and is growing amazingly. Broadly it urges: First-That the means of production and distribution of wealth that are social and public in their nature shall be owned col lectively. This includes the great wealth of raw material in the earth oil, coal, iron-which the Almighty created for all men alike, and machin ery for Its elaboration and distribution which machinery the workers have made but do not own. Second-That all social utilities, be ing collectively owned, shall be demo cratically managed for the benefit of all who work. and that profit-making. whereby one person exploits another, shall be abolished. Third-That all who can labor shall be given opportunity to labor in the colectively owned Industries, and when Socialism is full-fledged, shall receive, directly and indirectly, the full product or equivalent of their toll, and until then a wage just as near the selling value of their product as is possible. Fourth-That those who can, but will not labor, though they may, should there be such under Socialism, shall receive according to what they produce-nothing if they produce nothing. Fifth-That each person may own privately as much non-productive property as he or she can earn by an honest labor of hand or brain. This would include your home, your library or automobile, yatch and all other private personal effects not used for exploitlng purposes. sixth-That child labor In gainful occupations and productive industry shall be abolished, Juvenile education made universal, and that the old and worthy dependents shall have their Interests protected and needs supplied. Seventh-That the government shall be brought near to the people through the Intiative, the referendum and the right of recalL By the Initiative is meant the right of the people to them selves directly propose laws and by a majority vote to make laws that shall govern them. The referendum re quires that laws made by our legisla tors shall, before they become effec tive, be approved by a majority vote of the people. The right of recall is the power which the people should have Immediately to recall from oaoe an offending oflcial when the ma jority of the people by vote desire it. Socialist believe that Socialism, by abolishing the profit-making system in businem, and by establishing the co operative commonwealth, will remove more than anything else proposed, the motive as well as the opportunity for political corruption and economio wrongs, and without destroying indi vidual liberty or the Incentive to any worthy effort. Socialism is not anarchy. It is as different from anarchy as is light from darkaas or good from evil 1. The Encyclopedia Brlttalca says: "The ethlcs of ocialism are closely skin to the ethics of Christianity, it not identical with them." 2. Prof. R. P. Bly says: "It is ap plied Christi.alty-the golden rult ap plied to everyday life." 3. P. 0. Peabody, professor of Christian morals In Harvard univer sity, esys: "Jesus was a Socialist, If Judged by His teachings." 4. Smile de IAveleye says: "Every Christian who understands and who earnestly aooepts the teachings of his Master, is at heart a Sboalaist." 5. Dr. Lyman Abbott, while not a Socialist, says: "The tendency of the times sle towards Socialism; nothing can prevent It, and nothing should prevent it." I. Father William Garry says: "Let no man tear the name of Soclialhm; the movenmet eo the working classm or Justlee by any other nsme would be as terrible." 7 Our sclenatiUt Grant Allen, was a Socialist; aud Alfred Russell Wallace, who is perhaps the leading scientist it. the world today, accepts fully the trachings of Bocialism. S. Rev. Father McOrady, who died last year, said: "Under olialism re ligion will conquer the globe, educa tion wl expand and science will dausle the world with its glittering sheen." Socialism, however, is not a religion, but strictly an economic and moral question. 9. "Socialism requires that the process of production and distribution shall be regulated, not by competition with self-interest for its moving prin ciple, but by society as a whole, for the good of society."-Dictionary of Political Economy. 10. "A theory of society that advo cates a more precise, orderly and har monious arangement of the social re lations that that which has hitherto prevailed."-Webster's Dictionary. 11. "A science of reconstructing so ciety on an entirely new basis by sub stituting the principle of association for that of competition in every branch of Industry."-Worcerter's Dis tionary. 13. "Government and co-operation are In all things and eternally the law of life; anarchy and competition, eter nally and in all things the law of death."-John Ruskin. 13. "Socialism being the product of social evolution, the only danger lies In obstructing it."-Rev. F. Sprague. What Bocialism will accomplish by abolishing our competitive and profit making methods In business, and by establishing co-operative methods are in part as follows: Socialism will abolish wage slavery with its oppression. It will advance the worker's wages from a bare subsistence wage to the full value of the product of his labor, increasing his income several fold. It will eliminate class distinctions based on wealth, and will establish so cial and economic justice. It will establish the dignity of labor and rank it above capital. The production of an overabund ance of commodities of life and com fort will not, under Socialism, cause distress and need as now, by closing down mills, workshops and other in dustries. The more wealth you produce the more you will possess, instead of add lng it, as now, to the capital and ex ploittng power of the master class. You will escape the ironical fact of capitalism that as wages advance liv Ing expenses increase, for all com modities will be supplied at cost-the value of a "soeial labor hour" being the basis on which the price of com modities may be determined. Under Socialism you will own an equal share with Rockefeller in the oil Industry, with Morgan in the steel trust and with all others in the tools of industry; you will escape from the grip which the private owners of the machines now have on your life and liberty. There will be a vast saving of labor and enspese through the economy of oo-operation In doing work, and the workday for all workers will yield lar ger results In wealth produotion than now, and might be shortened it we desired It. By giving the wealth producer five ffths of the output value of his toll. Instead of one-fifth, as capitalism does. It will promote marriage and re-estab lish the home whihob capitalism has largely detroyed among the laboring masses. Sootalism will immediately, on Its adoption, begin to remove the need, if there be such, for the brothel and the saloon, and will soon eliminate them both. Under It you can be clean in business and Chriatianlike seven days In the week, instead of on Sunday only, as now, which makes you a hypocrite all the time, event against your will, because of our competitive methods. It will reform politittcians and make them upright men. It will restrain human selfishness, stop graft and promote brotherhood and honesty. Every person may "live on Bray street," for the producer of wealth will be Its possessor. Girl clerks getting the value of 625 or $50 per week in department stores. Instead of $3 as now, will not be asked by the Christian(?) manager. "Can you not get a gentleman friend to help you T" Socialism will make the good of the public a dominating thought and true democracy a realised condition. Merit wilU be the basis of reward. It will cause the labor-saving ma ehine to fulfill Its greatest peaible good. It will give employment to all workern drting their produetive years. It will remove the fear of want anad poverty. It will atop child labor in productive industries and give all chil dren equal opportunity for an educa tion. It will pension and protect the old. It will make it easy to follow the good precepts of the Man of Galilee. Sociallme will end strikes, lockouts, aest Jobs and the ever present war that is waged between capital and la bor. It will end the deceptions of a hundred kinds that are practiced for profit-making. It will eliminate dis ease to a large degree by bringing within easy reach of all those chief conditions upon which health depends -plenty of pure air and sunlight; enough good food and healthful drinks; cleanliness, proper clothlng and shelter; regular periods for and sufficient rest, sleep, and exercise. Socialism will start the human race on the highway to quick attainment of such perfection in ourselves, phys ically, metnally and morally, and In our environments as the world has never seen. If we can, with any certainty at all, forecast the results of the operation of any new economic system or plan of concerted action before It is actually put into operation, we feel confident that Socialism will do all that we have claimed for it. Individualism (capitalism) demands profits in the production and exchange of commodities. Socialism demands that production and exchange of commodities be for use purposes and not for profits. Socialism stands for co-operation and Is constructive. It builds for the benefit of all. ."To teach as his work shall be" Is Its motto. Individualism stands for compe tition and Is destructive. Through competition It tears down. It destroys more and more the interests of the less successful and enlarges the Inter ests of the more successful, until al ready one per cent of the people of the United States own more wealth than all the remaining 99 per cent of the people put together, and ten mil lions of our people are constantly underfed, badly clothed and poorly housed. Gompers Takes Determined Stand '"Thelwy Can Take Their Poeld of Flesh. But There is No Yelow Strak in It." '"The right to boycott Is inherent in every man and we are going to stand by it." declared Samuel Gompers, president of the American Federation of Labor, In a lecture on "Trades Unions and Social Progress" under the auspices of the Ethical Social League at the East Side Parish House, f Second avenue, Thursday night. "I don't like to boycott," he con tinued, "and whatever you may think as to my provocations I will my there Is no person in the world against whom I bear Ill will. Bvt there are some persons I will not trade with. And when I get one or more men to take the same position it is called a boycott. Our revolutionary fathers boycotted. They would not buy the Englishmen's tea and would not buy from any person who did. That was a real secondary boycott. Prom the time of Adam and Eve the boycott by another name has been a universal weapon of mankind, and for a court to throw Itself into a spasm because the word is not euphonious is Incom prehensible to a rational person. Right to Patronmae. "Men may they don't like the sign on the United CIgar Stores and won't buy there. That Is all right, but the principle applies as well to the cigar store as it does to a Buck stove or a range. (Cheers.) You have a right to give patronage or to withhold it; to restore, or to transfer it. "I hold as a legal right. as a funda mental right. the right to bestow or withold patronage; in other words, to boycott. The question of the boy oott of one company or another com pany shrlnks Into Insllntflcance, how. ever, when compared to the import ance of the Injunction which has been used against myself and others. "That Injunction prohibits the right of you and of me to speak or write on a certain subject, thereby depriving us of that freedom of speech guaran teed to us by the constitution, and I say now, as I have said before, that when It comes to making a choice be tween obeying or violating an Injunc tion of a court which would deprive me of my constitutional guarantee I will have no hesitation in standing for the constitutional guarantee. Dealed iSLh of Jauy. "If you publish or write anything that s libelous or seditious you ann UNDER CAPITAU.gM AND UNDER SOCIALISM. Under the capitalist system of to day: The men who make fine clothes wear shoddy garments The men who build houses live in hovels. The men who make motor cars walk. The men who build ocean liners cannot afford to travel abroad. The men who do the hardest and dirtiest work get the lowest reward. The men who have transformed the world have no legal right to live In it. Under a Socialist system, however The right to work, which means the right to live, would be an established fact. The men who work will get the full product of their labor. No man will be able to Iive upon the labor of his fellows unless he be Incapacitated through age or illness. Every man will be well fed, well clothed, and well housed. Every man will have opportunities for culture, for travel, and for leisure. The world will become a thing of beauty and will belong to the workers of the world. MUNICIPAL OWNERSHIP U'C CEEDS IN MANITOBA. Winnipeg, Man., F'eb. 6.-Under government ownership Manitoba's tel ephone system shows a surplus of $250,000 for the first year. In Janu ary, 1908, the provincial government bought the Bell Telephone company's plant, lines and equipment for $4, 000,000. In certain classes of business rates were reduced, but it was not deemed practicable to make many reductions on account of heavy expenditures in running 600 miles of new longdistance lines and In opening a large number of nmw exchanges, besides building many rural systems. In a few days reductions are promised of from 25 to 40 per cent. be brought into court and have your guilt or Innocence passed upon by a Jury of your peers. and you are pre sumed to be innocent until you are found guilty. In contempt proceed Ings for an alleged violation of an Injunction you are presumed to be guilty and must show cause why you should not be sent to jail. "If, with John Mitchell and Frank Morrison, I can contribute a little something toward maintaining the standard of American manhood-well, I can only say that better men than we have gone to Jail, and I will also say that there are others who will follow us there. I have said that if they take their pound of flesh they will find there is no yellow streak in It." Speaking about the Sherman anti trust law and its application to labor unions, Mr. Gompers said: "That law, which was passed at the behest of the people to protect them against the machinations of those who controlled great wealth, has in the past few months been declared by the Supreme Court to applyto organisa tions of labor. Unions of workers are now held to be combinations In re straint of trade and Illegal, and any man belonging to one may be fined $S,000 and imprisoned a year. "You did not know, you members of unions, that you belonged to trusts, that you were trust magnates; that I'm the boss trust magnate. They thereby take from unions the very functions of organised effort. It is too absurd to require argument-this application of a rule against the trusts to a body of men and women with nothing but the power to labor back of them. "If the multi-millionaire acts on the theory 'after me the flood,' how will that day be ushered In-by a cata clyans, a revolution, or will it be by the trades unions that will fight the bat tles of justice? The American labor looks you In the face and demands or Is not the man with the hoe; he equality of opportunity. I assert the. right to lansist on an orderly develop ment of unionism in the United States. 'Combinations go on in capital: they are only prevented in labor; you can't break Into a trust with an axe; the union is open to all. We shall retruaee no step, abandon no right. whatmsr the power that trtes to torce us dowl." Socialist Play is Crowned a Success Sinclair's First of Trio '"The Second Story Man." "Jobhn D." "Thea Indignant Subscriber." Three sketches by Upton Sin. clair, whkih will be produced throughout Caliufrnia to fur ther the Sodlistsc movement. The arst is the story of a burglar remated by soWal injustice. The second pictures Rockefeller sub miuning to an interview. The third deals with. a. newspaper reader who rements predatory journal bIm. San Francisco. F.I,. 6. By invitation, several score of Up ton Sinclair's friends and those inter ested in his work gathered at the Paul Gerson school of acting to view a pri vate rehearsal of his one-act play "The Second Story Man," which I. one of three socialistic sketches he expects to produce throughout the country under Socialist auspices for the fur therance of the doctrine that equality of operation Is the salvation of the world. The audience followed with inetense inte.rest the development of the playwright's theme and discov ered as soon as the curtains were drawn that he had hit upon a thrill ing situation, which unfolded itself with breathless action. The story of "The Second Story Man" is that of a burglar who is forced to undertake his first job prac tically by starvation. He has lost his position In the steel works, where one of his eyes is blown out by an explo silon of the slag furnace, and he has signed away his claims against the company while lying blind in the hos pital. As soon as the panic came the works closed down and he was one of the first to go. His wife ditd; his baby died of poisoned milk; his little child was killed by a street car. Left alone, he became a "boozer" and a "bum," actuated solely by the desire or food and for revenge against the interests which cheated him out of his rights as a member of society. By a strange chance he finds him self in the fiat of the very lawyer who, acting for the steel company, per suaded him to sign the release for damages-the man he has sworn to kill on sight. He meets the wife who, instead of fainting, proves sympathet Ic and urges him to tell his story. As he gradually gives her the chronicle of misery she discovers that it is her own husband who has been the direct cause of the hopeless wreck who is speaking to her. The husband enters. He covers the burglar with a revolver, and for an Instant has him at his mercy. His wife takes the weapon from his hand and forces him to recognize his own vic tim. The husband is remorseful and offers to aid the "second story man." who, however, scorns his help-de clares, indeed that he is past help and cannot figure the loss of his wife and babies in money. "What about the the other fellows?" he cries. "You've done the same thing to! Who's going to help them ?" The wife sees that all the prosper ity of herself and her husband, all her pretty clothes, all her jewels, have been wrung from the anguish and suf fering of others. The burglar, in fact, attributes it to "the mill," "the sys tem," which grinds out men's lives for its own perpetuity and can never be checked until a complete change takes place. Even if the husband gives up his work there will be some one else willing to undertake it. An unexpected clash comes when, after al the futile offers of aid from the husband and the wife, the burglar makes his offer-nothing less than the life of the man whose life he had sworn to take. He turns him over to the judgment of his own wife and goes back to the underworld from which he came, leaving the sense of burning injustice and perverted so clety which his story has excited. It is impossible In reciting the plot of the play to give any idea of its dramatic values, which are excellent. There is not one draggy moment and each climax, leading up to the cul mination, is extremely effective. The action of the piece occupies only about 25 minutes, but it contains enough material for a four-act play. Mr. Sinclair has been fortunate in securing capable actors. Mr. Chris Lynton, who essays the part of Jim Parraday, the burglar, plays the role with power and pathos, always in character and yet with the rough per ception to trace the real source of his wrongs. Mrs. Keith Currier, as the wife, Helen Austin, gives a vivid por trayal of a good hearted woman, Ig norant of much of the evil in the world and inexpressibly shocked to find her own husband a party to it. William Currier. as the husband, plays his part with discretion and gives the feeling that he Is a helpless instrau ment in th.e purposes of "the system." If Mr. Hinclair's other two sketches are of the quality of the present play let, and it is understood that they If ford conslderable relief in comedy, he will have an evening's entertainment of extraordinary merit and variety, to may nothing of the potent intention back of the ,ffort. .GA.lINST UNION I'RINTERS Coages Permila Coantracting of the Work on Government Censrs. Washington, Feh. 4.-After a long and heated debate the house yeater day airreed by a vote of 127 to 114 to the senate amendm, nt to the e-n Isu 1I111 permitting the director of the cen.jrt to have the printing done at private shops If he finds that will he cheaper than at the governm,,nt printing establishment. As it Is as serted that open shops are certaln to underbid union shops for this work, the house's vote is construed au a serious blow at trades unions. The work involved is estimated at neariv $1,000,000. The unions recelvvd a b'tter excor iation from Mr. Hlepburn, who dle clared himself strongly opposed to the house allowing itself being dictated to by 2,000.000 men who use their ot ganization to override the 20,000.,000 who are not organized. I)ANIE: WIN GLAORIOUS VICTORY Their Agitation rets Six Russian Revolutionists at Liberty-Case Similar to Ours. ',pI, nhug,n. F. 1. '.- Th*. w.,.rkine people of all (Denmark are rejoicing over the fact that the six Russian rev olutionists demanded by the bloody ('zar have been set at liberty. Their freedom was demanded by the Socialists when they were first ar rested, under the regime of the no torious Alberti, and the agitation has been kept up until at .ast victory has been won. The names of the men released are Adolph Orloff, Charles Apaschekrom, Israel Kajat, Alexander Skirgals. Carl Schelner and R. J. Flachermann. All of the men were connected with the revolution in the Baltic provinces They were active on the various pri vincial committees, and all of themr sleuths of the Czar, who had life of the short-lived Republic of the Baltic. They escaped to Denmark from Courland. but had hardly touched Danish shores when the sleuths of the czar, some of whom had obtained employment in the Danish police, seized and imprisoned them. There was an immediate outcry on the part of the Danish Socialists. which at first had no effect, but later on, after the Alberti exposures, the public took up the matter and the at tempted railroading of the men to Rassia war stopped. t'his left the revolutionists In prison in this c'ty, where they have been d.. tained until the final decision of th' minister of Justice, M. Hegstrom, who has declared that the men are polit ical offenders, and on no account to be d'sturbed in their life in Denmark. The cause of the prisoners was taken up in England before the final de cision was reached, and an appeal was sent to the Danish minister of justice by th English sympathisers. LABOR PARTY FOR SOCIALISM Coaference at Portsmouth Reairms Last Year's Resolution but Rejcts Comstltutlounl Ameodment. London, Feb. 1.-The annual con ference of the Labor party, which has been sitting for the last few days at Portsmouth, has declared itself in fa vor of socialisation by means of pro duction, distribution and exchange, and of the complete emancipation of labor from the domination of capital tam and landlordism, with the estab lishment of social and economic equality for the sexes. At the annual conference of the Labor party at Hull last year a siml lar resolution was adopted. At that same conference a resolution making the Socialist declaration a part of the Labor party constitution was re rejected. A similar resolution at the present conference was again rejected by a vote of 381,000 against 313.000, a de creased vote against the proposed amendment to the constitution. The action of the present confer ence is a reaflrmation of the reso lution for Socialism adopted last year, but Soeialism is not yet included in the labor party constitution.