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VOL. VIIL a~, an ues~ ui/ wrIt. . HELENA, MONTANA, TBIIISDAY, JULY 8, 1909. NO. 2.
Objections to Socialism Answered
By C. F. )ight, M. D.,
University of Minnesota.
When AdmiralDewey sailed his fleet
Into Manila bay, some natives, It was
said, sought his confidence and ad
vised him 'to take his ships along a
certain course, in approaching the
enemy, In order to avoid concealed
mines placed elsewhere.lt was reveal
ed later that these natives hoped to
have his ships blown up by mines that
had been placed along the course they
urged him to follow.
This pretended friendship of th'.
natives was a subtrfuge---an effort to
It is natural that the great insti
tutions now in power should do what
ever strengthens them in their post l
Uon. Accordingly subterfuge objec
tions to Socialism are urged. Some
of them are very absured, yet ignorant
people are still misled by them. They
are chiefly these:
(1.) That Socialism is anti-Chris
tian. Catholic archbishops have so
declared It to be. Let the disin
terested speak in reply to this. The
great political writer. Prof. It. P. Ely,
says: "It is applied Christianity
the golden rule applied to everyday
life." The Encyclopedia Britannica
says: "'The ethics of Socialism are
closely akin to the ethics of Christ
anity, if not identical wit them." F.
O. Peabody, professor of Christian
morals in Harvard university, says:
"Jesus was a Socialist, if judged by his
teachings." Rev. Father Mcdrady,
who died last winter, said: "Christ
taught Soclalism." Expressions in
line with these come from.i hosts of
people the world over, whose perctp
tlon of truth has not been clouded by
At a recent meeting of the Minis
ters' Socialist Conference, one hundred
and sixty-one Socialist clergymen,
who represented thirty-six states and
territories, signed a consensus of be
lief that "Socialism is the economic
expression of the religious life."
Bearing In mind the fact pointed
out in the March number of this
journal that objections to Socialism
grow largely out of property interests.
is it not more likely that Instead of
Boclalisth being anti-Christian those
who maintain otherwise have selfish
interests at stake?
Socialism is not anti-Christian. It
is individualism (capitalism) that is
(2.) Growing out of property In
terests, the subterfuge charge has
been dared, that Socialism would
destroy the home. Capitalism, as
we have it in our competive system,
has largely destroyed the home al
ready. Socialism would restabllshit
for the toiling masses and make it
one where love, fidelity and happiness
would dwell more richly, by making
it easier, several times over, for the
bread-winner to secure means with
which to esablish and maintain a
home. The average pay of the
20,000,000 of men wage earners in the
United States is about $450 per year,
while the average output of their
labor is from two to five times that
sum, and which, under Socialism, they
would receive with no more work
hours than now. This would climate
the the chief condition which now
destroy the home-Inability to main
tain a home.
A very small per cent of men wage
earners dare buy or build a home,
even if they had the money, because
continuous employment is so uncer
tain In any one place. The farmer
of the West want most of their hired
help for but a few weeks in harvest
time. Trustificatlon of Industries of
ten closes down small plants, and
men are let out of jobs, or, it they are
transferred to other manufacuring
centers by their employers, and they
own a home at the closed down
plant, they have to sell it at a losu.
It they lose their jobs for belonging
to a labor union, or by being "scabbed
on" by cheap labor, they often have to
seek work elsewhere, and thus many
worklngmen are forced into a life as
nomadle as the Bedouln Arabs lead.
This all destroys the home. But Bo
cialism would certainly obviate this
At a theatre recently I overheard
one of two women in conversation say
that goolalists would destroy the
moral purity of the home. But it is
capitalism that sets two standards of
sexual morals and that fawn upon the
male libertine. This woman-poor
creature-being ignorant of what
Ioolalism is, condemned it; and so do
many because of ignorance or from
mercenary Interests.
(8.) An objection almost suggesting
imbeollity is this: that loolalism is a
proposition to divide up the wealth of
M -
l'o world epuel''' -moml e.,oplhe. .t
ii always pathetic to t.:lk with a
p r"-.n so ohtu., as to thlI,ol 'hat So
c'elism ever wu!tg -tied *iihI a thing.
Socialists urge no equality except in
opportunity, and no distribution of
wealth to any one beyond what he
creates (the worthy dependent on'es
excvl ted,) but to each all that he or
she does create.
If a few are still misled and bewil
dered by this "dividing up" objection,
let them reflect on the fact that by
receiving, as they do, only about one
fifth of the value of their toll as wage
earners, they are now dividing up
hugely with the capitalists.
(4.) It has be'en said that So
iaullsm uintagoniles man's right to
private ownership of property.
C'apiltalism also does this. No one In
p, rmitted to own privete ly the public
.chuols. the city fire department.
Irhlce. roads. the inkes, rivers, parks
and p,.stul service. and public owner
-h0p of municilpal utilities is extenlding
These social utilities are owned
'o"llective'ly-for w'hich we are all glad
8ocialism would make. more things
owned collectively: such as the rail
ways oil fields, coal mines and the
land and machinery upon which we.
allhlpend for life and happiness.
hut under Socialism every person
could own privately, as now, his or
her home, automobile, yacht llbrary
and as much of any form of nonpro
ductive property and means of en
joymetn as he could earn. Private
ownership of these would bee more
secure than now.
(5.) Socialism, it is said, would
pinace us all on a common level in
.ur "*'arning capacity."
Socialism would do this but little
more than we are now thus placed.
In a group of a hundred workmen
in almost any trade some of them
areT twice as strong as others, and ex
pend less of their energy-their earn
ang capacity-by one half, perhaps.
In doing the same day's work as the'
less capable and weaker ones do, yet
the same pay is given each. while
the stronger might produce twice ar
much; and if one of them makes an
Improvement in the work methods in
use, or in the mahnilnry, that proves
a labor saver, his improvement or In
vention usually ,becoemes th'e property
of and beneilts the employer by virtue
of the discoverer being In his employ.
The greater capacity-mental in this
case-' in the worker. is not rewarded
by relathely greater gain. Under
Sociallsm undoubtedly such a person
would be pensioned as well as hon
ored for his useful discovery.
One person today in te'n thousand
ace'umulates great wealth ($1.000.
000) through his greater capacity;
as the objector to Socialism does, is
a msnelannr. Sonme call it "thieving
capacity," others more mild call it
"acquiring capacit)," certain it as no
one can accumulate a million dollars
without exploiting others.
Honest earning capacity is not such
a varying quantity as many suppose'
it to be. Men do not differ so greatly
In ability. John D. Rockefeller has
"acquired" many thousand times more
money than many a good busines
man, but It is absurd to think that
Rockefeller has many thousands times
ability of the other men. If he has,
Mr. D. Rockefeller ,anst be a god in
deed. Beyond a certain point It is
money that makes money, through
interests, profits and rents, and not
the earning capacity or merit of the
8oclalism would reward each person
according to his merit-the value of
his labor--and not, as individualism
does, according to his ability to ",A:
quire" by some high form of graft or
grab or exploitation of society.
(6.) It is objected that Socialism
would destroy the incentive to pro
gress. Yes it, would be insentive to
progress in the above named vicllur
means of acpulring wealth and in
selfish extortion, one person of an
other, In Interest, profits and rents
But under Sociallqm the collective
·g od would be p"*minent and the In
e ntive to prgrems along all utill
tltr.,an lines woullt be augmented.
Anything d'ne by one that espen
Ie!ly benefited the public would more
ciat talnly than now beneI t the doer of
it. The invertor would not he
robtled of the honor and benefit of his
invcntion by hook or crook, as so com
nmonly occurs tcday.
I Ife pensions and honors would, Ito
douibt, be conferred on thore who dis
c vor the new and useful, or who other
.who prove benefactors to the race
This reward Inhonor will always re
main a great Incentive to worthy
deeds. It would operate under So
(Continued no Page 3.)
It will give to every worker tl,,. fI'll value of the product
of his labor.
It will reduce the hours of hlabor in Iprportion to the
increased powers of production.
It will abolish child labor.
It will abolish the landlord. the lendlord and the
It will give employment to all who desire, and will
pension the oldl.
It will abolish charity and gi, e the l1,eple justice.
It will lmolish want, destitution and the poorhouse.
It will permit every member of society to develolp the
highest and the Iest.
It will abolish classes. It will abolish strikes and
h ckouts.
It will make poHssible a government of the I.c1le.
It will aibolish the trusts by making them the lprohlertv
of all the people to be operatel detswicratically for their
It will do away with private ownership of the means of
It will bring about collective ownership of the mneans of
It will make labor saving machinery a benefit instead
of a curse.
It will abolish the poor tramp and the rich tramp.
It will abolish rent, interest, profit and every form of
It will organize armies of construction. It will abolish
armies of destruction.
It will albolish crime and criminals. It will abolish
comltltition for bread.
It will encourage competition in study, science, ex
ploration, invention and the arts.
It will alslishl promtitution. It will abolish "graft."
It will break tip some of the shacks today called
It will make lMwsible for every man a go.(l home.
It will abolish "desertion" .,nd erulty. It will in
trodtaee love and harmony.
If you are in favor of this program you are with us.
If you df.ire this and wante,,. :,.Igt in our hian- <e , .
will join the $soialist party and work for Nocialism.
Socialist Editor Sentenced to Jail.
Fred Warren Tells the Judge What the Function
of Court are. A remarkable Speech.
(On lust Friday at Fort Scott, Kan
ssts. Fred I). Warren managing editor
)of th Appeal to l:tason, was sent
,-nced to six months An jail and fined
$1.500., by Federal Judge John C.
Warren was recently convicted here
of the charge of sending through the
mails an offer of $1.000 reward to any
one who would capture ex-Governor
Taylor of Kentucky and return him to
the authorities of his native state,
where he was wanted for the murder
of Governor Gobel. The purpose was
to arouse the public over the kidnap
Ing of Moyer, Haywood and Pettibone
from Colorado to the state of Idaho.
The court overruled motions for ar
rest of judgment and new trial, but af
ter imposing sentence granted the de
fendant seventy-five days to prepare
papers for an appeal.
Warren was released on bonds of
$2.600. his bondsman being John H.
Crlder, a prominent Republican of
Fort Scott, who, thodgh a stranger to
Warren, volunteered to act as surety
for the latter's appearance in court.
The argument on a hotion for a new
trial will be argued in the federal
circuit court at St. Paul In November.
Uncontradicted evidence was intro
duced by the defense showing that
several jurors had declared them
selves against Socialism, the Appeal
to Reason and the defendant, prior
to their sitting on the Warren case.
This evidence created a sensation and
is the talk of the town. Darrow's
analysis of the Indictment was a keen
reviewof the processes by which the
Indictment was found. Warren's un
expected speech in response to Pol
lock's invitation to show cause why
sentence should not be pronounced,
produced a profound impression and
caused the court to gasp with as
In the course of his remarks. War
ren said: "My arrest end convlction
is the first instance on record where a
man was prosecuted for attempting
to bring to the bar of Justlce un in
dicted fugitive charged with the crime
of murder. There mest be some
reason why I alone of the thousands
of men who according to the rule of
this court and the. ollpinion of the dis-e
trict attorney and his assisant, have
nommitted substantially the nam, :act.
should be singled out and markd for
prosecution. * * * *
"In conclusion irmit me to say
that I am not asking the mercy or
lenieeny of this court. I have com
mitted no crime and there is festering
in my conlsienei, no accusation of
guilt, but if my conviction and punish
ment will serve to rivit public at
tention upon the abuses which I have
tried to point out, then I shall feel I
have not suffered this humiliation in
vain .
"After all, this is the price of
human progress. Why should I ex
pect immunity? The courts have
ever been and are today the bulwarks
of the ruling class. Why should they
not punish offenders against that
cleas? In feudal slavery the courts
sustained the feudal lords, in chattel
slavery they protected the slave
owners, and In wage slavery they
defend the industrial masters.
"Whoever protested for the sake
of justice or In the name of the
future, was an enemy of society and
persecuted or put to death.
"In one of themost eloquent char
acterizations of history, Charles Sum
ner, treading the march of the cen
turies, pointed out that the most in
famous crimes against liberty and pro
gress of the human race had been
sanctioned by the so-called courts of
'This case is a mere instance in the
mighty struggle of the masses for
emancipation. l8owly, painfully, pro
ceeds the struggle of man against the
power of mammon. The past is
wlitten in tears and blood and the
future is dim and unknown, but the
flial outcome of this world wide
st-uggle is not in doubt. Freedom
w it conquer slavery, truth will prevail
o\er error, justice, will triamph over
injustice, the light vanquish the dark
men, and humanity, disenthralled,
will rise resplendent in the glory of
u versal brotherhood."
arren's speech captured the crowd
in the court room, and many demo
I tn and republicans joined with the
k aSlists in extending congratulations.
Preparing For The Reception of
The Royal Hangman.
Brussels, Jun 1 17, 1909.
Dear t'omrades:
In : few days Nicoheis II, 'zar cf
!:ulia,. will undertake ai jousllrt..
across. Europe' and will seojournll in
Hwelef.n, EnKglandl. Ifranee.. :,nd Italy.
TI,. conscious 'working class ca nnoet
consider this visit as an ordilnary in
cidelnt of offtilal diplomacy. ('apit
alist government will certainly retain
their part of gr.eeting the' tyrant of
working and Intell. etual Itussia, but
the nations cannot look upon sie'"h an
indivlidal as a de.siralle guest. A\I,\'.
all it is the' duty of workers to \ohic'.
what the in'mens,. majority ,of th. ir
fe'llow-citiz, ust have' not 'e.ase d rc.
peating during the's. last years. Al
ready a voice of ve.nge nl., that of
'litizen Brantlng. sleea king in lthi
name' of the' whol Hoeclal-dcmfcneratic'
group,. has I, , n he.;ard in th, Sw. dish
I'arllemnt Alre'rady in Englitnl,.
the ih legates and the. organs of the
atfillated partl, s ,t oir bureau have'
deel., d to organize manifestations of
protest, and, two days ago, Will
Thorn.. echoed their se.ntlm. nt in Par
liment at WV'.stminster.
France. and Italy cannot r. main
silent as he' ho, incarnate's the reign I
of .bleedling reac.tion and whose' reign
has been d,elsastrous for Itussia and for
all mode rn civilisation, passes through
their midst. Indeed, Instead of free
ing the peasants. Nicholas II has
star\ved them. Instead of practising
a policy of econeomy and linan, eal
purification, he has inn the cor': etr,
into debt antd h'ts tole'rated in tl'.
army, a, in civil administration, a
systm of organlzeld brigandage. Iii
stead of ,.n'er : ':':r Inte'ill.ctual citl
ture' in an "m;i tI. which numce.rs ".
pe.r c. nt of ill,.,ti.: te peo'e,,h. hIe 1h.,
malintainu.,i a stupiidl censorship and,
hils cruelly pers.ecuted the mneost de
'otel fri nds of pihllic instruction.
Inst.-ad of r.-e.stallishiltg ord,.r by
lihe rty he' has multiplliehd punishme'nt
by hanging. II. has constituted him
s, If the titlect protector eof the UL'n n
of 'Oh. ,'.;lstao n IP " l""' r1'.' e',n. t enir ,r.
ganisation of programrs and politie: I
assssinaltions. I.' huts sol. tml1 .[ -
e', lt i tih insta.'tel.t. anleei il ,'r. l r ' h I t
Ill, cll , e shouldll dc .ullc t of his c. n plll icity
in this infa:niv, hie has. \\ith the' c(n
cerr, ne, of' th.c coertll lit. oli.cially
st1,ileis, d this acsw.ciation of Iandits.
Helsh e'nctulragemenl.t \;ias ii ,t S.llli. fit
fI'r him: he' hase glentll 01 inllipnity to
the black bands, ly p.crdinuing tlt, ir
lmembers who have' I... in enl et' t 1i.
assassinations; Ihet has lnt c, is. I. ex
changing thlegra.ts with th, ir lresi
ehent. i)r. Doulro\ in, , a nitctl'iious
tcriminal. who aulls,.- I, . h. p y Jell,,s t",
be killed. who e as a, S ice , ,I ci. thi,
grand-ducal geo\ecrnnmel' o f l''nl.t I of
having ceaused I)elputy c,. rz. lt, ir teo
b,e assamsinated , who v a;is denoiei, I
,by his former secretary ProusstlS tk , tas
having Instigated the' oeutragee in which
'count Witte was to ha\,. nleut w\ith his
death .
This infamous pollcy Nicholes II has
comnpl,.te'd by lakling of spying a state
Don't follow some man in your local
that you think ought to know some
thing whether he does or not. It is
the special characteristics of the de
mocracy for which socialism stands
that every individual must do his
own thinking. You have all had
experience of some man whom you
thought ought to kuow something,
when he was put in a place of re
sponsibillty, going all to pieces, dis
organising and confubing the local.
and completely tearing down the good
work that had been done. Work of
any value In a soclallts movement is
constructive not destructive. Few
The holders of the stock In the harvester trust, with the actual and
par value of their holdings, as furnished by Mr. Edgar follows:
Shares. Par value. Fair value.
Cyrus H. McCormick ........ 150,000 $15,000,000 $7,500,000
Harold McCormik .......... 150, 000 15,000,000 7.500.000
Anita McC. Blaine .......... 150,000 1.000.000 7,600,000
Stanley McCormick .......... 100,000 10,000,000 5,000,000
Mary V. McCormick .......... 150, 000 15,000,000 7,500,000
Nettle McCormick ........... 150,000 15,000,000 7.500,000
William Deering ............... 76,000 7,500.000 3,750,000
James Deering .............. 75,000 7.500,000 3,750.000
Charles Deering ................. 75,000 7.500.000 3,750,000
Richard F. Howe ............ 26,000 2 o.500000 1,250,000
W. E. Jones ................ 26,000 1.000.000 500,000
John J. lessner ................ 25,000 2.500.000 1.250,000
Total ....................1,135,000 $113,500,000 356,750,000
This table, according to Mr. Edgar, shows the holdings of the various
stockholders on April 1, 1903, and the valuation i. given at $60 a share.
Airil first, in the two succeeding years, he says, a fair valuation would be
$60 a share, and April 1, 1907, $75 a share. This would make a fair valua
tion of $84,937,600. Mr. Edgar conteds that there is due in back taxes for
the years named $4,500,000. The penalty provided by law for the failure
of stockholders to pay taxes as they become due Mr. Edger figures at
$2,600,000. This makes a total of $7,000,000.-St. Louis World.
Institution ins4prable l fronl his sys
, ni of \governme.nt The as-.w afftir
oin thils point of ijew has torn dow'
\, 1col, ring.. It has laid bare .i.
r I'v i s corriapt from a m.oral point of
\I :Iow it is from an ',onmie point
S,'. %1, and has pro,'- d that the St.
I'. t- I , ,ii cammirilla has instigtated
plitiat .rimes in ordir to 1.ad its
autlhlrs to .t.rtain death.
I.astly. a recent int.rpellation in the
Iolini; ha:s ld.monstrated that thh. i.x
.ni naltln are accompa ni.l by
thrl ats of ild.a:th, which art meant to
I;ils' td'.llesitionl s from th." a qiius.d.
A. ting on ord. is from high pla e.s,
th, prison adlministration practins.s
syst mInt:i tfmgging and torturing of
prisone.rs. wtlllh or. than once, death
as a result. It\ ti, dir.(ectors, ord, rs
the solditrs shoot m. n and wom, n
prison, rs through th,. windows. At
th. prI s, tit momn nit ,pidnemic. of
t' phus and fi,\ r art. raging in the
majority oif the prlisons. as a result
of insulflcient sanitation. as a r.sult
of the lack-o-r thit. had quality of
tfoids, as a r sutit of ove*r-popullation.
In I"'feruary 19i. thert were 11.1:37
prisoners, whe.r th. re is not sulmtietnt
room for half that quantity. There
arn nlumerous casts of acute pihthisis,
of insanity and the prislo.ns trans
formed lirst into torture. (hambers,
hiomnl.e finally .,.metari.s for the
prison,.rs and hottl ds of contagion
for the rust of th.e populatiion
Will the ii. ilized world H.-tclar.,
itself accompilice of all these. albom
inations, by letting their responsible
author pass without iprotestation?
W1ll it Ibend the kn.ee ,. tor this
potentate. who surljpa.soN in cru.elty
Abdul Itamlid. who, re.\.nges. himself
for a crush-id re-olution,, by torture
and ass.assinations. and whos.- obje.ct
is to e.xtract n, w millionsm itn .rd, r to
continuet, his rn.farilous work' Dioes
that when thi. itussian go,\ rnment
undirtauk s to try extraditied pris
oners by thi. re.gular court, th-ey ha\,.
them ll bht ipoint-blank during trans
prt to, unather prison and tha:t they
justify this crime hby stating that the
prisoner trieid to .lscape '
It s., tnsto uts that the. timl. has
cenl to r, act against this rl.gine
w hi. h thri, it,-ns the whoii, of the
I'. a.t. Air, idy in .ermany. .without
mtuch troualh .. w, 'an taiu luit isians
oaf pali.,- \ hio t'c,-.e,.rate in ith. acts
of sl.\ing atnd prt.-cation oif the oc
cult rg. illisations of S1. 1', tersburg.
,il''11 n- tagKistrati.s \who arrange jud
.iatry ,medi,. s, with the object of
pIarsul il" st'lit.*tl , -tI t -: i',rrW i,...
ln; to Niclhlis 1l., son, f',,d for his
allhows. InI $, its.,.tland. high jus
tit.- t:s -sl, 'n twhat it is w.orth
Ira : a In'I t]l point of i . ;it tith,
time ll' l1 the 'i lstilh ft atfair,. and in
lifIgiulnt. at th. pr.es. nt mimint an
att'-mpt is lbeing mad. to ma kt this
littl. co,.untry an a -cont.plic, of th
crim s of a'z.arism. li.a-tly, iin "'rana.,
the . r- i 'tusslait lt.,n l ., \t. lil its
ramihcations :ill it, rn , rlndr thl, d .ree
Itllt , i As, \a.. a..c .li+iic.s, "who.
*, \, ral timn, s.la.\, trid to .comnlao
mis,. thi- richt of shIt, r.
'Th.1'a - . I ti. i to' allt . thatraltt. rsi
on. of tih, ,point.s ,I the pir, lit
loi nt. Tht y tt nd to protn. that
i'z.ii.'n is , , kin. to r.,.stablish its
lanci. nt h. g manyi politcy and a;t tit.
sanme tiln to renew. the lib. rticti.
traditi.on iof tith Saur.r .d Allian.ce.. lIut
Ih, lit , ratie .iIlg ,-.nm-.nt of woirk
ilag-n, it mllst unt In" haimp riedl ,ith,.r
hy lthi pus.ill.ininy iof .inmiddl-ctlass ide
niinracy. nor by th"i' 'iot.nce. of tit,
dsu-itlic autn.rat. That is why it
shall itak, its ,voice, to ha, hteard
-v.,ry hr. alnt it shall signify to tihe
chitfs of the black hands, that w' are
not yi-t ripe for the knout.
l:Xctaltiv'' Committee of the TR. S. I.
la:douard Ansei,-.,
Leon FIurnetnont.
Emile Vand,.r\.hide,
C'amille lluysmans,.
men ar' fitted for leadership. Most
persons who trylt simply exhibit their
own defects. Beware of the man who
wants to pronounce the ultimatum of
what your local should do. It is
those who make the long pull and the
strong pull, who are not discouraged.
who sacrifice, suffer. starve, but still
keep doing, who accomplish things
for the groat revolution, who keep
building, buildings in the face of
obstacles before which others whine
and retreat-these are the souls and
the characters that have made the
revolution go in all ages. Will you
help the great work?

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