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GRAIHAM & HAZLETIr, PubliLhers. OFPPICE 19 PARK AV. P. O. BOX 903 Entered at t Post Omffice for trans mlslton through the mail at second clam rites. lI'iSCRIPrTIONS: One Year ..................... Oc Bix M onths ................... I6 One cent per copy In bundles up to 600 I i I.I)I hg I L. m. i . t l i Id U t r' , L h -I l, , tt. for ,111 i . ,1. . tit , " r tI thi l ,lo n l Itut u , j tt .a .t - :i t.st l l I. t lI 'hl .' -lu .y t ,o lI nr.,itt < lhni, 6 cf e \ ,istow n, lontilna. T1II , tow ling I or i Ii l , i e l" thit Lnt S \Ill . an I, ollt atllol"lt'er s in I I ling . Jtt,. the I'en, . .t : .e S ith ofr lia llu s c t rint' lg tn Iltlt l ' r, nli.ty. 'httin . \ ltlIl;t . i its lo in. wtin h the., tht" t of tIri l t. of I h" in . ri- hiln hI r Ind )er athl s shynl, l haalt-n h us - t l ,. ntia r t it". it.h t.i , . i t'.i.t i i /:l'":l''it ON To TIIF: IOPI.;N. i t .' " ,at Ir .o i \'. , thu n tt n ar o Ir th, emit ht that sorntr .1t th\is of 1unt.un.a Is .,l .i- al t, :tlt,.ring ''seh,,ii K . or thceptn hae lwool. 0ti0til 0) it lt n nh. r, anld ýenIItor Mlyers i" .I ". dt .ti 'I', t.. is a I.* 0 on I' r all t-us • nx!iety ,f \l)lrs flor ill, intlrest of th, Mont :mla shl . pmen. ( "Crtailn owners o large l]urks hay, been Luse o" late in in the . l tiroittl folr th. rauson that thyar.. ha larg" ulantitis of Wol on Somle , 'thlO .' slhc,"plnl n r, fus, I| :;a cents a pound for th,.ir clip tw., y. Lrc ago anti arc still holding the i" 146:." woo. Last >. ,r wool Was lowI r than in 1;69 antnd the price has dcclin, l Fo much that some of thcs.s Montana sheepmen have lost $50.000 Icy hold ing their wool clip for th." past two year.. To help these few m .n out at thi .xpens-e of millions of poor people in th., United States. Senator Myers d, ijr. P t,, d. lay action on the tariff (,n ,,,0l untl nxt IDecember, in order that these few Montana sheepmen may dispose of their clips of 1900 and 1910 this season. These big sheeepmen dont herd. feed or sheer the sheep they own. they own stock In the large sheep companies that control the sheep rais Ing industry in Montana. They are all the same as stock and bond gam blers. They can be dispensed with. But Montana's new democratic Sen ator belelves in playing into the hands and favoring the republican owners of stock in the Montana sheep com panies. Senator! You are learning fast. If every socialist in every local In Montana will co-operate with us in this distribution of sample copies of the News to non-sociallsts, he or she will be doing what will cost very little in time or effort but what will be the most effective propaganda for the cause. As we said before, there never was a better time than right now to make socialists, and one of the very beet ways to do that is to increase the subscription list of the Montana News. We know that the Montana News is a good paper because we make ;t ourselves. We know It is a good pro pagandist because our books prove it. But we don't know the people in your neighborhood to whom your paper would be a light bringer and a vote maker. We don't know to whom to send it; but you know and it is up to you now to send In the names. We will do the rest. Get busy! Convkit Ibaor. I believe that prisoners should not be used to manufacture anything that comes in competition with free wage labor. The employment of convict labor results In the reducing of wages, to g.ther with the lowering of the stand ard of living, and generally Increases poverty, or the fear of poverty, the basis of practically all crime. Placing convict labor In competi tion with free labor is simply using criminals to make more criminals. I believe that prison labor should be employed directly upon the soil. in general agriculture, re( laiming waste lands, etc. First, because it provides the best means of treating the patient physi ologically. Second, because labor so applied brings into existence Initial new wealth and its competition on the Ia bor market is unfelt. Third, because the patient as well 0s the community is more Inelltted by placing the labor of convihts in this sphere than in any other. -Murray Youts, Cleveland, O. GOVERN MENT Iii %. M. I4fu 'sy rthe id."a tit g.' (.Il.131 na nio3n-f ien uI arll ac1 3. .3333' .3333 ll II 3'.' :31i. 1 Il:a 3 (131 h13s 1...'3 11 3. .,1 131.333313' ,I3 3II: l. order. (Ii. .'. .rIUt ..3333 ~ i.33 t . . .. 333 I1 33.3133 tit,, \\lorld Ir:1?s, d iii- vi to.-I". 1.t? llZhtl 11Owl li;3s I.n. n tI.. I, , I I' 3.3.. Ind tit, .I. 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'I the l'311 11113 .3.-vr.'s, tin, 133.u13131333 inmlh.3 331rn of3C I'. 331133iInatiY 33 ar i. rl fit il son 3I3~., ia- nd to.., l33ltr 133l3Ig the 3 t I..t 33f 1 ow all hlurs. 333t. ti11 - "33313 ro o i, hla, for is lih. 331lI Th*' i rt or,. 3r33na13'rt, f3or Iing human 3 '':3rit31I i~t na l3tu3r3lly 33llt33f3 tha. that 133ternme whic g33.3rnl3 sl twhe manage-t nttl.t 13f01*the i31t. rial ." .securin otOlf Inthemhadso the leglrih. top eapdost thre ltr3J3u('er ini.f walt through pofit.. his ul rdc ..Ipan whi they is. t31Cit,, oly aro.ernmnu.r.ti'h.i. andr are alway. Tcu~ LPPT~I he gret3ro 3ry 3'll nin clasr them the ealrghst epo. h T'hey can more easily manipulate the powers of government to further their economic interests when it is administered by' a few persons such as r.presentives, senators. presidents etc.. than when it is administered by the whole people. That als, explains why the master (class opposes Scilalism. It would tak.. from them not only the private. ownership of the social natural re sources and public utilities; but the management of the same would be dtemo4latically administered by thl. whole people for he comfort. happl neas and benefit of all instead of for profits accruing to the few. Mr. Voter, If you wish to know what Socialism stands for and what it seeks to accomplish just dismiss from your mind the present order of things such as profit making, exploiting, cheating, stealing, back biting and devouring one another and imagine yourself transported for the time being to some other planet on which you would see everything reversed and practised just oposite to what we now have it. What would you see'? Well you would see something like the follow ing: You would see commodities manu factured for use Instead of for profits. You would see' all food stuffs pre pared out of the most wholesome pure material instead of having poisonous acids etc.. In them. You would see every worker living In a nice large airy roomy house with modern sanitary improvements in stead of living in a one or two room shack with one or two small windows, no bath. electric light, etc. You tw ould see no class struggle, but ,\,.ry lbody living in pe.ac, and har mony as brothers and not enemies. You woull see th., people all in joylng leisure time enough to study and de1e\,.lope, thus growing mole In teliig.nt .1l the time. and as a result mor.e re.firl ed and mral. You wt .tll see every producer of wealth ,nj'o.ing for himself all his mental iand physical activities could produce You would e,. every chili in school. ihools and c'olleges would be In The artsl ianid (ierace. would be in ita lourishing condition. You would sre hi, l.ut happy count ,nances upon the people instead of tha t deathly haggard expression de elopedl by the constant dread and worry aouit how I urn to make a living. You would s.e no armi.s, no navies, no national nol rdls, no widows bend. Ing over the w.ahn tubs to support a family of dlpendent children. No child slavery. No white slave traffic. No great populous cities such as our Mh lp.. ,t(neIl lt l ,1( I ,. I .t It.tlllents alln bhack a )llh s. .. I, itn, a . In JIItIIiioIns, ioycottI outs. You , uild s.e the i. . , I t it one her. hl)I Il .us ac, d 11 .I their OWn ''You woulill . . nI ". I homes, nII misl r lt cl ' lthth, . ins ihlme.s, 11o l ttland monfl tll Il, , 1 ntl private SWhy, you sa 'I'h.tt could be I, .l. ll its, I. \\. . ist wake up Inlil sa to y)' .lll . tl, I l no dream. I atl not ItalI .ln I. . It Ito l other lIlinet. I amtll II\ . iia n earth aholl ding in aill tI, I lIlll , ri .ll I .i sour t,"i to i le juslt .inI, I + ent Th ,n llwhat h .i I t, do, to bring It 8l a ,b ut ." Sltil. itoptll suill Itii- tih. present I .,h.r if things. SItp . , ,tint fIr some iupposi d htood l1i.inl Stop voting :I Ipi ,. n .lla nanll u act - it.t In by the nus.t r . i.s iand cone in to the reaLt w ,I a lie m\et etnt lt I ;ill h+I .1. -I r..- It,. th l,, I\ rs f , t" ern nlT TiM : is a m ot!l i - 1t ;oi tit n tiz., to Igli\ t ht, whlt l. i nh pl. Ih th. right g. thu r. Youl th n iti (,lit Ii. t,, tformnulate ouIr owtl platfl'toris. noninllat., your o.n oficerl arnd r . ill ;samne at any tini . they do noi t ..'t ill T.god faith. 'i'u. can help nII.il~an th." industrial proltnhm iof life iand thus helpt to mak,. oin , tcnnim ic etn' i-tinm ,,nt suiited to th. upihuilding of ti "I Itter interests t nmankind. 'T'he great itini ll tno-d is that ni.in i.: trying to .i1.p. .hi sou cital in stiltutions and political ttasrIl l a to an aLId antled industrial irft anda it idoes not woirk w.ll. ll'h.n nman nlltr.0 i from savagery anld hrharism hi hi. his hands only, tog. ther with a ft% lry crude Im plements of producti.n with which to hatttlt. for aliving In thoms prehistoric timnes he had to struggle with the .lments and ob. stale, of nature alt well as with wild aniimals for his nmea.ns of subsistence. It has been at onq and arduous journey; but man c.onquered these ol stacles. He used his intelligence and mat his inventive genius to work to im ! provte his econlnomic condition. EF, ry invention made man more of .t Inister of the situation. Each in v. ntihn raised him higher in the scale of development. When implements of production and exchange were developed to a certain pint viz., tools of hand productio.i. each received all he produced. 'ompetition then entered the field. Man then had another enemy to com hat. Not only had he to struggle with the elhments and wild animals but man had to struggle with man for the mastery in the industrial field. tHe who was the stronger, had the greater power of endurance, the keen. er insight of the future coupled to gether with the better improved tools always succeeded in the productive and business world. Those were the daya of pure Individ ualIsm. To sult the demands of that age our prsaent political governments were in stitutd . We smee however, that a great change has taken place. To shun competition man has been forced into combination. To meet the increasing demand for commodities of consumption a motive power greater than hand or horse power had to i.e invented; hence the steam enwine and electric power. To utilise this new power, behtt.*r and more up to datre machinery must come forth. To use this machinery for producttl,. puirposs capiitai mlusnt Ie brought tn g.ther to install and ,operate the machinery. To do this companies were formnd and machin'ery elliployedl to cheapl In production l nd ilt out inditvl,.al competition. This hi,.ng aicomplished, man l,*t his individualitv aixn at proIducjr aild hrcame an appi,.nlldnl of he mainnllrll ind deplendent iuponi the owner of the machline. To elimaite. coriml,titio n among Lin-il dred coimlpanies tin or muore woull go to'ether and elnploy still gr atier machinery and thus absorb the sni.ill er firms or crush them, until we Ihi\.e evolved the gigantlc trust which , .n trois our very life. To try to control the trusts by p,llt cteal inst;tutions ,f Iby-glone ug. is ahere foollshneu. To try to regulate them by Idg.s lative acts Is working contrary to ,a'n omic forces. Then what are we to do? We are taught in science that whlen a member ceases to perform uaseful functions It Is laid aside. and new or t., ht. t perform useful functlolu are \-,\ hlet us apply this principle to , msnics and the functions of the \ .tit are the just functions of the , the. Ieclaratlon of Independence i .dI that the rlghts of the pegople SI"tee''ful pursuit of "Life, liberty i, Ihapplne's" are among the Just o- govternment. nrlher states that "W'henever ,'in of government hecomes tlt. i\is of these ends, it is the right ," le'op'e to alter or abolish it. to Institute a tinew governmnllt S,,: its foundations on such prin. a~nd organizing its powers in l iorm as to thint seems mlost I, to effect their gl'ety and hap .n i the alho, quotation lMr. Voter e that the oclallist party has uIicatlon for Its appearance in the : , al field demanding not it re i .n. but thie abolition of the prees*nt ,, it system on which our present , .t Ial Institutions are built and the - lishing of a system that will 'rant'e thlose sacred rights to all th people. \\ 'Iarge that our present regime I- , -tructhve of the rights of the ptn l,' to a decent pursuit of lift', liberty .tl happiness. ., t us now investigate and see t b, ther our charge is tenable. \\hat must the conditions be l)e t,,r, the people can properly pursue lit.. llberty and happinems? 'There are two things absolutely net. S--a try Ibefore, these rights can be en tind viz.. a sufficient amount of the iaterial things of life to satisfy in ample abundance the material needs .ilo requlirem.nts of the people, then .t sufficiency of leisure time to enjoy .t proper use of these things. If the people have this abundancte .ind the time to enjoy it under the ipres.nt system then the Socialists hlt\e no ground for their demands; if lnt, then we are justillable In brlng ing our claim ,on thetse questions let facts be sub mitted to a thinking people. There is 32 per cent of the farmers in the United States who receive an annual Income of less than 5250 per . ear. Another 28 per cent who receive Is a than $500. per year. Eighty per cent of the farmers are renting or, are heavily mortgaged. The farmer works long hours, his wife and child ren drudge long weary hours and have very little spare time to devote to social and spiritual development. Does that look like he Is enjoying the lux urles of II e, liberty and the pursuit of happiness? Not much. The wage worker and factory hands. Ninety per cent of this clams do not own the shack they call home. Think of t! 120.000 rooms occupied In the metropolis of our country with not a window to give light to its occupants. What does Ife and happiness maen to these people? What does It mean to the two million children under sixteen yars of age working from 12 to 18 hours per day in the factories anJd work shops , sweet shops, to grind their young tender lives into profits for the master class? What does life and happines mean to the five, million unemployed of the United States who want to work but cannot find work to do? What does life and happiness mean to the 200,000 young girls annually thrown into the underworld by the avarious greed for profits of the white slaver? * We might continue the category in definitely but space forbids. We think we have have proven our con tention that such a system should be abolished. Now Comrades, friends and fellow voters. The Socialist movement Is composed of many aggregates. While It is an International movemnt and we will never reach tht ultimatum of Soc ialism until its flag tI unfurled o'er all the world; yet, there is much to be done by all of us to bring it about. There are questions of a local na ture, then state and national which engage our attention. While we ate fighting for the com plete emanhlipatlon of all men In all the world and nothing short of this will satisfy the militant kScialist and he will not stop fighting until the master class Is divested of every vestige of privilege and power to ex ploit; there is much immediate relief to be brought about by electing true Socialists to office. The workers by uniting under the 8oclalist banner and electing Socialists to legislative and executive offices can force measures through that will en able them ta take from the master clamss much power that he now holds and at the same time demonstrate the practlcability of our claims and stimu late confidence in the doubter's mind. To this end we should all look and work for the election of every soc lalist possible. Firet we may win a precinct, then a city, a county, a state, a nation, then the entire world. We of Idaho had just as well awake, buckle on the armour, entqr the fight, march on to hattle,"No compromise. No political trading" being our motto. Take ,All you can from the tnaster class, give nothing and victory will soon perch upon o*ur banner. Whe-n you can win a city do it! Administer its affairs for the benefit of those who produce the wealth and the people seeing that there is some thing in store for them right now will flock to the Sociallst party In such numbers that it wont ,ee many cam palgns until we renovate the Capitl at Washington, D. C. 'and our nation will he called by all nations a nation of Justice and rlghteousnese We can win the electio n n Idaho this year if the workers and producers of wealth only think so and get to gerther at the polls and vote the straight Socialist ticket. 8. W. Motley, Socialist Lecturer. Twin Falls, Idaho. C'onflisation Is somethlng which we should avoid lit all hazards. Therefore. We should not attenmpt to prolong life, for that would conliseate the bus Iness of the cundertakers and the gra\. diggers. We should not seek better sanita tion, for that would conflscate the business of the doctors. We should not urge temperance, for that would confiscate the busl ness of the brewers and distillers. We should oppose the pure food I:hw, for that confiscates the business of the-dealers in adulterants. We. should not Interrupt corruption, for that would confiscate the business of the politicians. We should not indulge In higher criticism, for that would confiscate the business of the preachers. 1We should stand absolutely pat, for otherwise we are sure to run Into con fiscation of some kind or other. L.t no man ftear "8ocialism". The movement of the working class for Justice by any name would be as ter rille.-Father William Barry. The Catholic priest who gave ut terance to the above sentiments is worthy of wearing the garb of the church. The man who feels his heart beat for oppressed and crushed humanity is a true and loyal disciple of the Crucified Man, who nineteen hundred years ago preached against the In Justice of a privileged few who grew arrogant on the slavery of labor. Father Barry is permeated with a true Christian spirit, but his senti ments will not be rewarded by dona tions of exploiters.-Miner Magalae. Socialism means to divide up the work and to stop dividing up the pro ducts of labor with the grafter. That seems reasonable, doesn't It. PuNblk Owwneee'dp of Coal FiMds. One of the first results of the re cetnt labor victory In Australia is the decision of the Victorian government to retain In Its ownership the coal eelds of the province and operate them for use instead of profit. An eight hour day Is established for the miners, no person being permitted to work more than forty-eilht hours in one week below the ground. The state will use the coal for its own railroad system and will sell the sur plus for manufacturing and domestic purposes. RHakwasd Progression. A sample of this sort of reasoning that theologians apply against Social Ism Is furnished by the Cleveland "(Catholic Universe" in Its reasons for attacking "the crase for dlrigible balloons and airships." The "Cath ollc Universe" declares it does "not think that the Creator intended man should inhabit the air or fly like birds," and the paper proceeds to de monstrate its thesis with the reason ing that "else He (the Creatod) would have furnished him (man) with wings," on account of which the "Catholic Universe is of the opinion that "airships should be legally re. stricted.' Upon the same principlet he Creator never intended man to travel by steamboats and steam cars, else He would have furnished man with a steambollerl n his stomach: and the Creator never Intended man to have literature plentiful and chaep, else He would have furnished man with a Hoe Perfected Press and Mergenthaler typesetting anatomy; und :he Creator never intended millions .,f men to de liberate In parliamen'.q, else He wouild furnished man with a representative ag 'ltnment anatomy member YV r. t', ,nmore. upon the samo principle. th,.t a wh!rps hould be restricted by law. steam the press and representas tive government should be condemned --as the encyclical of Plus IX did those elements of Progress, and as the pulpit generally anathematisae Socialism. LIIIIM TY FOR MANTIR; SLAVERY FOR MAN. lFe.llow workmen, we are assured that since the revolution of 1776 which throws Its rays all over the world, every man is free. Is It so that you #re free, you? Me! I well believe that I am free! I·t's se, a bit; who gives you the right to work? The master (or boss). Who fixes your wages? The mast'r. Who accordl to you or refuses you a dilal) of rest? The master. I'onsequently you have no right to product of your labor; you have to obey the law of the master from morning till night; you can't work you cannot eat; . U, your wife or chil dren without perminamon ,of the master and you say that y.ul are free? Oh! the great freedom! IwAt us tontinue: Who has the II Ierty to enrich himself by making work? The workman, his wife and children ? The master. Who has the liberty of imposing on the workman. his wife, and his chil dren the kind of work that Is most beneficial to himself? The master. Who has the liberty to throw the workman out of work when he doesn't need him any more? The master. Who has the llberty to send starv Ing in the streets the old workmen whom. during their yuoth and their vitality, have enriched him? The master. Who has the liberty to starve, du. ring strikes, the workers who demand a little more wages, and a little less work? The master. Who has the liberty ti use the po lice. the soldiers and the judges to beat the strikers whom he has dis charged from his works? The master. Comrades, the governments have given all the libertlee to the master and slavery to the worker. "The Little Socialist Magailne" Is Yorker Volkeseltung. Its next issue a monthly published by the New will a special May Day number. This issue will contain numeronu orig Inal contributions by well known com rades and will be well illustrated. The publication is devoted in particular to Socialist agitation among the younger generation. The regular sub. scription rate is fifty cents a year. Bundles of the May Day issue may be secured at the following rates: 35 copies for 75 cts; 50 copies for $1.35; 100 copies for St.00. Orders should be sent to the publication office, 15 Spruce Street. New York. N. Y. NEW RECRUITB. Owing to the great increase in the Socialist vote large numbers of people are being attracted to the Socialist party and great influx of new mem bers are joining the party. While this is a condition of affairs that Is welcome, yet considerable danger ac companied It. From experience and observation we know that a large number of these new recruits are not much more than believers in mere reform and lack the revolutionary spirit that is required to advance the cause of Socialism. Every Sociallst should work harder from now on, getting the new recruits and reform ers to reading and studying the best and clearest socialist literature. As cur movement advances and the senti ment grows greater against present conditions, here and there will appear aggressive, brilliant reformers, who will live a meteor like political career, who will cause great disturbances in our midst and desertions to our cause. All this can be avoided by a good ap plication of wholesome literature. Already In Montana there is a great reform movement in a prepara tory stage, and the prospectus of this reform movement contains planks from the Socialist party platform, and it is the Intention of those behinl. this prospective movement to start radical clubs all over the state. It is up to the localists to spike the guns of this new reform movement by carrying on a more agwrossluv carwt,,paln of education. No I olitlian will publicly defend graft. Yet nearly all practice it. The pressure of the profit-making system all around them drives them to It.