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and the Militia. On May 4 Senator Dixon of Mont anl introduced in the United States Senate, Senate Bid 111). "A bill to further increase the efficlency of the organised Militia of the United States, and for other purposes." The purpose of the above bill is !o help entice young men to join the organised State Militia, by paying the privates for their services in the milit Ia, an amount equal to one-fourth the amount privates in the regular army are paid and to allow the officers of the militia an amount equal to 16 per cent of the pay of the oficers of the regular army At present the national government pays the officers and men of the milit la when they atend the national mit itary encampments, which usually takes place every two years. This bill of Senator Dixon is to give the militiamen a bonus, for the time they put in drilling, and is to be paid them, when they are not receiving regular pay from the state or national government for services at encamp me.nts or strike breaking. It is a hard matter to get young men into the state militia, all self respecting working men will not Join a scab herding agency, and therefore to still further induce the young men of the country to join the militia it ii the purpose of the military fiends to offer them, wages equivolent to one fourth the amount of the regular army. As the privates in the army receive $15. a month, this will mean that the privates in the militia will receive $3.50 , enough to allow the scab herders to go on a cheap drunk once a month. The militia men are allowed lots of little priveleges and benefits that the average worker don't receive, they don't have to pay the road or poor tax that is deducted out of the wages of the workers, now Senator Dixon comtes forward with a bill, to make the national government give these militia men the price of a cheap drunk, while they are learning the art of perparing to break strikes. In a letter to the Montana News, relating to Senate Bill 199S Senator Dixon, says that he is opposed to vast expenditures made for the up-keep of armies and navies, and hopes that the time will come when international abritratlon will be thoroughly estab national disputes In an International lished, and thereby settling all Inter. court of Justlee. The foregoling is a very beautiful sentiment which we are thoroughly in accord with, but. Why does Senator Dixon, act contrary to his sentiments and attempt to still furher burden he country by giving the militiamen a bonus :o enable them to get on a cheap drunk. The investigations now being made in the harbor of Havana, on the rede of the batleship Maine, prove the asu sertions made by the Socialists for the past 13 years. that the Maine was blown up at the Instigation of Amer clan capitalists, In order to inflame the paslons of the people and popular ise the demand for war. in order that war might be declared, and the cor purations extend their markets. If war is declared by the United States in the near future, this country will be the aggressor, and at the dic tates o fthe trust magnates. There is a time rapidly approaching when the tyranny of the trust magnates are going to be called to a halt The halt to trust rule will either be called by ballot or a strike, or series of strikes, or perhapa by both, The plutocrats see this condition of affttairs appearing on the Industrial horgson and are preparing to meet it, either by declaring a war of conquest to stimulate manufacturing, or to repell the advance of the working class by the force of arms. This is the reason of all the activity In military circles, it is the surplus value of the product of the toil of the wage workers that the trust magnates want to hang on to, Senator Dixon in his letter to the Montana News, does not state an thing about the militia being used for scab herding purposes: Every union in Montana, ecery Soc tullst Local In Montana, every organ Isation of women In Montana repre senting the motherhood of the race. every wageworker, every mother and wife in Montana, should send letters to Senators Dixon and Myers of Mont ana, protesting against them voting In favor of Senate Bill 19*6. Senator Dixon's term expires in l13e and he will be a candidate for re election next year, and It is up to the wageworkers of Montana to find out it Senator Dixon favors the building up of a scab herding agency to be used against the workers. I How the Legislature Acted. A referendum on the militiL law should be demanded, it tot no other reason than to give a reprimanding to the law makers for the contemptous manner which they treated the meas. urea that were Intr duced for the ben efit of the wage workers. Not a single measure of any con sequence for the benefit of the masses became law. Below we give a brief sketch of some of the measures that were antr - duced but were executed by the cap Italistic executioners at the State Cap Itol. The American Federation of labor is endeavouring to secure a uniform law Lnail states covering Employers' Liabilities for Injury received by em ployes, this is a very desirable state of affairs, and House Bill 107 was introduced, identical with the bills presented in other state legislatures this ear. The legislature absolutely refused to consider it. and the bill was killed in the committee without even being printed, so that even the mem bers of the Legislature might know its contents. When the bill was intro duced the Legislators lifted their hands in holy horror and that was the end of the Employers Liability law for Montana wage slaves. A bill was introduced limiting the hours of women employed In laun dries and factories and stores to I hours a day It is part of the Montana conatit uton that men cant be employed In or around mines, mills or smelers, or on public work for more than eight hours a day. and railroad telegraphers cannot be employed for more than S hours a day, so an attempt wee made to reduce the hours of women. The Retail Merchants of Montana met in illena, in convention, just one day, with a banquet at night At this convention a legislative committee was appointed and every measure op. posed by the merchants was killed, and evry measure favored by them pass.d. The Retail Merchants fought the nine hour law for women, and the nine hour day for women was defeated It is unlawful to work men on pub lic work for more thaneight hours. but it is lawful to work women and girls In laundries an unlimited num. ber of hour. Another class of labor that are more- I ly overworked, is nurses in hospitals. I The nurses endeavoured to secure an 14 eight hour Caw for nurses in hospitals. but that bill never got to the stage of being printed. Although a large o number of deaths In the hospitals in this state are caused by lack of proper a nursing, or nurses being overworked. 12 hours a day is too long for any woman to be in a sick ward attending to upwards of 20 patients. An effort was made to enact workingmens' compensation law, but like other measures, this one also went to the scrap pile. However, as a courtesy to labor the legislature had the bill printed for free distribution. I so that the wage slave when he is Injured could look and admire it. The workingmens' c ompensation bill that was introduced, was a copy of the British compensation law that went Into effect in the British Isles in July 189i, and which passel the House of Lords in the summer of 1897 after a stormy passage. The Lords threatened to kill it, but the late Lord Salisbury, then prime minister In closing one of the most memorial debates in the House of Lords, toed the British Peers, that they dare not defeat the measure, for it they did, it would react against the Lords as the people would rise in their might and put the House of Lords out of exist ance. Yet the Montana Legislature last February did something that the English House of Lords, did not dare do in June 1187, kill the working mens' compensation act. The same measure that the Montana Legislature killed became law In Italy In 1899 and in Japan in 1900. .House Bill 132 was a measure to pre vent any corporation from coercing its employee, or victimising them for being members of organised labor. The bill was a good one and would have been a great relief to workers in this state, and it passed the House by a splendid amjorlty, but met Its Waterloo in the Senate As the members of organised labor raised such a howl over the defeat of House Bid 132, Senator Edwards of Rosebud county who had voted Sagainst the bill, promised to introduce a new bill In the Senate to prevent coercion of union men and he drafted a bill similar in almost every respect t to House Bill 132 and this hill of Ed wards known as Senate Bill 186 pas Ssed the Senate by a large majority and then went to the )ouse where it was strangled. Therfore labor was best by a see-saw game. ,,enate Bill 185 when It went to the House was turned over to the steering committee with Owen Byrnes as chair man, when a representative of organ laed labor went to Byrnes asking to have senate Bill 186 reported, Byrne8 told him the bill was lost and could not be found. Later a member of the legislature, at the request of a repre sentative of labor, went to Byrnes asking to have Senate Bill 185 report ed and Byrnes toad him the law was a vicious measure and was slated to be killed in the committee by not re porting it to the House. Although Byrnes voted for House Bill 132 which was in every respect similar to Senate Bill 185. Byrnes is a mining man and an em ployer of labor. He was governed by his ecomic interests. The Western Union Telegraph com "ty is waging a war against organ ized labor and eny -employe of the Western Union that is a member of organised labor is discharged and vic timised. if the corporation officials knew that the employe belongs to a union. Lately the head officials of the Western Union visited Helena in a private car. Put up at a first class hotel and remained here a few weeks. During that time the Western Union offices in Helena, which employe a large force of operators, was cleaned out of all union men. .The telegraph ers were called up to the officias rooms at the hotel and asked if thay wanted to remain at work, and if they wanted to work for the Western Uni )n they had to tear up their membersht, card in the presense of the manager before leaving the hotel. Certain telegraphers that were good union men and had lots of back bone were brought before the officials, at various times, and told the errors of their ways and given a few days to consider the sermon given by the manager and then called up for an other lecture This method which re sembles the third degree methods practised b detectives, was for the purpose of breaking down the spirit of manhood shown by first class operator), and the company must have had a good force of spotters for the officials were welh posted on the conduct and character of its employes. These officials remained a month in Helena, fighting the telegraphers un ion Had either House Bill 112 or Senate n Bill 185 been enacted, then these officials of the Western Union could fl not have carried on the disgraceful % acts that they practised in Helena a b few weeks ago. i t A taw was enacted creatngr the of- t flee of state fire marshall.,The duties of the fire marshall Is to Investigate all fires, and see that the Insurance f' comparles are not being defrauded, I4 and to further decrease the risks of s the fire insurance companies, A special tax is levied against the Insur- c ance companies to pay the expenuis k of the ofice of fire marshall. In other words the fire marshall is Ii hired by the state to look after the ' Interests of the insurance companies. ' and the companies pay the costs, but their man has the authority of the law on his side which is a great bene. a fit to the insurance companies. But the feature of the law is,. that t It had a rider attached to it, which. ' exempts the fire insurance companies from all other taxes to be paid by t them to the state counties or cities. The fire insurance companies dont e have to contribute to the taxes of the s state, except for the office of fire muashall, and that is for their benefit. If working people want any special benefits in the district they reside in, they have a special tax levied against them, and by no means are exempted from other taxes. What do you think about It you wage slaves? The insurance com panise that take millions out of the state annually dont pay a cent of taxes - but you had $4. poll taxes deducted I from your wages last pay day. r To crown the proceedings of the seslon, the legislature passed the In I famous Donohue militia law, which a makes its a crime to call a militiaman a scab herder or a tin-soldier. (e have 5 no apologies to make or fines to pay.) Here are few features of the militia r law. t employment, or prevents his being Section 10. If any person Inter. t rupts, molests or Insults, by abusive a words or behaviour, or obstructs any t officer or soldier while on duty or at d any pargde, drill or meeting for mili. t tary Improvement, he must Imme diately be put under arrest and kept . at the discretion of the commandll t y officer until the duty, drill or parade e or meeting is concluded; and he may a commit such person to any police of iger, constable orlherlff of the coun t' wherein such duty, drill or meeting eustody for examination or trial be. i" held, who shall detain him in [ase a court having Jurisdiction of ths place, and any person found guillty of any of the offences enu terated in this section or of obstruct lag or interfering with the Unl,,d State forces or troops or any part of the national guard shall be punish ed by a fine of not less than ten dol. las nor more than five hundred dol lan, or by imprisonment in the coun ty jal; for not lem than ten days n,r more than six months or bybuth such fine and imprisonment. A WOMAN'B PLACE:. Ity Robert H. liuw," Chapter II. We, hear the term "Woman s work" used. Why should some ',ork Ibe sacre to women whtehl ,ild ne discreditable if preformed by ,n,. of the opposite. sex? Why shoul.,. c.r. tain other avocations be the n onpoly I of man and into which splh.r, it is I discreditable for woman t. enter? There never has been any i' r.son or body o. persons authorlzed to ,l sig nate what labor one sex shr)u,l Ilpr form and what labor the 'th, r sex should perform. The truth of the matter is that the work of the v.,rld has been divided betw , en the two sexes through many centuries merely by custom and convenience. The bearing and rearing of children a burden placed upon womnan by nature, had very much to do with classifying certain industries as best performed by her, and possibly great er force, which resulted In division of labor between the sexes, and one to which little attention has been given was the discovery and use of fire. Whatever was the source from which fire was first derived, it is cer tain that primitive man considered it sacred, and it was preserved with th.* utmost vigilence. The first attempts at architecture made by man were probably the rude sheds or shelters erected to protect the sacred f.ame from wind and rain. These later grew into temples and shrines where the fire was kept burning continu ously. To have the tribal fire go out was a great calamity. The difficulty of securing a new fire with the crude and clumsy methods of primitive times, if a chance volcanic fissure in ine rocks, or a tree in the forest set ablase by a bolt of lightning were not available, was such that it led to cer talh members of the tribe being charged with the sole duty of Its maintenance. The tribal fue was 7 Iernament fire, and it was the center around which ad gathered. Feasts in cele bration of victory, and councils of war or peace were concluded within the circle of its radlence. This t..msauna fire was tiih* nucleus around which grew up the first functions of the state. The guard ians of the fire became the first public servants and as the state developed they absorbed other functions and be came priests and magistrates and even klngs. The rude shed evolved Into a temple in which the sa.'red fire burne.t. This wasl the q. :iln and develo,.' : , t ,.f the Temple of Vesta where the sacred fire of the Romans was kept burning 1.7 the . \'sial Virgins for, It is s..+dl, a thousand years. If by chance, the tribal fire was ex tinguished, all tribunals al1 authority. and all public and private business stopped and remained suspended until the fire was relighted. When Augus tus usurped the empire of Rome 1e aumed the charge of the public fire, and when he transported it into his own palace he had to transform it into public property. As the tribe Increased, the sam causes that led to the maintenance of the permanet fire, caused each family to have a permanent fire on its hearth The family as we know it today Is not the earliest but one of the latest forms of human association Around Its hearth grew up the primitive indum tries by means of which the family provided the n.cessities of life. name ly,-food, warmth. clothing and shelter. Here germinated the first crude, Ideas of the sanctity of the home. Here was the first departure from the. promiscuity that was the conmon custom of the horde, and the begin. ning of the monogamous relation of husband and wife. The family hearth had a recogniz..l right ofasylurn, a custom that is dis cernable in the declaration in this late day that "A man's home is his castle" If the fire was extinguished it was considered an adulterous act to bring fire from a neighbour's. A new fire muat be made from coals from th" saered altar, or from the friction of twigs. It was the duty of the father. and his alone. as king and high prirest In his own household to perform this act. BeIslde the family hearth, the second place was taken by the wife and mother, and it was right here that the division of labor between the man and his wife began to be made. While it was prerogative of the man to start the fire in their new home, it can easily be seen that it de volved on the woman to maintain it and keep it alive. The necessity of procuring food for the family would cause the man to be absent for more or less prolonged periods during which time the fire would need atten tion or it would die out, and this one of the most Important duties of the domestic economy devolved up >n the woman, and the allied domestic Industries gradually came to be hers. It must not le supposed that her position was a free and Indep.,ndent one. Far from that. Her status was little, if any, above that of a slave. Her lord and master had absolute control over his household. Ills property consisted of his wife, slaves, and cattle, and he could Infeict death on any one of them at his pleasure. CONSPIEACY of the Money and Land-Owning KingM of the Period of the War of the REVOLUTION EXPOSED IN "UNITED STATES CONSTI TUTION AND SOCIALISM" IBY aILAS HOOD A ,ook of 22 pag, s containing the real truth about our "patriot" forefathers. It has history not found in our hcsool hooks. These are. the articl, s which re,.e-ntly ran in the. Social-Democratic lIeradl and for which the.re as so larg,, a demand that they had to be printed In book form. Learn who are the real patriots were then and who the traitors are now. Adoption of the United States c'onstitution was the r. suit of a monster conspiracy and eve.ry citizen of America should know the truth. Woashington ; nd Franklin not spared IHamil ton and Hancock exposed. White slavery, kidnaping. murder. debtors prisons and political trickery It Contains Reference List for Historical Research in Libraries. Push the sale of this book. It is good propaganda. Single Coy 10c. 26 Copies $1.75 100 Copies $4.00 Postage Prepaid SPECIAL OFFER We will soon start to publish a daily, probably as early as October 1. 1911. The bigger the list of sulbcribers for our Weekly, the Socia-Democratlc Herald, the better for our proposed daily. This list w II form th, haslis or our circulation for thedaily. We are therefore so anxious to increase our number of weekly readers that we will send a copy ofthlsbook and the Hecr aid for five weeks to four different persons. and a copy of the book to you for just one-half the pr cce of the books. 25 Cents. Mllwaukee Social-Democratic Publishing Company. 528-530 lChestnutlt tret MILWAUKEE, 1VI$. HEADQUARTERS FO)IR UNION PRIINTING. GRAHAM i HAZLET , P Iubllherh. Comrades and Brother: We desire to call your attention to the printing office of the Montana News. We do all kinds of printing for labor ºrganisations, Constitutions, By-Laws, Letter Heads, Envelopes Working Cards, all stationary and printed material used by unions. The Montana News is the only paper in the Rocky Mountain states that advocates the right of labor at all times and in all places. Regardless of what the grelvences may be we stand by the strikers in the struggle of the union against the corporations. In more than one instance we have turned public opinion In favor of the strikers, and in more than one city and camp have we made the union label respected. The Montana News is supported exclusively by the workers and the profits from job work of the labor organisations of Montana, Wyoming. Idaho and Utah. Perhaps your union has not required the assistance of any paper in times of trouble, but rest assured, should you organization ever become involved in a strike; the Montana News will be found on your side and ready to give all the assistance that press and pen can do to win the strike. A labor press should be built up, and we need your assistance will you send us your order for the printing of your union? Why support print shops whose paper attack you or treat your cause with silene and indilemtnºº when you are involve. In a strike? L ! " The capitalists know the power of the press and control , the papers accordingly. . . Should your union require anything in the line of printing I(: (ive us a chance to bid on same. Ask us for our prices. - We may charge higher than scab shops, but we pay all ex press charges on packages sent out. Remember we are the -. headquarters for Union Printing In the Northwest and the shop that h..a made the Union Label respected. No work leaves our shop that does not bear the Union Label. None but Union men employed. Hoping to be favored by the patronage and support of your union. Fraternally, MONTANA NEWS Woman's social status was low be cause her value as an economic factor was low. This was a condition forced upon her by the brutal social environ ment of the past out of which a new social order was slowly evolving. The flerce struggle by primitive man against the forces of nature was char acterized by intermittent periods of want and starvation. During the hunting stage of human deveopments. woman was more or less a burden and inconveni,nce. In the pursuit of game she was never as swift and agile as man, and especially was this true during her periods of pregnancy The hurden placed upon her by nature of ,reserving the race from extinction placed her at a disaldvantage com pared with man. If you are opposed to the State S.al, herding law, sign the demand for a referendlum on the same. To cure and read the next issue of the Montana News. Order a bundle and get your neighbour to reading it.