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OFFICE IS PARK AV. P. O. BOX sO8 autered at the Post Omce for trans misson through the mall at second ela·s rate. SUBSCRIPTIONS: One Tear ..................... SOC ilz Months ................... .Se TIHE REFE:IRENDUM. For the first time in thehlstory of Montana has the refter.ndum been put to use, and this marks an epoch in the adtainct of democracy, the over th ,, .\ t ,ll rl'lllt al I I i tsl in ýt tl* h gislation, and for.shadows the ultl. itL cOnitril oif the" state by tilthe work I ru. ; ' it ,,1 : , I,,' i it IId Iii S to a l to ap I lthl r, flrt lllln and Ikht'l is", att.empts hi\ate bcn made to Inittl t, lgiL..ti-.n, I it tach time tni. I II tailoir, howe.\l r, a beginning has been niiil. and ln.n: the pleoplc g, ta taste f I ire',i t I.e I-latin,. and kn'w th. pi".o\, r th,, I,,s ss through th. I '.tii,' a : iid t f i tilnlim , politi cal c rrtittonl and machine 1olitics 11ill Ic I. ar an end Tn I, r, nit igc if sll natur, re uired .,, put th, Irti.itile and leftr , ndult i t' pi. ra i,'n t+ t.,, large. A t,,il t,: ;its I r tint Vf h1 " 'i.ttrs in th, -t.itte, \x<lsi\ . ,i f \h hat county tl " y lLy r si 1, in. is la' tit nouch. and '% ill olllillt rat, the cublll rsome n."ss if the prept nt law" To secure iuch a ch.an.t. will riquir. an amend ni, nt to the state co.nstit ltlon. Wh, n thi amendment to the con stitutin relatina to the Initiati\e and ltefr, ndum was submitted to the pto pie of Montana, in 1906 the Sosialist party and the Montana News opposed the amendment, on the ground that it was not a good measure, and that if th am. ndment was defeated a bttt,.r measure would be enacted. The Montana Federation of Labor sup ported the amendment. Time has dermonstrat.ed that the Socialists wer." corr et in the stand they took (in the other hand the i.w passed by the legislature of 1907, making the Inlative and Referendum operative, is a good law and was supported by the legislative committee of the Mont. anta F.,deration of Labor, if our mein ory serves as right, the bill was draft ed by Alexander Fairgrives then pres Ident of the Montana Federation of Labor After atrial has been given the working, of the law. it is found that very litle improvement can be made on it at present. air it is very elatic and protects any attempt to invoke the Initiative and Referendum from being knocked ou by the courts on a mnre technicality. Any improvement to be made on the Initiative and Ref erendum law in Montana must first be made through a constitutional amand ment, before the law is simplified. It is much more difficult to initiate a measure than it is to invoke the ref, rendum. yet if a successful effort can be made to apply the Initiative, it w1ill clear the way 'owards getting a constitutional amendment through the n xt legislature amending the In itiathle and Rleferendum law. An eftort should also be made to k'. p up a continual agitation to ex t. nI th. prinlciples of Direct Legis latieon to constitutional amendments. At present constitutional amendments can only be submitted to the people on a two.thirds vote of both houses of the legislature As the constitution of Montana will ha"e to be amended consideraby be fore the principles of the Socialist Party can be enacted into law to any great extent. It would be well for the Socialists to keep up an agitation for an amendment to the constltution t, tllow the people to Initiate consti* tutional amendments. The educational work accomplished by In\oking the referendum on the Donohue Military law Is of Immense \aiue to the working class movement. It has aroused a great spirit and agl tation against militarism and has shown the workers the power they possess in political action. An act of the last legislature will Ie on the ballot at the next election for the voters to approve of or dis approve. This will keep the voter in mind of how the old party legislature tried to job him, and will turn the voters thoughts to the Socialist Party. It will damn the old party politicians. The Montana News force feels proud of the fact that the Ne.ws was the first paper to make known the evl.,s of the Montana military codes. as well as being the paper to suggest and launch the attempt to invoke the referendum. Especially when the records at the State Capitol in the office of the Secretary of State show that only In the communities In which the Montana News circulates were signatures demanding the referendum secured. This shows the power and I;,,. .ace that the Montana News has In the state. With this feeling of atlifactloa for the work accomplished, we realise that had It not been for the active work done by those who circulated the petitions, the signatures wouMt have never bteen secured, and appre clate their work very much. Power and Happiness. Political tendencies move slowly to the obliteratlon of the wire-puller., but industrial trend is toward the en thronement of the wire-stringer. As the coal supply 'lminishcs, the power demand increases, and graudually the size of the power units grUo s, and the untumblr of them dwindles. Twentyv 3tars ago to transmit plower more than four or five miles was r - iar.i als , 'imlitlllCally w astteful and , 'lnln rt i .ally u np'ro lit ahbh. T ,,... it is lt it ;.i ,, sti ty. fromtn " 'rea lam' ls thi.t cro s the country's rivers' holding back th.lr floods untii power can he Sxtracted from them, awhecl of ilrIs tXtllids in et ry direction, over the sijpk's of v hich Ilashhes the Juice that n, on,, I hlly undirstands, but that dl,,s swti'tly andI silntly what coal nl', did \\ lth Ili at and smoke and era, k6. if fires, accompa nied by the hi-- iand histl, of steam. IJilihns and Iillions of dollars are inl\ -t, d in the industries that have to ih, directly or indir, ctly with th" I cd dction or consumption of electrl .,I ,n rgy, )et the business is in its infancy. \Vithin our day we are likely to see the establlshment of power systems which transmit their mighty strength through the ether althout wires. Already we have the wireless tele. graph and the alreless telephone, and a thousand other forms of electrical magic that would seem sorcery to an other age The future of electrity no man can pretend o foresee; it is beyond the dreams of the most Im aginative seer. In all this there is a greater meas lure of comfort and of happiness for mankind, protided mankind, In the bulk, has wisdom enough to hold that progress for its own, preventing the hogging of all the benefits by the few who have today seized most of the natural and the man-made resources for themselves. For if -the control of electricity goes to the piunderbund, it will mean serfdom, not liberty; misery, not happiness, for the public dMaterial progress must be accom panied by intellectual watchfulness, ifI it is to accomplish what It should be destined to accomplish. 'THE EVOLUTION OF ACCIDENT INSURANCE. The jrinciple of systematic compen sation for losses due to industrial ac idents has been knoa n In Europe for o(er a century. the earliest ex amples being found in the mining in dustries, .specially in Germany and Austria. As these industries were the first to, be operated on a large scale with *i.rge numbers of mployees whose lie and safety deptnded on the care and skill of the manager and of the SIlow workmen, and in addition had a higher dangtr rat., it was but natur al that attempts should be made to ,ro. idd in a definite manner for the r. lief of the distress of employes scaused by accidental injuries or other physical disability Thl. industry of na' igatlon possessed similar characteristics and also devel. oped at an early date comparatively well defined systems of relief for dis ability arising from the operation of vessels. The next industry to be operated on a large scale and which had at the same time a high trade risk war that of railway transportation, and In the States of the present German Empire we find early efforts to make provis ion for railway employes on a more llbrai scale than that prevailing In the manufacturing industries. With the development of large scale industries and the more frequent use of power mauhlnery, together with the increase in the size of industrial estab lishments, there was an increase in th trad5 risks of the industries so affect ed Pre'.ious to the system of large scale production, a comparatively simple system of compensatlon for Industrial accidents Ire\ailed In practically all countries of the world and was based on the ideha that a workman suffering an injury from industrial accident should be compensated by the person or persons at fault in causing the accident. In each case, however, the person liable was supposed to have commmlt ted some fault, and it was necessary for the plaintiff to begin suit and to prove such fault or negllg.nce accord ing to the rules of evidence prevaling in the courts of each country. In 1884 Germany adopted a compre hensive system of accident compeMas. tion. Austria followed in 1887, and since then practically all Industrial forelin countries have done likewise. (This article Ito an extract from "The Twenty-Fouth Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor". a copy c. which may be obtained gratis from the Bureau of Labor. Washington, D. C. ) A WORD OF i:XI Ii.ANAT1ON. In as much as certnin partes oIn Butte have circulatt d tho story not only in Butte, but .o er the state, that I deliberately printed the referendum pl titions wrongly w\,,rdhd in order to hre the referendum petitions thrown out by the courts. I take thise oppor. tunity of making a :, w statements. The parties rt-I, n-.Cl for he cir c., ition of the f,,r, ,.in, story are de. liberate and malh:,.,u pr v\aricators. The wording .n the petition that thiy base their fr:,- Iht is. is under the w ,-rd "W'AItNIN.s : .n II r.efrendumn The paragraph in th Il titlon under the title of "W'.\llNIN ' is an exact c.,py of what ap. i ird on the petit l,,ns for Initiatl\, Itl :isres sent out by Howard 0. ;tn:i". as Secreary of It. Montana 1'', r.itinl of Labor, thr.ee years ago, ..:.I I re.nc i\ed copies of those petitions :rnmi t) .M. Partelow the plrusent secret:tr y of the Montana l'ederation of L;l. r and returned the petitions to him aft,..r copying the "WARNING" front the petitions. The "WARNING.' which appears on the referendum ijetltlons printed by the Montana Net s,. was drafted by one of the best constitutional lawyers In Montana and at the request of those xho were offlcerd of the Montana federation of I.atlr at that time. The lai.yer who drafted the "WARN. IN;" is a man whose advice to repr) sntatives of organized labor has al ways proved correct, and had his adxlce been taken by the labor legis latlve committee in the past, there would have been no necessity of the railroad unions having the ral'road liability law amended by the last leg Islature. Before the petitions were printed a proof was taken to the office of the Secretary of State and there ap. proved, before the referendum petl ions were printedl Nearly three weeks after referen dum petitions were sent to O. M. Partelow, the Sliver Bow Trade and Labor Assembly had new petitions printed with the wording under head of "WARNING" slightly changed, and these petitions w, re sent out by 0 3M. Partelow. Secretary of the Silver Bow Assembly. Neither the Montana News, the Machinists uniop or the Federated I:allway Trades of Helena were notil f.id of this conflict in petitions, al though all three were sending peti tions over the state. After my attention had been called to the petitions and letters being sent out from Hutte. I took a copy of the petition sent out from Butte and a copy of the petition printed by the Montana News. to the Recretary of State and ssk',d him If either petitions were acceptable to him, or if he would receive and certify to either petition. The Secretary of State replied that ,both petitions would lie accepted by him, and that the petition printed Ih. the Montana News was the most ex pllcit of the two, but that the meaningi Intended to be conve.yed by both p.ti- I ions were identical. The Secretary of State further i stated that the wording on both petl, tions under the heading of "Petition for Referendum" were alike, and cor rect. However, as a controversy had arisen and Inorder to remove any friction, that might retard the pro gress of securing the referendum, the Monana News printed more petitions with the wording under the head of "WARNING" to correspond with the Butte petition. The referendum law gives a c.mpy of forms that can be. used, and pro. faces the form with the followin:: qualified sentence: "The following shall be substan; lally the forrm of petiton for the refer. endum to the p,'ople In any act panss I by the legislative assembly of tihr state of Montana." After giving an example of forms to be usd whe.n att. mltas are bcIeg made to Invoke the refr.ndum, tli, following appears: "The forms h.rlen gl\en are i,.* mandatory, and if .ubstantially f,-l. lowed In any petition, shall be suf flclent, dlsragarding clerical and m, r, ly technical errors." The petitions printed by the Mrrnt ana News were in acordance with thlr law and were substantially correct. The report circulated from llitt.. Is to the effect that a lawyer In Itutte of high t-gal standing had given ,s hib opinion, that the petitions printed by the Montana News could or woutl,3 be invalidaed by some court. The Butte lawyer, whover he who gave this opinion has no higher leglr standing than the lawyer who drafted the wording at the head S the petitions sent Oat flow Helena It is safe to say that no lawyer in Butte, either of high or low legal stainding, woutd )eopardis his stand ing in the legal profesilon by issuing .a si tement as an attorney, over his si:gnatulre that the petitions printed by th1. Montana News were illegal, or 1ouh, not stand a test In the courts of the state. instead of raalng a controversy, or turning loose their mud batteries on me. if the parties who have been elr culating their falsehoods around the state had been desirous of securing the referendum again-t the militia law nl.ked, they would have called my alt, ntion to what to them was an ap li ,,nt error In the wording on the r t. rendum petitions. This would h.- I een a more honorable course In st, .t of the can. algn of knocking th, y have carried on. I', titions were sent out, from Butte t, somo 80 places, (approlmately 70 of these places had already been cov. ,. d by petitions from Helena. Petittlons were sent out from Hel ,ent to 145 places in the state. The work of these few character n-.asilns, in Butte, who claim to be S~ liallst+, has had a very detrimental r ti ct in securing signatures for the rIerendum. and had they shown the spirit of solidarty, and abstained from knocking the Montana News and the petitions sent out from Helena, with. nut the least doubt there would have be, n enough signaures received for the referendum to have given us the necessary 15 per cent in 15 Counties to have made the militia law Inoperative. While the awork of securing signa tures was under way I abstained from starting a controversy, and it is with reluctance that I now make this statoe ment, but have been advised to do so in order that the facts might be known While I do not care what any per son might say, or opinions held by any person about me, et will say that there has been a steady campaign of alan der, falsehoods and character assas rinathon carried on against me for the past three years, by a few sore-heads, and when brought face to face with me, these chaacter usmains have nev. er yet been able to sustaln a single ass.rtion they have made against me. Had I been desirous of preventing the militia law from being subeitted to a v,)te of the people. I never would have started the agitation aginst the militia law or started the referendum JAMES D. GRAIA.. Machinists Elect Socialist Officers By Lo.s Kopelln Washington, Aug 26.-Progressive unionism won a decisive victory to day when William H. Johnston was declared elected president of the In ternational Association of Machinists with a majority of 1,711 votes over his opponent, James O' Connell, the present Incumbent. The election of Johnston to the presidency of this union is undoubted ly a protest of the rank and file of .abor against the Gompers type of leadership. O'Connell was a prom inent member of the Civic Federation, while Johnston is a Socialist, and stands for the independence of labor on both political and Industrial fields. Never in the history of the machin. lsts' union has there been such an aggressive and bitter contest for the presidency. Both sides lssued a great deal of campaign literature. O'Con nell, on one hand, pleaded for "con servatism," denounced Soclalism, and najected the religious question in the campaign. Johnston, on the other hand, called on the rank and file to take an In ventory of their organisation, and see how little O'Connell accomplished during the elghteen years he had held his high office. He urged them to stand for industrial progress and in dependence from entangling alliances with the capitalist clase. Wilson Re.leit-ed. D. Douglas Wilson, the editor of the Machinists' Journal, was unanl mously re-elected George Preston, the international secretary, was also re-elected. Every one of the International Vice presidents were re-elected. T. C. T. Nicholson, of Sale Lake city, and James Sommervlile, of Canada, are the new members of the International Ex.cutve Board. Arthur E. Holder heads the Law Committee. Three Soclaists were elected as delegates to the convention of the Amerlcan Federation of Labor. They are 8. f. Lamb, Thomas Van Lear and P. W. Buckley. J. J. Keelan was also elected as a delegate Presdeant-elect Johnston is a mem ber of the Socialist local of this city. He was twioe the Socialist candidate for Governor of Rhode Island. His election to the preidenor is the third baow that the Gompers cabinet has received from the progrealve unionists First was the action of the miners regarding John Mit chell's connection with the Civic Ped. eration. Second, the defeat of Trese -urer Lennon. of the A. F. of L. as secretary of the Tailors' union. Johnston in Accord With Patty. Johnston is in thorough accord with the labor union policy of the Socialist party. Here Is part of an answer he recently made to one of his critics during the campaign. "Workingmen should and must go Into politics if they would conserve their constitutional rights, and while there should be the heartiest co-oper aticn between the trade union and the working class political movement, yet the two movements must remain sepa rate and dlstlnet, each working in its separate sphere for the uplift and final emancipation of the working class. "In modern industry men are em ployed regardless of their nationality, their political or religious b(lief. The purpose and function of the trade union Is, therefore, to unite into one harlmonluos whole all those so em Are you a Reader of THE MONTANA NEWS You are interested it its EDITORIAL POLICY. You read it for things that are NOT found in other papers. You read it because it is a SOCIALIST publica tion. You are interested in the SOCIALIST and LABOR CIRCLES. POINT OF VIEW. But you ought to know and you want to know more. You want to know all the NEWS of the Socialist You want to know and you onght to know the significance of current events from a Socialist and Labor standpoint. To get this news you must read a DAILY paper with the SAME EDITORIALS AS THE MON TANA NEWS. There is such a paper. That paper is the CHICAGO DAILY SOCIALIST. It is different from other Daily papers. It is different BECAUSE It tells the truth. It is a workingman's paper. Its business is human Progress. It is PUBLISHED FOR THOSE WHo DARE TO THINK. If you are a Progressive Socialist, and want to keep in touch DAILY with what goes on in the World of Labor-want to feel the pulse of the en tire Socialist and Labor movement of America- Send in your subscription. SU'ISCRIPTION RATER. 1 year..........$3.00 6 months........ 1.50 4 months..........1.00 1 month.........$ .25 At least send in a quarter and try it for a month. CIiICAGO DAILY SOCIALIST 207 Washington Street Clicago, Illinois. THE OLYMPIAN THE CObUMBIAN THE ALL "STEEL" TRAINS-THE "SAFE" TRAINS VIA THE Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound Ry. AND THE Chicago, rilWauake & St. Paul Ry. Speolally constaucted "All-Steel' Standard sleeping and tourist cars of the world-tamed "LongerHigher-Widr " berth variety. Steel dining cars, luxuriously furnished. A service of the very highest class, and a cuisine that offers the choicest and best that the market afford. If you want to travel east or west the safest and shortest way, as well as the way of greatest pleasure take one of these . new standard flyers. . LOW SbJ1ER EXCURSION now in effect to practically all points East and on the Pacific coast. Leg Isteurn I*mt--Ulbewra sespoe, Detailed Information regarding Rates, Train service, etc., cheerfully furnished. W. P. WARNER, AG, .P. a P A. Batte Moantua. The New ltl Tl" GoEO. W. RlHBARD, Grenese Passesger AgeSr. poyed. This oan beet be dome by re. tralnlng from dlseuming partisan pelo ties, devoting our time to unaltng the worker. lnto one great ladustrial brotherhood, at the same time en couraging the politleal education of our members, to the end that poUUtcal scabbery may disappear. WAR WHAT FORY" By Oeogge R. Kirkpatrick, is the greatest book on economics by any living Americos author. It Is a book that fairly bristle. with sharp points that puncture the hide of capitaliam and makes this old monster squirm and hunt cover. No "Dare-Devil Dick" writer ever ima gined such "blud curdling" episodes as Kirkpatrick describes as true his tory, the history of the befuddled. the betrayed and slaughtered wnrking class, on many a goary battlefield. The class who had nothing to gain but misery and death, or if they sur. vive, long hours of grinding toll to pay the war expenses 375 pages, cloth binding, Illustrated, $1.20 a copy. Order from the Mont ana News.